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CLASSIC TECHNIQUES

= Resistance 1

= Pivot Point

= Support 1

= Support 2

Open

(1327)

TRADITIONAL METHOD

Resistance 2

Resistance 1

Pivot point

=

=

=

1320.83

1313.17

1300.33

Support 1 = 1292.67

Support 2 = 1279.83

Classic techniques still work on charts at all time

1308.00 VARIATION 1

levels, and the most basic charting technique is the

identification and development of pivot points. Take 1305.50

Resistance 2 = 1327.50

Resistance 1 = 1326.50

a look.

Pivot point = 1307.00

Support 1 = 1306.00

by Jayanthi Gopalakrishnan Support 2 = 1286.50

VARIATION 2

VARIATION 1

ut your losses, ride

your profits! That VARIATION 2

C

TRADITIONAL

1289.50

adage should be Resistance 2 = 1328

familiar to all traders,

METHOD

1287.50 Resistance 1 = 1327.50

and it may buzz Pivot point = 1307.50

through their minds as Yesterday Today Support 1 = 1307

something taken for Support 2 = 1287

granted but not easy FIGURE 1: PIVOT POINT CALCULATIONS. Different methods are used to calculate the

to implement. The pivot point. Here, you see the results of the traditional method and two variations of it.

pivot point technique

can help you do both.

Floor traders use pivot points to determine critical price and The support and resistance calculations remain the same.

support/resistance levels. It is a relatively simple calculation

that can be jotted on the back of a trading card for easy • Variation 2

reference. Off-floor traders who have the luxury of looking Another variation of the calculation is to substitute

at monitors with real-time datafeeds can adopt this technique yesterday’s close with today’s open. This also accommodates

as well. opening gaps and extended-hours trading. The calculation

changes to:

CALCULATION

A pivot point is the price at which the direction of price Pivot point = (Hyesterday + Lyesterday + Otoday)/3

movement changes. It is calculated using data from the

previous trading day. By looking at the high, low, and close,

you can calculate the next day’s pivot point as well as support The calculations for the support and resistance levels remain

and resistance levels. the same.

Many variations exist for calculating the pivot point and its Figure 1 shows the difference in results of the three

related support and resistance levels. Here are a few: variations. I prefer using the traditional method to calculate

the pivot and support/resistance levels for the next day’s

• Traditional method trading. However, if the open is either a gap-up or gap-

Pivot point = (H + L + C)/3 down day, I have found that the second variation may be

First support = (2 * Pivot) – H more effective.

First resistance = (2 * Pivot) – L

Second support = Pivot – (H – L) IN THEORY

Second resistance = Pivot + (H – L) The pivot point should be the first place you look at to enter

a trade. Only when prices reach this point will you be able to

• Variation 1 determine whether to go long or short and set your profit

One variation involves adding the trading day’s open and objectives and stops accordingly. Generally, if prices are

calculating the average of the four values. This takes into above the pivot it’s considered bullish, and if they are below,

account any opening gaps and also accounts for overnight or it’s considered bearish.

extended-hours trading. The formula changes to: Suppose the price is below the pivot at the open and you

decide to go short at that point. The first price you will look

Pivot point = (Hyesterday + Lyesterday + Cyesterday + Otoday)/4 at to cover is the first support level. Of course, you would

rather hold onto the short position if there were an indication

that prices will fall further. If traders are reluctant to lower

Copyright (c) Technical Analysis Inc.

Stocks & Commodities V. 18:2 (16-22): Pivot Points by Jayanthi Gopalakrishnan

position at the first support level.

However, if you see prices continue

to fall below the first support level,

then you should place a stop-loss

order just above the first support

level and watch carefully.

If prices fall further still, you

will have to use a trailing stop-

loss and keep moving it lower to

take advantage of higher profit

margins. Typically, the second

support level will be the expected

lowest point of the trading day

and should be your ultimate profit

objective. When prices reach this

level, the last thing you want to

do is go long. So cover your short

position and stay out of the

market! You should opt to go

long in your strategy only when

the price retraces back to the pivot

and penetrates it to go up toward

the first resistance level.

The converse applies to an

uptrend. If prices were above the

pivot, you would enter a long

position and use the first and

second resistance levels as your

profit objectives.

APPLYING IT

The technique sounds simple,

and it seems as though it should

be easy to use. Unfortunately, it

does not work all the time. There

will be many occasions when

you find that prices do not touch

either support or resistance

levels. It is best to use this

technique for securities with a

wide price range and high

liquidity. You must be very

selective and create a strategy

that you intend to follow strictly.

In Figures 2 and 3, the pivot

points and support and resistance

levels using the traditional

method are plotted on the price

chart to determine this

technique’s effectiveness. The

December 1999 Euro contracts

CARL PRESCOTT

range, and the Nasdaq 100 futures

represent a trending market. The

use of pivot points does not seem

Copyright (c) Technical Analysis Inc.

