Newberry. IbonorarB aeeietant Director an& Secretary Lady Petrie. D. D.M. G. N. Sir James Frazer.C.. Eumorfopoulos. MacInnes {Chairman).G.E. P. PiRE Vincent. a.C. iRev. Sir Dr. M. The Provost of University College. Miers.C. ip. G. K. P. O. C. Lamplough.I. ©ciieral ' Committee Executive Members. Murray. R. Sukenik. Guy. G. J.O. Sir Percival David. Sir Leonard Woolley.S. D. R.. S.M. G. a. Mohl. Right Rev. IE.S. Mrs... 1 The Principal of King's College.O.C. E.. Percy Cox. ^H. Mrs. a. Dr.C.C. Prof. Crowfoot. Dr.O. General Sir Arthur Wauchope.I. Wilfred Hall. Sir Flinders Petrie.G. Strong. G. Randall-MacIver. S. Eumorfopoulos. Bowman. G. Haddon. Sir Robert Mond. Henry Balfour. G. Milne. CLE.B. Dr. Ellis Minns. C.BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IPatrone IN EGYPT Baron Lloyd of Dolobran. Dr. Sir Charles Peers. The Bishop of Gloucester. Bart.S. Sir Charles Marston. . Sir John Chancellor..V. E. Prof. iMrs. Ogden. J. Dr. ffJonorarH Director Prof. E.S. Dr.. Hjonorarg treasurer lA. Sir Henry J. Clark. Reisner. N.O. L. W. P.






or Miss Bonar. 1. published at 25s. round the neck of the wearer by a ring attached to . copies of low relief wall sculptures made by Hansard. CHAPTER ANUBIS. It consists of two parts. possibly gold. in Saaaata_j\I asta bas His MS was not finished Besides the collar there are a few points which 1. Petrie. Eckenstein together with plans and elevations. 2. I. Gower Street. for water . however. The most important item of the dress is.-^ iirnrth nntinp Thoueh the wife of Seker-kha-bau SEVEN MEMPHITE TOMB CHAPELS BY HILDA PETRIE Illustrated F. II This volume contains the important transof the inscriptions reproduce the upper part of the figure of Seker-khabau on a sufficiently large scale for careful study (PL. and in the forthcoming volume Seven Memphite Tomb Chapels deities that I A^n. lations by Professor Kurt Sethe I. by facsimile F. In Saqqara Mastabas is I the false door of Seker- reproduced on too small a scale to permit of the collar or necklace being seen in full detail. one lying over the other. have thought it worth while to make a short study of a few of those mentioned in the Saqqara tombs published in volume I. for this volume may be addressed i. the two side bars flare out to right and left respectively. copied by Lady the collar is an example of that which was the curse of the Egyptian Petrie and her staff. Orders. As this ornament appears to be part of the official insignia of the priesthood. W. H.C. University College. I). Petrie. it seemed worth while to kha-bau the ring are three bars shaped like the zigzag sign the middle bar runs down vertically. Though this is a very early period of art. subscription price 21s. and L. London.vJ Avx^i the collar. This volume will shortly appear. The under portion is evidently made of some rigid It is held material such as metal. and it represents in a highly conventionalised form a much earlier and more primitive object.SAOOARA MASTABAS PART INTRODUCTION. Kingsford. At their lower ends the three bars . enclosing one guinea. Egyptian stylization artist .


p. and in his combine to give a resembles the sinister cast of portrait of — Researches in Sinai. and shows that this and not a conventionalised repreThe likeness sentation of a priest of high rank. reproduced on too small a scale to permit collar or necklace being seen in full detail. tomb by but it was considered advisable to publish them here on a sufficiently large scale for detailed study. rather aquiline. . Miss Hansard (Mrs. work are in the transliterations where newer and more accurate forms have been discovered often by Professor Sethe himself since his three The plate references in chapters were written. Firth). This volume is therefore volume had appeared. Gauthier Laurent in Melanges Maspero. I). For the same reason the figure of Seker-kha-bau Miss Hansard's republished on a large scale. I think. it seemed worth while to kha-bau the ring are three bars shaped like the zigzag sign for water . 2. the large projecting lips and the short chin countenance which Sa-nekht (Petrie. and the shortest comes from the lower part of the ear to the nape of the neck. Professor Sethe's chapters are to volume I. and during the interval the illustrious author has passed away. II This volume contains the important transof the inscriptions reproduce the upper part of the figure of Seker-khabau on a sufficiently large scale for careful study (PL. (For the method of arranging a wig of this kind. round the neck of the wearer by a ring attached to . CHAPTER ANUBIS. and it represents in a highly conventionalised form a much earlier and more primitive object. 48). 1. possibly gold. before the publication of the Steindorff. There are three lengths of these twists the longest falls from the crown of the head to the top of the ear. It consists of two parts. Besides the collar there are a few points which are worth noting. and in the forthcoming volume Seven Memphite Tomb Chapels copied by Lady Petrie and her staff. The under portion is evidently made of some rigid artist . 3. the two side out and left respectively. So little is known about any of the early deities that I have thought it worth while to make a short study of a few of those mentioned in the Saqqara tombs published in volume I. These were made Professor the two. is For the description of the dress see vol. The big. is pi. have had as its foundation a close-fitting cloth cap on which the twists of hair were sewn. 85 seq. Saqqara Mastabas after that His MS was not It finished has remained unpublished awaiting the publication of the second volume. the man himself is not only unlike her but is also unlike any other portraits of officials surviving from the Ilird the poorer in not having his corrections of the MS and the proofs. of the As this ornament appears to be part of the official insignia of the priesthood. the collar is an example of that stylization which was the curse of the Egyptian The wig must. the next row is about the length of the ear. The only alterations I have made and I\th dynasties. the middle bar bars flare nms down to right vertically. Though this is a very early period of Egyptian art. one lying over the other. lations in till by Professor Kurt Sethe I. Though the wife of Seker-kha-bau has the same short-nosed type of face as Zoser. I. I. At their lower ends the three bars . however. In Saqqara Mastabas is I the false door of Seker- It is held material such as metal. nose. careful drawing of the necklace was the first indication to me of the importance of that priestly ornament.) The most important item of the dress is. p.— SAOOARA MASTABAS PART INTRODUCTION. see M. Sa-nekht is sufficiently between Seker-kha-bau and close as to suggest a blood relationship between truly a likeness Miss Kingsford (Lady Cockerell). The drawings from the tomb of Ty were made by Lady Petrie. the collar.

The ornament is so conventionalised and priesthood. — — 3. : . of the opinion that this is not the true explanation. The strings though he occasionally has chapels built in his honour in the temple of some other god. whereas the number of known High Priests of Memphis is relatively great. the head at one shoulder of the wearer. and was carried before the King in the earliest times of which there is any record. The animal is thus complete with head. one on each side or whether there was but one slung across the chest of the wearer with the head pointing to one shoulder. The knobs and ring project beyond the curved bar of which they are here represented as forming part. altered from its earliest form that it is impossible two jackals. Like all primitive deities he has no consort. the disks have a ring at the top through which the string passes is . 1894. thus symbolizing the beginning and end of the royal hfe. the ring string which tied the zigzag to the curved bar. at which betokens the High Priest.. central zigzag ends in a ring. the knob was a knot. tinuation is attracted much attention. must refer to some other and the importance in it of the jackal strongly suggests a priesthood of Anubis. the tail to the other. 18 seq. The position of Anubis in regard to the rest of the Egyptian pantheon has never been accurately he has been called the God of Death.S. and the suggestion has been generally accepted. and was distinct from. the body is exaggeratedly thin. . that the knot was part of the I suggest that in . that they were originally part of the tail and that the maker of the The late collar had misunderstood their meaning. On the mace-heads of the Scorpion King and of Narmer. Anubis is a god of is whom very little is known. body and four limbs. by their size and position. is that of Death he is any connection with the life after death Death personified. his standard comes next to the emblem of birth. . in what is possibly an attitude of adoration. of which the hands are held near the snout. pendant. forms studied by Erman {Z. then. and on each is slung a single suggestions. and the circular shows that the object hollow in the centre indicates that it is a disk. No special locality or district belongs to him and therefore no temple dedicated to his sole worship. The not a bead. that it was part of the insignia of the High Priest of Memphis. like Osiris or Seker. His function he has not. The animal is represented with two human arms. the Old Kingdom suggested. On the other side is the body of a jackal with four feet and a tail but without a head. one jackal across the priest's chest. On the first three are ankhs.) Lower down the Kingdom body are two feet so entirely stylized that they would be unrecognisable as feet if detached from the body. His inclusion in the Osirian Cycle is not only late but too vague to be convincing. (Cf. of the kind The never significance of this remarkable ornament has It found in later times. if it were originally made a cord of some kind of a rigid material. also an early deity. ankhs are threaded through the oval loop which is an integral part of the sign. The curved bar appears to belong to the zigzags and to have had no original connection with the conThis continuation on each side of the curve. and till late times he stands alone without any connection with other gods or goddesses.ANUBIS are fastened to a curved bar. or whether the figure of the jackal was modelled in relief or in the round. especially in and (2) that Seker-kha-bau. in the Old Neheb-ka. then come three more ankhs. this part of the necklace i. the stiff bars consists of twelve strings hung round the neck. though without a tail on one side of the ornament. I therefore venture to make here a few . three disks .e. though he uses the not the It full title title of sekhem hemti (y T ) has the gesture with that of seems. however. are graduated in length. which I suggest was originally a ring-amulet of fibre or string. The little hind-legs immediately under the tail seem to show. He is an early deity. At the side of the junction of the right and left bars with the curved hold disks. tail at the other. it is Owing to the limitations of relief-sculpture.) show that in the New Kingdom there was only to say whether there were originally . The second part of the necklace which overlay. and as such he belonged originally to the Pharaoh alone. and studied that is all. and lastly The six ankhs and six disks in all. the next three The clearest classification of the Egyptian . any rate. uncertain whether of sheet metal. The principal (i) that the ornament is arguments against it are excessively rare. was cut out was flat. I am. not a ball. The standard of Anubis was one of the earliest of the royal standards. the Like all early figures of jackals. has been so formed as to represent the figure of Anubis. pp.A. that the ornament. the original object bar is a knob. and that the bar was perhaps or.

