Introduction

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS

What is the control system?
Control systems are an integral part of modern society

ACS/KEE/UPM/2008

ACS/KEE/UPM/2008

History of control system
Type of Control system
Liquid-Level Contol Liquid-Level Contol Steam Pressure Controls

Twentieth-Century Developments
Year
300 B.C 300 B.C 1681 Automatic Control Feedback Control Automatic streering of ships Analysis of feedback amplifiers

Application
Water clock Oil Lamp Safety valve in regulation of steam pressure Mechanical temperature control system for hatching eggs Windmill Flyball speed governer to control the speed of steam engines

Researcher
Ktesibios Philon of Byzantium Denis Papin

Type of Control system
Automatic Control

Application
Steering System

Researcher
Sperry Gyroscope Company Nicholas Minorsky H.W.Bode H.Nyquist

Year
1922

1885 Late 1920s Early 1930s

Temperature Controls

Cornelis Drebbel

70 Century

Speed Control Speed Control

Edmund Lee James Watt

1745 80 Century

ACS/KEE/UPM/2008

ACS/KEE/UPM/2008

Contemporary Applications
a. Early elevators were controlled by hand ropes or an elevator operator. Here, a rope is cut to demonstrate the safety brake, an innovation in early elevators; b. Modern Duo-lift elevators make their way up the Grande Arche in Paris, driven by one motor, with each car counterbalancing the other. Today, elevators are fully automatic, using control systems to regulate position and velocity.

Example 1:Elevators

-control of missiles and spacecraft -process control industry -digital computer : industrial robots, spacecraft , process control industry (modern control) -space shuttle -vehicle’s function -home heating system - Home entertainment system: video disc or compact disc machine

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ex: a set of machine parts functioning together. which is to perform a particular operation.a combination of components that act together and perform a certain objectives. nor does it correct for the fact that toast comes in different thicknesses.external: generated outside system and is an input. Figure 4 Block diagrams of control systems: a.the quantity or condition that is varied by the controller so as to affect the values of the controlled variable. where a nuclear accident occurred in 1979.the quantity or condition that is measured and controlled . ACS/KEE/UPM/2008 Terms in Control System[2] [4] Plants . The toaster does not measure the color of the toast # It does not correct for the fact that the toast is rye. PA. closed-loop system (feedback control) Example 1 : Toaster The device is designed with the assumption that the toast will be darker the longer it is subjected to heat.output of system [2] Manipulated Variable . white or sourdough.a signal that tends to adversely affect the value of output of a system . The remote controlled robot’s long arm can be seen at the front of the vehicle.any physical object to be controlled . [5] Processes .ex: biological processes. [1] Controlled Variable . b. open-loop system.measuring the value of the controlled variable of the system and applying the manipulated variable to the system to correct or limit deviation of the measured value from a desired value. 2 .any operation to be controlled . [3] Control .Terms in Control System[1] Example 2 Rover was built to work in contaminated areas at Three Mile Island in Middleton. [7] Disturbances .internal: generated within the system . chemical processes [6] Systems . Basic concepts Figure 3 : Simplified description of a control system ACS/KEE/UPM/2008 System Configurations Open-loop Systems •Characteristic: sensitivity to disturbances and inability to correct for these disturbances. The controlled variable (output): the color of the toast.

and damper with a constant force positioning the mass. robot arms. (2) Actuating signal –the output signal subtracted from the input signal.the both input and output transducers have unity gain. detailed layout. schematic. The system position will change with a disturbance. disturbances and changes in environment. (ii) If there is no difference. b. The systems are less sensitive to noise. to make correction. The systems are more complex and more expensive than openloop system. the greater the displacement. the system does not drive the plant. d.Closed-loop Systems (Feedback Control System) Example 2: Mechanical Systems The system consisting of a mass. The greater the force. feeding that measurement back through a feedback path and comparing that response to the input at the summing junction. #A position control system converts a position input command to a position output response. functional block diagram Example 2: Speed Control System Example 3: Temperature Control System (Electric Furnace) (Watt’s speed governor for an engine) 3 . c. such as additional force. the system drives the plant. system concept. spring. (3)Error . # Example applications: antennas. The actuating signal’s value is equal to the actual difference between the input and the output Example 1: Antenna azimuth position control system: The system compensates for disturbances by measuring the output response. (i) If there is any difference between the two responses. Definitions (1) Feedback path – the return path from the output to the input summing junction. since the plant’s response is already the desired response. computer disk drive a. The system will not detect or correct for disturbance. via the actuating signal.

KVL.KCL.Example 4: Temperature Control of Passenger Compartment of a Car Example 5: Automobile steering control system Desired Course of travel Actual Driver Steering mechanism Automobile Course of travel Measurement. Newtons’ Laws Step5: Reduce the block diagram Step6: Analyze and design 4 .The control system design process Step1: Transform requirements into a physical systems Step2: Draw a Functional block diagram Step3 Create a Schematic Step4: Develop Mathematical Model. visual and tactile Mathematical Relationship in Control System Figure .

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