Stocks & Commodities V. 18:2 (16-22): Pivot Points by Jayanthi Gopalakrishnan

11000 3000

December 1999

10900

Euro contracts NASDAQ 100 futures

2800

10800

2700

PRICE

PRICE

10700

A

2600

10600 B

2500

= Resistance 2 = Resistance 2

10500 = Resistance 1 2400 = Resistance 1

= Pivot Point = Pivot Point

= Support 1 = Support 1

10400 = Support 2 2300 = Support 2

10300 2200

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10/23/99

DATE DATE

FIGURE 2: PIVOT POINTS, SUPPORT AND RESISTANCE LEVELS FOR DECEMBER 1999 FIGURE 3: PIVOT POINTS, SUPPORT AND RESISTANCE LEVELS FOR DECEMBER

EURO CONTRACTS. The second support level is touched or penetrated more frequently NASDAQ 100 CONTRACTS. Here as well, prices touch or go below the second support level

during a downtrend, and the second resistance level is penetrated or touched more more frequently during a downtrend, whereas the second resistance level is penetrated or

frequently during an uptrend. touched more frequently when prices trend up.

to reveal any significant differences between trending and the daily pivot is higher than the three-day average, it is

bracketing markets, but this could be because you are only indicative of a positive trend. If, on the other hand, it is lower,

looking at the data for one day. What is important here is that that indicates a negative trend.

markets have different patterns, and it is best to analyze them Next, I look at the five-day moving average to determine

prior to applying pivot points. the weekly trend. If the pivot is above the average, a

Since this technique is useful for short-term trading, it may bullish trend is indicated. If it is below, that is a bearish

be worth your while to determine the short-term trend. sign (Figure 4).

Analyst Neil Weintraub introduced a methodology to help If both the daily and weekly trend shows bullish strength,

determine both the daily and short-term trends using pivot I consider going long. Conversely, if both show a bearish

points. Besides looking at just the pivot points, he also uses trend, I consider shorting. If there are conflicting signals, I

their average. The period you use for calculating the average stay out of the market. This method helps to get a broader

depends on what works best for you. picture of the market.

After experimenting with various periods, I found the

three-day average of the pivots to be the most useful with STRATEGY

which to determine the daily trend. I update the three-day When using pivot points to determine entry and exit points for

average on a daily basis and compare it to the pivot point. If the following day’s trading, I use the following strategy:

= Pivot Point

Enter Enter

long short

positions positions

5-day MA

BULLISH BEARISH

FIGURE 4: PIVOT AND THE AVERAGE. In looking at the five-day moving average FIGURE 5: PIVOT STRATEGY. When using pivot points to determine entries and

to determine the weekly trend, if the pivot is above the average, a bullish trend is exits, here’s a strategy to use.

indicated, but if it is below, that is bearish.

Stocks & Commodities V. 18:2 (16-22): Pivot Points by Jayanthi Gopalakrishnan

Resistance 2 = 90.67 point was below both averages. From October 20 onward, the

pivot point was higher than both averages, indicating an

Resistance 1 = 87.84 uptrend.

85.25

Now that I knew the direction of the trend, was the pivot

85

point effective in determining exit/entry points for the next

Pivot Point = 82.42

day’s trading? A five-minute intraday chart of the December

Support 1 = 79.59 1999 Nasdaq 100 contracts on November 12, 1999, can be

seen in Figure 8. Using the traditional method, the pivot and

77 support/resistance points for November 12, 1999, based on

Support 2 = 74.17 the previous trading day’s data, were as follows:

11/23/99 11/24/99

Pivot point = 2,852.33

FIGURE 6: USING PIVOTS TO TRADE Support 1 = 2,834.67

STRATEGIES. The strategy to trade equities Resistance 1 = 2,883.67

using pivot points is slightly different. Here,

America Online signaled an alert that was

Support 2 = 2,803.3

set at the pivot point. Resistance 2 = 2,901.33

The Nasdaq 100 contracts had been in a steep uptrend since the

end of October 1999, so the last thing I would want to do is go

1 Calculate pivot point and support/resistance levels. short. On November 12, 1999, the December 1999 Nasdaq 100

2 Determine the direction of the daily and weekly trend.

3 Set profit objectives and stops.

4 Wait 20 to 30 minutes after the market opens for prices

to stabilize.

5 Enter long positions if the trend is up and price is turning

in an upward direction from the pivot.

6 Enter short positions if the trend is down and price

is turning in a downward direction from the pivot

(Figure 5).

The pivot point technique works differently for different

markets, and hence, it may be necessary to make adjustments

in your strategy. For example, when I use pivot points to trade

equities, my strategy is slightly different. On November 24,

1999, America Online [AOL] was the only security on my

watchlist that signaled an alert set at the pivot point (Figure 6).