). The theologians. the inscriptions of Seker-kha-bau and the fetish of the . when new and foreign ideas began to infiltrate into the more primitive cults. In following out the development of the Egyptian it must be remembered that that religion was never static. where Seth is the Giver of Fertility and is sacrificed for the good of his people. though with some the basis modifications. whose name is compounded name. Of the last nothing is known the drawing of the object. the greater number of Egyptologists have been inflluenced by the classical ately. as Sekerkha-bau was its priest. The consequent But in result is that Ra Oxyrhynchus nome. late additions. or invented goddesses for bachelor gods (e. Yet it was obviously divine. the incarnate God. The sun. 1928. re-arranged the pantheon. thence to the lesser and finally permeated all classes. appears three times journey. Of Seth so much was written by Plutarch and others that the position and attributes of the god have been completely obscured. periods. Here the continual changes in the Kingship must be taken into account. In the case of Anubis the confusion arose. as with Seth. The position of Seth in early times is clearly indicated in the Pyramid Texts of Pepy and Merenra (see Ancient Egypt. The original group consisted of Osiris. [Seth was god of the Ann. p.g. and have not realised the changes which took place in the long course of Egyptian is religion. The legend of the birth of the Kings of the Vth dynasty indicates the introduction of sun-worship and shows that it was pecuhar to the royal family. also worth noting the other for the generality of mankind. This fact is clearly shown by the royal names which (with the exception of Neferka-Ra) are never compounded with Ra till the IVth dynasty. Seth is which he or she governed. arranged thus 1. p. in that confused period. were very different from here the priests sent the nected ideas together sun through the other worlds of various parts of the clumsiness of the arrangement is seen Egypt by the fact that the morning star. heralding the . which Seker-kha-bau belonged. belonged to the Kings only. the Egyptian religion is still so fragmentary that it is essential to study the early gods singly and in detail. The dogmas of the Osirian worship were not fully established till the New Kingdom. but deities like Anubis or Heqt. Ptah with Sekhmet). 68 seq. those of a later time. . which was so essentially the royal deity in the New Kingdom. Till this has been done adequately and from an anthropological point of view.g.] religion. were special deities belonging only to the Our knowledge of Pharaoh. of my argument. The sun's journey through the other world is another example of the theological attempt to fuse uncon- — regarded now as having been always the supreme deity of Egypt. an aspect not generally recognised by the writers on Egyptian F. Even so late as the Pyramid Texts. which possibly represents the name of the local god. Seshat. is particularly the early gods. deities. than the local A local god or The identification of one god with another is goddess was worshipped by the people of the district responsible for the confusion which existed in late . They also identified one deity with another. These are probably the most primitive The Osiris Cycle. the pantheon. : — Local headed. the New Kingdom. is unknown in the early 3. Amont and Amon). other gods. to the proto-dynastic period. like Sekhmet and Bast. 2. The contrast between the Pyramid Texts and the Book of the Dead is the one being for Kings only. and that obscurity has been increased by many of the authors of modem books on Egyptian religion. though originally the two were quite distinct. in authors and late texts. the Egyptian religion will remain to modern eyes entirely formless and static. only the and dogmas King spread gradually to the higher ranks of the nobles. the friend and helper of Osiris. in the course of the night's in the early religion the deities. 8 seq. only four other divinities are in mentioned these are Anubis. studying the religion. Horus and Anubis are Nephthys only Osirian . Isis and Seth.). probably the priests of Heliopolis which was the centre of all theology and speculative religion. originally The to ideas belonging officials. There reason to believe that dawn. in the personal Besides the god Seker. The Royal Gods. The Osirian dogmas are a good instance of the democratization of an idea. gives no clue to its real meaning. Usually animal or animaldeities. P. . and that democratization is an religion influence to be reckoned with. Seth.• ANUBIS pantheon which has yet been made is by Peteie I use it as {Religion and Conscience. who had no local status and therefore no temple. paired off the deities who had no consorts (e. Unfortun.

rare title of f^ its the cult of for the worship of each of these three deities title only. 5^. a country where mad jackals are not uncommon will tnpw ". viii. As death is the inevitable end of every life. sh ntr there are again only civilian titles. as he that the King should have a himself suggested. The tribes of the Nilotic Sudan . the peasantry did not practise inhumation. bites obvious emblem of in Egypt connects the jackal with death is its habit of sitting on the tombs. i) . not Hor-akhti). The two priestly titles are not only rare the axe-man title is known only in the Old Kingdom when wooden architecture was in use but the end to him. and beasts of prey. at special first sight. until recent times. pi. an executioner must have been appointed when the allotted span of the royal hfe had run. xxii. that of Y-em-hotep (L. If. I suggest that the reasons were that it it is a nocturnal animal. and Wep-wawut. Royal pi. Anubis belonged to every part of Egypt. Garstang. . in is also extremely which last drum The two mdh Inpio Anubis. offices .g. surmised. show that this was not the case. or whether that area was reserved for nobles only. axe-man) of Chief of the Sacred Land " and hk' n . The reason for identifying the jackal more than the other two with death can only be jackal . A jackal will attack a human being with ferocity and. owing to the carrion on which it lives. practised the custom of combination with Anubis is unique in the case of the axe-man. what became of the bodies ? The The confusion between the two is most marked from the New Kingdom onwards. the burials found in any given cemetery must have consisted almost entirely of peasants. as the division leaves the epithet of Anubis unconnected with any priesthood. and on the lintel. — have. Mahasna. The priestly insignia of Seker-kha-bau it is so worth while to examine the priestly titles in the inscriptions. on the other hand. would make it a terror Anyone who has lived in priestly titles referring to Anubis are Ijiiti t' dsr " Builder (lit. he holds one he holds two But for the cult of Anubis consequently it is only logical to infer that he was an important personage in the The priesthoods occur in a service of that god. In the early jar-sealings the name or figure of a deity of is often set vertically between enclosed names 179 . ii) title into dividing the The combination certainly fatal of nocturnal habits and two parts. On the other side panel there are civilian titles only. its bite rabid is Anubis second Both are rare titles. the local god of Siut. Bruce {Travels to discover the Sources . p. Tombs. the eyes of the people. e. Seker-kha-bau is prophet obviously refer to Anubis that ['lO] of Seshat scarcity of timber in Egypt precluded cremation .ANUBIS times between the two jackal gods. in the sand dries but does not destroy the corpses the only alternatives would be the river with crocodiles. If the former were the case. cannot agree with in often fatal even when the creature is not diseased. Anubis the god of Death. pi. though it began earlier but even in the Middle Kingdom Wep-wawut was he had his temple at Siut not the same as Anubis and functioned within his own district. Arranged as I have given it. and the Ruler of the Anubis shrine occurs in only one other tomb. In all places where the divine King is put to death. the crocodile being equally prompt and active in the and it is noticeable that all three creatures water were deified. and that liable to rabies. would make the jackal an Another fact which death. Sethe bases his reading on the sealing in the tomb of Neterkhet (Garstang. Mahasna. ix. it seems strange. Yet the records of any modernly excavated cemetery. and he holds the Seth . Saqqara. this being an epithet of the god. with the and on the exception of the priesthood of Seshat . 4. or exposure to birds . the sacrifice. as the peasantry always greatly outnumber the nobility in any country. and the vulture are the most prompt The and active of such scavengers on dry land. on one of the side panels. the sacrifice can only be consummated at the hands of a specially God to bring that — otherwise to kill the King is appointed priest worse than murder. but in my opinion the word there reads Uty. ii^e). whereas . ii. the title makes good sense. In Egyptian burial customs it is impossible to say whether the peasants received burial in the Sacred Land. " Ruler of the I divine shrine of understand the panic which they inspire. But if no King were ever allowed to die a natural death. kings (Petrie. of almost Professor Sethe (see below. and of the fetish of Oxyrhynchus. the present state of our knowledge of 5. group together on the back of the false door. where the god's name is 'Ash. Of the four deities mentioned. and in every country where the rite is practised the victim is warned beforehand and an official executioner performs sacrificing their incarnate Gods. D.

the ororo or king-killer was always a the pantheon of royal gods becomes clear who also Menkaure is that of Tut-ankh-Amon. XXVIth dynasty. thus symbolizing the seven years of life then being allotted to the monarch. Such a suggestion is substantiated by the customs of the Shilluk. Ne-user-re the length of life allotted to the King. Anubis the Pharaoh with seven atikhs. it is evident that the custom was even then extremely I p." It seems. masked with a jackal's head. then. The " criminality " of Akhenaten may have been of the same type as that of Khufu and Khafra. iv. and according to Erman his sovereign . 3) of Ergamenes. " the criminal of Akhetaten. according to Herodotus (Book ii. name If. Pyramid Texts of Pepy and Merenra show that the King was sacrificed as a fertility victim. and his successor paid the same penalty as the successor of the impious Kings of the IVth dynasty. the Shilluk kept up the Anubis custom till modern times. in other words one and second. nor is any and kinsman's blood imputed to him however many of his sovereigns he has thus murdered. marched on the temple and killed the priests. the King can be represented by a substitute this was probably the case in Egypt in the greater number of reigns. had closed the temples and forbidden . 133). account by Diodorus of Ethiopia. and it was . In a sculptured scene in the . 1928. 91). 6. Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan." This statement explains two facts connected with Anubis. . 459 seq. in the Again. in ancient Egypt a term was set to the reign.A. but the story of Menkaure indicates that hour had come. a king priests that his who was told by the His priest. and made an expedition into Ethiopia. that in the of the King's own family New Kingdom and later. the King's) clear : family guilt who alone can be the instrument of shedding . and it was only for certain Kings that the law was enforced.S. sacrificed.) the the Occupier of the Throne. where. p. place Ne-user-re had seven complete years of parallel with A case he is the death-god of the King. his . In the case of Ergamenes tlie priests had decided on his death on account of his showing the first signs of old age. The rigorous insistence on the death of Menkaure may have been due to the fact that his two immediate predecessors. The is recorded by Herodotus (Book ii. and that this term was seven years. was preceded by a blasphemous King. was the immediate messenger announcing the dread . he member of the royal reigned six years and died in the seventh. Osiris may mean was in then... 161). The story of Menkaure shows that in Egypt the length of the term was seven years. executioner of the divine victim. 93 seq." but himself returned to the old religion and its rites and customs . Anubis was the personification of Death. Frazer has proved that the sacrifice was often consummated at the end of a term of years. 1790) makes this quite " There is one officer of liis (i. Khufu and Khafra. until the very end of the last century. and also announced to the King that his time had come (Seligman. ed. there is confirmation of the story in the (iii. In other words. There are two con- firmations of this story. while in the Vth dynasty life. therefore appropriate that he should indicate to priests. ' ' have already pointed out {Ancient Egypt. When the custom relaxes. usually seven or nine. and shortly afterwards died. Menkaure.DEATH OF THE KING of the Nile. If the sacrifices included the killing of the and divine victim. 8) that the the sacrifices of the royal ". As the Pyramid Texts were already corrupt from centuries of copying and as they also indicate to the King a way of escape from his fate. As an oracle when first given has always to be interpreted by the story on the accession of a pious and retrogressive Pharaoh is equally understandable they insisted on the fulfilment of the religious law after the lawlessness of the two previous impious monarchs. masking would probably be part of the ritual. the action two Kings priests is quite understandable. {Z. Anubis is credited with being the son of Osiris. The first is that when the name is determined with the sign of a child it means a prince or princess. It should be noted that in the IVth dynasty Menkaure had six years of life presents the appointed messenger of death and possibly the and died in the seventh.e. If my theory is correct and Anubis was the messenger to announce death to the predestined victim and to consummate the sacrifice. " Psammis reigned only six years over Egypt. family. Anubis temple of Ne-user-re. The significance of Seker-kha-bau's collar lies in the combination of Anubis and the number of ankh-signs. but the action of the ancient. He had no intention of being he therefore assembled his soldiers. 1910. was warned by an oracle of Buto that he would reign for six years and die in the seventh. of the Vth dynasty. that the custom of sacrificing the royal god at the end of a term of years was known in Egypt from an early period. p. a Pharaoh of the IVth dynasty.

