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Recommendations

Recommendations for the design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

MAY 1998

**FIP Commission on Practical Design
**

Members of the Working Group

J. Almeida, Portugal J. Appleton, Portugal

T. Friedrich, Switzerland

H. Gam, Switzerland

M. Jartoux, France (FIP Commission 2)

v. Lucio, Portugal

M. Miehlbradt, Switzerland

L. Schubert, Germany K. Schutt, Germany

(FIP Commission 4)

P. Regan, UK (CEB)

First published by SETO, 1999 11 Upper Belgrave Street, London SWIX 8BH, Tel: +44-(0)171-235 4535

ISBN 1 874266 41 7

© Federation Intemationale de la Precontrainte, 1998

All rights, including translation, reserved. Except for fair copying, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical. photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the FIP Managing Editor, Institution of Structural Engineers. Although the Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte does its best to ensure that any information it may give is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence) is accepted in this respect by the Federation, its members, its servants or agents.

2

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

Contents

Foreword

5 7 7 7 7 8 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 15 16 18 18 18 20 21 21 21 , .. 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 , .. 22 22 22 23 24 24 24

5

Construction

25

1

**General 1.1 Introduction....................... . 1.2 Design basis 1.3 Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .• . . . . . . . 1.4 Notation , , .. . . . . . ..
**

Materials

2

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Formwork and sliding layer Placing and tolerance of the tendons Concrete cover and tendon protection Prestressing Anchorage protection

General.

25 25

25

25 25 25 26 27

38

2.1 2.2 2.3

Concrete strength classes Reinforcing steel strength classes Prestressing tendons 2.3.1 Prestressing steel.. 2.3.2 Anchorages 2.3.3 Ducts and grouting of bonded tendons. 2.3.4 Protection of unbonded tendons

**6 Bibliography Appendix A Foundation raft, Army Dispensary, Switzerland
**

Appendix B Prestressed ribbed slab for the Stock Exchange Building, Lisbon, Portugal

Design 3.1 General. 3.2 Prestressing 3.2.1 Initial prestress 3.2.2 Effective prestress 3.2.3 Effects of prestress 3.3 Structural analysis 3.3.1 Methods of analysis 3.3.2 Design action effects 3.4 Ultimate Limit States 3.4.1 Bending 3.4.2 Shear , 3.4.3 Punching shear. 3.5 Serviceability Limit States 3.5.1 Deformations 3.5.2 Cracking 3.5.3 Vibrations 4

_

,

:

"

Detailing 4.1 Post-tensioned floor systems 4.2 Tendon lay-out 4.2.1 General, ...............•............... 4.2.2 Tendon distribution 4.2.3 Tendon spacing 4.2.4 Minimum radius of curvature of tendons · 4.2.5 Tendon supports 4.2.6 Openings , 4.3 Non-prestressed reinforcement 4.3.1 Maximum spacing of bars 4.3.2 Partially restrained edges 4.3.3 Free edges 4.3.4 Hollow or ribbed slabs 4.3.5 Top reinforcement at columns 4.3.6 Shear reinforcement 4.3.7 At anchorages 4.3.8 Resistance to progressive collapse 4.4 Concrete cover 4.5 Fire resistance

rt» Design

of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts

3

contractors and authorities and that it will assist in widening the use of post-tensioned slabs in buildings. FIP Commission 3 also had the collaboration of Professor Paul Regan representing CEB. The Commission wishes to express its thanks for the work done by the members and by the Working Group. representing FIP Commission 2. Julio Appleton Chairman FIP Commission on Practical Design FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 5 . The document gives information on this subject as a whole but particular attention is given to punching Detailing flat slab the structural analysis and prestressing effects. This work represents an update of the previous FIP Recommendations for the design of flat slabs in post-tensioned concrete published in 1980. and in particular the CEB-FIP Model Code 90. In this work the new codes and recommendations were considered. illustrate the design of these structures and the application of the present recommendations.Foreword These recommendations have been prepared by a Working Group ofFIP Commission 3 on Practical Design. Two examples. to the ultimate limit state of shear and to the service limit state verification for deflection and crack control. and M. M. Jartoux. It is the wish of Commission 3 that this document be of direct interest to consultants. and construction recommendations are also presented. The new recommendations address post-tensioned fiat slabs and foundations rafts using either bonded or unbonded cables. one of a and one of a foundation raft. representing FIP Commission 4. Schlitt.

FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .2 Design basis As far as feasible this document follows the principles set out in the CEBIFIP Mode! Code 1990. Waffle slab A slab in which recesses are formed in the soffit such as to create a series of ribs in two directions. a dead-end anchorage may be provided by bond between tendon and concrete. Advantages claimed for the use of unbonded tendons include: .10 grouting operation Beam-and-slab A slab which directions or a the slab in one the slab. Foundation raft (mat foundation) A continuous footing supporting an array of columns andJ or walls in several rows in each direction. Prestressing duct A tube which forms a continuous cavity inside the concrete structure to allow placing and free movement of the tendon during stressing. The specified type of duct should be compatible with its intended use. Grouting compound A compound which is used to fill the prestressing duct after final tendon stressing.. Definitions 'l Bonded tendon A tendon that is bonded to ~the concrete by grouting or other approved means. advantages of bonded tendons may include: • full exploitation of the yield strength of the prestressing steel • improved cracking behaviour by activation of bond forces • provision of alternate anchorage through bond in case of loss of a mechanical anchorage or tendon rupture at some section. " Unbonded tendon A tendon in which the prestressing steel is permanently free to move between anchorages relative to the concrete to which it is applying prestr:ssing force. system is supported by beams in one or more slab in which beams are monolithical with or more directions to act compositely with Flat slab A slab directly supported on columns. but may be smooth for unbonded tendons. Prestressing ducts are corrugated for bonded tendons.. Ducts may be made of steel or plastics (high density polyethylene or polypropylene). The most usual types of grouting compounds are cement grout and grease or wax for bonded and unbonded tendons respectively. having a slab-like shape with or without depressions or openings. Rigid compounds also provide bond between the prestressing steel and a corrugated duct! concrete structure. Instead of a mechanical device.1' Introduction These recommendations present a guide to the design of post-tensioned one-way and two-way slab systems and foundation rafts using unbonded or bonded prestressing tendons. both systems will lead to safe and durable structures. It provides permanent corrosion protection of the prestressing steel. couplers (fixed or movable). non-stressing or dead-end anchorages. etc.. intermediate anchorages. Anchorages are distinguished as per their use into stressing anchorages.1 General. 1. They are intended for slabs used typically in building applications and other structures. 1. If properly designed. One-way-slab A slab which is supported such that under load it curves in predominantly one direction. Prestressing anchorage A mechanical device which transfers the prestressing force from a tendon into the concrete structure. The choice of bonded or unbonded tendons is primarily a matter of preference. but are not intended for use in bridges. Installation methods and friction characteristics may vary with type of duct. . Two-way-slab A slab which is supported such that under load it curves in more than one direction. Grouting compounds may be rigid or flexible. and therefore is not free to move relative to the concrete. yery low friction coefficients • tendons fully protected against corrosion during construction • small and flexible tendons for maximum tendon eccentricity and small radius of curvature simple and fast placement of tendons _ . Transfer plate A slab which transfers loads from one vertical structural system above to another vertical structural system below the slab for which the vertical structural systems do not align. 7 r On the other hand.

eff z Zs Pm•O PRd PSd ptk· Q Rd Sd So Sq at S.1 % proof stress characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel longitudinal tensile reinforcement acting force per unit width of slab design value of tensile strength of reinforcing steel characteristic tensile strength of reinforcing steel.95 felm fpO.05 felk 0.net mO mSd)(y PSd deflection elastic deflection deflection considering time dependent effects allowable deflection limit deflection value at ultimate limit state strip width of slab dimension of critical perimeter along x dimension of critical perimeter along y minimum cover nominal cover effective depth eccentricity fundamental frequency of vibration design value of concrete cylinder compressive strength characteristic value of the concrete cylinders compressive strength critical value of the vibration frequency effective value of axial tensile strength of concrete design value of axial tensile strength of concrete 0. coefficient which takes account of the nature of the stress distribution within section immediate'] prior to cracking.05 fractile characteristic value of axial tensile strength of concrete 0. as the 5% fractile of the yield strength or 0. span span decompression bending moment per unit width of slab design value of the acting bending moment per unit width of slab design value of the acting twisting moment per unit width of slab design value of the transverse applied load per unit area of slab spacing of reinforcement bars radial spacing of shear reinforcement layers length of the periphery of the load or column control perimeter for punching shear force per unit width of slab equivalent decompression shear force per unit width of slab shear resistance per unit width of slab VSd.2 % proof stress total depth of the slab coefficient which allows for the effect of nonuniform self-equilibrating stresses .lk /plk fs! fyd /yk h k I lb. defined as the 0. defined. fer fel.95 fractile characteristic value of axial tensile strength of concrete mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel.05 fractile of the yield strength or 0.1. "Ie "If "Ig "IP design value of the acting shear force per unit width of slab effective design value of the acting shear force per unit width of slab plastic modulus of the punching control perimeter lever arm of the compression and tension chords distance of the tensile reinforcement from the centroid of the cross-section accidental action area of concrete which is calculated to be in tension just before cracking area of non-prestressed reinforcement area of prestressed reinforcement area of shear reinforcement torsional stiffness per unit width of slab mean value of the secant modulus of elasticity of concrete modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendon modulus of elasticity of reinforcement steel design value of actions characteristic value of actions (upper or lower) permanent actions coefficient dependent on the ratio between column dimensions bending moment decompression bending moment design value of the acting bending moment effective prestress per unit width of slab initial force in the prestressing steel at the active anchorage per unit width of slab mean value of the prestressing force after transfer per unit width of slab mean value of the prestressing force at time t per unit width of slab prestressing force after transfer per unit width of slab punching force equivalent to the compression effect of the prestress design value of the punching resistance force design value of the punching acting force characteristic value of the tendon strength variable actions strength of the structure combination of actions or actions effects permanent actions or actions effects prestress or prestress effects variable actions or actions effects angle between the shear reinforcement and the plane of the slab coefficient which allows for the effect of the eccentricity of the punching force compressive strain in the concrete tensile strain in the prestressing steel characteristic elongation of prestressing steel at maximum load tension strain of reinforcing steel angle between the shear force principle direction and the j-direction partial safety coefficient for the concrete partial safety factor for actions partial safety factor for permanent actions partial safety factor for prestress 8 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .eff feld felk 0.4 Notation a ao aoo aadm au be by d e fl fed bx Cmin Cnom t.

at the centroid of the slab section. due to effective prestress maximum tensile stress in the concrete tensile stress in the prestressing steel tensile stress in the prestressing steel after transfer of prestress to concrete initial tensile stress in the prestressing steel at the active anchorage tensile stress in the reinforcing steel nominal shear stress coefficient coefficient increase of tendon length from the effective force up to ultimate per plastic hinge location immediate prestress losses friction prestress losses time dependent prestress losses diameter of a reinforcement bar FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 9 .'Yq 'Ys a P o"c O"cP O"ct.max O"p O"pO T - .0 API'APt o partial safety factor for variable actions partial safety coefficient for the reinforcing and prestressing steel creep coefficient friction coefficient between the tendons and their ducts angle between the inclined strut in compression and the tension chord ratio of flexural tensile bonded reinforcement compressive stress in the concrete design longitudinal concrete stress.

A722 for prestressing wires. to be used where only an elastic analysis of the structure is carried out. 2. appropriate National or International Standards should be used.2 4. to account for the initial plastic strain.2 Materials Table 1 Characteristic strengths for concrete grades Concretegrade fck fctm fctk fctk 2. e. with respect to cylinders. and fatigue strength of the tendon anchorages.4 2.g.0 3. 2. and ASTM A421. me 2. Other steel grades.3 Prestressing tendons 2. [MPa] 0.1 Prestressing steel Prestressing steel should comply with appropriate International and National Standards.5 4. where the numbers denote the characteristic tensile strength. respectively.4 Protection of unbonded tendons Corrosion protection materials for unbonded tendons should comply with the requirements of the FIP Recommendations Corrosion protection of unbonded tendons. may be chosen. The characteristic strength is defined as that strength below which 5% of all possible measurements for the specified concrete may be expected to fall.3.1 Concrete strength classes Design should be based on a strength class of concrete which corresponds to a specified value of the characteristic compressive strength. 10 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . ISO 2736/2 and ISO 4012. in accordance with ISO 1920.3.05 [MPa J 0. For the evaluation of other parameters.3. A416. load transfer from anchorages into concrete structures.4 27 00 30 05 35 3.7 31 z.3 30 2. strands.9 2.2 % proof stress.95 [MPa J [GPa] [MPa] 2.2 Anchorages Tendon anchorages should comply with the requirements of the FIP Recommendations for acceptance of posttensioning systems. The E-modulus values indicated correspond to the reduced modulus of elasticity. The characteristic compressive strength and the corresponding tensile strengths for some currently used concrete grades are presented in Table 1. fck. 2. according to national practice. defined as the 5 % fractile of yield strength or 0.2 Reinforcing steel strength classes The design may normally be based on a grade of steel selected from the S400 or S500 series.6 1.2 C40 40 3.7 3. grouting materials and grouting procedures should comply with the requirements of the FIP Guide to good practice Grouting of tendons in prestressed concrete.3. shrinkage and creep values. C25 25 2. These recommendations stipulate minimum performance levels for the efficiency of prestressing anchorages.3 Ducts and grouting of bonded tendons Ducts for bonded tendons. and bars.8 29 2. Widely accepted standards are EN10138.