The price range between the pivot and first resistance level DATE HIGH LOW CLOSE PIVOT POINT 3-DAY AVE. 5-DAY MA

was $87.84 - 82.42 = $5.42, which is relatively wide. When

10/4/99 2497 2432 2496 2475.00

the difference is so large, usually, I will not set my profit 10/5/99 2536 2455 2508.5 2499.83

objectives at the first support and resistance levels. I entered 10/6/99 2560 2514 2555.5 2543.17 2506.00

a long position (since the short-term trend was positive) 10/7/99 2582 2533 2549 2554.67 2532.56

around the pivot and closed my position at $85.00. 10/8/99 2583 2508 2580.5 2557.17 2551.67 2537.90

10/11/99 2614 2573 2612 2599.67 2570.50 2561.10

10/12/99 2612 2546 2559.5 2572.50 2576.44 2571.30

TESTING IT 10/13/99 2554 2465 2475 2498.00 2556.72 2555.20

The December 1999 Nasdaq 100 contract is an example of

10/14/99 2508 2445 2494.5 2482.50 2517.67 2544.30

using the strategy. In Figure 3, you can see that from October 10/15/99 2465 2408 2418.75 2430.58 2470.36 2511.95

11, 1999, to October 18, 1999, the price of the contracts was 10/18/99 2427 2317 2385.5 2376.50 2429.86 2466.65

trending downward (A). From October 19, 1999, onward, 10/19/99 2424.25 2361 2382.5 2389.25 2398.78 2431.25

however, prices have been in a steep ascent (B). I tested this 10/20/99 2492 2412 2471 2458.33 2408.03 2430.45

technique to determine its effectiveness in determining the 10/21/99 2515 2412 2513 2480.00 2442.53 2434.15

10/22/99 2546 2494 2496.5 2512.17 2483.50 2449.70

direction of the trend. 10/25/99 2528 2480 2499.5 2502.50 2498.22 2472.50

Figure 7 shows the pivot points together with the three-day FIGURE 7: DETERMINING THE SHORT-TERM TREND OF THE PIVOTS. You can

average of the pivot and the five-day moving average of the determine the short-term trend by comparing the three-day average of the pivot and five-day

price. From October 13, 1999, till October 19, 1999, the pivot moving average with the pivot point. If the pivot point is higher than the averages, it indicates

a positive trend, and if it’s lower, it indicates a negative trend.

Stocks & Commodities V. 18:2 (16-22): Pivot Points by Jayanthi Gopalakrishnan

contracts opened at 2,888, which is above both the pivot point have opted to use the trailing stops to maximize my profit

and the first resistance level. This indicates a continuation of margins. The maximum profit objective was the second

the bullish trend. This might have prompted me to enter a long resistance level, or 2,901.33. I could get stopped out

position, but since my strategy is to enter a trade at the pivot anywhere between the two resistance levels, depending on

and to wait 20 to 30 minutes after the open, I did not. how tight the trailing stops were.

Prices didn’t continue to move up. Instead, they moved My maximum profit objective was reached at 14:40.

Ultimately, I exited my position at 2,901.33, the second

Pivot points are especially useful to short- resistance level, and closed my position before the close.

term traders who are looking to take CONCLUSION

advantage of small price movements. Pivot points are a technique used by floor traders to determine

entry and exit points for the trading day based on the last day’s

lower, which prompted me to keep a close eye on the pivot point trading activity. Off-floor traders can take advantage of the

(2,852.33). Between 9:05 and 9:15, the decline stalled for a short pivot and support and resistance levels to determine when to

period around the pivot. The 9:15 bar shows that prices went as enter and exit a trade. Pivot points are especially useful to

high as 2,852, which did not quite touch the pivot, and then short-term traders who are looking to take advantage of small

continued its downward movement. Since I am not interested in price movements.

shorting this market, I waited on the sidelines. It is best to use this technique after determining the direction

At 9:20, the price penetrated the S1 level. The price of the trend. Keep two things in mind, both of which should

touched 2,803 (S2) very briefly, followed by an upward be familiar to traders: Cut your losses, ride your profits, and

movement in price. Because prices started showing signs of Don’t trade against the trend!

moving back up after touching the second support level, my

focus shifted back to the pivot point. RESOURCES AND RELATED READING

At 10:55, this price was hit, which alerted me to consider Greenspan, William [1994]. “The pivot point for trading,”

entering a long position. Typically, I would enter the long Technical Analysis of STOCKS & COMMODITIES, Volume

position slightly above the pivot point and place a stop-loss 12: August.

slightly below, at around 2,850.00. My first profit objective _____ [1996]. “Three turns on the pivot point,” Technical

was the first resistance level, 2,883.67. Analysis of STOCKS & COMMODITIES, Volume 14: July.

At 13:55, prices broke through 2,884. I had two choices: Noble, Grant [1995]. The Trader’s Edge, Probus Publishing.

I could either exit my long position, or cancel my original Weintraub, Neal T. [1996]. Tricks Of The Floor Trader,

stop-loss and place a trailing stop, which would follow the Irwin Professional Publishing.

price as it moved above the first resistance level. I could †See Traders’ Glossary for definition S&C

R2 (2901.33)

R1 (2883.67)

Pivot point

(2852.33)

S1 (2834.67)

S2 (2803.30)

FIGURE 8: PIVOT POINTS, SUPPORT AND RESISTANCE LEVELS IN ACTION. You can see how pivot

points and the support and resistance levels play a significant role in the December 1999 Nasdaq 100

contracts.

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