But the word Wt is well-known as the or a hence the epithet can be transterm for an oasis " He who is in " (or " from ") " the Oasis ". for I have already pointed out that the royal victim must and the sacrifice must be sacrificed. pp. and this is a case in point. which may have been inhabited or merely cultivated. like the Shilluk King. The so-called " citysign " originally denoted an enclosed space. The early form of this building is seen on the sealings from the Royal Tombs of Abydos. masked as Anubis. doubly priest of Anubis. In primitive societies the King-killer and in the legend was probably the successor to the throne. a grave was dug and the bones of the king were placed in it wrapped in the skin of one of the sacrificed oxen. them here. He who title is in front of is the shrine of the God In this the shrine though not unhkely. has also been called the " city (&) flEriin ^«'i^' sh nlr " ". viii. called the incarnate God to The summoner. " mortals and gods alike we must die. The jackal figure the city-sign. Late representations of Anubis show a jackal couchant above a low flat structure which looks like an altar. is made of lattice-work. . Modem Africa still practises certain customs which occasionally throw light on ancient religious rites. no sacrifices means of propitiating death. So little is known of the early religion of Egypt that it is quite unMenkaure. if Seker-kha-bau were the summoner was he also the executioner. this shrine must have a special royal significance. should be considered in this is as now. The euphemism for the King's death. as Osirian faith was the death. he and that also. and the always represented from the front. Seker-kha-bau has among his priestly offices a title which is unexplained. specially built for the purpose. ii . certain. which had thus arisen " (Seligman. The determinative and therefore a " usually called city of Ut " has and the six ankh-signs combine to show that the collar refers to the six-year period of and the combination can only be explained by the scene of Anubis and Ne-user-re. not murdered always be performed by a priest. the Nilotic Sudan. Prayers and connection. but to tions leave my mind The the explanarare epithet much to be desired.ANUBIS approach of the final scene. Seth was aiming at the crown. I suggest then that in Seker-kha-bau must be seen the priest of Anubis who. 9. the titles of the priests of Anubis assume a meaning and significance which reveal the primitive religion of Egypt in an unexpected aspect. thus takes on a sinister significance. 92). that the summoner sacrificial priest were one and the same. . in a special building. for Seth was full brother to Osiris and was therefore the obvious candidate for the office. The " Great Name " of Seker-kha-bau shows also the priest's connection with the dead through the local Memphite god of the other world. Seth's role by is violence. and one or two others put up within the enclosure for the attendants on the new shrine. then ^\> Wtj " He pi. for one of the central doctrines of the If. If this is so. Pagan Tribes of The hut-shrine. also in of executioner accordance with the modem Shilluk custom. -\r^^ r^ propose with the figure of the death-god cunningly woven into the actual structure. been invented. of Ut i) " (see p. lated . as the official representative consummated the sacrifice. i). had no temple. fig. and in detailed examples the door is shown. 91. like the walls. and suggests that the royal victim was put to death. Wt of bandaging "." The collar of Seker-kha-bau. who become the chief god for there was. was a death-hut. " The two great Doors are shut. but which refers to Seth. 6. Mahasna. It was not a town with streets and houses in our sense it was not necessarily even a village of the word hamlet. After some months the death-hut was " broken down by the ororo. hence its use in the names of farms and fields. A hut was built over the grave. announced to the king that the day of death was fixed Seth. shows very clearly that ^^j Wt. of the next world. to discuss only three of (a) Though Anubis has several epithets. the name Osiris simply the Occupier of the Throne." may refer to that early time and the closing of the doors of the it . and let him die slowly of suffocation. I of and is in the form of a jackal (see p. where the roof Erman has pointed out. also Garstang. If Anubis is regarded as connected with the Pharaoh only. the means inclusion of the Death-god in the Osirian Cycle is logical. and the meaning must be studied in connection with another latticed shrine of Anubis. cannot placate the King of Terrors. though it must be fairly obvious that no such city ever existed. This epithet has been variously explained. The question arises. It is a lattice-work shrine. Among the Shilluk of the Upper Nile Valley the method of killing the king was to enclose him in an air-tight hut. of the god.

Medum. God were one and Kingdom. fertility and barrenness. xx. . His four standards on the slate-palette are two falcons. who is in front of the shrine of the intelligible. the royal the 1st and Ilnd dynasties. 70 Petrie. This would explain the account given by Herodotus. The meaning would ". used. one totem being for his career on earth. especially when is it is becomes remembered that God " The title of Zefau " Great One of bsi " cannot refer to the goddess. . Sekhmet Amenemhet I. I consider that the standards were carried two by two. If 7. and are often kept for that purpose. The falcon was the totem of the Pharaoh from the time of Narmer onwards. as a snake. . 60) of the and dances held so closely in her orgiastic ceremonies honour Horus and Anubis is again strong evidence that Anubis was in origin a purely royal deity. In this connection the or evil purified ". not a cat. Mastabas.?? '^ (abbreviated to ^^ confirmation in the tomb Persen (Mar. in the country parts of modern Egypt cats are still regarded as snake- was paired off deity without a consort. who was a lioness. to indicate This epithet again refers to Anubis as a deathgod. There is no record in Egypt. religion. suggests either that the original animal was a civet cat or that the perfume was of that in later times). known of the ritual of Bast except by Herodotus (Book ii. but Bast was always a In the late period both goddesses were represented as enemies of snakes. with the sense of driving that the early pronunciation was and is word dsr means " cleared. and his two totems (the falcons). the epithet " He Bast. by innumerable instances of the falcon-names of Kings. where the formula for the dead man implores that he may " walk on the beautiful roads on which the worthy ones walk to the King " (c) Bast was a cat-goddess. 1324) is spelt M^^s. the description in the Delta. which were the personal standards of the King. intoxicating quality. In the fusion period Bast was identified with Sekhmet. and the placenta or birth-sign. xvi. altered later then be " She ". pp. II. with which she of associated. When the theologians invented the marriages of gods. yielded on excavation no information as to her nature or rites but as the local deity she undoubtedly united in herself the powers of life and death. by metathesis. ancient or modern. This name is parallel with the causative epithet applied to another deity with special reference to Abydos.." He has flown up to the horizon And that the King had a falcon- totem for his lifetime is shown by the humanfalcon on Nanner's slate palette. If the early Kings were put to death if. The belief in the entry of the King into a falcon at death seems to be expressed in the words used to announce the death of and that her Bacchus felt themselves etherialized by the deity. birth-sign. ANUBIS death-hut. according to Erman and Grapow {Wtb. beside it. the priest of Anubis was the royal DEITIES. whose in that title the shrine always represented with the the Old door visible. pis." In the case of Narmer. the other being the one into which he entered at death. '' '^^ ^' ^^^ ^^^- filhW' ^"^^' ^' ^^'' The spelling out of the name appears sb't. but this is an attribute which should belong to Bast only. show his birth (the placenta). that the King and the name in Kingdom (see Mariette. My contention. jackal. On the mace-head the standards are arranged in a different order. The phrase f dsr means a cemetery. ^^ W strong and rather acrid variety beloved of cats. his death (the jackal). p. executioner who closed the doors. " to join the Sun. and by the words applied to Senusert I. and the two falcons. burial-place of J s-bk " is He who causes to be pregnant ". the standards of birth and death having each its respective totem armed with Ptah. of perfume. the divine cat was the destroyer of evil symbolized killers. by as CHAPTER OTHER EARLY 8. a jackal. . votaries like those within her own district. if I who causes to be a soul the " Souhfier may be permitted to coin a word. 228). the same method as the Shilluk chieftains and I have suggested. Nothing deaths. Mastabas. receives the same as late as the Old of No. and the pot which seems to be an integral part of her name. away evil spirits influences. " The falcon has flown away. In the which after all only reflected earthly ideas. xxi British Museum. The temple of Bubastis which so roused the enthusiasm of Herodotus. The combination of It is possible also is that the perfume. had an my interpretation is correct these four standards. 299-301). of any kind of connection between lions and snakes on the other hand. . This again brings Anubis into connection with royal v.

and there guarded by the priests. translated as " She of the measures were often regarded as sacred and were kept in the temple as the safest depository of the period. though . mentioned in the tombs of Saqqara are Hathor and Neith. Zefau and Ka-pu-Ra (Mariette. the capital of the country. p. as nothing else does. The translation House of Horns means nothing as it stands. translated as "My house is above". This pronoun was often omitted in writing and probably in speaking. yet they were very closely connected. and our modern ideas of propriety and modesty would not have affected the ancient Egyptian epithets for a goddess. over ". [90=1 The goddesses most frequently 9. There only one record Ciisae. Hathor. The object appears to be a playing piece or chessman of the type which usually stands for the syllable ph. over ". Among ancient peoples the primary weights and 1934) has attempted this when he suggests that the words are really Ht-hrt. ed. middle of the name is not explained by either of the derivations proposed. As Lady of the Sycomore her priesthood at Memphis in the Old Kingdom consisted of women only . p. and lasted so long that their original aspect is J). but its presence would preserve the sound of the feminine termination.e. probably of small weighing precious metals. The object which determines the word this would seem to bring bst is the head of a lioness it into relation with the two feline goddesses. list but this is only because in the of titles title it precedes. a civilian guardian might be appointed but the sanctity of the object would be indicated by the form. The identification of Nut and Hathor has always been a puzzle. This title was entirely local in the Old Kingdom. the name can be reasonably pronoun. the pr-hd. 252. If the second part of the name means. especially with Isis as the Great Mother. i. That she was worshipped elsewhere in the Old Kingdom under other titles is proved by her epithet at Dendera of " Lady of the Pillar " (Mar. however. remains shows that and that it could only have been the pronoun of the first person singular. Both were deities whose cult was widely spread. In the Vth dynasty conditions were settled. means " Mother of the Had the the spelling with —«— shows that it is not identical with the name of Bast. 168. B. of a priesthood of hers as Lady of and that held by a man. to which I would call attention. which it is written. and should be abandoned and another translation sought. it disappears unless supported by a almost lost . another possible explanation of the lioness-goddess of the city. or as the " feminised form hrt means " That which is above and was commonly used as a term for the sky. In late times she fused with all other goddesses. House of Horus The attempt to prove that it unborn Horus " is surely untenable. But in less troubled times the guardians might well be laymen. not " lofty ". The Egyptian word for " lofty " is k' lofty There of the is. 275). for the identification of Hathor as Lady of the Pillar women were is pre- dominant is in her service. where she was identified with the Lady of the Sycomore. House ". which I v\ <=> a ? imj-r Egyptians wished to call her the pregnant goddess. particularly in the Middle Kingdom. suggest that represents weight. both of Saqqara.-^RTON {Semitic and Hamitic Origins. or written parallel with. Nut the sky. as hr means " above. only two persons being recorded as the holders. 8 HATHOR The explanation usually given of the name of the goddess is the literal translation of the hieroglyphs in The title " Great One of bst " is very rare. some form of the adverb hr " above. " Horus in the womb " (Hnti-ht) was a popular god at all times. though later it spread with her cult to other parts of Egypt. 311 for name of pillar). term " Schatzbeamter is " as the translation. The Egyptian o survives into the Greek and Coptic transliterations only when it is a root-letter when it is merely the feminine termination. as Barton has pointed out. Mastabas. the translation would then be " My house is the sky ". they would have done so openly and would not have taken refuge in a modest paraphrase. as in the word ht name Hathor. was the highest the object size for office in the Treasury. in the The T . and would account. The title may belong to a civil ofhce the Worterhich gives only the vague . which placed it under the special protection . fact that the The T a pronoun was originally there . The first part of the name would then read " My house ". the cow with . At Memphis Hathor is the Lady of the Sycomore. whose function was to provide the dead with food in the regions of the other world. But her position was comparatively humble in the Memphite nome. and it is quite possible that in Memphis. as well. pp. this is particularly the case in regard is to Hathor. But here again the translation is inadmissible.. Mast. the vault of heaven.