the other limit states. Durability is ensured by a multistage protection strategy which involves the following aspects: • • • • cementicious grout or corrosion protective grease sealing of anchorages protective sheathing highly impermeable cover = O. and on the material and characteristics of the should be given in technical approval docua guide. as an external action. duct. They ments.20 0.O is to be considered with permanent loads at transfer and P m.lk (3. and k depend on the type of tendon.75fptk = 0. directly and/or by proper detailing.0510. consideration should be given in the design to different limit states. In general the designer chooses the most critical limit states for design. should be considered in design.01 3.1 General In order to ensure an appropriate level of safety and of suitability of the structure for its purpose. • the serviceability limit states which correspond to states beyond which specified service requirements are no longer met.1.3 Effects of prestress The effects of prestress can in general be considered by using two equivalent approaches: (a) treating prestressing.L k(/rn) Bonded tendons in a steel duct Unbonded tendons plastic coated 0. This comment is particularly relevant when unbonded tendons are used. defined by its mean value. Accidental actions.2.85! pO. Timedependent losses are due to creep and shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of prestressing steel.Po • concrete cover thickness • coating on concrete surfaces • steel protection.80!plk = 0. A distinction needs to be made between bonded and · . from post- 3.t is the mean value of the prestressing force at time t !!.':>onded prestressing regarding their structural effects. Immediate losses include those due to elastic deformation of concrete at transfer.special detailing provisions or by direct verification.90! pO. and checks either by simplified calculations. for simplicity.3) is the initial force at the active anchorage is the mean value of the prestressing force after transfer P m.1 Initial prestress The tensile stress in the tendons should not exceed the following values: (a) at the time of tensioning <TPi <TPi 3. The limit states are placed in two categories: • the ultimate limit states are those associated with structure failure or other states prior to collapse which.17/0. This approach can be applied both for SLS and ULS verifications 11 = O.t with the relevant combination of permanent and variable actions. such as fire. Danger of progressive collapse should be eliminated.2. Friction losses are estimated by the formula: (3. _. For flat slabs 'particular attention should be given to checking the serviceability limit state of deflection and the ultimate limit state of punching shear.2) 3.Po are the immediate losses I1Pt are the time dependent losses In general P m.07 0. When conceiving and designing a structure proper consideration of accidental action effects should be made.Ik (3.3 Design (b) after transfer of prestress to concrete <Tpo <Tpo 3.2 Effective prestress In general it is sufficiently accurate to define the prestressing force by the mean values: Pm. bonded or unbonded. are considered in place of collapse itself. (3. by using .005to 0.4) Pi P m. The remaining contribution of the prestressing steel may be taken into account by assessing its stress increase for loads applied after prestressing.2. anchorage slip and friction.. ecially when checking ultimate limit states.O and values protection. the following values are commonly the design of post-tensioned slabs: f. In continuous slab systems intermediate anorages should be used to prevent a local failure generating a global failure. Immediate and time-dependent losses should be evaluated following the principles of international standards.O where: = Pi -l:l.1) FlP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .2 Prestressing These recommendations apply to prestress tensioned tendons. As adopted in for 1.

The same comment applies when the grid model is used for both solid or ribbed slabs. in general. Prestressing involves a shortening of the slab.. For these reasons prestress is in general treated as an action. and other parameters. • any two adjacent spans loaded with the design action loads and other spans loaded with the permanent loads. it is acceptable to use zero torsional stiffness (Dxy = 0) in the case of ribbed slabs.5) 3. wind. using finite elements. prestress induces axial forces which can be considered uniformly distributed all along the slab. For building slabs subjected predominantly to vertical loads. The design value of actions (Fd) is expressed in general terms by: or = (3.. tempe ture. a plausible distribution of the internal forces is chosen.3 Structural analysis 3. In general the following load arrangements are sufficient: • maximum design load from the superstructure combined with minimum or maximum design loads applied directly to the raft foundation FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . This method is recommended since it yields a lower bound for the ultimate load of the system.- • accidental actions (A). grid or frame structural models. The friction forces will affect theconcrete stresses in the foundation raft. special care must be taken. including fire.. in addition. . by prestressing effects -and by the reaction of the soil. For relatively short slabs and small applied shortening. Prestressed foundation rafts receive loads transmitted by the superstructure. imposed deformations (indirect actions) and environmental attack.0 have been used in design. To this end. except for regions near anchorages. quasi-permanent or combination value of the action. Such shortening is not possible without restraints. friction coefficient values between 0. In quantifying the stiffness of the equivalent horizontal elements. the following arrangement of loads are in general sufficient: -I 1990).by adjacent structural elements below and above the slab. or all the spans fully loaded • alternative spans loaded with the design action loads and other spans loaded with the permanent loads. elastic deformations of the ground may reduce subgrade friction considerably. The present document specially addresses slabs in buildings.3. impact. including imposed loads. Actions include applied forces (direct actions). only hyperstatic effects due to prestress may be included in the action effects. snow. The deflection control is an important consideration. and should in general not differ too much from the elastic model. The friction forces depend on the type of ground. contact pressure between slab and ground. and Fk may be defined by its characteristic value (upper or lower). such as the equivalent frame model described in ACI 318/89 and BS 8110. and the cross-sections or elements of the structure are designed accordingly. The designer should check the consequences of such restraints on the slab and on the adjacent elements connected to the slab. 12 where: 'Yf is a partial safety factor ('Yf = 1 for serviceability limit states) ~ is a coefficient such that IJIFk represents a frequent. plastic or non-linear material models. The subgrade friction is often considered as a pure friction problem (subgrade friction contact pressure ~ friction coefficient). When using the finite element method for ULS...Frame models. . It should be noted that adequate ductility of the reinforcing steel is necessary (see CEB-FIP Model Code Linear elastic methods are generally accepted as a suitable model both for SLS and ULS verifications. are commonly used -for the analysis of vertical and horizontal actions.1 Methods of analysis The analysis of prestressed slabs 'may be performed applying linear elastic. for a ULS check. the contribution of the prestressing steel as a resisting effect. The shortening of the slab due to temperature variations. . shrinkage and prestress. The earthquake action -is considered as an accidental action in some National Standards. According to the actions' variation in time they are classified as: • permanent actions (G). Prestressing can in general be considered as the average value in each span. As a guide. Designers should consciously select appropriate lr arrangements with due consideration of the type and . This aspect becomes important when high moments are transferred between the slabs and the columns.. earthquake e. The assumed distribution of internal forces has to satisfy the conditions of equilibrium. shrinkage. where cables are concentrated. by its mean value or by a specified value._ of the structure. The static theorem of the theory of plasticity may be used for the ULS check. Non-linear analysis by FEM can be used as a verification'~ process for complex structures. if the structural system and the applied loads are sufficiently regular. The kinematic theorem (yield line analysis) may be applied to slabs where the failure mechanism is well known. In this case. and the balancing load technique is a very useful method to analyse these structures. In addition to vertical equivalent loads. as is the case in structures under horizontal actions. such as columns and walls for slabs and. by subgrade friction for foundation rafts.5 and 2.3.2 Design action effects Values of actions should be chosen in accordance with appropriated National or International Standards. introduces friction forces at the interface of slab and ground.(b) considering. 3. Subgrade friction between slab and ground is necessary to transfer lateral loads from the superstructure through the foundation raft to the ground. For foundation rafts the soil-structure interaction should be adequately considered. explosions. applied shortening.. prestressing. including dead loads. Restraints are caused.. creep • variable actions (Q).

5 *'YP = 1. Ultimate Limit States The combination of actions or actions effects may be written in the form: s. i. slab) assumptions and simplifications are made which themselves influence the elastic results. should be used for "eckihg local effects in the anchorage zone. In fact in the model adopted (equivalent frame. The idealised diagram presented in Fig 2 can in general be used for mild steel or steel cold worked by drawing or rolling. time-dependent effects. FlP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts -0.3 1. rupture or loss of stability of the structure or any part of it.8) • Quasi-permanent combination (long-term) The simplified diagram given in Fig 1 can be used to evaluate the resistant action effects under uniaxial compression stress states.3 C35 23. verifying that: For buildings subjected to lateral loads. Fig 3 illustrates recommended stress strain characteristics of prestressing steel for design purposes .5 • reinforcing and prestressing steel 't« = 1.iQJ i>l (3.002 Fig 1.0 min max 1.85ted S(G+P+ L$2. applied to the initial force at the anchorage.7) Frequent combination (3.0 1.e.6) (3.• permanent loads of the slab and superstructure transfer of prestress. inelastic deformations and other factors. differential deformations of supports.10) Ultimate limit states of axial force. Therefore the designer may choose not to strictly use the action effects determined with the theory of elasticity.35. Usual values are: "Yg "Yq 1. The limit state checks are made by comparing the design action or action effects (Sd) with the corresponding strength of the structure (Rd). Design stress-strain diagram for concrete 13 . 0.0 o 1. = "'IgSg + "'IpSp + "'IqI Sql + L"'Iqi1j1iSqi i>l (3.7 1. The design strength of the structure or of any crosssection should be determined with the following partial safety coefficients for materials: • concrete "'Ie = 1.35 1. grid. These include: • loss of equilibrium of the structure or any part of it.5 C40 t. 00 20. Redistributions of forces and moments may occur in a structure because of cracking. torsion.4 Ultimate Limit States Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse or with other forms of structure failure.15 The design strength for concrete is presented in Table 2: Table 2 Concrete design strengths Concrete grade C25 "If and IjJ values given by National Standards shall be used. at 3.0 1. [MPa] fCld [MPa] 16. bending.9) In the quasi-permanent combination the situation at transfer of prestress (final or intermediate construction phases) is to be considered.2 Serviceability Limit States The combinations of actions effects (5) may be written in the forms: • Rare combination (Short-term) (3. The Theory of Elasticity with consideration of timedependent effects is in general to be used for SLS verifications. shear force and punching shear will be treated with special reference to prestressed slabs. considered as a rigid body • failure by excessive deformation. the following load combinations should also be considered: • maximum vertical loads combined with unfavourable lateral loads • maximum lateral loads combined with minimum vertical loads.

.ection value at ultimate limit state.1 Bending Stress increase in unbonded tendons For unbonded prestressing steel no force increase beyond effective force should be considered without detailed calculations.14) Bending at edge and corner columns Fig 3.ection of the slab and on the increase of tendon length between anchorages.: 14 where au is the assumed deft. Design stress-strain diagram for prestressing steel Moments can be transferred between the slab and an edge or corner column. The design bending moment of this strip must not be greater than: 3. ct -I ! .0d(au/l) (3.. )•• be t ..9fplk 1s = mSd - imSdxyi (3.Q1 £S Fig 2.~ __~'. Transferred moments at edge and comer columns FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .15) II. y). (in each direction x.. I· a c2 I. -I I } I.27bed-fcd' \~-. is limited to the design strength of the prestressing steel.. 'fr . For slabs of typical slenderness (lIh between 30 to 40) the deflection corresponding to ultimate limit state of the slab n may be assumed to be span/5 O.. (in each direction x.5d(au/l) = t:.. For an internal lever arm of 3/4 of the effective depth of the section. where ae is th~ tendon length increase Ua:mif()_~ute4~r the!.. At ultimate the possible tendon force increase of un bonded tendons is primarily a geometrical problem.1 ffiti~~L~p..lspan = 3..4. --nleffiaiimum stress. The total tendon length increase ~(als!lpp + alspa.A~..:. and depends essentially on the maximum deft. where: m'sd O.. effective plus the stress increase.... ~.lsupp 1. I ea••• . .-1 f r Mmax = 0.: Bending with torsion The inft.12) r--~-··----~-·--~-. The increase of tendon length from the effective force up to ultimate may be estimated assuming rigid body failure mechanisms. The following simplified approach may be used for ~ i slabs with orthogonal x and y reinforcement. Fig 4. necessary if m' Sd > 0... y). ct be III .. where m'sd = mSd + jmsdxyl (3. This width should not be greater than the values defined in Fig 5. is necessary if m' Sd < 0.____..I· '.Jjs th~ sum of tendon length increases iI! the plastic hinge~ ~f one --_ Fig 5.j I (3. ~~_~~~_~~~.13) is Bottom reinforcement. Top reinforcement.Steel grade fyd S400 348 S500 435 [MPa] O's fyd I..11) (3.. ! .. by bending of a strip of slab with a width (be). Design stress-strain diagrams for reinforcing steel ~ =:. a ~eld>D7 Unes }1 I .. the tendon length increase per plastic hinge location is: t::. . c1 + a be~b12 ! c2 I cl + a .uence of twisting moments on the design of bending reinforcement should be properly considered. I is the span and d is the effective depth. au Eyd 0.'~~::~ lnCfiOrages. Model for evaluation of the stress increase in unbounded tendons The stress increase in the unbonded tendon is equal to = aeEp..

