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In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from the Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad and other infrastructure. Usually the payload is an artificial satellite placed into orbit, but some spaceflights are sub-orbital while others enable spacecraft to escape Earth orbit entirely. A launch vehicle which carries its payload on a suborbital trajectory is often called a sounding rocket.
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1 Types of launch vehicles o 1.1 By launch platform o 1.2 By size 2 Vehicle assembly 3 Derivation and related terms 4 Orbital launch vehicles 5 Regulation 6 See also 7 References 8 External links
Types of launch vehicles
a Proton rocket has a launch capacity of 22. and normally in parallel with other engines on the vehicle. For example. Non-rocket spacelaunch alternatives are at the planning stage. Reusable launch vehicles. and thus allows for larger payloads. By launch platform . which reduces the burnout mass of later stages. are designed to be recovered intact and used again for subsequent launches. the Space Shuttle is currently the only launch vehicle with components which have been used for multiple flights. For orbital spaceflights. Additionally. Rockets with as many as five stages have been successfully launched. and there have been designs for several single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Launch vehicles are also characterized by the number of stages they employ. which supply high thrust early on in the flight. and may break up during atmospheric reentry. launch vehicles are very often supplied with boosters. and the United Launch Alliance manufactures and launches the Delta IV. Launch vehicles are often characterized by the amount of mass they can lift into orbit. on the other hand. Boosters allow the remaining engines to be smaller. Other frequently-reported characteristics of launch vehicles are the nation or space agency responsible for the launch. the European Space Agency is responsible for the Ariane V.000 lb) into low Earth orbit (LEO). Many launch vehicles are considered part of an historical line of vehicles which share the same or similar names such as the Atlas V being the latest member of the Atlas rocket family.Ukrainian LV Zenit-2 is prepared for launch Expendable launch vehicles are designed for one-time use. and the company or consortium that manufactures and launches the vehicle.000 kilograms (49. For example. They usually separate from their payload.
using a crane to hoist each stage into place. the Soyuz rocket is assembled horizontally in a processing hangar. and Chinese. or actually launching a satellite. mobile platform (Sea Launch).200lbs+) of payload into LEO • Vehicle assembly Various methods are used to move an assembled launch vehicle onto its launch pad.000kg (44. are assembled vertically in NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building. In contrast. submarine (Shtil'.400lbs) of payload into low earth orbit (LEO) • A Medium lift launch vehicle is capable of lofting between 2. and still is occasionally. A translation of that phrase is used in German. As an alternative. in Britain.000kg (110. each method with its own specialized equipment.000 to 20.200lbs) of payload into LEO • A Super-heavy lift vehicle is capable of lofting more than 50. Russian. The contraction would also apply to rockets which send probes to other worlds or the interplanetary medium. balloon (ARCASPACE). Project Vanguard provided a contraction of the phrase "Satellite Launching Vehicle" abbreviated to "SLV".000lbs) of payload into LEO • A Heavy lift launch vehicle is capable of lofting between 20. including its external tank. the US Air Force disliked the term carrier due to the competitive nature of their relationship with the US Navy and their high profile operation of aircraft carriers. and then brought upright once at the pad. Orbital launch vehicles . In some launch systems. and solid rocket boosters. In the 1950s.Land: Spaceport and fixed missile silo (Strela) for converted ICBMs Sea: fixed platform (San Marco).000kg (4. the vehicle is assembled vertically on the pad.000kg (4. and then a special crawlertransporter moves the entire stack to the launch pad while it is in an upright position. like the Delta II.000 to 110. This provided a term in the list of what the rockets were allocated for: flight test. proposal for permanent Buoyant space port • • By size A Sounding rocket cannot reach orbit and is only capable of sub-orbital spaceflight • A Small lift launch vehicle is capable of lofting up to 2. transported horizontally. Derivation and related terms In the English language. the phrase carrier rocket was used earlier. AirLaunch LLC).400 to 22.000 to 50. These assembly activities take place as part of the overall launch campaign for the vehicle. The Space Shuttle orbiter. Volna) for converted SLBMs • Air: aircraft (Pegasus.
