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UNIT IV 1. What are the factors to consider while selecting the hardware modules?

? The factors to be considered while selecting the hardware modules are a) b) c) d) e) f) Performance level required:low,medium,high Type of usage:light,medium,heavy Nature of application:personal,commercial,government service Criticality of system application:low,high Location of site:rural,urban Product engineering :industry standard,non-standard

2. What is the pre installation planning for the PC? a) Placement/site selection b) Air conditioning c) AC power interference d) AC stabilizer e) Power supply capacity 3. What are the steps involved in the installation and practice of PC? a) Unpacking and checking b) Removing a motherboard c) Removing and replacing Daughterboards d) Removing an FDD e) Mounting an FDD 4. List the steps involved for removing the motherboard from the PC? 1) Switch off the system, monitor and printer 2) Remove all daughterboards 3) Remove the keyboard connector from the rear side of the system box 4) Remove the SMPS power connector(s) from the system board 5) Remove the front panel connector 6) Remove the following I/O connectors as applicable: floppy, IDE, mouse, USB, serial port, parallel port etc. so that motherboard is free from any external peripherals. 7) Remove AGP card if installed 8) Remove any daughterboard present including PCI boards 9) Remove the FDDs and HDDs if necessary to create room for removing the motherboard. 10) Remove the screws and the rubber washers on the motherboard 11) Lift the motherboard gently and take it out of the system box. 5. How do replace the daughterboards after removing from the PC?

a) Slide the PCB through the guard in its place and press gently. Make sure that the PCB is seated correctly into the I/O slot. b) Check and confirm that the card edge connector is seated properly. The other extreme edge of the PCB should rest in the card guide. c) Insert the screw in the rear cover plate and tighten it. d) Connect the necessary cables or wires and dress them properly to protect them from chafing or pinching. e) Close the case. 6. What are the essential checks to be followed during the installation process? a) FDD jumper: Drive select b) FDD Cable: Twist c) FDD Terminator d) Memory Jumpers e) Cable Connectors Orientation f) Processor Heat sink/Cooling Fan 7. What are the advantages in assembling and integrating a PC? a) Saving money b) Choosing exact configuration c) Gaining expertise which will be useful when system fails d) Ease of future up gradation 8. What are the preparatory steps in assembling a PC? a) Collecting hardware and software modules b) Collecting tools c) Choosing a non metallic surface work areas and a moisture free environment; A non metallic work surface such as wooden table prevents creation of static electricity. A metallic surface generates static electricity when the system box touches it. 9. What is virus and what are the actions caused by the virus? A computer virus is a software program which has the ability to attach itself or infect other programs, as well as , replicate itself without the PC users knowledge. Virus actions are of several types listed below: Most viruses are tend to fill up the hard disk with useless data. A virus reproduces, and every copy of the virus takes up valuable space you cannot use for your legitimate purposes. Scramble the File Allocation Table. Any overwrite to the FAT will cause data to be irrecoverably lost.

Wipe out the boot sector or partition table which contain system information. If these areas are altered,your computer may not function or the infected disk may become unusable. Format a disk or diskette thereby causing you to loose everything on the disk. Add spurious messages in printer output. Reset or reboot a computer by sending the required codes. Slow things down by causing programs to be deliberately inefficient or run slowly. Redefine keyboard keys by changing the definitions in the keystroke definition table. If the virus deletes all the keyboard definition, the computer would be unable to respond to any keyboard inputs. Change data in programs or files and causes erratic results. 10. List the various types of viruses. There are two types of viruses: Boot virus- Boot block viruses are those that infect the partition sector or the boot sector of diskettes. File virus- File viruses infect executable files such as .COM, .EXE or overlays such as .SYS,.BIN,.OVR , etc. They infect the files by appending their own code to the executable files and become active, whenever an attempt is made to execute the file.