)SIn ..25) Bending and shear with shear reinforcement The effective acting shear force may be determined as in the previous section. is the angle between the transverse reinforcement and the tension chord.6 d beyond the section at which it is no longer required according to flexural calculations. Shear regions FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts Fig 7. respectively. may be given by expressions (3.18) p is the ratio of flexural tensile bonded reinforcement extending for a distance at least equal to d beyond the section considered. 3 VSd T=-2h (3. In this expression s is the spacing of the shear reinforcement (Asw) and z is the lever arm of the compression and tension chords. (3. which. The acting shear force per unit width of slab. In slab regions where Vx and Vy are of the same order the acting principal shear force is then given by In this expression acp is the design longitudinal stress at the centroid of the slab section.16) may be reduced by the equivalent decompression shear force VoP per unit width of slab. with din mm where fctd < f ctd (jct. ~: t .max (3.17) where: ~= 1 + J200jd. In the evaluation of (jcp the effects of the restraints caused by adjacent structural elements must be properly considered. Except at simple supports flexural tensile reinforcement should extend at least 0. P) are the internal effective forces at the considered zone and acp is the design longitudinal stress' at the centroid of the slab section.2 Shear The following paragraphs apply to solid or ribbed slabs in regions subjected to distributed loads.24) is given in Table 2.22) and (3. The acting shear force given by expression (3.26) e is the angle between the inclined strut in compression and the tension chord (Fig 7).60 [ 1 . This angle may be chosen in the range from 45 to 18.max Shear without shear reinforcement The transverse shear resistance per unit width of slab may be given by: (3.16) where P is the effective prestress per unit width of slab at the region. including the prestressing effects. is given by: VSd = VSd(PSd.!: . I. The ratio of flexural reinforcement is then taken as p = Px cos" <I> + Py sin" <1>. while bending cracks are usually expected at zones with continuity.f S yd Z (cot e + cot ex. P) (3. where Px and Py are the ratios of reinforcement near the face in tension in x and y direction. The transverse sliear resistance per unit width of slab may be given by: VRd v= Jv~+v~ (3. and T is the nominal shear stress. Model for cracked zones with shear reinforcement 15 . may be obtained from the following expression: (jcp f cd (3. The value of fck shall be limited to 50MPa for the purpose of this expression.h P (3.21) where fCk] fcd2 = 0. for solid slabs.19) acting on a surface at an angle <I> = arc tan (vylvx) to the y axis.22) . respectively). When bending cracks are not expected the following inequality shall be verified: (j ct.23) is given by: (3. This situation may occur at simple supported slab edges.' Zones where cracking due to bending is expected Zone where no bending cracks are expected ~ Fig 6.4 (cot e = 1 and cot e =3. as follows: (3. For regions where bending cracks are not expected a concrete tensile stress control may be considered instead of the methods described.Moments can be transferred between the slab and the edge or comer column by torsion of an edge beam or strip of slab if reinforced for that purpose..25).4. ex. 3. ex. for solid slabs.27) where mSd = mSd(PSd. which.20) Asw =. In any case the acting shear force should not be greater than: 0 0 VoP =-VSd ma msd (3. P) and VSd = VSd(PSd. The model to adopt for the shear resistance depends on the flexural state of the slab. and (3.250 (3.28) =. and h is the slab thickness.

slab may have different levels of prestress in two orthogonal directions.4. Effective punching load The control perimeter (UI) shall be taken at a distance 2. to the reaction. Expressions (3.34) as a good approach for eccentric 3.Sh Psd (Psd •P) 1 + K· Msd(PSd.' .3 Punching shear This section relates to the punching of slabs of constant depth within the critical slab area.45 1. .34) f 5t = Imsd(PSd. The coefficient K depends on the ratio between the column dimensions CI (parallel to the eccentricity MSdIPSd) and Cz (perpendicular to the eccentricity). The value of f3 may be taken as: I-' .Sh I em. p~J t O. P)I_ P(Z . respectively parallel and perpendicular to the load eccentricity.5 K 0. Effective applied load An effective punching load should be defined taking into account the effects of an eventual moment transfer between the slab and the column: (3. CICZ + 4c2d + 16d2 + 2-rrdcI (3.31) and (3. PSd may be reduced by the loads. . FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .P)/ PSd(PSd.31) Fig 8.60 2.P) where PSd (PSd. including the equivalent prestress. acting inside a perimeter at a distance O.?VtI~~! r .0 0.29) where Zs is the distance of the tensile reinforcement from the centroid of the cross-section. P) 2 (cot e . P) is obtained from the analysis of the load and the equivalent prestress forces. Q __ ~ (b) It. In the case of double eccentricity of the punching force the following expression may be used: 16 Fig 9..The longitudinal tensile reinforcement may be designed for the following acting force per unit Width of slab (fSt): (3.33) where CI and C2 are the column dimensions.35) and (3. The. The shear reinforcement should be adequately anchored to the chords. P) r PSd(PSd' P) Lli WI (3.. For the effect of the prestress this is equivalent to reduce.32) where dl is an elementary length of the perimeter and e is the distance of dl to the axis about which the moment MSd acts.cot a) (3.. The parameter WI is taken as WI :f= . or be prestressed in only one direction.36) may be used instead of (3.P).0 0. r Jo U1 leldl (3. 0. \~ O.Zs) Z Z + VSd(PSd. which is in many cases a relevant contribution. the value of P tan exof the cables inside that perimeter (Fig 8(b». Control perimeter u.0 0. where ex and ey represent the eccentricities MSd(PSd.30) (a) t I F Psd (Psd .70 3.80 by For interior rectangular columns: WI = i+ .0d from the periphery of the applied force or column and should be constructed so as to minimize its length (Fig 9).5h from the periphery of the applied force or column (Fig 8(a».

The effective punching force. 13=-+ Llj Llt KMsdLll -PSdWl (3.30). in orthogonal directions. respectively. the mechanical centre of resistance must be considered in the definition of dx and dy• The ratio of reinforcement may be calculated as P = .fck should be limited to SOMPa.35a) The lesser of 1. defined as Mxo = = CTCPY-6- bxh2 (3.Sd and O. while f3 = 1. If more than one layer of bonded reinforcement exists. The decompression forces should be evaluated as: Myo PxO =--PSd MySd Mxo PyO =-'-PSd MxSd Punching resistance Punching resistance without shear reinforcement The punching resistance force should be taken as: (3. If the eccentricity is not toward the interior the previous section on effective applied load applies. where bx and by are the dimensions of the control perimeter along x and y. P) and MySd = MySd (PSd.22). Unless relevant experimental evidence is available for the concrete in question. P) are the total bending moments at the column face in the width bx and by.jPxPy where Px and Py are the ratios. FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts Fig 11. In each direction the ratio should be calculated for a width equal to the side dimension of the column (or loaded area) plus 2d to either side of it (or to the slab edge if this is closer). where the eccentricity is toward the interior of the slab.42) PpO = PyObx + PxOby bx +by (3. Control perimeters at corner columns 17 . Control perimeters at edge columns where D is the diameter of the column. respectively.39) where PSd PSd (PSd. and PxO and PyO are the decompression forces corresponding to the prestress forces in those directions. and is the component of the eccentricity parallel to the slab edge.35b) For interior circular columns: WI = (D +4d)2 (3. of all bonded steel. The effective depth of the slab is assumed constant and may be taken as d = (dx + dy)l2 where dx and dy are the effective depths of the reinforcement in two orthogonal directions. the value of f3 must be determined according to the following: 13= Ul The' compression quantified as: effect of the prestress may be u· t (3.15 may be used for gravity loads as proposed by Eurocode 2.37) Slab-comer column connections At slab-edge column connections. may be reduced by the equivalent decompression punching force Ppo: (3. given by expression (3. obtained from expression (3.43) (3.38) where Ut and ui are obtained from Figs l1(a) and ll(b). P) is the design value of the punching force and MxSd = MxSd (PSd. respectively.36a) (a) (b) (3. If the eccentricity is not toward the interior the previous section on effective applied load applies. (3.36b) Fig 10.41) I (a) (b) where ltJ and lti are obtained from Figs IO(a) and lOCb) respectively. Slab-edge column connections At slab-edge column connections where the eccentricity perpendicular to the slab edge is towards the interior the value of f3 must be determined according to the following: where ~ = 1 + J200 / d with d in mm and /ck in MPa.SC1 1--1 (3.punching.40) where CTcpx and CTcpy are the mean concrete stress in the slab region due to the effective prestress. Mxo and MyO stand for the decompression moments in the width bx and by.

. The limit states checks are made by comparing the service values a. under frequent combination of actions. For prestressed slabs the control of deflections is a main concern.47) Cables concentrated in the column strips are quite effective in reducing the maximum deflection in the slab.1 are appropriate. More slender slabs may be possible using higher degrees of prestressing • for banded waffle flat slabs. for frequent loads. by the degree of prestress and by the magnitude of the loads.._ -.5 Serviceability Limit States Serviceability limit states correspond to states beyond which specified service requirements are no longer met. i. the following limits may be applied for floors and roofs: deflection under quasi-permanent combination of actions. • • __ • • a -e. I I .. Punching-shear reinforcement /~--__... (3.. or which limits its functional effectiveness.1s.5... 11500 or ISmm.. .'" .D .. without considering the prestress effect. If a significant part of the permanent loads is balanced bv prestressing the deformations can be calculated elastical. if the span/depth ratio is chosen according to the tables of Fig 14. I / . permanent load values to be used (G) should refer to the ribbed zone. In using Fig 14._a . s.46) In some cases these checks can be replaced by equivalent indirect verifications and/or detailing provisions. should be agreed with the client. 3. (a) 3.. \ .. • •• • . Control perimeter for maximum resistance 18 Cracking limits Appropriate limits.Punching resistance with shear reinforcement PRd d .27. .2 Cracking Uo Fig 13.---.. The value of fYd shall not be taken greater than 300MPa. damage to the building or its contents..II: • • . 1/300 (b) deflection that occurs after installation of partitions. depending on the function and nature of the structure.09~ (100 Pf ck)1/3Ut d + 1. . In the absence of specific requirements the following limits may be assumed.e..5-Aswfvd sm o ~ . FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . . •• . In general deflections do not become critical. IIh. -- •• • • •. • • . ._. • _. for continuous flat slabs in both directions. adversely • vibrations which cause discomfort to people. concrete will be cracked only locally over the columns and time dependent effects can be estimated by considering: (3. is the angle between the shear reinforcement and the plane of the slab.. The deflection in post-tensioned slabs is primarily influenced by the slenderness of the slab. In general. Maximum resistance In any case the maximum load.\ • • . = 0. Uo 3.5. As a guide.5.1 Deformations In establishing the allowable limit values for deformations the specific requirements of the use of the structure have to be considered...... the following points may be noted: • the presented values have been obtained considering that prestress is designed to balance approximately 70% of the quasi-permanent actions.__ -. whichever is t' lesser. I • e-. is the radial spacing of the layers and 0'. Fig 12. Explicit deflection calculations are necessary for slabs which lie outside such hypotheses or when deflection limits other than those referred in 3. - • • •• I I I •••• I I : I • •.. durability or water tightness.. These include: • deformations or deflections which affect the appearance or effective use of the structure or cause damage to finishes or non structural elements • I / I .45) where llO is the length of the column and /cd2 is defined in columns the segments of this edges must not be greater than periphery of the load or 3. with the established allowable limits aadm.44) where Asw is the total area of shear reinforcement in it layer around the column. I . When tendons are self-protected the usual reinforced concrete crack limits apply.5d (Fig 13). At corner and edge perimeter normal to slab 1. (3. • cracking of the concrete which is likely to affect appearance.. -. J3 PSd (PSd) must not be greater than: (3. • .

<.80m and 0...30m.48) . Exposure classes according to CEBIFIP Model Code 1990.5 < k < 0.Exposure classes* Normal (112) Severe (3/4/5) Design crack width O. k = 0..0 37 30 25 15.. This may be done by assuming prestressing tendons to be 50% effective... the limitation of crack widths to acceptable values can generally be achieved by limiting bar spacing andlor bar diameters. decompression Minimum reinforcement The required minimum reinforcement may be calculated by: (3.24 for bending with axial compression.5 45 41 35 33 26 22 Control of crack width without direct calculation ..4 to 0... The prestressing bonded steel area may be taken into account as minimum reinforcement. provided that the different bond behaviour of the tendons is considered.aII Fig 14.. Span/depth slabs ratios for interior panels in two-way Fig 15..8 in general.pOD I· l(m) 10. (Jcp represents the average compression in the slab and should be carefully evaluated. .0 pure tension = 0.0 a cp If ct.0 20.0 3. Aet As•min ~ I! '~O .0 f .B 2..0 3. ...eff is the effective tensile strength of concrete when cracks may first be expected to occur..4 later.0 2. <. see section 4.8 for slabs with h between 0. A value lower than the yield strength of steel may be needed to satisfy the crack width limits..0 24 17 14 . The value of ke may be obtained from Fig 15.0 42 34 29 15. = 1.0 27 20 16 TI > l/4 oorf ·r 7.. Verification of Limit State of cracking Checks may be performed (a) providing minimum regions likely to be due to direct loading by: bonded reinforcement in all subjected to significant tension or imposed deformations where: is the area of reinforcement within the tensile zone is the area of concrete which is calculated to be in tension just before cracking Us is the maximum stress permitted in reinforcement immediately after formation of the crack... fet. Influence of the compression stress due to prestress 19 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . Crack widths will not generally be excessive provided that for cracking caused by loading or restraint of imposed l(m) (9+ q)/g 1.. !O t TI (9 +q)/9 1..0 2.2mm (b) limiting bar spacing andlor diameters in order to limit the crack width.0 29 22 18 20. k is the coefficient which allows for the effect of nonuniform self-equilibrating stresses. O. If the effective prestress is significant the minimum reinforcement area may be reduced because of the influence of the favourable effect of the compression force for bonded and unbonded tendons. kc is the coefficient which takes account of the nature of the stress distribution within section immediately prior to cracking.Ou ILJI moo ![] --_ When the minimum reinforcement is provided. <. 0. respectively (linear interpolation is possible).0 10..4 bending without axial compression = 0..

Steel stresses (MPa) 200 240 deformations. More sophisticated design rules have to be applied for cases which lie outside the above recommendations or if a claim for higher comfort is made. If cracking is caused dominantly by restraint of imposed deformations the steel stress value.4 Concert halls with permanent seating In the case of machine-induced vibrations it is not possible to define a common range of adequate structural natural frequencies. Reference may be made to CEB Bulletin d'Infonnation 209 . is the one adopted in the calculation of As.not exceeded. min (eq.48). 0 (mm) 25 16 12 160 280 320 360 400 4 8 6 5 The steel stresses should be evaluated for the frequent combination of actions and the effective value of prestress.0 3.3 Vibrations In order to avoid vibrations affecting the serviceability of the structure. the bar sizes given in the following table are . 20 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . Us. 1992. 11> ler (3. A coincidence between the fundamental frequency of the structure and of the operating frequency of the machine must be avoided. the fundamental frequency of vibration should be greater than a critical value which depend on the function of the buildings.0 7. For the calculation of crack widths reference may be made to CEBIFIP Model Code 90. 3. as follows: Type of structure Gymnasia and sport halls Dance rooms and concert halls without permanent seating fer (Hz) 8.Vibration Problems in Structures.5.49) Values of the critical frequency for some typical cases are indicated in CEB-FIP Model Code 1990. 3.

