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ASSESSMENT ON SPACE AND FURNITURE’S ERGONOMICS FOR CHILDREN IN KINDERGARTEN
Nurrabiatul Adawiyah bte Jalaludin
Ergonomics; furniture; space; children; classroom; playground; toilet
Ergonomics are the most vital consideration in designing a space. Its determine the comfort level of people as a user and encourage productivity. Furthermore, in responds to the children comfort, it is essential for the them to be place in a space that provide the best ergonomic arrangement which will encouraged their productivity and creativity in learning and growing. This research focuses on the furniture and space ergonomics for children in kindergarten. The ergonomics study encompasses the spaces such as classroom, toilet and playground and also the furniture design. This research was conducted through library research, internets articles, case study, observation, field measurement and questionnaire. This research will explain about the problems that were faced by the children in suburban context as well as people perception about ergonomics. Finally, the findings would give some ideas on how the ergonomics affect the wellbeing of our future generation as well as the suitable measurement for children furniture design Children are active participants in learning about the world around them. They begin to understand size by whether they can hold something in their hands or wrap their hands around it. They learn that things can be soft or hard, smooth or bumpy by touching them. To accommodate this active learning process, it is beneficial for the environment to reflect the size of the children and facilitate the children‟s ability to see and reach objects and feel comfortable within their surroundings. A space that is reflective of the children‟s physical size and abilities heightens their sense of confidence in their ability to perform simple tasks more independently. Appropriates sizes and elements such as windows, tables, chair and playground will prolong the children‟s interest and participation in constructive activities. In relation with that, there has been a growing interest in children ergonomics, particularly when it comes to children learning and playing in kindergarten. Media suggest that children experience the same dangers as adults if they are treated the same way as adults in their physical environment. There are several issues related to the research topic which are the condition of the kindergarten in Malaysia and the issues of health, safety and security among children in the kindergarten. In Malaysia, most of the kindergarten does not fulfill the requirement of ergonomics design for children which cause the children to have musculoskeletal disorders and pain for a long
AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment
Assessment on Space and Furniture‟s Ergonomics for Children in Kindergarten
term. Absent of preventative approach to children‟s health, our future generation would face chronic physical, mental and social health. Moreover, the condition of the kindergarten itself is very poor with inadequate facilities. Deeper study about this topic will elaborate more on how the environment affects children health through case study and observation. “When children feel comfortable in their physical surroundings, they will venture to explore materials or events around them.” (Anita Ruil, 1987) In kindergarten, furniture are frequently arranged where desks, chairs, computer monitors remain at the same stationary height while students come in wide variety of sizes. Children have different rate of growth depending on the genetic and the environment that shape them. Some are comfortable with the standard measurement provided for them. Others may have difficulties as they have different height compared to the average standard. The differences in many dimensional aspects contribute to ergonomics problem. In addition, some of the existing kindergarten facilities do not suitable for children in terms of design, safety and health.
The main issue is related with health problems among children and adults - musculoskeletal discomfort and repetitive strain injuries. One of the research on ergonomics find out that there is a strong correlation between adults diagnosed with repetitive stress injuries with early onset of repetitive injuries among kindergarten children. Young children spent many hours in kindergarten for playing and studying; average of 5-8 hours per day depending on the programme. If the space and furniture are not child-friendly, children experiencing significant musculoskeletal discomfort, incorrect ergonomics and improper posture when using the facilities provided. These repetitive injuries are developed over a number of years therefore; their postural habits during school years will affect their health as young adults. If these conditions are not dealt with early on, they can easily lead to permanent problems in life later on. Another issue which concerns the designer is the correct body posture when using facilities. Lack of attention when using furniture and other facilities in kindergarten has become a serious health hazard to young children. From the research done, it has been found out that children and most of the teachers are unaware of correct body posture and positioning while doing activities.
Lack of awareness among people towards the needs and safety of young children Manufacturer does not follow the guidelines of facilities design for children. Parents and teacher doesn‟t conscious about the impact of improper ergonomics towards the children.