specifically connected that with is water or with agri- cultural fertility. and 1921. which is said to refer to the great double gates of the palace or a temple. Fig. 2. which was . but suggests that the tj is a nisbeform. {b) two bows . The meaning of the word has. though." fixes its topographical position in relation to the shrine of Ptah. Her cult was not so popular in Memphis and the South as that of Hathor. the meaning may become clear in connection with the hitherto unexplained expression nctj ivrtj. and that the word is an epithet of the sphinx. i). for on the slate palette of Narmer she is represented. not rr which is the word for a pig. Rui. probably because she was essentially a goddess of the North. was served by women only. If. emblems are in (a) crossed arrows. who gives birth to the sun and moon. Karnaim. the word is really a dual. Sethe. p. Her title. Royal Tombs i. ii. however. in the list of his titles. been discussed only by Naville {op. an 10. Neith is another goddess who. as Ptolemaic times the identification of Hathor and Nut is indicated by the figure of " Nut the Unknown " in the Hathor temple of Dendera. both of which were regarded as sufficiently sacred to be set on the sign of divinity see (in the 1st dynasty they are set on a pole The Petrie. the cow-horned goddess of Babylonia. " North of the Wall. 2). : examples of the lion or lioness on a clay sealing of King Zer of the 1st dynasty from Abydos (Fig. . p. the god Janus). 36) these indicate that she was a goddess of the chase. and occur in the name of the queen. Neith has two emblems. cit. often a deity (cf. It has been inferred that the dual form of the word is due to the fact that the Egyptians used folding or double doors. It seems more probable that the word should be taken literally. The meaning of the name it appears to be the same is at present unknown as that of the crown of Lower Egypt. i K^ Fig. who. but may represent the dual That being the case. Front. not rwrwtj as written. This seems hardly likely. examples show what appears to be a maneless lion. which was South of the Wall. the reading here would be rwj " The two lions ". in the Old Kingdom. to say with sowing and reaping.. a case {Ancient Egypt. which agricultural may mean to that she belongs to a pre- period. until she that Hathor was a Mother-goddess was fused with Isis. in later times two sphinxes were the images of animals who — — acted as guardians of the gate. 1902. but nvtj as Naville noted {Sphinx. x. and it is therefore not surprising to find a priest of the cult. cow. . did not recognize the ci as the feminine ending. and that therefore the word for door would naturally be in the dual. 1.NEITH it was Nut who had charge of the Hathor was certainly a cow-goddess from the earliest period. Neith. established by Erman. She would thus be one of the primitive goddesses. The name to ^___^_2^ appears to be hest gives the reading rwj. a masculine dual form of equivalent the later -^^ ^^ ^ ^^ It is now well The early which the feminine would be rwtj.). Asj'en itnd Enropa. itself a divinity. and that nvj or rwtj the two lions or two lionesses. This position was possibly arranged as being appropriate to a goddess of the North. has been noted by Muller. The feminine form of this name is therefore form. may be Even as late either Hathor or Nut indifferently. She was not but in later times dead. . Neith. p. however. had she a consort. of the earliest is One as gate guardian . and others that the is duplication of a sign not necessarily the duplication of the syllable in reading. She had. for in the earliest example of the word for a door (on the slate palette of Narmer) the word is in the singular. Neith-hotep. A similar lion or lioness with a single bar on its back (Fig. one on each side of A guardian of the door or gate is the entrance. 2) occurs on the wooden panel of Ra-hesy. The inscription of Kay-em- 11. as she was represented throughout the whole course of Egyptian history. 313. Some years ago Professor Petrie drew attention to the connection in this sealing between the shrine and the he guardian lion with the triple bar on its back took the bar to be the barrier in front of the shrine. The earliest examples of the emblems are from the royal tombs at Abydos and Naqada. 195). with a woman's But the heavenly face and cow's ears and horns. important shrine in Memphis. the times of animal husbandry. I think. pi. and though her name may be Egyptian she could be fused with both native and foreign Her identification with Ashtorethgoddesses. In early times there seems to be no indication nor.

for he " comes forth from heaven and not from a specified city. 21). he who is high on his . sealings. word nms is not known. ruij was adopted. Ixxviii. (also transliterated as calls Sefekht-abui). rises to the god. This also suggests that he belonged originally to the cycle of royal gods and not to a single town or to the people. V'erily. " O Atum. for I live after I am An is important point in regard to the lion-guardian It dead " (ch. glorious like Ruti. " just beginning. 117) . and brings him to Ruti him to Atum " (N. 7). I go out.. honour of N. on me (ch. The papyri of the XVIIIth dynasty (Nu and Nebseni) show a connection between Ruti and the idea of life after death. Thy ennead is thine. Those who make their two gods and their two bodies obscure. 2). The hieroglyphs on the false-door of mands Osiris to the crew of Ra in the evening that the NN may live B. xvi. when thou gavest to me the nemes-cloih. 12. xxxviii.10 hence the mascuHne word rwj . . The name of Ruti occurs three times in the Pyramid Texts. 114. all of the same period [Royal Tombs. " Verily. " and presumably with the King in his aspect as a god. shrine has bound of Ruti. " (W. which originally belonged to the Pharaoh alone. Horus repeats to me that which him in the season and days of burial. " He who is high on his db' . Ixxviii. Sethe 11) this deity the to Dead the references are more must be remembered that in the New Kingdom much of the religion. I go in. in the house of Ruti. slit. XXXIX. by the expeller of evil in Seshat (p. Why ? dost thou turn back to the limits of thou art noble [s'h) in thy " existences of Horus. I am strong {ivsr) like Ruti. . Is expelled the fault belonging to N. I. my throat is go down to the Boat of Maat. the body of the animal extends over the whole ediiice. and the feminine fom. the meaning in each instance being Ruti has bound the nemes-cloih. . " Great is the and . Ixxviii. ii. therefore the exact explanation of the word in the masculine form as applied to the royal head-cloth. and ebony tablets. Pl. I have given above (p. . make for him comIn the Book of the it Architecture. I think. not I of hut-building. 116. of the At the early period still Goddess of which SekerIt frequent. 6) my view as to the use and meaning of the death hut. his father Osiris said to road of heaven. architecture in the present sense word was in its infancy. Atum and Ruti. Ruti is also connected with the 7ienies-c\ot\\. 2081). The nemes is not against thee heaven Behold. A. or else left untranslated. Thou goest and comest upon the (ch. incomplete but the This is a totally characteristic tail is quite clear. but kha-bau belonged.. and the tail hangs down to the ground at the back of the shrine. RUl the want of a mane side in his horizon. or in the feminine form [nmst) as applied to a vase. day.. the presence of Khenti-irti in LetopoHs " (N. It is obviously a special building connected with the god of death building. of the The root meaning must have been made of lattice-work. may explain the reference to Anubis in the Book of the Dead (ch. as this epithet would cover all types of building from the most primitive reed-hut to the most stately stone temple. had become democratized and was used by lesser folk. would be better to call her the Goddess of Building. the ka of this N. 2086). Anubis ears. only one shows the entire pi.26). There appears to be a connection between the nemset-vase and the cobra which suggests an original connection of the vase as well as the cloth with the King. are " Shu and Tefnut . who is chief of the guardians : House of the Nemes-cloth. and paws are over the front. after death like Ra every day " Seker-kha-bau show that at that period so great and important a god as Seth had only a latticetemples copied and-thatch shrine for his worship in stone from reed and wood prototypes were only . 26). . Seshat must therefore be the deity and this is. for me I the «d'wk's-cloth at the command 21. maceheads. shown by the hieroglyph of her name {seeSaq. Says Ruti to me. striped head-dress of the Pharaoh." a word which is rendered " tomb " or " edifice ". as shown on the sealing. . xxxvhi. is still to seek. There are three examples of this shrine from Abydos. coming forth as the Great One of the waves. the the form of the shrine on the clay sealing. and the the upper part represents the jackal god. those who are in the ends of the horizon see thee. I mount (?) up to the Manzet-boat in the retinue of Ra at his (ch. am high on my shrine. I live after I am dead every suggested to the later Egyptians that the animal was female. snout. the others are The follows of the references in the Book of the Dead are as " Says Ruti.3. 447). The form of the shrine. Mast. The Negative Confession shows that Ruti was not " a local deity. who is in his cavern. different type of shrine from those of the same early period represented on the slate palettes.