6 Openings 4. Flat slabs can be solid. The given rules apply separately to each layer. req 1. Maximum tendon supports spacing should follow the post-tensioning suppliFIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts (e) (eI) Fig 17. leaving a space bet\¥~.5 Tendon supports .2 Tendon lay-out 4.erlthe groups of at least O.5m and 2. As a guide a minimum radius of: . The bends should not be close to the opening.r.irections (Fig 17).in direction. 4.1 General The distribution of the tendons may be analysed in each particular situation. A slab should have two lower reinforcement meshes and two upper reinforcement layers over the support lines.1~.1) may be used for rnu1t!strand tendons.c:e.4 Detailing floor systems 4.~(m) = 3Jp. Some of the more common systems are illustrated in Fig 16.Om. Tendon supports should be specified so as to assure the tendon profile assumed in the design. Ingeneral_rno_r_~. on the other hand.~r~~re. Depending on the system..me._50% ~ th~ tendons .llt" Qrd. At least two cables should cross the columns. I rR~.2.j~!Q.. voided or waffle.lhajl.2._ ~ (MN)~lr.2..4 Minimum radius of curvature of tendons Minimum radius of curvature of tendons should follow the post-tensioning supplier's specification. In many cases options (c) and (d) appears to be a good compromise of the previous solutions. banded or beam-and-slab systems are structurally more efficient for increasing span lengths and/or live load. Waffle slabs.l. '--The coiumnstnp'solution iseasierto' ~-X~~ut~Solution (b) induces balancing loads in a more uniformly distributed fashion but. modelshould l:irovl-aethe.2. AS a general'iule.5m should be used for 0.5 inch (13mm) and 0. '.proEe~io£L. Fig 16. an ana ysis should be made to ~ngrr~su ~nt Stf'engrfi an~:::. the slab or both. spacing of supports is in the order of l.6 inch (15mm) strand. one 4. 4.for lightly reinforced slabs.iIl!iry steel or posttensi6hing'ie-noons" to strengthen the edges around opel1: ings.2. respectively..1 Post-tensioned Floor systems can be classified in several different ways. In general. = Tendon (a) (b) ultimate load (4.3 Tendon spacing ltlm:J~Q. it may be more efficient to prestress the beams. 4. Tendon distribution 21 .by ~iQ_~Lrl groups of nOJ more than four monostrands. requires careful planning on the placing sequence since the tendons cross each other.should be plac~d in the column strips at Ieast.2.For single strand tendons and individually greased and plastic sheathed tendons minimum radii of l.2 Tendon distribution The tendons can either be concentrated in the column strips or they can be partially distributed in one or both . Post-tensioned floor systems ers specifications.10m. For small openings tendons can in general be deviated to each side of the opening.ithe maximum spacing of tendons or bundled groups of tendons should not exceed six times the slab thickness. The slesigp.3 Non-prestressed reinforcement 4. If tendons are terminated at the ed es of large openings.!lclQns_~an"_e placed side.

5. In general their slope to the middle plane of the slab should lie between 45° and 900.2. of the concrete section and be distributed between lines that are 2d either side of the column.5. 4.3.2 times that of the main reinforcement in any section. The crosssectional area of such reinforcement should be at least 0. 4. and this restraint has not been considered in the analysis.I 1- [ ~ Edge beam Edge solid strip Waffle slab J ~O. Bent-up bars may only be used in thick slabs. ~O.' ] I Fig 19.. one comer • reinforcement should extend edge" parallel to the edge consisting of at least in the top and the other in the bottom perpendicular to the edge. ~ ... a slab should contain (Fig 19): • reinforcement two bars. together with any bonded prestressed reinforcement.. The shear combs are composed of vertical bars with anchor heads at one end and are welded to a steel strip at the other end.3.2.1. in each direction.3. 4. a cross-sectional area not less than 0. The angle of bent-up bars to the horizontal should not be less than 30°. as defUl8d in 3..2 hand 350mm • for secondary reinforcement Smax = lesser of 2 hand 350mm where h denotes the total depth of the slab..3.1 % of the section of the top slab. Interior column I. shear combs.10 Edge column The greater of C2+ 4d and be.. These values do not apply to foundation rafts (Fig 20).4 Hollow or ribbed slabs The top slabs of ribbed or hollow block slabs should be reinforced with a mesh providing.. 1_ . Free edges 4.4.33.3 Free edges Along the length of a free edge. 4.3. the top slab should be treated as a flange in order to design the reinforcement needed to transmit the longitudinal shear forces. Bent-up bars and stirrups shall not be used in slabs thinner than 200mm. The stirrups should surround the bars of the top and bottom longitudinal reinforcement. For high concentrated loads this ratio should be at least equal to 0. and as a slab in order to design the reinforcement needed for bending. This reinforcement should extend from the face of the support over a distance of at least 0.The yield force provided by non-prestressed secondary reinforcement. Appropriate minimum bonded reinforcement percentages are needed in order to satisfy requirements such as crack width control as referred to in 3. Top reinforcement at columns FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .3 Cl+ 2d Fig 18.._--- Do!I .2. bent-up bars or any other type of transve+e reinforcement which satisfies the resistance and anchor needs for the purpose.6 Shear reinforcement The shear reinforcement may consist of closed stirrups.1 Maximum spacing of bars Maximum spacing of bars should be as follows: • for main reinforcement Smax = lesser of 1. The free ends up to a distance of at least 2 h from the 4.3. If the rib spacing exceeds 1m. Detailing on partially restrained edges 22 Fig 20. should not be less than 0. --___:>=.5%.5 Top reinforcement at columns All fiat slabs should have a concentration of bonded top reinforcement at column positions to distribute cracking and to assure sufficient punching shear strength. The secondary reinforcement should be positioned perpendicularly tothe main reinforcement.h. top reinforcement should be at least the minimum prescribed in 3.21 (Fig 18).2l # .2l ..2 Partially restrained edges If the edge of a slab is partially restrained.

2) where a is the angle of inclination of the shear reinforcement. should be added at anchorages to avoid bursting and splitting of the concrete.I\:' Bent-up bars Shear combs Welded shear reinforcement Fig 22.'\1 ".7Sd (1 + cot a) (4. Fig 21. Zones close to linear supports If shear reinforcement is required in accordance with 3.L"." .7 At anchorages It is necessary to ensure that the anchorage devices are able to transfer the design strength of the tendon to the concrete. the following conditions must be met: • the shear reinforcement shall be at least equal to " III ~rl'l r-----i s Vertical stirrups s 0. 4. For punching shear reinforcement consisting of bent-up bars account can be taken only of those passing above the area defined by a contour line located at a distance d/4 away from the contour line of the loaded area (Fig 22).: 0: . The distance between the face support and the nearest layer of shear reinforcement should not exceed d/2 as defined in Fig 21. Punching shear reinforcement FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 23 . An adequate amount of non-prestressed reinforcement. In thin slabs this reinforcement may be combined S::::.Sd or 800mm whichever is the smaller.2.4.2bwfctm min f ytk (43) a~30· Stirrups Bent-up bars and should be provided in a distance d in the direction perpendicular to the support • the spacing of bars in the direction of the support should not exceed l.3.2 should be respected in all radial directions.( Asw) S =O. transverse to the prestress force. Shear reinforcement The spacing of the various layers of shear reinforcement should satisfy the condition: Punching shear reinforcement The maximum spacing defined in expression 4. O.75d .

for fire resistance periods of lh. t . may use smaller cover than given in above table but not less than 15mm. ~t. Progressive collapse reinforcement 24 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . As a reference the following values for the minimum cover shall be considered for normal weight concrete.- lb. zone The following mimmum cover should according to CEBIFIP Model Code 90: Exposure classes 1. Otherwise.._: .('I'. Attention should be paid to the corrosion protection of tendon anchorages.with the reinforcement of the local anchorage specified by the post-tensioning supplier.5) than 5mm. net + d Interior column Lb. -". Tendons with other positive corrosion protection means. Sea water environment (4. but not less (mm) Continuous solid slabs Continuous ribbed slabs Cmin 3h 45 is the minimum thickness of of any reinforcement and the It should -be determined by by the requirements for fire 55 lb.. Special care is to be given to the protection c.I For simple supported or unrestrained slabs these values shall be increased by lOmm. Dry environment 2. The minimum cover Cmin concrete between the surface nearest surface of concrete.. I t I Edge or comer column -1. In contact with earth or be adopted. the rib width shall be at least 110. A minimum cover of 25mm plus 10mm allowance for tolerance is recommended. on average every two spans.. 3h and 4h respectively .4 Concrete cover 4.A . 175 and 200mm. To reduce the risk of progressive failure of unbonded tendons intermediate anchorages should be provided as deemed necessary by the designer. 4. or by a full anchorage length within the column • the prestressed reinforcement may be positioned at the top but it should drop in the slab as it approaches the span (Fig 23). Unless specific studies are performed. Ribbed slabs are not suitable for application when a long fire resistance period is required. conditions of exposure and resistance. It is common to accept a tolerance of lOmm.4) • the bars and tendons used in As and Asp should pass inside the main reinforcement of the column • the non-prestressed reinforcement is positioned in the lower layers and should be anchored on the slab by a full anchorage length plus a length equal to d. 4. The fire resistance can be improved by the provision of an insulating finish.8 Resistance to progressive collapse To reduce the risk of a progressive collapse in the event of a local failure at a slab-column connection the following requirements should be met:' • the total area of prestressed (Asp) and non-prestressed (As) reinforcement crossing the slab-column interfaces should be such that Aslyd + Aspfptkhs ~ Psd(PSd) Cmin (mm) 10 25 40 agents 5.5 Fire resistance There is not yet enough experimental information on the behaviour of flat slabs under fire exposure. -. the tendon anchorages. 2h. Screeds or floor finishes of non-combustible materials will contribute to the fire resistance in proportion to the' thickness. Fire resistance period Ih 20 25 2h 35 45 The nominal cover to be specified in the design is equal to the minimum cover plus a tolerance on the reinforcement positioning: Cnom = Cmin + tolerance (4. net + d I Fig 23. . 150. net + d .. watertight and mechanically robust caps may be used fr protection of tendon end anchorages. Humid environment 3.. such as individually greased and plastic sheathed strands and tendons inside wear-resistant plastic duct.3. providing complete encapsulation from anchorage to anchorage.I'/ The quality of concrete cover is the primary corrosion protection for ordinary reinforcement and internal tendons in direct contact to the concrete or inside metal ducts. Humid environment with frost and de-icing 4.

the des~gn should not be reduced in any case because of Its negative effects on the corrosion protection. Welding operations are not allowed near the tendons. Proper corrosion protection of the anchorage 1~ . The stressing sequence has to be planned carefully and in such a way as to avoid overloading of the formwork or structural elements. early stressing is advisable.ts of. or by other means such as anchorage caps. It should therefore be in accordance with appropriate National or International Standards (CEB/FIP Model Code 90. the slab deflections and shortening due to prestressing of the tendons are also 'onsidered .4 Concrete cover and tendon protection The tolerance of concrete cover. in addition to the loading.200mm h > 200mm Vertically ±hj40 ±5mm Horizontally ±20mm ±20mm For unbonded tendons. FIP Recommendations Corrosion protection of unbonded tendons. The construction of a prestressed slab or foundation raft generally does not differ from other prestressed structures. For foundation rafts it should be considered that the function of an eventual sliding layer is not affected during construction. weight of concrete. 5.therefore extremely important to ensure the durability of a prestressed slab. The concrete cover prescnbed ill. In the regions of low tendon cover i: can be useful insert fixing devices into the concrete In order to avoid :0 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 25 .6 Anchorage protection 5. such as the tendon anchorages and the columns heads. particularly where the tendons cross each other.1 General The safety and durability of a prestressed concrete structure depends considerably on the quality assurance process adopted in the construction process. FIP Guide to good practice Grouting of tendons in prestressed concrete). the fire resistance and to consider the possibility of setting dowels. . particularly in slabs with unbonded tendons. such as deadweight of form work.5 Construction later drilling of holes for dowels.5 Prestressing During the prestressing operation measures to avoid accidents must be taken. If tolerances are not stated in the design the following values should be adopted: Tolerance Slab thickness h :::. Care should be taken that any previously placed ducts are not damaged during the placing of the ordinary reinforcement and during concreting. must be considered particularly at the high and low poin. 5. the stressing anchorages have to be carefully protected against corrosion (usually after grouting at bonded tendons) by filling the anchorage recesses carefully with sealing mortar. During concreting particular care' must be taken to ensure proper placing and vibration of the concrete. The tendons should be fixed in a smooth alignment without sudden changes in direction. 5. The tendons should be held perpendicularly to their anchor plates or couplings for at least a length of 500mm. Tendon fixings should be sufficiently rigid and at sufficiently close distances to prevent displacement of the tendons or local damage of the sheathing during the concreting operation. After prestressing.3 Placing and tolerance of the tendons The specified placing order of the tendons should be strictly followed.ns' alignment. the tendon force will be permanently transferred to the concrete by the ~nchorages. 5. In order to control cracking that could result from the heat of hydration and shrinkage of the concrete. live load in the construction phase.2 Formwork and sliding layer Formwork and falsework should be designed in such a way that. the tendo. weight of reinforcement. particularly in the zones with high concentration of reinforcement. 5.

'Recommendations for Concrete Members Prestressed with Unbonded Tendons'. 26 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . Brussels. 5. Cement & Concrete Association.Part 1. Concrete Society. 1994. 4. 1991.General Rules and Rules for Buildings. ACI Structural Journal.. 2. Eurocode 2. Design of Concrete Structures . Posttensioned Concrete Floors Design Handbook. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990.6 Bibliography 1. FIP Recommendations for the Design of Flat Slabs in Post-tensioned Concrete (using unbonded and bonded tendons). 1980. 3. Thomas Telford Ltd. Wexham Springs. London. MayJune 1989. London. Concrete Society Technical Report N° 43. 1993. Committee Report. ENV 1992-1-1. Design Code. ACI-ASCE Committee 423 . CEN.