Aims and Objectives
The aim of this research is to evaluate the ergonomics study encompasses the spaces such as classroom, toilet and playground and also the furniture. Moreover, the research intended to identify workplace that fit the physical and mental ability of each child while giving ergonomics education information for public and parents. Therefore, the aim of this topic has generated the following objectives: To promote professional and public awareness of ergonomics related to children of all abilities in all aspects of their lives and the application of ergonomics in educational environment. To reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorder To study the appropriate measurement for space and furniture for children.
AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment
parents and staff perception and experiences in using the facilities Feedback in the case studies Data from field measurement Researcher observation Objectives Research Methods Recommendations Sample will be taken from two suburban context which are IUM Educare Permata located in Gombak. this research will study the application of ergonomics for kindergarten in suburban context only as to know the level of exposure as well as the awareness of teachers and parents regarding the importance of ergonomics for children. Selangor and Temiang preschool in Seremban. a few strategies to collect data have been formulated. Moreover. The outcome will be in the basis of. Case Study and Observation. toilets and playground. Literature reviews on ergonomics Children. The research is restricted for spaces that is frequently use only such as classroom. Case study will be done to observe the application of ergonomics based on the information gathered through the literature studies and to Limitation of research The research would be limited to the spaces and furniture design in kindergarten. AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . The data collected from books and internet act as reference in finding the suitable measurement for children. Case study will be the sub-method to get the general views and photos on the ergonomics and a visit to the study building. Conclusion Research methodology In order to carry out the research. Main method will be done through the literature studies to collect data of the understanding detail information on ergonomics and injuries because of ergonomics issues. The research will involve analyzing the existing facilities in few spaces. Three types of data will be collected through: Literature Review.Assessment on Space and Furniture‟s Ergonomics for Children in Kindergarten 3 Research Questions How ergonomic are the spaces and furniture in kindergarten? Does improper ergonomic for space and furniture design in kindergarten cause injuries to children? What are the appropriate measurements for children facilities? Does public aware of ergonomics problems among children? Research Structure Issues Identify Problems Aims Scope of Research Scope of study will be covered on the application of ergonomics in terms of furniture design and proper body posture that will reduce the injuries among children in kindergarten.Negeri Sembilan. This limitation also applies to the range of age for children which are between 5 to 6 years old as they share the same dimensions in all aspects.
Questionnaire The questionnaire will get the general information and response due to lack of selfawareness among public in applying ergonomics especially proper body posture in kindergarten. attending kindergarten from 5 to 6 years. Infant (baby) Toddler Kindergarten children Middle childhood (primary school) Pre-pubescence. aged between 1 to 14 years old. a total of 31. Children World Health Organization (WHO) has officially defined a child as one who is below the age of 18 years old. a subset of the above Youth and adolescence 0 to 1. in 2010. During the field measurement. According to Anita Ruil (1987). This questionnaire is conducted to support the field measurement. adult work to achieve and end result”. Second part gives an overview for better understanding about the concept and the philosophy of ergonomics for children in terms of facilities and spaces. social interaction and learning through play. This background study consist of four main core begins with definition of children. history and types of kindergarten in Malaysia. kindergarten and ergonomics as it is crucial to give generic ideas and overall picture on the proposed research topic. Kindergarten Merriam-Webster dictionary (2010) defined kindergarten as a program or class for 4 to 6 years old children that serve as an introduction to school. While the third part briefly elaborate on the issues and problems for ergonomics in kindergarten.6% in 2005. the daily routine of these children are similar. The definition has applied globally and this range of age is also adapted in Malaysia. This shows that children learn from their environment and activities through movement. observation on the same elements of field measurement has been made to support the data. It is education for pre. promote imagination. the scope focuses on the highlighted age group. kindergarten is a form of education for young children which serves as a transition from home to the commencement of more formal schooling. Statistic of the level of public awareness will be produced base on the questionnaire. Based on the statistic released by Department of statistic and economic planning In context to the children in suburban areas in Malaysia. Referring to Wikipedia. starting primary at 7 till 12 years and going to religious classes. “Children use the environment to improve themselves. In this study. UNESCO. adults use themselves to improve the environment. Field measurement Filed measurement is carried out during the case study visit in order to evaluate and study the dimension of furniture and spaces for children to fit in and use. Photos of the kindergarten will be captured during the visit. which decreased from 32.Assessment on Space and Furniture‟s Ergonomics for Children in Kindergarten measure the facilities. Children work for the sake of process.and emergent-literate children before the age of 6 or 7. A child goes through a dynamic stage of development which has different profile and requirement. Literature study is done on the aspect of children.5 years 1.6 to 4 years 5 to 6 years 7 to 9 years 10 to 12 years 13 o 18 years 4 Literature Review This research will emphasize on the importance of ergonomics for children as it will affect the children behavior. unit. skill classes and tuition after school. Institute of Statistic (2008) elaborates the statistic of kindergarten in Malaysia based on surveys in AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . followed by definition.7% of the total population.