SESHAT II The central pillar is of reeds firmly lashed and ending in the well-known khekeromament. but she was rather the Recorder of the years of the King's reign than the deity of actual writing. 1. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ". AAA~w) (lit. A domed is roof of judging by the determinative. !<:=> I'^T^ci 'b (?) ) h n'i-swt " [Courtier] ". p^ ) see Aeg. 2. hm-ntr Ss't " Prophet of the goddess of By Kurt [Titles of office all Sethe. II. I. 1 _ I (^^^'•^iB . brp ^wt "[Con- troller of the 3. 8. -''^ ^'^'^ ^'"' ^^^^ " [^°"" ". hrP 'bwt " [Con- troller of the 4.] 13. without flaking " [Controller of the hoe loosening)]. "Y''^'=> ^3^"^ (var. *^ I is ir'i __ ) rh nfrt hr goddess. h'j-7ifrw-R' "The the beauties of of name is is name an animal s=> I which regarded by Miss Murray. . equivalents of hieroglyphs and translation have been worked out and indexed in Ancient Egypt. by his priesthood of the goddess is called " Seshat of Y ^ 1 ft b''P b^jt "." Prophet var. From this study. together ^IQ "i^ shines". var. 9. Ilird dynasty. as I have tried to prove. 14- Name. 13. and knife " In the temple of Kamak .5^ hts. " ^iniK 12. I I AWAAA I I www [ | ) hk' n ntr. he might very well include in his duties the recording of the events of that victim's reign. the being non-essential. there is here another connection linking Seker-kha-bau. together until 1926. '^3^ Pls. TRANSLATIONS AND INSCRIPTIONS IN ^\ T]y T^-^ ". CHAPTER III. Pe-Dep " remembeing that the death-oracle came to Menkaure from Buto (Pe-Dep). read h'j-h'iv-Skr of the temple of Seth ". the 5. lattice side-screens given) to be rn Titles. shine 9 ". . If. This then the aspect of are put in not rn sr. Seshat is also known as the Goddess of Writing. t. Inschr. but appears (by the variant "^^ here a hut before the position . pi. . 7." . Huts of this type are to be found in Africa at the present time. On this central pillar are laid three 51). as a mongoose. technical term for the " little The is I thatch rests on the ends of the beams and on the name " of a person top of the central pillar. plan and partly in elevation. ndL it represents the essential parts of the screens building. " The glory of Seker shines Analogous names are Date. ib nb-f " Knowing what (var. ist " [Controller of the regis- tered] 6. South and North ^^ Y : ^^|3|) women ". Tomb of Kha-Bau-Seker. (™- X ^js. ". brewing] (var. washing] O (var. viii. Mahasna. i y hm-ntr —F. workmen I '0' A ^^^ S (var. Seker-kha-bau was the herald of death to the King and perhaps the sacrificial priest of the divine victim. .. 0^1 The 5. [ I (var. architecture 10. The ornament at the top may be the feathers of divinity. pleasant for the heart of his lord ".. consistent ^ (var. Q ^^-J^ZlQ ^"^^''' ^^ ^'^'^^' ^^''^'^ Sth " . von Berlin. but are more probably the representation in highly stylized form of the bunches of straw with which the topmost layer of thatch is finished. ^\J^ ^^ ^\|3|) women ". Garstang. also of lashed . with the ritual death of the King. troller of the borderers] of the 2. were not tabulated and studied i^ Jh^ i. These values have been added here in square brackets. which span the hut from side to side the combination of beams and pillar give the effect of an open flower owing to the peculiar method used by the Egyptian artist of representing a building partly in cross-beams. made shine". twenty-one years after these chapters were written. 31 . 1924-7. P. -^-^B)of . s " [Guard of the cattle] SAQQARA MASTABAS I. OS ULJ * I ^^ little b'J-b'w-Pth " b'j-k'^f-R' The glory of Ptah "The spirits of Ra Ra papyrus reeds. without -^ .

4. II. 1. 115 b). and also by the " chief of all the [carpentry and brickwork] of the King ". Wife^^^^^^^ hip-Hthr " The [courtier]. _^ *=) idmj " Red ". ^"^ and the name of beer. but gives several variants. II. On the stele of Nefer-hotep-Hathor the list of offerings is shorter than on that of her husband. honoured by him ni-swt is Hnk also a special title of the High Priests of Memphis. Her " little name "is ^1 stele is 1f# hm-ntr rwrw (?) hntj ht-ntr Tepes. c^^^—S hr. Compare q^^ q%^s ^i-^''-^'-' "j-'htj. i. found even 3. Pl. Ill. 4= v is ¥] the The known 2. ii. favour ^ Jj v K'-m-hsivt " The ka I is in Compare the analogous names LJ ^\ 16. The same person occurs in an inscription in the Wadi Hammamat of the time of Pepy I (see L. the several groups.) 1 '^ (] ^J'^ %^ =^-— ^^nk ni-sui im'Jm-f " The ". u Titles. (h ^\ <=> f Of these the most interesting imj-r hmtjw " [Intendant] of the that whereas on the stele of the are man all various Artisans 2. ". 14. the determinatives which occur under the name of each object. 70). Stele of the man. An engineer's title borne by the High Memphis as " the great Leader of the artisans ". In the centre under the panel are the names of Lintel from the tomb of Khuyu-en-Ptah. found only with the name 'htj-htp. contains the '^ Htp-'htj-hrj A name which word 'htj. Titles. Beautiful ^J I. woven fabrics. under the one heading n ^o ^^^^^ ]V ". Ill. ^^y^ "cr^x A priestly title which is also ^^^-<s>- irjw-n-'htj. 11). Pl. and grain. stuff ". PLS. 1.j. is very ancient and ii. they appear 3. IIJ hm-nty Pth " Prophet of Ptah hm-ntr Skr " Prophet of Seker ". D. III. which in later times is an epithet of the sun-god. is. Tomb of Ka-em-Hesut. and the generic title which stands above list occupied by a long completely from the god 6- see pp. I. Name.i'-fabric " and Name. -2sc. " ./WV\ ftAWV of the titles of Kha-bau-Seker (see p. 15. . Houses Priest of "^ ^ s'b irj-Nhn " Judge belonging to Hierakonpolis ". 3. '^§0%^^'^^^ hwjw-n-Pth ". fruits. V\ s'-inr-f . On the architrave are the name and some of a later King O I ftAWW V. 10. pl. LJ Pl. The lower part of the of offerings. Pl. " Prophet of the Lion-god who is in front of the House of natron " (For a further discussion of this which differs Note usual lists of the IVth-\Tth dynasties. which occurs in name in Q^^ '^ imy pnvy " 1=3=. v\ ". III Family. the peace of Hathor ". iyj is h n'i-swt Nfr- 4. He who is in the two the 1st dynasty {Royal Tombs. x. wines. vessels represented I under here the headings ° Q'^'°=8and o. To and are identical names n-'li'. $knjw-n-R' Titles. "He whom I^'1 " "-fabric Then follow lists of various vessels left Ptah has protected Compare the analogous $-'nhw-n-Pth. Pl. form with hip and I 3 (reading doubtful) " Sculptor ". as an epithet of Horus. 9. sljpt.xvi.J^ and household lists gear. ^ right " s/. These are divided into three kinds. "o--^ q. o Name.' . Alabaster Table of Offerings of HotepAkhti-Her. Friend of the King. 12 TRANSLATIONS.

^v <=>r^ . 20. containing On 7- [Intendant] of the usekht-hall a formula for the dead and the titles and name of the " May the King be gracious and grant. Vezir ". the lord of Ta-zoser. he who is in front of the who is in Ut. 1. VI. ^^( V ^ ^\ -^ I 1 "High-Court judge. "[Intendant] of the two may Anubis be Divine Hall. => ^"vi^ ' 1 see sect. the same hved under of ol Vth U dynasty (see M^^^^l ^|^'^'^ For other colour See Sect. 11.=] B'bw km Sabu the Black. Y' VWrD imj-r isicj mrt Truth " [Intendant of the register] of the two houses of Date. V\ c^ ?"""?"'" [Intendant] of the Treasury ". 19. 5- 1 1 " [Intendant] AA^AA'\ of Son and successor Titles. he gracious. " Chief lector3- priest. M"i of " Prophet of the goddess of 12. Pl. In the Name. the formula Red. A common name in the D Old Kingdom." (here follow the titles) " Ptah-hotep the Red ". J ® is hyj-hb hrj-d'd'. ^<=>(]J^£j which is "[Intendant under seal ". \ V. Pls. ^A/^AAA I _^ inscription 19.- " [Intendant] of the six Great Houses " (higher courts of Justice). D Ifi " [Intendant of registers of 2. [Intendant] of the scribes of the [royal 18. the p. . 6. preceded by his principal title Court] judge and Vezir.Q of \ the Double House of the royal Favourites]. 340). I^ ^i. ^\<=r>^S-". On the drum of the door is the name of the " [High deceased. ". Ill. he who is in front Sepa (Hipponon). documents] TA AA/ Tomb of Ptah-hotep I. 14. III-VI 13 2. at a very good old age. UQ I ffl K'-'pr. IV. should read Pth-htp dsr Ptah-hotep the designations. that he may be buried in the necropolis in the western desert. ^ mlvm n n:|. V. Name. I. the architrave above the doorway of the outer chamber is an inscription in two lines." he of : . of Ptah-hotep desher. compare PJ 17. all the works of the King <:z>(]ft " 6. deceased : \[IV\n\/ granaries 9. Mastabas. as one honoured by the great God. hm-ntr "." for these. of the registers] of that who is on the Hill of the Slug. First half of the Vth dynasty. 19. Tomb of Ptah-hotep desher. Title." The inscription on the lintel of the great granite false-door. Date. ] "[Intendant of the Court 3- of Six 8. =^ '^ [Leader] ". 10. see Sect. ". Mariette. A man titles the same name and with the slaves ^3. Tomb of the Sheikh el Beled. 7. PLS. ^^'^'^[^^^ ^^9 Double House " [Intendant of registers] 5 trave) (without ^Q on archiof of the 9- of things under seal" imj-r iswj hkr ni-swt " [Intendant the registers] the two store-houses of the King's Y n2 " [Controller] of the «seMi!-hall [favourite] ". Titles. Pl. 5.TRANSLATIONS.