The transverse components of the anchorage forces and the tendon deviation forces (Fig A2) provide a load-balancing force. The building is partially buried.2 Post-tensioned foundations The well-known advantages of prestressed concrete for elevated structures can be applied to the engineering of foundation structures.1%. near Berne. limits potential crack widths. Shallow foundations. are applications that can substantially benefit from post-tensioning.10 I I r see'det8ii"ed-'. posttensioning enabled joints and sealing to be dispensed with and construction expedited. which bears on a raft foundation approximately 250Om.' The distributed soil pressure acts on the bottom surface and is held in equilibrium by the downward-acting concentrated forces from columns and walls. can substantially reduce the occurrence of early hydration shrinkage cracks. in conjunction with proper wet curing of the concrete surface. The addition was constructed in 1987 as an extension to the Army Dispensary at Ittigen. R. and up to 4m below ground-water level in some locations. design for • this area I I L ' Fig AI. General arrangement plan FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 27 .50 3.2in plan. dead load only. and the high points are in the spans. Switzerland Ai Introduction AI. and resists shear and flexure.75 to 1. rigid/planar settlement and watertightness can be criteria that favour a post-tensioned raft solution. e. uniform settlement. The in-plane anchorage forces precompress the concrete. 9 4. but with the configuration inverted such that the low points are under the columns and walls. Additionally. a nearly uniform soil pressure distribution results. Practical experience indicates that effective prestress values in the range from 0. ensures ductile behaviour of the slab.g. The early application of prestress. The purpose of a foundation is to safely transfer applied gravity and lateral loads from the superstructure to the soil. Additionally. Additionally. Appendix A Foundation raft. located close to the surface of the slab. the vertical force component of the inclined tendon improves the slab's punching shear resistance. The tendons are arranged as in an elevated slab. The advantages of prestressed concrete are ideal for meeting the serviceability requirements imposed on the structure by the heavy loads and submersed environment. Ganz and M. specific needs for reduced peak bearing pressures.3 Design cencepr''! The principle of a raft foundation is similar to that of a floor slab turned upside-down. improved stiffness and superior watertightness. The size and spacing of the reinforcing bars was selected to limit crack width Al.5MPa yield the greatest marginal benefit.I Army Dispensary Building Addition This example has been prepared by H. such as strip footings and raft slabs. The prestressing force and the tendon profile can be selected so that for a given load case. Five elevated concrete slabs and a steel framed roof comprise the column. Mickula of VSL Ltd. An orthogonal grid of conventional reinforcing bars in the order of 0. High storage loads inside the building impose heavy gravity loads on the structure.Dispensary.and wall-supported superstructure.00 7. Prestressing offers the possibility of introducing a favourable system of anchorage forces and tendon deviation forces on the concrete. resulting in a more uniform soil pressure distribution and a reduction in maximum soil pressure. resulting in a higher resistance to cracking. Army AI.

in lieu of the prestressing.4 Structural materials Soil Sandy gravel Allowable bearing: Subgrade modulus: (b) Soil pressure due to column loads fr. grid C: G=2600kN Q= 900kN q= lSkN/m2 Uniform live load: q= -40kN/m2 Uplift from water: (maximum) A2. Construction of the slab progressed in five stages.S. was placed near the top and bottom surface of the slab.6" 0.5.3 Mild reinforcement A2. Tendon profile: The transition between high and low points was accomplished with a tendon profile (Fig A3) that is roughly trapezoidal. with a slig. was increased at locations requiring peak resistance. A2.2 Prestressing reinforcement A2 Design information A2.00 f F bala ne ed Ks= 80MN/m = 200kN/m23 50% of F balanced r.. The resistance provided by the combination of prestressed and non-prestressed reinforcement equals or exceeds that required for flexure and shear in the ultimate limit state (ULS). Anchorages: The tendon anchorages are typically positioned at mid-depth of the raft.A2. such as under load-bearing columns and walls. Tendon distribution: The tendons are uniformly distributed (Fig AS) in two orthogonal directions.0% of F balanced 0- :~ /~ .1 Design and construction code Original design and construction of the post-tensioned substructure and superstructure On the project conformed to the 1968 Swiss code SIA 162 for the design and construction of concrete structures reinforced to conventional steel andlor prestressing steeL Additionally. = 195 OOOMPa ie) SoH pressure due to prestressing (d) Soil pressure due to combined adion of column loads and prestressing Fig A2.3 Design loads Typical column load. Supplemental bars were added locally to the reinforcing grid in locations where additional ductility is desired. and to optimize installation. solid.2 Durability requirements Minimum concrete cover: top = 30mm bottom = 50mm Reinforcing grid: A continuous grid of reinforcing bars. A2. the 1976 supplement to SIA 162. the first three stages being addressed here. of length span/3. were added to the bottom reinforcing grids under the columns over a width of span/3..S. A trapezoidal profile.SOm-thick. Thickened pads are not used under the load-bearing columns and walls.. spaced at roughly 200mm. Low relaxation Strand area: Ap = 146mm2 Characteristic tensile strength: fpu = 1770N/mm2 Characteristic yield strength: fy = 1590N/mm2 Young's modulus: E.. requiring adequate capacity for the ultimate limit state. but can be positioned higher or lower to induce a favourable eccentricity. the project conformed to RL 34.1 Concrete form The foundation raft is an O. FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 28 . concentration of tendons in each direction under the columns.S General arrangement A2. = 205 OOOMPa Prestressing steel VSL Multistrand system in steel ducts Strands 0.6MPa E modulus: Eem = 34 OOOMPa Reinforcing steel Characteristic yield strength: fy = 460N/mm2 Young's modulus: E. Mild reinforcement. flat slab of uniform thickness. Supplemental bars. in lieu of a parabolic one. A2.1 rr I (J'B OO"!. Effect of prestressing on soil pressure distribution and crack spacing. All calculations in the design example conform to the 1998 FIP Recommendations for the design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts. ~ Concrete SIA cube 35 (normal weight) e:! C25 (FIP/MC 90) Uniaxial compressive strength: fek = 25MPa Characteristic tensile strength: fetm = 2. facilitated use of the reinforcing grids for supporting the tendons.

without thickened sections under the columns.OMPa.75MPa to l.8m = 10.1 Slab thickness A3. For the 0. Using the O. A2. If the resistance is insufficient. steps and reentrant corners along the slab edge to improve ductility and control cracking. A flat plate. was selected to simplify construction. Flexure requirements were checked against the combined resistance provided by the mild reinforcing grid and post-tensioning tendons. A design aid (Fig A4. The required prestressing tendons per bay. the slab thickness can be increased overall. restraint and slab discontinuities were assessed and.1%. Irregular and locally critical areas were evaluated and accommodated with additional reinforcing andlor member thickness. the span-to-depth ratio is: Ljh = 8.5m/0. Representative tendon profiles Special details: Mild reinforcement was added in the tendon anchorage zone. For a typical loading. primary consideration should be given to shear resistance and allowable soil pressure. or just thickened under the columns.1 Span to depth ratio.~ _ 11. mitigated with proper details. and • effective prestressing force.1.6 A3. The prestressing force is assumed to be uniform throughout the bay. the level of prestress. Precompression Sufficient prestressing was provided to ensure residual compression in the slab commensurate to the exposure and durability expectations for the structure. Uh Common Uh values range from 10 to 12.2 Punching shear resistance A quick check of the punching shear resistance is generally performed. the prestressing quantities were sized to furnish a pre compression level of roughly I. The benefit from the prestressing at the control perimeter can be estimated at roughly 20% of the unfactored gravity load on the column. depending upon the modulus of subgrade reaction. assuming 29 . and slab discontinuities. Potential problems associated with structural FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts A3. where necessary.80m slab selected.65Om 13•775m I 9 OOOm 9 000m Sf (Grid 12) (Grid C) Fig A3.5MPa is generally sufficient to accommodate prestress losses and moderate enough to avoid excessive slab shortening. ULS design was provided for flexure (in the z-direction) and punching shear (at column C12) in the slab area designated by Fig AI. courtesy of VSL International Ltd. Considerations for service conditions cover: • stress checks during construction • the influence of subgrade friction. Details and calculations are shown for representative locations on the project. Details for construction include: • • • • concrete pour sequence construction joints slab interface at subgrade.8m was arrived at by a cursory check of the span-to-depth ratio and the punching shear resistance of the slab.3 Preliminary raft sizing In setting the slab depth. 1\. The range of 0.) can assist preliminary selection of raft thickness and prestressing requirements.1. the concrete strength. A3. a suitable slab thickness of 0. and the corresponding load balancing was then compared with the self-weight of the structure. the load magnitude and arrangement. The mild reinforcement grid was laid out based on a reinforcing ratio of 0. and at slab discontinuities such as openings.8m slab thickness. and the allowable differential deformation.mal design considerations for a site-cast prestressed raft.2 Prestressing quantities The prestressing force is sized in general for precompression andlor load balancing.6 Extent of design example "he design example introduces initial member sizing and .

. " I " .4m.-=d! Fig A5. remaining spaces at 1. r H I I . 1'" 1'. """"":""!' 1 " \. applied load: W 360 _P=-kNjm=74% Tendons required = -:-----:---:---- w... I • '1 .1 'Yo: As = pbh = (O.5mm long • • .2%: As = obh = 904kPa .. larger aIL values produce slightly higher LIh ratios 4 Chart based on C25 concrete.05. .. where: L " distance between column center lines Po " unfactored dead load on column 2 h " slab thickness a = radius of column contact area 3 Chart based on ail " 0... .. each face) .' ..8m)(1000kNjm2) = nOOkN = 8(42 strands x 155kNjstrand)(0. a" Po/L2. each face) grid = 800mm2/m -:.. " "' . .6m± 150 o o 25 100 75 50 Bearing pressure.3 Mild reinforcing grid The reinforcing grid for an 800mm slab with p = 0. Design-aid for preliminary raft sizing W = 2600kN + (20kN/m2 balanced _ 8(Pbay)(drape) x 9m) = 486kN/m an effective prestress force of 155kN/strand..PIA -P/A --P/A = 2 MPa !- .' = (0. Load balancing check for selected prestressing force and approximate tendon drape of 0..6m± 1 space at O.5m) (8.5m + slab wt. I . .-.I '1 1 I 1 I I " . -~ . Tendon layout for construction stages 1-3 30 use 22014 bars x 3.8m x 9m) . higher grades produce slightly higher LIh ratios = column load h span lengt 8.. 6 stran d .. " r- ~ I I . Ie I Ii . 486 OK 46 strands 6 strands/tendon :::. is: x-direction. •.0MPa effective pre compression in the raft are: Pbay (span length) 2 = Abay(lMPa) = (9m x O.6m.... OMPa . A3..... ". remaining spaces at 1.--. .. space the bars at 200mm to limit crack width and crack spacing Add supplemental bars to the bottom reinforcing grid under the columns to improve the punching shear resistance and ductility in the region that extends approximately twice the slab depth from the column face.. • .. . . If OK .. . . I . 1 . . II II .5m)::! Strands required = --kN/00 IX) nOOkN = 360kNjm . I: = 3360mm2/m added bars bar -.: . .--. yet moderate enough to avoid excessive camber.\ .-- "U "."... The tendon spacing for the bay.'..OOl)(lOOOmm)(800mm) 800mm::!jm = (each way.. kPa 125 Load balancing Load balancing in the range of 60% to 100% of the permanent gravity force is generally sufficient to control slab deflection and improve punching shear resistance... for roughly 1. I I' • I . ElIample V ~ r---.5m: Wapplied Chart notes 1 Bearing pressure. II = 46 x 00. three tendons in each direction were located under the columns. " Correlation of mat design parameters Tendon spacing 20 1\ \ 10 \. <._ To maximize the benefit from the tendons in resisting shear under the columns and flexure in the column strip. y-direction.6 strand/bay balanced load vs. The additional reinforcing for p = 0. I .. . I II .6) in 66mm 0 ducts _ (42 strand) (155kNjstrand) P recompression (O. I .. 1 space at O. I II I I It 1 .. \ "-...001)(1000mm + 4 x 800mm) = 3360mm2 -:-154mm2 /014 = 22014 bars x 3. Fig A4. ... FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . ' .choose 7 tendons (6 . 1MPa r-- r-- -_ .154mm2/014 bar = 5014 bars (each way... starting at the column centerline. 1 I ...5m bottom spaced at 200mm each way under the columns.1 .