Robert Owen opened an infant school in New Lanark while the first kindergarten in Hungary was founded on 27 May 1828 by the countness Theresa Brunszvik (1775–1861) in her residence in the city of Buda under the name of Angyalkert (Angel garden). On the other hand. play store. further emphasize that in Malaysia. kindergarten is a non-formal and flexible programme for young children aged 4 to 5 years old. costumes etc. His plan was to offer an organized setting in which children's creativity and play instincts were nurtured in a constructive and supervised manner. puppet theatre. and other group activities.com stated that the first kindergarten was opened in Blankenburg. Enotes. including individual lockers. Preschool Malaysia (2007). All kindergartens have to abide by the curriculum guidelines set by the MOE. Kindergarten education aims at providing a firm foundation for formal education. Nanyang articles emphasize that the history of kindergarten in Malaysia begins in July 1934 when the Nanyang Kindergarten in Singapore is believed to have been the first Chinese kindergarten in the whole of Malaysia when Singapore was still in the merger. more cooperative learners through the use of tools like songs. Malaysia) enables kindergarten children to acquire basic communication and positive skills in preparation for primary schooling.For children who previously have spent most of their time at home. Its gestation can be traced from the original idealistic educational theories of the 18th and 19th centuries to the present sophisticated architectural and educational synthesis seen in many of the best contemporary examples. Priority for admission to these classes is given to those who could not afford to attend privately-run kindergartens. For example. rooms divider.Assessment on Space and Furniture‟s Ergonomics for Children in Kindergarten 2008. in Scotland in 1816. However. library alcove. games. He believed that children could be taught to become better. Germany. dress-up area. These centres are mostly privatelyrun and cater for children from high and middleincome families. 5 AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . the aim of kindergarten education is to develop children‟s intellectual skills which emphasize on physical environment. In terms of spaces and facilities. The fees charged by these kindergartens vary and are largely determined by overhead costs and market forces. The curriculum which is in line with the NPE (also known as National Private Education.This will emphasizes on the infrastructure or components that should be provided for children to support their study programme. there are long established and broadly agreed programmatic requirements for the design of pre-school kindergartens and nursery schools. Specifically. stories. Friedrich Froebel (1782–1852) designed this system to offer a preschool education to young children in a less formal environment. with book shelves . there are 536 children enter the preschool with minimum aged of 5 years old consists of 276 Male and 260 Female. in 1837. kindergarten may serve the purpose of helping them adjust to being apart from their parents without anxiety. Malaysia) and other government agencies enable under-privileged children from lower income families access to kindergarten education for free or at a minimal charge. zoo etc…. Joseph Featherstone in a series of articles published in the 1960‟s in The New Republic. easels. The programme runs for duration of one to two years depending on parents' requirement.. set out a clearly prescribed set of ideal conditions: Storage space. with racks for adult clothes. social skills which emphasized focus on children‟s interaction with the environment and the people and spiritual skills which stressed on inculcation of noble values and believe in God. For examples. Bandini (1994) explains that kindergarten has been in existence as a recognized institution for over a century. physical skills which focus on the physical activities. flat working surfaces. Historically.tools. many origins are claimed for the first kindergarten in the world. Kindergarten classes conducted by the MOE (also known as Ministry of Education. The central idea of his theory was that a good education starts with learning creative expression and social cooperation. it has been identified only relatively recently as a distinct architectural type. According to them.
