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Political Science Paper 1

TIME ALLOWED: 3 HOURS ` MAXIMUM MARKS:100

NOTE: Attempt FIVE questions in all, including Question No.8 which is Compulsory. Select TWO
questions from PART-I and TWO questions from PART-II. All questions carry equal marks.

PART- I

1. Right to revolt against the established government by Locke, if the former violates people’s trust, is
antithetic, in some respects, to the social contract theories of other philosophers. Analyse the statement
and explain in detail.

2. "Nature has placed man under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for
them alone to point out, what we ought to do as well as to determine, what we shall do..... We owe to them
all our ideas; we refer to them all our judgments and all the determinations of life". Bentham. Show how
Bentham and J.S. Mill promoted pleasure-pain theory and under what nomenclature. Had this theory any
historical ROOT as well as EFFECT on the political conditions obtaining in their homeland?

3. Farabi was in the truest sense, "the parent of all subsequent Arabic philosophers", so that its only
natural that he is regarded by the Muslims as the ‘Mu’allim’-o--thani., the second Preceptor, the first
being Aristotle. Explain.

4. Write short notes on the following:

(a) Machiavelli’s Prince.

(b) Show how Aristotle’s Organic Theory different from Plato’s Idealistic Theory of State.

PART-II

5. "If a determinate human superior, not in the habit of obedience to a like superior, receives habitual
obedience from the bulk of given society,’ that determinate superior is sovereign in that society and that
society-( including the superior) is a society political and independent". Austin. Critically examine the
theory of sovereignty with reference to views expressed by thinkers in the 16th century.

6. What are the reasons for the increased activity of the state in modern times? Do you subscribe to the
views that the failure of democracy in Pakistan is the consequence of misplaced priorities, determined by
its leaders on the basis of their self-interest and prejudices against their opponents?

7. Unitarianism is the habitual exercise of supreme legislative authority by one central power. Bring out
basic features of this form of state, giving examples and show that the District Devolution Plan, as an
advanced form of local government, is not the initial step towards formation of unitary type of state in the
country.

COMPULSORY QUESTION

8. Write only the correct ‘answers in the Answer Book. Don’t reproduce the questions.

(1) Leviathan was written by:


(a) Hegel (b) James Mill (c) Hobbes (d) J.S. Mill (e) None of these.

(2) Founder of utilitarian school of thought was:

(a) Edmund Burk (b) Hume (c) J.S. Mill


(d) James Mill (e) None of these.

(3) Locke laid down that state is:

(a) An end in itself (b) Means to an end


(c) Unavoidable evil (d) Legal necessity (e) None of these.

(4) Rousseau’s political philosophy furnished basis for:

(a) Political sovereignty (b) Limited sovereignty (c) Popular sovereignty (d) Absolute sovereignty (e)
None of these.

(5) How many essentials are required to constitute a state?

(a) Three (b) Four (c) Five (d) Six


(e) None of these.

6) Laissez Faire policy means:

(a) Withdrawal of ‘some restrictions


(b) Fair legislation (c) Control over trade
(d) Control over industry (e) None of these.

(7) Materialistic interpretation of history was propounded by:

(a) Trotsky (b) Lenin (c) Bolsheviks


(d) Mensheviks ‘ (e) None of these.

(8) Fascism as a political theory originated in:

(a) France (b) Germany (c) Italy


(d) Russia (e) None of these.

(9) Plato wrote:

(a) Politics (b) The Laws (c) Political Economy


(d) Polity (e) None of these.

(10) Al-Mauwardi wrote:

(a) Ahkamul Sultaniya (b) Siyasatnama


(c) Sayarul Muluk (d) Ahyaul Ulum (e) None of ‘these.

(11) Strong emphasis on justice was laid by:

(a) Socrates (b) Aristotle (c) Herodotus (d) Stoics (e) None of these.
(12) The Spirit of Laws was written by:

(a) John Locke (b) J.S. Mill (.c) Hume (d) Edmund Burk (e) None of these.

(13) God has made this world "a place for work and labour" is the famous quotation of:

(a) Al—Mauwardi (b) Al-Farabi


(c) Nizamul Mulk Tusi (d) Al-Ghazali (e) None of these.

(14) ‘Felicific Calculus’ was the contribution of:

(a) Bentham (b) Aristotle (c) Plato


(d) J. S. Mill (e) None of these.

(15) The theory of ‘Group Mind’ was enunciated by:

(a) Al-Mauwardi (b) Ibn-i-Khaldun (c) Al-Ghazali


(d) Al-Farabi (e) None of these.

(16) The theory of ‘Surplus Value’ as a part of communistic philosophy was the contribution of:

(a) Karl Marx (b) Trotsky (c) Fredrick Angel


(d) Recordo (e) None of these.

(17) Hobbesian social contract is based on:

(a) Desire for peace (b) Selfishness (c) Fear


(d) Completion (e) None of these.

(18) Importance of civil service has grown due to:

(a) Population growth (b) Increased state activity (c) Complexity of rules and regulations

(d) Law and order requirement (e) None of these.

(19) Which political theory propounded that state will ultimately disappear:

(a) Syndacatism (b) Fabian socialism


(c) Fascism (d) Communism
(e) None of these.

(20) According to Aristotle the end of state is:

(a) Legal (b) Social (c) Ethical


(d) Economic (e) None of these.

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