prov = 5(154mm2/014) OK (2) bay moment.effkcAct A s. -Mspan ::::: 40%)(Mbay) = (0. At initial prestress transfer.6" strand) and an effective prestressing force of 155kN.6MPa in SOOmmdeep section.6MPa)](0. (3) span moment. At successive stressing stages as column loads and prestressing force increased.24 + [0.40)(3721kNm) ( = -148SkNm (4) joint moment.4 Flexure check (for additional mild reinforcing) A conservative approximation of the applied bending moments in the slab under columns can be made using Westergaard's formulae/f for a point load on a slab. but before subtracting time-dependent losses. were determined. the contribution of secondary moments likewise increased.4.mm Us _ O.'P 0 This is the force in the tendon after accounting for frictional losses and anchor set. and allocated moment to the joint and span region according to recognized proportions: Slab region in the vicinity of column C12: A4.'.orce of 170kN (per 15mrnJO. For subsequent stressing stages.1 Effective prestress force Prestress losses were calculated according to the requirements of the CEB/FIP Model Code or other prevailing National Standards. Another approach. a single check at either the span or the joint with the greatest tendon eccentricity is generally sufficient.330)(297mm x 1000mm) (220MPa) CTs = 695mm 2 = 220MPa for control of crack width without direct calculation Applied moment (in the x-direction): (1) uniform bearing pressure.8 . Two stressing stages were used to limit the tension in the slab. and relaxation of the prestressing steel.L2 M bay= -S- Act: tension zone depth = 297mm for extreme fibre stresses of . restraining elements.S)= = 770mm2 . A4 Serviceability Limit State (SLS) raft design : A4.5m)2 3 S = 721kNm A4. W kc = 0. In general.2 Minimum bonded reinforcement for crack control (per eq. after all losses.16/0. The remaining tendons were then fully stressed in a second stressing stage which occurs after the' third elevated slab was erected. Usual methods of stress analysis give an order of magnitude for the average stresses in the uncracked structure. rather than in multiple stressing stages.3. W".48) ' _ k f ct. or where the gravity loads from the superstructure do not yet balance the deviation forces of the tendons. EIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . subgrade friction and slab discontinuities are evaluated.1 Stress check at transfer of prestressing Early stressing of the tendons is desirable for controlling hydration cracking. -Mspan over total bay width . L = 2600kN +900kN = 412kN/m 8. Secondary prestressing moments were considered when calculating net bending stress in the slab. Time dependent losses account for shrinkage of the concrete member because of evaporation of the mix water. Codes stipulate maximum allowable initial prestress force in the tendon at specific locations. Initial prestressing force. From a practical viewpoint it is desirable to stress the tendons once. Net bending stress in the slab was computed in the span and under the column. Stage stressing A check of the net bending stress at critical locations in the slab determines the need for stage stressing during construction. calculated the service moment for the bay. P eff This is the final force in the tendon. the raft is generally lightly loaded and free to camber. 3.60)(3721kNm) = 2233kNm The adequacy of the selected prestressing and mild reinforcement can be verified based on these moments in accordance with general rules. The initial prestressing force is used for assessing initial conditions in the slab at time of prestress transfer. thereby impeding the formation of secondary moments. A4. conservatively assuming uniform soil bearing. stress checks similar to that shown below 31 Effective prestressing force.6MPa)(O.5m As. The first stage consisted of stressing 4 of the 7 tendons in each bay (in each direction) to 100% of their jacking force.(0. This may occur where the concrete has not reached design strength.A3. 0. = (412kN/m) (S.33 = PG+Q ". For this project an initial prestressing . the influence of the post-tensioning.6(2. + MjOintover total bay width +Mjoint:::::(60%)(Mbay) = (O. Mbay W". the stress in the reinforcing steel and crack widths can be checked. Where calculations indicate that the structure may crack. At transfer when no column loads are on the slab. Care must be exercised in order not to overstress the slab at transfer.41 + 2. creep of the concrete. shown below.3 Service stresses SLS checks limit the stress in the concrete and reinforcing steel in accordance with specified performance requirements.9MPa/2.

S 0.OOO6m Restraint Caissons." deformation of the subgrade.80m x 9m) . The added compression is often beneficial. External forces which resist the dimensional changes that occur introduce compression or tension into the slab. 30 40 50 Slab length (m) --60 r-- Slab movement Various actions dimensionally change the concrete member.for the first stage were used.567 - (567kN/m ) OK 2 = +1203 O"nel. however.4 Influence of stiff elements and subgrade friction Prestressed and non-prestressed concrete slabs experience dimensional changes that occur over time.683m. Thermal fluctuations induce positive and negative strains in the member. A4.- = +637kNjm2 - =+ o -1155kNm O.5). are effective at mitigating restraint problems. the tension.0).0mm Fig A6. Fig A6.960m3 .= (9m)(0. in conjunction with distributed mild reinforcing.7 O.~0.0mm on a rough surface (fJ.hj2) = (24 x 170kN) (O. = P err - subgrade friction Since the O.960m3 ~ (567kN/m-) 2 = -1203 .e.960m3 6 6 =- . Evaporation of excess mix-water in the concrete causes slab shrinkage. is suspected of cracking the concrete. When calculating the net precompression in the slab. OES can be calculated as: 0. Total displacements are directly proportional to the slab size. minimizes their influence on the slab.5mm on a smooth surface (friction coefficient. or releasing their connection to the slab. do not affect the prestressing force in the tendon. 0. = ± (Msd . A smooth transition at steps in the slab soffit reduces subgrade interference. Check #1: initial stressing.7days = (42 strands x 170kN)(O.3. service pits. Effect of subgrade friction on precompression of the raft 32 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .Mpo) _ Po W' A Mpo = Po(dp . fJ. The effective prestressing force. The level of restraint is directly proportional to the potential displacement of the slab at the location of the restraining item. potentially reduce the prestressing force in the concrete. rather than Po. ' = Pnet/Ac.t = effective prestressing = 1.9 O. and stiff elements.4m) = 4080kN x 0.283m = 1155kNm Po = A (4080kN) = 567kN/m2: (0. W = bh.S EXample__' -rr.8m x 9m)(29 x 106kPa) = 0. Displacements below these values are essentially unrestrained. Prestressing forces compress the slab elastically.2 Stress check at service Similar stress checks at critical locations for service conditions were performed to those at transfer. the effective concrete section for calculating stress in the concrete should be conservatively assessed. load capacity and overstress at critical span and joint locations.---.5 o Chart notes 1 2 10 20 70 so PeH = 1 MPa at slab edge PeH force in center of slab 3 4 Coefficient of friction.~ 1. Subgrade friction This is a concern to the extent that it impedes slab.0006mm of elastic shortening from the prestressing is essentially unrestrained. at column lines). but expanded to consider secondary moments.5L) EC. or up to 3.0 lis=3. J. grade beams and slab steps potentially impede slab shortening and introduce tension into the raft. no load on slab (self weight of slab is neglected) Net stress in slab: O"nel 8ES = O'(0.O.567 = -1770kN/m OK Special note: Where the tendons are banded or grouped (i. before sliding commences at the interface. and the contribution from secondary prestressing moments were used for calculating prestressing moments during service checks. Peff. Permanent forces on. illustrates the loss of prestressing at the centre of the slab attributed to subgrade frictionA3• A4. An optimized concrete placement schedule and prestressing sequence.+ o -1155kNm 0. the slab induce creep.80mt = O.5 x 35m) (O. . Influence of subgrade friction on the raft Subgrade friction. being absorbed 1-. however. they do. and in." movement. Elastic shortening from the prestressing. maximum loss of precompression at the centre of the slab is a rela-tively low 5%. subgrade friction is subtracted from the effective prestressing force: net precompression. Locating restraining items closer to the slab's centre. TestsA1 indicate that the slab can shorten up to O. P net O"net O"nel.

Surface cracking that may occur is controlled by the reinforcing grid. Creep of the subgrade typically exceeds that of the structural concrete. Pp. .1647kNm = 823kNm Resisting moment in the span (in the x-direction]: (1) prestressing force. ~ E 200 100 0 i E f--.15(9.1kN/strand) p 1.x/2) .. -ermanent loads .O. The surrounding earth dampens thermal fluctuations in the raft. M Rd Mp = P(dp .749m .0m) dp = 660mm support AS.. The isting moments Mxy. and effective depth. and moist earth and groundwater permeating into the concrete substantially reduces.044m) =602kNm/m ~ r-.044m) = 217kNm/m = 819kNm/m + M.~ -3 ~ 3 4 5 Ms MRd = T(ds = Mp = 308kN(0.451 ULS factor = 3241kNm) Moment in 3m strip under column: +MSd = (3m)(41OkNm) + 0. = (5 x 014 bar/rn) (154mm2 /014 bar) . Slab regions in the vicinity of column C12 Applied moment (in the x-direction): (1) span moment. Total moment for bay width = 1800kNm =>42% of total bay moment (compare to rough estimate of 1488kNm x 1. x (0. A finite element (FE) program was herein used for the analysis of the raft as a flexible slab on an elastic support. were designed for. In lieu of such analysis a conservative design approach assuming uniform bearing pressure under the column tributary area can be used with the ACI 318A3 equivalent frame method of analysis or other plate/frame analysis methods. the design of the raft was checked for sufficient strength to resist the design actions with a reasonable factor of safety. ds T.5 mild reinforcing steel "Is = 1. a = Pp + Ts O.15 ds = 800mm - = 308kN/m 300mm cover . in addition to bending moments M.683m - O. Applicable load factors Self weight of the structure .4 1. drying shrinkage. and by reducing the material strengths (material coefficients).5(3m)(278kNm) = 1647kNm Moment in middle strips (6m): +MSd Applicable material coefficients concrete "Ie = 1.088m 0.6 aiD I Slab section -4 ·3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 em) Total moment for bay width = 2470 kNm =>58% of total bay moment (compare to rough estimate of 2233kNm x 1.MSd 269 300 = 942kN/ m + 066 duct 2 . moment and included in the moment diagrams below. +MSd A5 Ultimate Limit States (ULS) slab design AS.ve loads 1. shrinkage.4 1.1 Introduction The ULSs for the raft are those associated with a structural failure of the slab by punching shear and/or flexure.. z e. can be discounted. Ts.85fed = 942kN/m + 308kN/m = 0. Twisting moments Mxy and Myx in the slab.x/2) = 942kN(O.2 Flexure check The bending moments in the slab can be obtained from a finite element analysis of the slab bearing on an elastic support. and accompanying subgrade restraint. Accordingly. were uuded to the M. = 602kNm + 217kNm -5 -4 -2 ·1 o 2 Total moment for bay width Slab section (m) = 9m x 819kNm/m = 7372kNm 33 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .460kN/mm2)/1. calculated by the FE program. and Mv. . and effective depth.(3/2)(014) = 749mm (3) depth of compression block. dp P = (42 x 00.15 = 2470kNm . The factor of safety is achieved by factoring the design actions (load factors).In general.15 prestressing steel 'Yp = 1. creep and temperature movements of the slab.451 ULS factor = 2160kNm) Peak moment = 269kNm (2) column strip moment.10mm strand offset inside duct = 683mm (2) mild steel force.6" strands)(232.85 x 16700kN/m2 (4) resisting moment.. or even suppresses.

5 (232.p).8::-::5:-x-l-:-:6=70""'O=k"""N~/'-m-::-2 ):-/:-1.O. = O.460kN/mm2)/r".Sm) .039m) = 2751kNm M. PSd•a.20m2 Fig A7.039m) 2751kNm + M. within control perimeter Pss» = O'SdX Au2= 92. PSd.15 = 1848kN Pp = (4 tendons) (6 strands/tendon) (232.15 = 1848kN Pp = (3 tendons)(6 strands/tendon) Applied moment vs.85 x 16700kN/m2)/1.(O.10mm offset =607mrn (2) resistance in 3m strip under the column: T. Effective applied load 34 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .eff= f3(PSd - Pss» . = + 1275kNm (1) eccentric punching factor.PSd.Resisting mornent (in the x-direction} under the column: (1) ds = 800mm .-::C5 =O.(3/2)(014) =:= 729mm dp = SOOmm.204kN -178IkN) = = 2594kN = 1848kN(O.20m2 = 204kN (a) soil pressure. Au2.eff.0645m) = 1229kNm MRd = Mp + M.079m PSd.I29m Mp = Pp(dp .066 duct/2 . = Ts(ds .x/2) = lS4SkN(O.was used for calculating the ultimate punching shear capacity of the slab.729m .8m)(O.6" strand)/1.cff l.x/2) = 4844kN(O. nder the column (from FE analysis) u O'Sd (48kN/m2 x 1.PSd.1kN/00.x/2) = 1275kNm MRd= Mp PSd. PSd. ) = 2. = Ts(ds .Om + O.a - PSd.6 x 900kN) = 5080kN 112 {gravity (3) bearing force. bounded by control perimeter. = 1973kNm + 1299kNrn = 3202kN (= 3m x 1067kNm) (3) resistance in middle strip: T. f3 = 1.150~ support . = (30 x 014 bar) (I54mm2 /014 bar) x (0.729m . Au2 U2 = (l.x/2) = 3633kN(O. O'Sd. resistance was limited to that which lies in the tension face of the slab and is located within the failure cone.8m)2(1 .607m .p).607m .PpO The calculated resistance.965kN Mp = Pp(dp . resisting moment: (1) Span moment: total bay moment = 1800kNm:5MRd=7372kNm OK peak bay moment=269kNm:5MRd=819kNm .8kN/m2 x 2..PpO .3 Punching shear An effective applied load.4 x 2600kN) = 4026kNm (= 6m x 671kNm) + (1.8kN/m2 = t t t t t tt bearing (b) area. OK (2) Column strip moment: total bay moment=2470kNm:SMRd=7372kNm OK = 3633kN 3m column strip = I647kNm:5 MRd = 3202kNm OK 6m middle strip = 823kN m :5 M Rd= 4026kNm 0 K Pp + T« 3633kN + 184SkN x = b( 0.O.064m) = 1973kNm M.50mm cover .6" strand)/1.12~(I00pfck)I/3llld Slab region under column e12 Effective applied shear force.I5(5080kN . PRd = O.15 for gravity loads (2) factored column load. The reinforcing and prestressing steel contributing to the punching shear.460kN/mm2)/1. Punching shear cone x (0.15 A5. PRd. assumed a failure cone occurring at a control perimeter III two times the slab depth from the column periphery.Sm + O. PSd PSd = (1.S5f cd) = -:':(3:-m-:-)-:':( O:-:. PSd•eff includes the actions of the subgrade and tendons acting in control perimeter U2 located a distance half the slab depi. from the column periphery.eff= j3(PSd. = (30 x 014 bar) (154mm2 /014 bar) Fig AB.O.25.O.4) + (I6kN/m2 x 1.15 = 4844kN 4844kN + 1848kN (6m)(O.6) = 92.1kN/00.0.