In terms of children ergonomics. data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. There are few keys to take into consideration when we talked about ergonomics which are physical. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture. Ergonomics is knowledge about body sizes and muscular capabilities which is fundamental for proper human factors design. the needs and requirements children up to age of six or at most seven at particular. ergonomics researchers stressed that children ergonomics is different from adults. the width. and the profession that applies theory. cognitive and organizational. Ruth (2000) set a design standard for children‟s environments which comprise of all the details of anthropometric and ergonomics design for children. Ergonomists contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks. the materials and the design itself. their right (as individuals) to high quality educational environments that care for them and rigorously support their social development.Assessment on Space and Furniture‟s Ergonomics for Children in Kindergarten 6 Ergonomics functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The ergonomics will focused on the suitable height of furniture for children. products. David Caple stated that according to International Ergonomics Association (IEA). length. it is likely that some anatomical– The aim of this study was to compare facilities and space layout within three different kindergartens with the anthropometric characteristics and ergonomic standard guidelines in order to evaluate the most appropriate design for children. abilities and limitations of people. jobs. environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs. Most (1993) and Mark (1996) emphasize that there is an inadequate match between the design process and the imaginative spatial needs of the young child. principles. The principle is that. Thus. ergonomics or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. appropriate furniture design and facilities should be adapted to avoid hazard or injuries to children such as muscular disorder.
Observation The observation done have been used to compare with public perception about ergonomics in the kindergarten. AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment .Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 7 Result and analysis Literature review Table 1: Data collected from both kindergartens. This data act as reference in finding the suitable measurement for children. The data included the measurements of facilities and the measurement of the children dimension in order to get the range of height. Case study and field measurement This research supported by two case studies which are IIUM Educare Permata and Temiang Preschool and a short and simple questionnaires that has been imposed to 30 staff and parents Each of these case studies also involved field measurement and observation. Case study Both case studies have provided sufficient data to use in the research. public satisfaction about kindergarten had been analyzed to know their level of understanding and awareness about ergonomics. Most of them teachers suggest that the playground area should be located near post guard or open area for safety reasons The data for Temiang preschool have elaborated in details under three different study which are study on the classroom. study on toilet and study on playground. Literature review provides detail information on ergonomics and injuries because of ergonomics issues. The average height for children are : 113 cm The average knee height for children are: 30 cm The average arm length for children are : 29 cm The tallest children : 122cm /33/32 The shortest children : 104cm /37/26 Case study 1: Temiang pre-school. knee height. The preschool consists of ten staff and several part time workers as they cater children between 5 to 6 years old only. and arm length. However. The results are as stated which covers 3 major area regarding the space planning and also the finishes and design for the furniture involved. From the questionnaire given to the staff and parents. Temiang preschool is located at the suburban area. Questionnaire From the questionnaire. Negeri Sembilan. Observation also support the data on how children response with certain height and dimension when using the facilities in the kindergarten. the others disagree in terms of location of the preschool and space planning such as the location of toilet and playground area. 15 out of 20 people agree that the preschool facilities provided are ergonomics for children in terms of furniture design and measurement.
Located on the floor. Children use this type of drawer for keeping books and bags. The tables are ergonomics for children with average height. Will cause injuries to neck. The children will not facing any repetitive injuries if they seat properly with good posture. 390 Woods 980 300 (each compartment) Woods As located in suburban areas.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 8 Study on the classroom Types of furniture Chairs -seating -back support Tables Table for audio visual Multipurpose table Adjustable whiteboard Three-tiers drawer for toys Reading table Multipurpose drawer Height (cm) 320 360 Width (cm) 360 x 340 330 x 330 720 x 1300 1380 x 600 1200 x 600 610 x 900 1500 x 600 1900 x 700 1500 x 600 Materials Analysis from observation Wood The chairs are suitable for children with average height. children tend to seat with wrong posture as there is no back support. the design of the classroom is appropriate with the children with average height and measurement. The tables are ergonomics for children if the seat on the floor while the width suitable for children to seat together and discuss. Temiang preschool have only three classrooms for kindergarten and a shared facilities. The height of the table does not ergonomics for children as the children need to seat down on the floor to watch television. The adjustable whiteboard is appropriate for children to do activities. The height of each drawer is appropriate with children measurement. The reading table AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . The tables is ergonomics for children if the seat on the floor. The height of each drawer is appropriate with children measurement. Seating on the floor for reading and discussion is a good approach for children. Adjust to their height. however. Most of the furniture is made of woods but not too heavy for children to In overall. It can be considered as ergonomics except for the tallest and shortest children. 600 660 Wood Wood 430 30 (floor) 900 980 Wood + steel Woods Located on the floor.