for Ptah-hotep ". " that offerings shall be presented to him on ni-iwt " [Intendant] of all the 13. XL East Wall. . lib ffl J ^ @^ dmdt ". who is loved by him. ^^' ^V "^-^ ^^^<::> . " that he may be buried in the " [High Court] judge necropolis in the western desert. New Year's Day (the first of works ' of the King Thoth). n wdt-^mdw nt ni-swt " [Over the commands of the King ". '^='^ imj-r iht not nt ni-swt ". 8. 21. tpj hr ni-swt 'htj-htp " rekhyut] ". . ".'==^=10 imj-y hkr ni-siH " [Intendant] of ". at the rising of Min. the finance depart- ment. Cf. that he On the right {a) Like the left {b) " may go upon the beautiful roads upon which the : . The registers are counted from below and begin on the left. D r^iS^ imj-r irj-p't. beginning on the The ivb^. . Tomb of Ptah-hotep General titles. see Probably the same as the Chief judge and p. at a very good old age. the royal favourites 4 Qc^ |¥'-'=^ Awwv sd'tj (?) bitj " [Royal sealer] ". For the reading of the name. above which is of the two White Houses. on the festival of Thoth (i8th of Thoth). left. 12. the pure place 19. ^s. the things of the King ^<=z>52 ? honoured ones go. . " [Intendant] of 15.14 TRANSLATIONS.' "^ imj-r w'bt ". ni-swt " [Over the secrets] of the 10. (c) day of the year (ist of Tybi). ". West : wall.^ " [Spokesman of the Family. VHI-XVH. hij-d'd' ss Chief lector-priest." "[In- in peace. On the left : (a) . on the sax:-festival. Juridical II. Vezir whose tomb was published by Davies {The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep) and whose son.jy-r ^7 nht nt ". ' ' [Intendant] Pl. scribe of panion peer beloved] 6. \TII. . ? imj-r pruj hdwj i. ' ipl r-'-^ (also without @) hrj- ~"^o '^ smr w'tj n mrwt " [Com". at the Uagfestival. to every great xflVvGA/ imj-r ". ff^ -^ ". 20. Sethe. dragged to the heap of about to be loaded is being sheaves. tendant of the registers of the] two Storehouses of sheaves are being thrown on a stack ^ 1 J . honoured by the great God . [Leader]. " Ptah-hotep " {b) . (a) n n ^ J^ imj-r iswj hrjt M't [In- Third register. Titles and name Formulae of the deceased. irj 3 <=>^"v:^ P " Belonging to Buto ^. Y ^^ -^^ ^'^-^ " [Controller] of the palace inkmt. God. . is/' was the overseer of the chief city King ". II. "[Intendant of Titles. s'-f ^i^lj(j^l»ffl. in peace. ll the divine books ^^ mdw rh. ^1 j>. Mastabas. on the great festival of Seker. 1 all 14. (the titles). the first Treasury service. VIII-XI CHAPTER By Kurt 20. the First under the King. what is under seal. p. A donkey Fourth register (from the bottom).Q [i|5| imj-r ss _ ni-swt "[Inten- dant] of the scribes of the archives of the King". as one and Vezir 12. prwj nbw " [Intendant] 2 =^ of the h'tj-' two Houses Gold ". Ptah-hotep. ". = tomb] of {a) I. Mariette. under Asesa. Pls. ^ j( ^^~^ Xjv) ^ Akhety-hotep ". [h) secrets] of all Pl. +WVWV VWWV ^''7- OU m"^ Ocz^^ ^ 1 Inscriptions. IV. 230. . on ^\ <oJ. PLS. s}iwtj tendant] of the two granaries 16." e. 17- a fi c:^ pht. 7- smsw mrjj-f His eldest son. ^ and administrative s'b t'jtj t' service.

D. ^j^^ ^. to Upper tt tgypt typified by women. op. IX. legs Two men ftAAA'VN cutting up an ox from which the man who giving the signal to close the net : <^ A o in 1 ^-d ". PLS. Tts ^^_^^ ^^^ ^. -=s>-n is (1 on the threshing The discourse »' /^' the drivers . First register (the lowest). Vbic mnJjj is ssniii^ pii> PuW well. ' One hn' says.-c=> fo''el^g I (e) A man whetting a knife ". ^ Man ' the dress of the upper classes. Sekhmet and He [expert] physician. the catchers of the endowed property ". comrade who holds itj ir-k jj-jg s^"=''^^^ o " \\ "^^ ^0% -. ^-^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ (i) v. [d) A man. {a) Bird-catching. doing (it) so that thou shalt praise Pls. eviscerated .— TRANSLATIONS. cit.^=^'=^ ^^AAAA^Tl) sdi h'tj in ssmw w^^^zi^tl ^\^ b'-k im-sii. Aegypten. ^=wc^:p H • \\ fl (I ^A«w^ 'ss^rs .. 181. JJ -o V t 1 J v of the animals (see Davi^es.r-i ii £ Sharpening the knite 1 endowed property in Upper Egypt ". rdjt sht Causing the catching birds are being is Q ^A'V^AA the net The captured _ comrade - sft ". 467. heaped up in piles ' with cf. . For physicians as priests of the goddess p. (d) Women praise " (see below). Unen-nefru " attends the slaughtering to ensure the " purity ^^ng their produce to their lord. separating the corn from the chaff by winnowing. W ^^ ir-k mnhj hn-k m'nh ntj hn' " Pull as a clap-net on the birds. 11. answer wrt ' ' c^ I iri-1 ' ' pp. k' k' it Itl dll Tt " Wimiowing ih] it. Another. my carried to the deceased (whose figure now broken The other replies.<s=-^^\ (]^f (I ^ |' ^i'^^ '"""^ it i'">^ij am doing so. by the butcher the leg.fv who Q is about to cut off r Mrj ' R' . (c) always occurs witli some The threshed corn is forks Ij. pi. is " I do (it) so that thou shalt praise ". Mastabas.. —aj^ ii. you butcher c^ " Sweeping together AA/VA'V\ Mariette. The taking out of the heart by the butcher ".1 ^ CsJ tp i^i ndt-hr in met nt person is mentioned in the tomb of Akhethetep (Davies. 4). IX-XI {b) 15 this as tight as is The corn is being trodden floor. J. is the appearing Q ^J^_^^f ^ ndr nw hn-k of Y-kau-Hor . 'nh Issj " Re' desires that Asesa n r (2) the hind-leg of the ox.. 1st ed. see Erman. ^^^ ^^^^ °^ ^^"^ ^^^*^ °-^' P^^ ) hv' " The dismemberment of the ox cuts says. (L. I ^ am away). says to the it. my comrade ". . though variations in this scene. (a) ^ ' South Wall. (b) . Men closing g it] (/ The same. pit ds " The sharpening of a knife '^"^ The '^P TT (7 C I? (I ^^~v^A _ _ O V\ ". ^he kings who had bestowed them on the deceased or his ancestors.^'^'^'^ sht hard as thou canst. X.jj^g^^ ^^^ ^^^^^_ ^^^^ ^f^^^. 'O 1} An ox being m'-k irt-k. 1^ of ? T^'*:^^I Wb ^^ $hmt shd snw Wnn-nfr " I c Y I Lower belonging t register.-. Priest ". some after the deceased himself. The other man. . answers. and the r hst-k am doing (it) so that thou shalt greatly /X of the mscription of Una. . out by donkeys of m " I 'nh " Hold you can (c) ". ' —^0 mk irj-j r hst-k " See. . Scenes of slaughtering. says to his comrade who holds ^ ww>A.^^^ f^ bringing of the tribute by the Sekhmet. The called first two men who are thus engaged are '\"^^y'^ in Snezem-yb and Ptah-hotep. ^*=5. A man whets a knife. 289. The same 0^^'>~«^»r ^ . m ssmw . pat ds ". r nfr ntj " Cut ^zz^^^hs- 11. r hst-k pr-dt " The catching of birds in a net by the birdAbove.. Ptah-hetep). www grrrg ) ^\ yr i^^ 'pdw in wh'w nw who irj-j (g) holds the leg. is not " comprehensible. who is cutting off a foreleg. the deceased. ". xvni). cf. < :> r^^^ Q ^ R '^yp ^ ""^ 8 ^^ nr ". (I P^'^. i-u The villages -n in tt 4.^ n~vw>Ara ^Aw^^/^ Nfr-h'w I-k'w-Hr " Beautiful "." the reply. the barley by slaves Also aao The man who Second register. {b) ' have already been removed.

Pk^---^'smw (10) . (of the the eldest son of the deceased. fragment. (9) ^=^ Ssmw. situated in the ii. and Dumichen. Mastabas. nt pr-dt nt mhw " (The one might suppose. Lower Egypt : The remains of the title of the scene . x). . : pis. i. the tomb of his other son. nome of A detached fragment of this procession is W <=^ ^f^^. of Ptah-hotep ". (6) Nbs Pthhtp (7) (8) (4) ^s^l\\\hj-is. X. . xv). xiii. —^01:. IX-XII Mrj Hr 'nh Wsr-k'-f " Horus desires that User-kaf shall (4) live ". is (3) K'j-hp. (2) Arabian nome) loves Kakay (4) "^^1 -=^(1^ R^d. mns' Pthhtp " Libation-vase of Ptah-hotep ". " Horus makes Asesa of on a detached in ii. __-^^^ Pthhtp place mentioned in the tomb nik of his son m" (here follow the ". op. 196 op. to the Res. 'nh Pthhtp " Life of Ptah-hotep ". Rpt (?) Pthhtp " Chapel of Ptah-hotep ".. $hi Pthhtp " Sekhet-covn of Ptah-hotep ". pi. ii. (?) (7) J P ^^ ^'^-^ Nfr-ssmw-f. D.. X. Mentioned in the tomb bringing gifts to a large seated figure of the deceased. xii). $hd Dd-f-R' " Dad-ef-Re' is heavenly ". ii.. i. ii. the tomb of The same village occurs 7.. and the name ^''"'-^ of the ^'' ^^^^ Ptah-hotep Htpt Pthhtp " Food offerings of Ptah-hotep village (" <] ". " What Sahu-Re commands (5) ^fr ''^'di $'hic'-R' good ". XII. The names which (^) are preserved are '-^J'i^^P \_\^ ^£ (Davies. a man Herakleopohs (see Davies. p. " Nebes-hnit of Ptah-hotep ". Pl. ii. 6. ii. The same Akhetside receives in the procession. @^ n Akhety-hotep. titles) hotep as belonging to the of the ^^ "Right " Seeing by " (titles) is " Ptah-hotep In front of list him his eldest son handing him a nijt ss ". carrying dates) on Pl. Isd Pthhtp " Ashed-herries of Ptah-hotep ". is ^A ^s?f'^ Ik'w-Hr " Beautiful This place is the praise of (II) Ykau-Hor (6) ". cit.. $mnt Pthhtp ". Probably (3) Mrj Spdw K'k'j " The god Sopdu ". In the lower register the villages of are figured. 5). of Ptah-hotep ". it pis.. .. Ptahhetep. cit. Res. <^> A o fj|i|^w^'r register. op. 2 . Sub Pthhtp " Health of Ptah-hotep ". DuMiCHEN of fflci 'IS 5) h S is not a variant . "T" ^l I<^P"f'® to live ". (7) (8) (9) Sntr Pthhtp " Incense of Ptah-hotep ". : Of the others the following names remam Dumichen. PLS. 15).. (9). Db't Wsr-k'-f {see Mariette. where is stated to be in the province Fy (i) Lower Egypt.. bringing of the tribute of the villages) of the endowed Sob. Ptah-hotep. XVII. 398).. (8) -^l^ Work of Ptah-hotep ". the writing of the tribute Upper Remains of a procession of men Dumichen. I'gt Pthhtp ". . See also L. North Wall.. x). of his son as being in the cit. According to {Res.. . P't Pthhtp " Offering of Ptah-hotep ". Akhethetep (Davies. 2. " Pthhtp " Handmaiden of Ptah-hotep p. are (12) 1st (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) Pthhtp" Boundary-house of Ptah-hotep ". first ". (10) Mn't Pthhtp " Wet-nurse (11) property in Lower Egypt of ". ^'J-^^P- (see Mariette.— — i6 (3) TRANSLATIONS. of Ptah-hotep " (see Res. XVII. Ptahhetep. n ndt-hr "Delivering (2) Harpoon nome (Dumichen. The deceased *^^(lwwv^ Mrj M"t is Issj " Truth loves Asesa ". Mrj Nhbjt Kakay shall live (5) 'nh K'k'j " Eileithyia desires that ". ^^ . " Valley (12) Int Pthhtp " (13) irt Pthhtp of Ptah-hotep ". . ii. 15). of gifts and in Harpoon nome " (Davies. Hbnnt Pthhtp" Hebnent-iood (5) (6) 1 1 ^ f N-'nh Mn. .AA^A/V\ t't Pthlitp " Place of Ptah-hotep ". pl. The representations Pl. correspond exactly with those of the South Wall. .Pth. Mastabas. ii. (10) (11) Grgt Pthhtp " Establishment of Ptah-hotep ".