Px = 1900 .~2~: PRd (5080kN -204kN -1781kN) = 1074kN· = 1.O.hj2) = (IS strands)(155kN)(0. MSd dy(columnx + Aps.within region 2d from column face Pave= .340m + 1. = '.y + 2 X 2 X 690mm) dy) 2 = 372kNm MSd.340m x 0.p= 2P p.710m) by = 4d + column.SOOm)2 6 () ( ? = 372kNm Mxo = O"cpx bxh. O"cpy and Ppx 18 x 155kN O"cpx byh = 3.x 690mm(1000mm (Arb. SdP = = 3093kN => :.340m O.204kN .P= 6 6 p= Y (d) factored slab moments MSd.p) Vc = O.::.872m applied shear force vs..532 Fig AIO.::. along x and yaxis bx + dy) = (690mm + 721mm) + (607mm = 706mm = 4d + column. 208kN 372kNm Pxo = 1322kNm (5080kN .:.P in x and y direction at column face over widths by and b.382m2) = 3093kN (1) ~ = 1 + J200jdave = 1 + J200j706mm = 1.84m) = 965kN 3.00322 = 0.34m + 3. = 4(0.--!.y = Perr(dp .00322 = 000321 - - (90SkNj m 2) (3.607m .00322 (4) control perimeter (Fig A9) Mse« = 1900kNm and MSd. over widths by and bx Mxo .0m + 0..5m column _ PyObx + PxOby bx + by --_/ Fig A9.4(2600kN) + 1.84m (a) dimensions of critical perimeter.12(1.710m) + 0.42) + 2(18cables)(155kN) (sin 8..872m x a.706m)1T= 11.532)(100 X 0. OK Mo For comparison.pacting at control perimeter Uz PSd.x dx(columny + 2 X 2 X dx) (37 X 154mmi) + (18 X 146mm2) = + Aps.SOOmt ? P = ---..7(900kN) = 4962kN Resisting shear force PRd = 0.178.= (1044kNjm2) 3._-.y = 1650kNm (from FE analysis) = 2(1. resistance provided: PSd..800m = = 690mm d _ (743mm x 34 x 154mm2) y= 721mm + (677mm X IS (5236mm2 + 262Smm2) 146mm2) Ppy 18 x 155kN 2 O"cpy bxh = 3.::.Om x O.34m) + (871kN x 3.800m = 1044kNjm = (c) decompression moments Mxo and MyO. Pave.S40m) (0.1322kNm MSd.. Interface at base of raft 35 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . u ~ ~m~ I I / ----.S40m = 908kNjm 2 d _ (729mm x 37 x 154mm2) x- x 18 x 146mm2) (569Smm2 + 2628mm2) X (b) average precompression. '---/_'__-1. O"cpx.1kN) = 871kN PyO = :.3( applied shear Ii +f pc)bod + v. Ppo P pO - perimeter.O"cpx6 _ byh 2 _ (3) average reinforcing ratio.(1l-37): fY - PSd. dave = (lj2)(dx = (1074kN x 3._ '\ \ I I \.y +2 X 2 X 2 = Ul -.efr 2594kN ~ PRd Mp. bx and by.578 = 1072kNm (34 X 154mm )(18 X 146mm ) 721mm(500mm + 2 X 2 X 721mm) = 0.00321 Arb.578 .000m = 3.5m) + 4(0.(4) vertical tendon force.ysin Cty = 2(18 strands) (155kN) (sin 9.840m x 0.Mp => MSd.706m) = (369kNjm2)(8. ACI 318 Eq.x = Mp. = 4(0.500m = 3.0. Punching shear perimeter (2) average effective slab depth.x X 0.Py= 1650 . PSd.----=-::.00322 X 25MPa)1/3] (11.95) = 1781kN (5) compression effect of the prestress.jPxP..4m) = 57SkNm (e) decompression forces Po = -M (PSd .PSd.12~(I00pfck)1/3111dave X = [0.x sin Ctx + 2P p.

allows the tendons to run continuous. FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts Fig A12.. Centre stressing anchorage For comparison.7061T)(O. Slab steps The reinforcing steel was detailed in accordance with an analysis of force transfer through the section. For very long slabs such as pavements. or concrete pours.85 [0. Pour number 1 started at the west end of the slab and proceeded east to a north-south construction joint. A6. openings and reentrant corners..I !--1m Fig AI3. Anchoring of the tendons at openings and reentrant corners was generally avoided. The effective prestress at a construction joint can eliminate the need for a.2 Slab discontinuities The post-tensioning tendons and local reinforcement in the raft were detailed to improve ductility and control cracking at steps. Lean concrete was placed over the granular subgrade to form a smooth work surface at the desired datum. limited to a 6:1 transition and not permitted within 1m of an-opening or corner. The tendon height was profiled at the step to satisfy flexural requirements in the raft for external loads.706m) 2 ) + (891kN)] = O. Pour layout/sequence Five stages.E E o ~ CZI 8 o E E E -.85(6525kN applied shear + 891kN) = 6304kN + 891] = 4962kN ::. Shear transfer across the joint was accomplished by roughening the surface of the old concrete prior to placing the new concrete.resistance = 6304kN:::} OK Fig A14.resistance = 6281kN ::::} K O AS Details for construction A6. The geometry of the step and tendon profile favours crossing and anchoring the tendons at the step. A gradual sweeping of the tendons.. bonded reinforcement was placed at the corners to distribute the geometry induced stress risers that occur there. Coupler at construction joint Construction joint The site was excavated and the subgrade compacted. SIA 162: Applied shear = 4440kN ::. Openings and reentrant corners For rectangular openings and reentrant corners (Figs A12 & A13). ~ Fig All. rather than running the tendons continuous through the step (Fig All). Detail at reentrant corner 36 . were used for constructing the foundation slab.3()25000 + 904kPa) x (3m + 0. Detailing at slab opening. = 0.684m = O.1 Concrete work Base/subgrade preparation Fig A15. Transverse tendons run through the construction joint and are stressed when the concrete in pour 3 reaches strength. Slab step section resistance 0 v. two layers of polyethylene can be placed over the subgrade to facilitate slab movement.85[(1771kPa)(3.waterstop provided appropriate care is taken in preparing the surface of the old concrete and in placing the new concrete. Longitudinal tendons in pour 1 were stressed at the north and south slab edge as soon as the concrete reaches strength.

Where both ends of the tendon were inaccessible for stressing.3 Tendon anchorages.M. H. VSL International Ltd.A6. FIF Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 37 . thereby avoiding the introduction of eccentric anchorage forces into the structure. Proc. permitted the tendon to be stressed from a point along the tendon accessible via a blockout in the top of the slab. American Concrete Institute Standard ACI 318-89 Building Code requirements for reinforced concrete. the use of stressing anchorages at non-stressing locations allows for threading the prestressing steel into the tendon ducts after concrete placement. a centre-stressing VSL Z-Anchorage used in conjunction with anchorages at both ends of the tendon. A2. Westergaard. After stressing half the tendons at the construction joint for pour 2.: 'Stresses in concrete runways of airports'. pour 3 tendons were spliced onto the tendon ends protruding from pour 2 using a VSL K-Coupler. The Z-Anchorage is unique in that it is stressed against the tendon and not the concrete. 1939/1940. June 1988.. A7 References AI. Switzerland. thereby providing continuous tendons across the three pours. Berne. Post-tensioned foundations. A3. 13th Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board. allowing the strands to be stressed and locked-off at the desired load. Stressing anchorages interfaced with the stressing equipment. Typically.

I . prestressing was also introduced in the transverse direction to control cracking caused by shrinkage and temperature.I I I. and to limit the increase of long-term deflections to 25mm for frequent load combination. V.. · I i ! I . I I . Unbonded prestressing monostrands were chosen due to ease of placement. · .. " ! I ! I . _l II' I ·. . • 0 · ·. o. Portugal Prestressed -ribbed slab for The Bl Introduction This example has been prepared by J. __t_i I 0 I I I ! IJ • ·. .Appendix B Stock Exchange Building in Lisbon. ·. Between columns the ribs are interrupted and solid strips are created where prestressing tendons are concentrated.. . . I · . Costa. I I I I l · ·· I I P •• I I I I I I I ~ i -~ i I I ! ~ j I ItaE - . Lucio and A.8m span was required and a 0. i .4m in both directions and the ribbed slabs are 0._- ~ I Ig I _j _j I I I i ! I I I ~ I I I I I I " I ~ - _LJ I I I I I i I! I I I ! . o.. • · I ·. J.50m prestressed ribbed slab was adopted. Almeida..8m span could only be conceived economically as a prestressed slab.I t I I I I I I I I I I I :1-rlfj h ! I • I II I I •I i 11tr I' I: D!! • •• . • I 01 01 0 . Ii I.7m to 0. · I ·· .I I I I I I I 00 . The building in question was built in Lisbon in 1993 and holds the New Lisbon Stock Exchange. The main design criteria were to control the deflections due to permanent loads with the prestressing forces.9m wide are in general spaced 8.. I ... . ··. B3 Design information The flat slab of an underground floor presented in Figs B2 and B3 was chosen to illustrate this example. Appleton. . t- . For seismic resistance shear walls were also introduced. I I I I I I .0 ~ I : - . ! !: lid r• I I . General layout of the slab 38 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts . ~o1 112' _! . to increase eccentricities and to avoid injection. I I I I I I . In the area of the Stock Exchange a 16. This solution is also convenient for the design of the flat slab reinforcement for the effects of the earthquakeaction.. I I 12 : I I I 1I II II I J I Fig Bl. I 0' '" o. · . · . Although the slab mainly behaves in one direction. I I I . The building has 13 elevated floors and 4 underground floors with a total area of slab construction of 29000m2• The columns of a square section 0. The combination of a ribbed solution with prestressing reduces the weight of the structure and controls deflections in an effective way. t I I t I I 1 JI II _l _1 I J --. In Fig B1 a general layout of the slab and of the prestressing cables at level 01 are presented. I . . For that slab earthquake effects are not significant. B2 Design concept A slab with a 16. I . This slab was chosen to illustrate this example.30m thick. 0 ~~ ·..

=O. .399m Ysup = O.:: :llllnV~ ~ : 10stran r ft-. I : I . 0. . I I .. I i I I 4 strands _j . Geometry of representative sections FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts 39 . 8...0137m' Yin! Ysup = 0. I I 2 strands/rib III I I IT 11 I I I . 25kN/m3 Surfacing load.-. .. 2kN/m2 Average slab permanent load 9.- - .r '8 anchorages""- 1 ---~ - I Ii I I 26 strands u 1 III II I I I !l- f... 111111"71. .313m Ysup = 0.. I i 8 strandslnb I -~ - f. . ..! I . I-.1 1I II 8 anchoraaes ~ F ::. 2 strands/rib I I :i 12' i i j I 1 I I I i .. . .00591m4 Yin! = 0.. .80 Fig B2. I _. . t I J I I III ttl . ... I IA I I .. 3kN/m2 fed= fyd= iJ..OO48nf Yin! = O.26m2 1= O.. . . I I I I 26 strands 01'j I I y ~ I i IT ..I- T 1 I ! I I _L. ..1 Design model A grid model was used to obtain the structural forces and displacements for the various loads including the effect of prestress. . I I I I . .ll. .187m Fig B3.23m ® A = O...00 Section 1 -.40 16. .3 anchorages .' (see Fig. . . . ..06/rad k=O. . . . .25sm2 I = 0. I i 8 strands/rib I I ! ! I III I I I 4stran~ 3 anchorages -crt _~. The grid model is shown in Fig B4 together with the internal forces of relevant sections and reactions at internal column. . .J l.61m2 Section 2. .. . . ..8kN/m2 Live load.:J!l ' 10stranJsJ""" I 'I . .. .S400 Prestressing steel. B 1) I = 0.9 fptk/')'s=1409MPa Ep=190 GPa 20MPa 348MPa fptk=1800MPa P=160KN per tendon Ap=140 mm2 B3. .. .lll.. 61) I A=O. Slab analysed area Design loads: Concrete self weight.. :.40 I I~-:-.I- A - II i .005/m P is the effective prestress force per tendon after all immediate and time dependent losses. .- ~.. I ! I i 4 st~nds 3 anchorages 3 anchorages _J • ±l I -i Vi I..~.. i I .C30 Steel grade . .. -e c: I!! '0 co II> .. I r~ A' I.101m ® A = 0. . .. ~ - I ~ l' s:J ~ c: I!! '0 ~2~ I I I i 8.. 2.. . . Materials: Concrete grade . 18 anchorages :: ~ . .2' (see Fig.~ 111 I .... .L'H I- . I I8 anchoraaes-._.I- ~ ::. . .. .' 'III -. .27m = O.

Mesh of the grid model and relevant results Internal forces Point Dead load Prestress v (kN/m) Live load v (kN/m) m (kNmlm) A " m (kNmlm) 766.46m/SO = 0.8 Prestress -143.2 M (kNm) -470.8 -88.4 .0 661.46m t::.1..6 15.2 .46m/50 t::.3 M (kNm) .1 -703.1 M (kNm) 143.8 Mx (kNm) -1332.0138m = 0.1 Average compression stress due to prestress The average stress in the solid areas along the column lines will be considered. shear.9 40 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .3520kN I [(2. is dimensioned in order to verify the ultimate limit state of bending resistance. P=(18+4) x 160kN= 3520kN . B4.2 Flexural reinforcement design The stress increase of the tendon due to plastic deformation of the slab may be accounted for the flexural reinforcement design.~supp~ B4.2 Mx (kNm) 317.3 F (kN) -355.lspan = 3.4 x 0.11) and (3.lspan = 3.. P=(6 x 8+26) x 160kN=11840kN (J"cpy = .6 v (kN/m) B -812.0 Mv (kNm) -21.1 --513.1 Bending In this section the flexural reinforcement in the solid area around an interior column.1.6.65) x 05]m = -722KPa + l.35 G Total prestress in a strip.lsupp B4.~ !\ I!rff' - 2820kPa B4 Ultimate limit states In the following sections the ultimate limit states of resistance to bending. punching and progressive collapse are checked.9 m (kNmlm) -214.1 204..0.0 x 0.S)m2 = (b) along x-direciion: -'t.1 58.7 My (kNm) -96.6..5 Q.0276m Fig B4.6 -350. For these calculations the following load combination was used: 1.0 + 8.6 -1883 -30.1 -49. (a) in y-direction (point A): from (3.5d T au and .5 x O. points A and B (Fig B4).2 V -327.6 Mv F (kNm) -11.0 (kN) 372.1 92.3 Mx (kNm) 1282.2 Reinforcement details The prestressing layout and reinforcing steel details are shown in Fig BS for representative sections of the slab.3 Live load Reactions Point Dead load F (kN) F 1398. l. (a) along y-direction: = 1.0dT au with au = 1/50 and d = 0.3 211. 339.B3. 2 <Tcpx = .OP + l.91.2 475 V 88. Total prestress in a strip: .0 513 V (kN) (kN) (kN) E D C 532.~ I (8.2 -553.12) .