This delta-v is determined by a combination of air-drag.2 mi/s) for 200 kilometres (120 mi) altitude. Leaving the atmosphere as early on in the flight as possible provides an air drag of around 300 metres per second (980 ft/s). See also: Orbital spaceflight Sounding rockets are normally used for brief. or a ratio of length to diameter greater than ten.000 ft/s). but is around 2 kilometres per second (1. The delta-v needed for orbital launch using a rocket vehicle launching from the Earth's surface is at least 9300m/s.800 metres per second (26. The calculation of the total delta-v for launch is complicated. Current human-rated suborbital launch vehicles include SpaceShipOne and the upcoming SpaceShipTwo. Regulation Under international law. altitude gain and the horizontal speed necessary to give a suitable perigee. which generally means having a launch vehicle that is at least 20 metres (66 ft) long. among others (see space tourism). some[who?] countries require that rocket manufacturers and launchers adhere to specific . Due to this. thereby saving fuel as it can gain altitude and horizontal speed simultaneously. since the rocket can thrust while at an angle in order to reach orbit. The horizontal speed necessary to achieve low earth orbit is around 7. and in nearly all cases numerical integration is used. the nationality of the owner of a launch vehicle determines which country is responsible for any damages resulting from that vehicle. Minimising air-drag entails having a reasonably high ballistic coefficient. which is determined by ballistic coefficient as well as gravity losses. inexpensive space and microgravity experiments.A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. adding multiple delta-v values provides a pessimistic result. The delta-v required for altitude gain varies.
000 — 10.000 kg to LEO • • Comparison of super heavy lift launch systems capacity more than 50. and also is not "for and by the government.capacity 2. the free encyclopedia . located in Washington.000 — 20.000 kg to LEO • Payload (air and space craft) From Wikipedia.000 kg to LEO • Comparison of mid-heavy lift launch systems capacity 10.capacity less than 2. DC See also Spaceflight portal Specific to launch vehicles List of launch vehicles Comparison of small lift launch systems . In the US. any rocket launch that is not classified as amateur.000 — 50." must be approved by the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (FAA/AST).regulations in order to indemnify and protect the safety of people and property that may be affected by a flight.capacity 20.000 kg to LEO • Comparison of heavy lift launch systems .000 kg to LEO • Comparison of medium lift launch systems .
A payload range diagram (also known as the "elbow chart") illustrates the trade-off. When the weight of the payload and fuel are considered together. which is the ratio of payload to everything else. when optionally carried. The top horizontal line represents the maximum payload. Contents [hide] • • o • • • 1 Aircraft 2 Space craft 2. It is limited structurally by maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW) of the aircraft. includingcargo. The fraction of payload to the total liftoff weight of the air or spacecraft is known as the "payload fraction". including the rocket structure. is also considered part of the payload. External fuel.1 Examples 3 Payload constraints 4 References 5 See also Aircraft There is a natural trade-off between the payload and the range of an aircraft. Maximum payload is the difference between maximum take off weight . "mass fraction" is normally used. In spacecraft.In military aircraft or space exploration. munitions. scientific instruments or experiments. the payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or space ship. it is known as the "useful load fraction".
The diagonal line after the range-at-maximum-payload point shows how reducing the payload allows increasing the fuel (and range) when taking off with the maximum take-off weight. for an even lesser increase in range. and are registered as MIME types in RFC 3555. an RTP payload type is a 7-bit numeric identifier that identifies a payload format. Codes in the range 96-127 are assigned dinamically by means outside of the RTP profile or protocol specification. it can still carry a significant amount of fuel. The absolute range is thus the range at which an aircraft can fly with maximum possible fuel without carrying any payload. Moving left-to-right along the line shows the constant maximum payload as the range increases. payload has to be sacrificed for fuel. Codes below 96 may be assigned statically. . The second kink in the curve represents the point at which the maximum fuel capacity is reached. For payload types. ccRTP also defines The enumerated type StaticPayloadType. More fuel needs to be added for more range. superseded by RFC 3550. as the enumeration of the RTP Payload Types statically assigned for standard audio and video formats. maximum payload and needed fuel reaches the maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of the aircraft.and maximum fuel weight (OEW). “RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control” (AVP profile). The vertical line represents the range at which the combined weight of the aircraft. So even when the airplane has been loaded with its maximum payload that the wings can support. These codes were initially specified in RFC 1890. although the default bindings for many of them are already reserverd. Flying further than that point means that the payload has to be reduced further. 4. The maximum take-off weight is limited by a combination of the maximum net power of the engines and the lift/drag ratio of the wings.2 Payload Types and Formats In the context of RTP. GNU ccRTP defines the integer typePayloadType. If the range is increased beyond that point. Weight in the fuel tanks in the wings does not contribute as significantly to the bending moment in the wing as does weight in the fuselage.
The properties of a payload format that. Note however that registering static payload types is now considered a deprecated practice in favor of dynamic payload type negotiation. Its root is PayloadFormat. such asSDP and H. as an RTP stack. These are only of interest for higher level protocols.iana.See the “RTP Parameters” list at IANA http://www.245. . ccRTP takes into account are the payload type (numeric identifier) and the RTP clock rate. number of audio channels. GNU ccRTP defines a hierarchy of payload format classes. “ptime” and “maxptime” are not considered.org/assignments/rtpparameters. which is a base class for StaticPayloadFormat andDynamicPayloadFormat. Other properties. such as MIME type.
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