[watch-house] wishing every possible good thing. ". No. ^ ^^^^ ^5fe=t wr md sm'iv fV I ' ' [Mayor of the Southern (3)p U Ten slid hni-k' (5) council] ". Ptah-hotep (6) Y ^ ii. 8. XIX. ".'^~^fli mst-t " [Child-porters] " appears here for the first (9) ^ " time 1 in its correct form. §i- t' inij " Coimtry bread " are on Name. [guard]. (i) deputy- ftra smsw list. 1 imi-r of the (8) t\ <=> ^ JA kt nbt nt ". (10) 277). Fragments diw-shr of the 21. expert servant] of the dead. Offerings being brought to the little " Honoured by the great God (11) __'2> Of the inscriptions very the top is remains. and Pl. which "=^B v> 1=^ £ in>\_ Stput " Limbs and No. D.'^^l^'^l^s'b'dvtrsM palace (4) hm-k' Niv-hk'w " Judge and [conservator of canals. ^\ pr 'kt n njwtiw 1\ ^. The deceased is seated before a table of by the side of which is a short formula The usual formula htp dj ni-swt. are the the title name ""^^^^^^Hd Ka-hap and o ". [jR°»««-c^^ ss s' 'htjhtp " Scribe ". 8. [expert servant] of the Justice " (or " of the palace (6) ")." follows (i) : etc. Nezem-ankh ". Verbmn. XVII. Architrave. Altar. and Sethe. 4 of a imr w'tj Ndm-'nh " [Com- panion-peer]. (3) The ^. (see above). XVIII. the m being placed after the i. 10 belong to the North Wall sented seated before a heap of offerings. and Petrie. See L. Upper register. On the left the deceased was repre- Fragments. Otherwise it is spelt s (9) "^^ /v^AAA O ". XVIII. of oxen and geese ".^'ci=>|| ".. see superintendent of the funeral priests. scribe. A row of men bearing gifts offerings for the dead by the of the [guard] : " Bringing the [expert] Titles. (7) Akhety-hotep ni-swt " [Intendant] of all the '' '' works of the King ^^-^'imv^^^'n '^ '' ^'^"' ". b'''P i^i>'^'j ni-su't ' [Controller of the c " Judge. Nu-hekau ". Tomb of Ateta. -' "-' "^ 2. irj-is ^~^~v^ 4-^s5- I Ittj 'nh- " Ateta. imj-r 'h' " [Intendant] of the (2) ^m. Pl. the scribes property. p-L. below. II imj-r wd-mdw n ivsht " [Intendant of the dividing words] of the Court of Judge and [expert] dead. " scribe. still remain. -'P ^'"' " [Controller of the archers] pl. ix. " Scribe of the [guard]. XII-XVII 17 7. On left left at the name (J D " " on the " ^ <::>1 ^^ im'hw hr ni-swt r'nb " Honoured by the King every day". imj prwj " [He who is in the Double House] eldest son of the deceased. Nos. loia. . ^P-^fl^^ jjiij "' '' '^^-^f ss " Oednes ^-'^^^ The word imj-r mst-t. 10.— TRANSLATIONS. and funeral priests of the endowed The names of the persons are as 16 in next (2) t^i ". Rec. judge (^) and scribe. habitants of the town Plate XIV. Pls. [I [I Pls. Ateta ". rn-f "j ". ' YT ". Akhety-hotep. ist ["Elder of the registers"]. . the fl_>®^^^lt l\ ""'-'" ". Medum. Titles and name of the deceased. 5 gives is — the name from the South Wall (see above). XIX. ^s. a s'b ss slid hm-k' Pthhtp the royal canals] (7) [expert servant] of dead. PLS. (see " The scribe of that which comes in for the in- Lacau. hst with the words f^^g^ A^ t' "Beer". des Trav. Panel. the end of h'twdhw" The best of the table ". his great name Ankh-yry-ys XVII. U3 smsw u'hrt The elder of the offerings. tomb.

PLS. dant] of ".I i8 desiring for the deceased a TRANSLATIONS. (15) Y ft fofl^-^ b^P ^^'^' "^'" " [Controller] of all scribes ". ^I^Sl b^P "[Controller] of the Wide 21 ^ . i. is Wsr-ntj J^ m" n hrjw <^ u=> ivd-mdw mighty". Over the Tomb of User-Neter. (12) ^ sst' V. The use of the generic word ntr " God in place of the name of a special god must not be what taken as a sign of a monotheistic conception city in which dwelt the is meant is the god of the person so named. of] Ten of Upper Egypt ". (16) TO smsu^ ist " [Elder of the registers] ". (18) ^j. important Name titles. perhaps a grandson. the . 1"^in<=3=. ZJ^Td' D '^a " [Over the "^w. the Court of Appeal. by the servant of the god Ptah. (7) ^\ •?- hrj icdbw m ht-'nh " Overseer ^ ''^=t wr md sm'iv " Great one of the [council of lands in the (33) House of Life ". 87 passim. On the drum " of the outer door he old " to distinguish is called him from The l"^"! n<=> 1^ a younger member of the family with the same name. T. [Intendant] or ^'^bt his lord ". (17) _>^3l|1| ". "The God ^Vsr-k'-f secrets of all the (13) commands of the "9" King var. M^^l>1^1-^l-%^4^'-> . Y[on ~''P ^''i ^P'' " [Controller of the scribes of petitions] ". King (20) [14 ^ n imj ib n nb-J ' ' The favourite of 1 (5) imj-r wsht. a form hke ( \'\\^ ka is wdbm ". ^^ tmj-r wrt " [Intendant] of the This must be the principal as it of the deceased.. (22) of canals] ". ". secrets of private decisions] of the Great House " is the term for the higher The " Six Great Houses Jii-su't " [Inten- Courts of Justice of the country. hrj D n icdt-mdic nbt o ^AA/vv^ n nt ni-sui " Sethe. rnd'd' rhjt " [Spokesman of the rekhyut] imj-r ss ^__ ' ". XX-XXV good burial and also (8) I T ji* ^=* shd kt(zc') md sm'w ' ' [Expert] of ". funeral offerings on all feast days. who is regarded as the god of art and handicrafts. (6) the secrets] of the divine words " Judge and [conservator ". C=3 Name.z::^^v flln c^ inkmt. grant that he may go upon the beautiful Side columns. Drum. to the places . In writing. is Great House begins every column of titles and the only one mentioned on the drums of the doors." (11) ni-sic't ¥\ «=:>'^ WAAA all imj-r k't nU nt " [Intendant] of the works of the King Ivar. : (10) T\^ ' "^'^ the titles wr- md or s'b iid mr). v^ roads every day to the Field of Offerings. the scribes of the documents of the and others. On the right a htp dj ni-siH formula " May Anubis.D r-i ^^^AAA II ^ liTj sst' H mdw utr " [Ovcr Hall " (the royal palace). word " God " is put first in the customary " manner. Ateta. CHAPTER By Kurt 22. of the deceased with the most the [Mayors of the council] of Ten of Upper Egypt (9) 11 J^ -^. hntjt (follows On the left the titles of the deceased. ^^''' " Actual commander of }^ J the overseers of lands (14) " His mighty " {Ovaepxep-qs).. XX-XXV. Titles. hm-ntr M"t "Prophet of the goddess Maat tpj ^ m hr iii-swt " First under the title King ". as an honoured one. the ancient -^^ s'b 'nd mr holy language of Egypt. the (titles). <=> ". (i) This title is held in the Pyramid Texts. (2) 11 c^) ". Read Pes. \ ". who is in Ut.e.

TRANSLATIONS." same man whose tomb Lepsius found ii. XXI-XXIV ntrw nhw hrt-ntr " Honoured by the gods. On the drum of the outer door. he Probably the Asesa {Issj) whom his lord loves. by the great God. in w'bjw The bringing offerings (for by [the servants of the ka] who act w'b of " at Saqqara (L. on the Great Festival. here tpj hr ni-sui. he who is before Dedu " (Busiris in the Delta). XXIV (Niche). his beloved son.^ to him (2) That funeral offerings may be brought Architrave. and scribe. . but the exact meaning not known. the judge who S ^^^^^ v:> ci hkn in honoured by neter ". the lords of the West. the rising of Min. sister]. She therefore belonged to the King's | The expression ^°) The deceased seated before him an and three wishes (i) " That he may be buried in his grave for him in the West. Wife. Mastabas. he is called " the old ". 1 Mariette. ni-sui Hnwt the his wife.. each [a) First register. the by the band across and with uplifted combined with the formula for the dead. holds a roll of papyrus. Pl. The drums of the two doors.e. (3) That he may go on beautiful roads of the West. Pl. honoured by his father. Above the Pls. may Anubis be gracious. and all other festivals through the the length 2 of eternity. as the eldest son appears to have been contemporary with in this formula. XXI. beloved by him. hmt-f mrjt-f hkri ni-swt im'hivt " [Eternal [favourite]. sits before a table of offerings. which was naturally the Pl. XX. D. I /n I hrj-hb " Lector-priest ". 1. same name (see p. Two men kneeling. outer pair of columns. presenting two vessels. he his father." On the walls of the doorway are very suitably 44 ss ' I I s'-f smsiv mr-f shd w'b im'h hr ni-swt hft hr mrr nb-f Spss-R' " His eldest. ". is often found in is the Old Kingdom. of the necropolis " (here follow the titles) " User- fl->^^<2>1\^"^ ""'-"' -' "-' "^ neter ". the Lord of the West. p. before is JUL is omitted omitted. Family. User- The offering of liquids " {hkn written with ". Date. in peace to => the beautiful West. wdn " Offerings shall iht r'-bn be made every day he says.«. an arm presenting a vessel) " by the Uty-priests " (^) Description of the plates. recognisable his breast. inscription consisting of his titles : of the Khenut harem. Above " May the King be gracious and grant. the festival of the Heat. The middle of the Vth dynasty. He held under King . recites a text. XXm. last to be inscribed. titles of In the upper and the deceased are . ^ft^^'^—-P| ^V it-f . honoured by the King.. that : hand _^=^ ^ ^^^ ". Dad-ka-Ra. his beloved. It is worth noting the omission of the King " Honoured by the great God ". Son I "^^ I°H ss >^ I r^~^ s'-/ . the scribe of the records before the face of placed the representations of the funeral priests bringing offerings for the dead into the tomb. PLS. at a good old age. the [expert] priest. to the gods. he who is before the Hall of the God. the deceased). he who dwells he may be buried in the necropolis at a good old age " (titles) " User-neter ". his eldest son was likewise called User-neter. 95. (24) 19 on which the honoured ones " (i. 60-4). " May Osiris be gracious and Right and left grant. 18). Pls. Shepses-Ra. As usual mention only the name of the deceased with these one of the principal titles. A Stele of the west wall. The The ^ . Inscription: shpjt iht P®S^ hmw-k' (] — ^^^^fl " " " ' the King. Son. XXI. IS hr 00' snt-dt XXV. latj Wsr-ntr " His son. his titles inscribed the same offices as our User-neter The deceased (with above him) table is and 3. " that he may go in peace upon the beautiful paths in Ut. 2. the lords of the necropoHs ".--/ im'hw hr it-fs'b is a great list of offerings which are brought to him by numerous persons in five registers. on which the gods love to go. King. of the to © O ^AAAAA ^AAA/V\ distinguish him from a younger person . the blessed dead) "go to the great God. XXIII.