11. What are the precautions to be taken against the viruses? Avoid booting from floppy diskette or ensure that the boot diskette is free from virus. Try to take regular back-ups. Always use a write protected disk since they are safe from a virus getting into them. Check incoming as well as outgoing floppies. Load a memory resident (Terminate and Stay Resident) vaccine program at the time of booting by including the program as the first command in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file. Always use legal software. Do not use pirated software. Keep updating the anti-virus tool periodically with new patches or new release versions which detect new viruses. 12. What is BIOS setup? The BIOS setup has a utility program for specifying the system configuration and settings. When we switch on the PC, the BIOS gets control and it starts POST. Immediate pressing of the <Del> key gives control to the setup utility. If we are a

little bit late in pressing the <Del> key, POST does not sense this. Still the setup utility can be invoked by restarting the system. 13. What are the steps in finding a virus? 1) Switch off the computer system to ensure that the virus in the memory does not spread any more. 2) Confirm if the problem is actually because of the virus. It could be a hardware or other software related problems. 3) Boot from a clean write-protected floppy diskette. 4) Check your system for the extent of infection and repair or delete all the infected files. 5) Check and remove the virus from every floppy that was used in the system. 14. What is the typical standard CMOS setup? Standard CMOS setup option enables us to enter some basic hardware configurations and set the system clock and error handling. This option is selected only for the following reasons: We have changed some system hardware configuration The backup has failed The configuration stored in the CMOS memory is corrupted.

15. What is SDRAM RAS/CAS precharge time and latency time? SDRAM RAS precharge time: If an insufficient number of cycles is allowed for the RAS to accumulate its charge before DRAM refresh, the refresh may be incomplete and the DRAM may fail to retain data. Fast gives faster performance; and slow gives more stable performance. SDRAM CAS latency time: When synchronous DRAM is installed, the number of clock cycles of CAS latency depends on the DRAM timing. Do not change this field from the default value specified by the system designer. 16. What is called as data recovery? Due to keystrokes made by mistake or decisions made in haste results in loss of data stored in the hard disk and floppy. So data recovery is possible only when the disk is not physically damaged. Some of the data recovery tools are bundled together with the latest versions of operating system. Others are available as separate packages like PC TOOLS from central point software ; Norton utilities from peter Norton computing Inc; Mace utilities from Fifth generation systems etc.

17. What are the general problem sources for a PC? 1) Dust 2) High temperature 3) Electrical noise/ interference 4) Magnetic fields 5) Corrosion 6) Power fluctuations 7) Improper handling 18. What are the general precautions to be given to a PC? Switch off the monitor, system unit and the printer before switching off the mains. Before switching on the mains ensure that the power switches in the system unit, monitor and printer are in the OFF position. Before removing a board or peripheral, remove all the cables, connectors and screws connected to it. Do not hold the wires and pull while removing any cable or wire. Hold the connectors and pull. Remove the diskette from the FDD before switching off the system unit . 19. Give the anatomy of DOS? DOS has a series of layers. These sections perform basic operations like starting and terminating user programs, management of disk space, basic I/O operations etc. the resident portion may be called as nucleus. The nucleus is made of three files: 1) IO.SYS 2) MSDOS.SYS 3) COMMAND.COM 20. What are the classification of DOS commands?

21. How the DOS get controlled? a) The boot strap loader reads the boot record into memory, and gives control to the boot program in it. b) The boot program checks if the first two entries in the root directory are IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS respectively. c) The boot program then loads the IO.SYS file into memory and gives control to it. d) IO.SYS loads the MSDOS.SYS file. It then looks for the CONFIG.SYS file and executes the configuration commands in it. If the file is not found , then it configures the system with default parameters. Also initializes interrupt s, and finally gives control to the MSDOS.SYS. e) MSDOS.SYS initializes the interrupt vectors for some more interrupts and then loads the COMMAND.COM file. The COMMAND.COM has three portions that are loaded as follows: The resident portion is loaded next to MSDOS.SYS and the initialization portion is loaded next. The transient portion is loaded at the high and of RAM. f) The initialization portion gets control from MSDOS.SYS, and carries out the Autoexec.bat file. 22. Give the logical organization of the disk space? Boot record FAT Root Dir. Data Area

System area DOS divides disk space into two distinct areas. System area- used by DOS for storing information needed to manage the file area. Files area- used for storing the actual data. 23. Give the various data recovery tools from the DOS? Undelete Unformat There are several data recovery tools available from third party software companies. NORTON UTILITIES PC TOOLS

Mace tools

24. List some of the antivirus softwares? VIPRE Antivirus + Antispyware Bit Defender Antivirus Kaspersky Anti-Virus Panda Antivirus Pro Norton Antivirus McAfee Virus Scan Plus CA Anti-Virus Trend Micro Antivirus