It can be considered as ergonomics for children. The height of the toilet bowl ergonomics for children as the average knee height for children is 300cm. The tallest children will have difficulties in using the dimension that is provided for the average height of children AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . Located on top of the sink. Too height for children toilet. 2 cubicles. 3000 300 630 from floor 2100 600 900 from floor 130 from sink 460 460 x 460 800 790 x 500 390x300 Galvanized iron Galvanized iron Height for children to use. The height and width of the sink are appropriate with children of average measurement.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 9 Multipurpose drawer for toys Tables and chairs Study on toilet types of furniture Toilet dimension Cubicles size Toilet bowl -overall size -bowl size Pipe inside toilet Door Sink Sink bowl Shower tap Mirror Height (cm) 3000 Width (cm) 2400 x 1650 1060 x 1120 500 x 500 250 x 280 Materials Analysis from observation Tiles + concrete Tiles + concrete Ceramic The toilet dimension is suitable for children height and width as well as movement dimension. the design of the toilet is appropriate with the children average height and measurement. In overall. The height of mirror is appropriate with children measurement. The dimension of cubicles also suitable for children. Ergonomics for children to use.
Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 10 Study on the playground Sink area First playground Second playground Toilet area Swing AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment .
The railing for the slide and playhouse are suitable with the height of children in order to prevent them from falling to the ground. the playground follows the requirement for children ergonomics as well as the safety and security measures.swingset.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten There are two playgrounds for preschool. The playground consists of several equipment such as slide. climbers.playhouse. 11 Playhouse Types of equipment Overhead ladders -overall -steps -ladders Slide -overall height -railings -steps Swing Height Width 180 frm ground 300 1600 frm grnd 800 200 300 from ground 450 1650 x 1000 300 between ladder 260 330 x 150 (seat) See-saw Slide Steps for slide Overhead ladder Playhouse AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment .overhead ladder .see-saw Form the observation and measurement done at the playground.
Children use this type of drawer for keeping books and bags. 300 290 Wood and steel Tables 500 Wood Book shelves Whiteboard Three-tiers drawer for toys Reading table Multipurpos e drawer 800 (240) 900 800 (250) 390 Wood + steel 1120 x 300 1900 x 700 1500 x 300 Woods Located on the floor. It can be considered as ergonomics except for the tallest children. On the other hand. heavy used of materials for chair . The shelves are ergonomics for children to take the books. Study on the classroom Types of furniture Chairs -seating -back support Chairs 2 Height (cm) 260 310 Width (cm) 270x 300 310 x 300 310 x 330 230 x 100 1200 x 590 1200 x 800 Materials Analysis from observation Steel The chairs are suitable for children with average height. Kuala Lumpur.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 12 Case study 2: IIUM Educare Permata. The building consists of kindergarten and childcare. They realize that the furniture design does injured the children in terms of sharp edges. From this statistic. it shows that only a few people aware of the ergonomics and safety issues of children. The whiteboard is meant for the teacher to use only. the research is focused on kindergarten only. The tables are ergonomics for children if the seat on the floor while the width suitable for children to seat together and discuss. IIUM Educare is located at suburban area. Woods 950 300. Located on the floor. The tables are ergonomics for children with average height. 10 out of 30 people disagree. for the children range between 5 to 6 years old. The tables are ergonomics for children with average height.slippery floor. toilet bowl which is too height for children to use and others. But it is too heavy and not safe if children are playing around. The height of each drawer is appropriate with children measurement. The height of each drawer is appropriate with children measurement. However. 20 out of 30 agree that the furniture design and space planning of the Educare doesn‟t gives injury to the children. Gombak. Easy to fall.each compartmen t Woods AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . From the questionnaire given to the staff and parents.
Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 13 Drawer area Discussion table Drawer area Book shelves Discussion table AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment .
One is chairs made from steel while another one is chair made of mix of steel and woods. View from the back of the sink showing the child use the sink. Each time the children need to carry the chair or put it on the table after class. The new chair design can cause repetitive injuries to the children as the chairs are made of heavy woods and steel. However. The child needs to raise his feet to reach the tap. not ergonomic to use The former chair used is simple. When a child grows up above the average size of standard children. the same height of chair design or fixed chair sometimes does not ergonomic with all children. their needs are different. The older version of chair is light to carry but does not comfortable in terms of design as well as maintenance. AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . Children are in variety of sizes and height. Children need to raise their foot to reach the tap and wash their hand. it shows that the sink size is actually meeting the ergonomics standard but the shelves length makes the sink not ergonomic to use. light but easy to have defects. the sink becomes not ergonomics when it was confined with the shelves. thus. some children can sit properly while a few other cannot because of their height.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 14 Chair Design Two types of chairs were used in the kindergarten. Sink Design The height of the sink is actually appropriate for the children. From the observation done. From above. The new chair that is used is heavy for children. This can lead to repetitive strains injuries as children used the sink every time they have art activities in class. they will suffer from disorder.
Not at suitable height for children. Width of the doors is appropriate for the users.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 15 Other measurements Measurement is also done on the other facilities and component of the buildings such as the window. AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . table for teacher and also whiteboard. doors. The toilet is a bit height from the children dimension. Sinks are design in various heights and next to shower area The sink is not suitable for children as it is manufactured for adult‟s dimension. Study on the toilet The whiteboard is only meant for teachers. The railing is at suitable height for safety reason – to prevent children from open the window and fall.
700 from floor 1500 700 800 from floor 1220 800 1270 540 x 50 Galvanized iron Galvanized iron Shower tap and the shower are ergonomics for children to use. The width of the sink is not ergonomics for children as the distance to the pipe is 460. Ergonomics for children to use. Clothes hook The shower area The cabinet located above the ground Hanger for cloth Entrance to toilet AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment .Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten Types of furniture Cubicles size Toilet bowl Height (cm) 1500 370 Width (cm) 1600 x 1200 300 x 400 Materials Analysis from observation 16 Tiles + concrete Ceramic The dimension of cubicles is suitable for children. Suitable height for children toilet. Pipe inside toilet Door for cubicles Sink Sink bowl Shower tap. They are design based on children height. The height of the toilet bowl not ergonomics for children as the average knee height for children is 300cm. Quite suitable from the children height as they can reach the hook.
the strings easily cut off with a sharp edges that can injured the children. Various design of slide offered for the children Rocking animal chair are design with appropriate for children under age 5 Bird eye view toward the play ground 4 numbers swings provided Three seesaws design with a safety precautions Simple round-climb ladder completes the set AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . for the swing. playhouse. However. overhead ladder. The railing for the slide and playhouse are suitable with the height of children in order to prevent them from falling to the ground. most of the play equipment follows the requirement for children ergonomics as well as the safety and security measures. swing set. the seat is too height from the ground while for the spider web. spring rider and jungle gym.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 17 Study on the playground The playground consist of several equipment such as slide. see-saw. climbers. Form the observation and measurement done at the playground.
most of the interviewee agrees to have a wide entrance with a safety swing door. there are some people who did not agree with the swing door as they prefer the sliding more than the swing.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 18 Types of equipment See-saw Slide --railings -steps Swing Spring rider Stepping area Height 530 940 300 500 from ground 450 230 300 Width 350x350 (seat) 330 x 150 (seat) 350 x 350 The playground area Questionnaire analysis The Questionnaires question is on what features that building must have to classify as a green building concept. The entrance Entrance Number of staff/parents 15 10 5 0 Wide enough Swing safely Totally Agree Agree Average Disagree Assessed criteria In responds to the entry. However. AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment .
5 0 Ergonomic in design Suitable height for use Assessed criteria Specifically for drawer and bookshelves. the questionnaire shows that an adequate access to the work station and accessibility to the class room is the most imperative aspect to be considering the most.5 Totally agree Agree Average 1 0.5 3 2. AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . Ergonomically aspect however is the second together with the comfort and sufficient space required for the class room. Drawer and bookshelves 5 4. the respondents found it not very significant to for the space to be free from obstruction as they understand that most of the classrooms in kindergarten are free from the hazardous furniture or equipment that may dangerously barricade the children.5 2 1. For the least case. the most respondents agree to have an ergonomically design bookshelves and drawer with a suitable high in responds to children with various ages.5 Number of staff/parents 4 3.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 19 Classroom Number of staff/parents 20 15 10 5 0 Totally agree Accessible Design ergonomicall y Spacious and comfortable Adequate access to work station Enough space to maneuver chair Work can be done in correct… Free from obstruction Agree Average Disagree Assessed criteria For the class room.
Significance The significance of this study is to find the solution of reducing health problems among children and adults musculoskeletal discomfort and repetitive strain injuries due to incorrect ergonomics and improper posture at workstations.A discussion Paper. Companion to Contemporary Architectural Thought.2728 Woburn Square. Thomas Coram Research Unit.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten 20 Justification of research Ergonomics can be integrated as a lifestyle/philosophy in order to live life to its fullest. we need to make the importance of correct posture and proper ergonomic workstation set-up and proper posture habits while activities. e.. Children can learn to apply concepts of ergonomics in their daily activities and environments. Conclusion Both of the case study and findings shows that not all people aware of ergonomics issues among children. Quality in Services for Young children. New York. physical education. Overall view will be on how to encourage more people to support the promotion and practice of proper workstation health within the structured school environment will influence young people to practice proper sitting posture during both school and non-school hours. Mc Graw-Hill Bandini (1994). social studies. math. the result of this study is to emphasizes on the importance of ergonomics and to provides the ergonomics information about children in kindergarten to variety of people and professional. Ergonomics can be incorporated as a subject in the educational curriculum of teachers Ergonomics learning activities can be developed by subject matter. References Anita Rui Olds (1987) Child Care Design Guide.g.11 Mark Dudek (1996).P (1993). reading. Some of the facilities provided does not take into account the suitability and comfortability of children. London. This study also will lead to a new intervention of furniture design which will be integrated for children well-being as to avoid unhealthy future generations. p.Routledge. „Environment”. Thus. Kindergarten AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . People rarely talk about ergonomics for children.Ny. and encouraged to teach others Solution Some of the solution for ergonomics problems is to educate people about ergonomics for public awareness.London. Hadith Bukhari and Muslim Most. This study attempts to provide information to formulate new design recommendation for kindergarten by emphasizing on ergonomics issues while taking notes on advantages and disadvantages. Promotion and practice of proper workstation health within the structured school environment will influence young people to practice proper sitting posture during both school and non-school hours. In order to prevent widespread health problems in students as they grow older. European commission Child Care Network. Other is to implement the new technology in manufacturing the furniture for children which can be adjustable. science. „Typological Theories in architectural design‟.
wikipedia.com/cgi-bin/book.com 21 AAR 4171 Research Methods for the Built Environment . New York. Caple (2008).uis.UK. International Islamic University Malaysia email@example.com www. http://stats. who.Assessment On Space And Furniture‟s Ergonomics For Children In Kindergarten Architecture. Data Centre.unesco. retrieved from http://www. retrieved from www. Department of Architecture.aspx. Linda Cain Ruth (2000). E&FN Spoon. Int ----------------------------------------------Nurrabiatul Adawiyah bt Jalaludin Bachelor of Architecture.merriamwebster.Ergonomics is a lifestyle ( PDF document) Joseph Featherstone articles published in the 1960‟s in The New Republic Statistic by Department of statistic and economic planning unit. retrieved from www. Kulliyyah of Architecture and Environmental Design.Mc Graw-Hill Merriam-Webster dictionary (2010).malaxi.pl?fivelang.Design standards for children environment.htm&1 UNESCO Institute for Statistics. United Kingdom.org World Health Organization (WHO). Prof david C.org/unesco/ReportF olders/ReportFolders. an imprint of Chapman & Hall.Ny. NES Conference.
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