'. 140 x 10.46m/50 = O.Section A .!::ll = 0'04l4m 41 b.0138m llispan = 3.20 (/)12110..600 010//0.0414m 6 b.0kN = 37.8m 0.20 I . Prestressing layout and reinforcement details Stress increase per tendon: • 52 tendons with llendon = 16.40 1 strand I8 strands -t L 0.5 x 0."'~..125 Section 1 ..20 ! II U • I 18 stranas t 1 strand 3~6 .55 6 19Q5 str.20 l II s (/)25//0.5kNJ/8:4m = 320kN/m slabs and foundation rafts = = Stress increase per unit width of slab 'OP = [(52 + 18) x 37.11 liD I Il) x2 + 0. f -} .me 6 . = O'cpy x 0.20 8P=320kN/m As = 24.00207764 x2 + 0.20 2. ~.8m x Ordinary reinforcement over the column in y-direction point A 140 x 10.800 5..6 9016 T 8 strands 18 strands 4012 Str q)8/10.40 1 (ZI1'K0..0 x 0..04857 x + 0..Pmax = 140 x 10-6m2 x 1409 x loJkPa = 197.160..1: 1 4..5m x 190 x 10 kPa x 6 . !::lP = 16. rrr' x 140 x 10- = 43.249 y .20 .7kNjtendon • 4 tendons with ltendon = 56.P = 25. II II· II • II II " x2 + 0.0043367 T i:.55 I l(/)1~.15} I ~ 1 ~tt. o~ 0 9 16 Fig B5.0276m "E.0496429 x + 0.= 19.075 ~ I I ~ o 2. 0.3kN = 197.P = 56.00 02511020 2.0414m x 6 190 x 10 kPa = 65.600 5.x y .3kN .5m 0.0044324 x2 + 0.50m = -1410kNjm <1>25/0.4>8I/O.11 I y = 0.25 Section 2 .46m/50 0.. ~ 7'~ (::..A' " Layout Elevation Distances .6kN jtendon • 18 tendons with llendon = 25. 0.00344386 I y .2m x 190 x 10 kPa 6 .4cm2/m (b) in the x-direction (point B) !::llsupp 1.246 3.025/10.3kN/tendon + 4 x 19.3kN FIP Design of post-tensioned .5kNjtendon Maximum increase of tendon force: The force increase in the tendon is limited by the design value of the yielding force which is: Pyielding = -652kNmjm -:::::: "VI .0414m 6 b. 0.l' 016/10.2' .2m 0.rrr mSdy nSd .

Om .P = 0.eff: x 103 x 0.~5~] x 20 = 10.348 x l03kPa x 0.60 [1 .9kN s .9 x 0.8kN/tendon • 4 tendons with Itend~n= 32.45 cm2 p=29.. 12Sm Check for the maximum resistance: VSd(PSd)::.l0m) =5.9 x 0. x 1.12(1 + V200j460)(100 VSd x 4.3.Scm2 p = 6. h = O.Vop = 448.20 assumpticn) reinforcement: ex = 0 A.section D ' b = 1.46 x 1.0m Shear without transverse reinforcement: VSd. P)I_ PCz .Stress increase per tendon: • 10 tendons with [tendo~= 27. 00414m··· .eff VSd(G.56 x loJkPa x 0.required ~ ( 348 x l03kPa x 10 = 26.46m (2820kN/m2 x l. Q.4Scm2 x 0. fCd2zsin6 fcd2 = 0. P) . In the following the effect of the compression due to prestress is neglected. (602S) = 29.46m x 0.9 x 0.12(1 + J200jd)(lOOpf~k)1/3db As .Ppo 42 EIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation rafts .9kN Msd(G.43 + V200/d)(lOOpfck//3bd over 1.Vop=Sl.lm x O.46m .6cm /m vr 02510.46 x 0.SkN with Vop= 0 (simplifying Shear without transverse VRd = 0. m .4kN/tendon • 8 tendons with lt~ndon = 42..9d = 21.S6MPa 962.eff= VSd(PSd.1Sm) = S. Punching.12(1 + J200j460)(100 < VSd. x 190 x 106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 27. As a simplification.46m x 1. P) = Sl.7kNjm.eff=. respectively.2.9 x 0.82 x 10-3 x 5.2 Shear in the solid strip along y-direction . P)= -571.4kNm Asfsyd ~ 0. the compression due to prestress is neglected and it is assumed that the concrete is cracked by bending.7m VRd =0.7kN/m.P = .6m = 74.46m) + 448. B4.> The ultimate limit state of punching resistance is checked at the interior column F.9kN) As.4kN + 8 x 2S.SOm = -361kN/m 2 608/0.46m) = 4.0 x 10-3 936.6Scm2 jm x 1.5 x 10-4m2 j(0.zs) + VSd(PSd' P) z z 2 571. sections D and E (Fig B4).21m) 0.2..4kNm = 13[PSd(pSd) + PSd(P)] .82 x 10-3 x 30MPa)1/3 l::.9kN 2 x 1.0.8kN/tendon Stress increase per unit width of slab Shear with transverse reinforcement: vertical stirrups (ex = 90°): VSd Asw> S .4kN needed Considering transverse reinforcement is l::.- SJsyd- > IMsd(PSd. P) . VSd(PSd.45 x 1O-4m2/(0. Ordinary point B reinforcement mSdx nSd z cotgs considering over the column in x-direction- z = 0..43 = -399kNm/m = <Tcpx x O.0 x 10-3 x 30MPa)1/3 < As. = 34.8cm2jm and e = 35°: x 104 -> Asw 448.2 Shear In this section the ultimate limit state of shear resistance is checked on a solid strip and on a rib.46m .10m VRd=261.2.35m x 103 VRd = 73.fyd SP = [10 x 37. As = 21.9 x 0.1kN SP = 74.P = 0.1Sm = 6.1 Shear in the ribs along y-direction section E VSd(PSd.provided B4.SkN VSd.Sm) x (0. P)=448.9cm 4 2 OK! VRd =0.8kN]/9.04~4m x 190 x 106kPa x 140 x 1O-6mi 42.SOm Effective punching force The' effective punching force is given by PSd.3Sm x 0.10m.9kN With V~p = 0 (simplifying assumption) VRd = 0.S7 OK! = 2507. Q.Om = 4O. l::.3kN + 4 x 34.4kN.04~4m x 190 x 106kPa x 140 x 10-6m2 32.12(1 As(0l2jO. s 10.20m B4. m = 2S.6kN Check for the longitudinal tensile reinforcement: co t6 B4. (6025) =29.

for functional reasons.0kN and. from the table of reactions (Fig B4). In addition. " = 4 x 0.54m ' column: 0.50 x ~258. = 2446kN . d The correction factor is given by BS.23.8J(0.138m/2.15 = 10074kN>2446kN ex = 173.8kN B4.50% OK! 25.138m The control perimeter (Fig A9) is defined at a distance 2d from the column faces.6 x 10-4m2 x 348 x 1O-3kPa +.54cm2/m self-weight other permanent loads prestressing full live load p = ~::::: PRd =0.7 + 4 x 0.7m x 2 P) = 874.2 = 1887.54m2) = L50 The effective punching force is then given by PSd.46m == by = 2.eff The following maximum deflection values are obtained OK! rafts (0 = 2. In the present case it was important. As(2 x 016/0.eff = 1.8cm2/m x 0.5 x 10.5) 43 FIP Design of post-tensioned slabs and foundation .70m b.5.46m ' neglecting the compression effect Ppo =0 Effective punching force without prestress: PSd (PSd) = 2446kN !3PSd(VSd) = 1.x{PSd'P) 37. a (mm) f3 = 1 + 1.2kN = 0.8kN .2kN = 0.12(1 25.8kN = 1258.6 . The amount of prestress was chosen in order to balance the maximum deflection due to permanent loads. from half span up to d/2 each side of the column.15 in 0.9 1.2kN> x 5.x{PSd.58m x 0. to limit the thickness of the slab to O. Their application would lead to a slenderness value of about Vh =25 (h = 0.with PSd(P) Maximum resistance: = PSd(Phyperstatic) PSd{PSd) - :EPtga where. neglecting P poPSd{PSd'P) = 2446.65m). and PSd(Phyperstatic) fcd2 Uo = 1O.70m) = 32.80~ x 0. 10 in each direction are considered.56 x 16'kPa = 6800kN x 2.12(1 = J200/d)(100p!ck)I/3ud = Asy = As(025/0.56 x 10-4m2 x 1800 x 1O-3kPa/1.50m.max = 0.56MPa = 4 x 0. considering that prestress is designed to balance approximately 70% of the quasi-permanent actions and limiting the deflection after installation of partitions.451T= 8.6cm2 The eccentricity of the punching force may be obtained 'om the reactions given in the table of Fig B4: MSd. to 15mm.5kNm ey = 874.58m = 0.9kNm Asp = 2 x (10 + 10) x 1.3 x 10-3> 0. Asfytd + AsP/ptd ~ PSd{PSd) = 37.3 + )200/450)(100 PRd = 1976.8kN PRd.40cm2 = 56cm2 MSd.9 7.695mji.50 x 2446kN The transverse equivalent load of 10 strands on the ydirection and 18 strands on the x-direction.3 x 10-3 x 30MPa)1/3 x 8.54I?2) + (0.max OK! = 832.1 Control of deflections Section 3.and y-directions and the monostrands crossing the column.1 gives simplified rules for indirect control of deflections. for frequent loads.695m = 173. was added for the quantification of the transverse effect of the prestress: :EPtga Therefore PSd(P) = -355.80m = -355.7m = 2.46 = 5.3kN Resistant punching force PRd Asx = 0.832.20) = 24.0kN -1l87.70 x 0.0kN = -1187.5kNm/1258.54 x 10-4/0. no particular limitations were required for the increase of deflections occurring after the installation of partitions.9kNm/1258.2kN = 3669kN <PRd. and its dimensions are: Ul B5 Serviceability Limit States Deflection and cracking control are considered for the verification of serviceability limit states.46m x 103 PSd.4 Progressive collapse For the resistance to progressive collapse due to punching failure the bottom reinforcement crossing the column in the x.

(3016) = 3.2 x 0.0 x 0.2) (Ts= 200MPa for indirect cracking control (0max = 16mm per table.0MPa = 2.3) 2 0. The average concrete stress due to prestress is (Tcpy 2.and foundation rafts .6 + 766.5 )/6 = 0. (1. kc kc = 0.5 )/6 = 0.6 + 1. section 3. at the column support and at the span section: + 211.7cm2/m fCLeff can be evaluated by (eq. < (25.min= kkcAcdfcl.9 + 0.6 . The average concrete stress due to prestress is (Tcpx=O.2). 025//0.2) 2 0.0 + 2.6 + 1.9) x (1 + 2.8 x 0.6 x 214. The stress in the reinforcing steel should be evaluated neglecting the concrete tensile resistance.5 + (1.1 = -:193.permanent loads: ag = (25.8kNm/m = The value obtained for the tensile stress indicates that the structure may be locally cracked in this region.8 x 9.8m).0/200) < As.0/(3.err/(Ts) = 4. = The stresses are calculated for the frequent load combination..24 x 1290 x (3.24 = 3.46): As.0/160) = 0.2 Cracking control The slab behaves mainly as a one-way system in the longitudinal direction (1= 16. A small amount of prestressing was also adopted in the transverse direction to improve serviceability.129m /m 2 Act = (0.7cm2 per rib < As. ' Considering a. BS.8/0.0MPa = 0.6 = 147.4/0.4 x 7.39 + 0.w direction - Section C 470.9MPa BS.2) .042m3/m (Tc= 174.efr = 0.72/3) x 0.8 = 0." = obtained.2820 = 1375kPa w= 1.4 Minimum reinforcement in the ribs (in the transverse direction) As.2 = -174.9) x 2.3 w BS.2. 44 FIP Design ofpost-tensioned slabs .051- = 70kPa = O.9 .0/(3.8kNm/m 3 (Tc= 193.5.042 .23.82) = 0. = EslEc = 15 and the steel reinforcement adopted.25) x 3.0mm BS.399) x 3.prov.5.3 Transverse direction - Section B To estimate flaf a lower value of 0 could have been used.5) = 26.20.4MPa The minimum reinforcement 3.0 + 0. a steel stress (Ts 130.2.16/0.3) x (1 + 2.5) = 22.8 - 0.24 + (0.6mm = 1/1300 quasi-perm: loads: aqp = (25.1·Longitudinal direction Mfr Section A = (-812.72MPa M fr = (-350.720 = 3893kPa = (1.2 Longitudinal Mir = (532:1.5) = 12.5. section 3.72) = (Ts= 160MPa for indirect cracking control (0max '= 25mm per table.2.051m3 (Tc= 147.4kNm 2820 =0.prov.min= kkcAct(JcLefr/(Ts) fet.0 x 0.064m2 Act = (1.9 .8mm = 1/740 frequent loads: flar B5.2. Such value ensures cracking control (see tal section 3.042 .0 x 0.042m /m = 3.lMPa The slab remains nearly in compression ~t the' span 'region.352 0.6 x 7.2.23.6 x 91.82MPa.2MPa .9) x 0:6 x 143.3) x (1 + 2.352 x 640 x (3.8/0.

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