Cf. workmen ". («) ^^EH:^ shp stpui. pieces cut off the slaughtered animals. holding a whip. by chipping (d) '' ^ cssi I ^«.>^ (1 ^WAAA ^=. {b) Standing man pouring water from a pitcher. 19) offers a goose. XXIV. (2) A longits [Servant of the ka] " pours water out horned ox. ^5^^ iij iy-h " Take ". The inscription is always the is me the left. PLS. Second register. Pl. Cf. ""^^ | I The burning of incense ". offerings. offers incense. Pl. s't No. which rubs I face with its hind foot. the bringing of the (c) Man bringing two strips of linen. i^. of the door. (3) No. The inscriptions give his titles. The (f) inscription (probably y kbh) is broken away. The thurifers recur in each of the following registers. Incense bearer. gifts. who is heart says the impatient man on already laden with the haunch and In the second is the same. People with various gifts. 16 of the db of 'n DJiwtjjt " Bringing hornless oxen for the festival Man carrying a table with food "^^ Thoth : ". (i) wnhjw. the symbol of authority. in Beginning XXIII. ^ | '^^^^ ^^ \^ shpt hrjw- htpt ni-sui " (/) Royal offering little ". The word is a deter- removed. Nos. 14 of the " Bringing a young ox „ for the evening meal (e) Man carrying a platter for food 1 o list. and hearts —are carried away D^^D the laden servants has the {d) Three people without register. called in Egyptian stpui " The chosen " haunches. exact counterpart of the north wall. minative of s'tw " Ground ". Hmvt. Inscription as above. Niche. Khenut. Inscription as above. XXII. {a) scene a fore-leg. 12 of the Left: list. South Wall. [b) The second son. being offerings. 2 and 13 of the list of offerings. (| ^1 ^ ^^'^'=^=' ^ n iht 'bdxH ".<=_] Hornless oxen. I of the list of Kneeling man pouring water " Pouring on the ground ". " Libation of two drops ". (1 ^^^"""^ 'i>nj h'tj as it is the necessary form for the con- secration of offerings. waiting to carry the heart away.In the scene the " Give ox is eviscerated. Coptic eciiT. . XXII-XXV Man mTI bringing two strips of cloth ^^ Q ^ k'p intr (b) Three scenes of slaughtering.— 20 (c) TRANSLATIONS. {r^ "The gift to the " The bringing of a heifer for the monthly repast ground". {a) The eldest son of the deceased Shepses-Ra (see p. on the right (a) : register. says the man. who (c) holds the leg. Cf. People with various The deceased seated. Third A sM hmw-k' " [Expert vft b^P *s' " [Controller of the registered] Fourth register.g pdt ds in ssmw first Man offering incense. (a) horns of A a young i\ ye I int rn iw' " The bringing ox. in the third a hind-leg. Pl. No Pl. on the ground. Right (i) The same as on the left. Below all these scenes runs a sixth which the slaughter of oxen is shown. XXI. inscription. One of title of p | servant of the ka] " offers a goose. as above. East Above the door. to the operator. ^^ O Y\ animals. of a Cf. : An is The A hornless animal '=^ being bound inl rut iiv't A -vwwv persons with inscriptions are First register. No. in each of which on the right is a butcher sharpening his flint knife wnhjiv " Two bandages ". inscription. The — Man offering incense. jug list." Fifth register. ". bringing of a -J^\ ^"' "^ »«'-M "The A young oryx antelope ". User-neter. (a) . Cf. (b) (c) Man offering a goose. In front of him on the ground sits his wife. (2) Hornless ox without inscription. The first sign is remarkable. f?* rib-pieces. (3) An ox with artificially bent the offering (g) lists in the Pyramids and elsewhere. (d) No. " " Sharpening the knife by the butcher ". a '\'k \ MM ' ^~P^ ^'^ "^' ^'^ ^ht-h'wj ". At the sides sacrificial Wall.

*^„^ '^ of See 1 p rr! ^'^ (/) (/). PLS.e. (^) A ^ s^ T XXI. mw s)itr. tj. except 'O . {b). XXIII-XXXI 21 [d). the deceased Butcher cutting I't^r:^ off part of the hind-leg of an before a table of offerings under which are the words. m'-Iid. Vth dynasty." 4- Same as [d). (5) htn-ntr Sky ". I. I. (a) A I T ' ' " [Expert servant of {i) Same as but without the words in ssmw. 24. c^sI A man sharpening a knife ^5>^ [1 ^^^^^ Name." A "=3 " Below. [b). " Shepses- deceased. oxen. geese. ^-^-/^r^- Seep. Fourth and The two sons mrr lord of the 23.TRANSLATIONS. . (c) . A \^. 12. nb-f loves. cakes. ^'*' bb title r' "Belonging to the Fifth register. while cutting off titles. young oryx antelope". festival of the ". without (c) gifts. 'bdipj " The ". register. whom Titles. gifts. beginning on the ^^^ left. Ptah ". hm-k' his ^fJ\\}^ Read Spss-Pih fn^ '^''^^''^~^^cz=s'^(| [ka-servant]. Slaughtered oryx antelope. Tomb of Shepses-Ptah I. See Pl. h sft ift. iirst register. first register. Sixth register. See a single man who is simply called (2) jLiJ Sun Memphis. ox. ^=T^ [O. XXVIII- ^J^ [d) Take ". Name. with his principal ssmiv "Butcher". I (a) A MO ". sdt h' {g) {h) " Taking out the heart. Second register. XXI. behind him pours water on his hands. by the {b) lector-priest ". _Jp 'fe^'^l See p. 14. | (/) Butcher eviscerating an animal. (1) Abduy (d) bringing The other persons have no inscriptions. Tomb of Shepses-Ptah I. being removed from the carcass of the ox. Stele. sixth [e) register. XXXI. A man (a) offering a goose. (d) (e) The same as Pl. (3) "^ ^ ^ ^Y\\ ^3^ |y db'tj " [Sealer] ". A form like JPP^ p. oil. (b) Pl. Pls. In the panel. says to his comrade who holds the leg. A ~vwv> —^ I ^'"^ ''" '"'"M "Bringing a Date. ' joints. rdjt He says. XXI. the ka] " kneels on the ground. II. XXV-XXVII. Servant in working dress carries away the See Pl. See Shepses-Ptah Titles. like the first of the row.\g^ imj-ht hmw-k' offering (4) ^'"-"-''' ^^^^ "Prophet "Prophet of of Ptah Seker ". "^ ^ (of pfrji the whole register : (j-— the ffi ^J s'ht in glorifying " proclaimed a spirit 'h) " hri-hb " The dead who («) Title of is ® ^^e=^ ". XXVI. " o ^ 2. Then n offers incense "^ P | H Before him two others without inscription. incense. beer. (c) " Giving water (|^_S ^ ^^J ^'^J " ^ive the heart ". („„ (/) Lector-priest. shpt stpwt " Bringing the sacrificial joints Third register. the deceased standing. Same as (r). i. [b). bringing a goose. " thousands of bread. Pls. See „ "^Ij See Shepses-Ptah p. Vft b^P "'' "Leader the workmen". I . alabaster bowls [ss't). II. '"^^pdt ds in ssniw. * °^'"'"' ^""""^'^ ^ (k) Man taking out the heart. The same as Pl. first register. a borne only by the High Priest of stp " (b) The choosing To bring a sacrifice. the foreleg. ". II. Q rTj var. while a man A (j) Man is standing "~>'^ which laden with a haunch waits for the heart. (c). XXI.

West ".Rah ^- vegetables] 13. li n o ^ "^ I Son. "jl^-^ ". "^'^'"'^- Wife. Ilk?: jT^j ' 10.22 TRANSLATIONS. as in HOTTTeD g^^ ^cm ||^c=3 ° >^^=^-n=> oXJlM • 8 Jnn hntj pr-"j Q—*~qn Q 12. " ' and to Shepses-ptah. .lJI. \J^%^\^ll "[Devoted Ptah. " [Over the secrets] of his of ntr with God". ^"^=^1]']'^— ^Ooli^J^ ^^ci all his places ". ^&'i. ^ ®^^^lj^ ""^'" prophetess of m iswt-f nb " [Intendant] of the House of Seker in ht 2. Jd Spsj piv Pth " Shepsy- hrp sm "[Controller of pu. Dad-ysut. XXIX-XXXI 5- XPS^-^l^cI. (]-> J^^_^^_^^K^ ^-^^ h P "^^ J ". i. ^"^^ ^^^ P. " [Devoted to] Anubis " [Devoted to] Osiris ".. gardener] of Pharaoh". Nefer-ysut.^2". 16. his lord ". <ii>^3^ 14. [Intendant of works]. ^Tu Pl. *=:3L loves 15- '^"^ mrr nb-f "He whom "[Devoted his lord Pi ^- T^ol^ XXTV Vn't ''^ ^-^ Htp-nj-Pth. of hrj) " hmivt nbt " fControllerl of „ ' every art 7- ". 11-^®^^^^^ (] to] the "[Intendant] clothing. where the | belongs both to {m' A. hmtjw S'hw " [Pupil] of the workmen. ® ^ ij^^^Xj^ _> ^^^Is^ 3. Y'-' r ^*==^ lim-k' Sdic-Pth. " [Intendant of registers] " [Devoted to] 5- Mehu ".'^) <- " [Devoted «. Son. See T kT ^ i^ o I of n o-wwv-i^ ^'"^.^'^ (^) ^^-^-^'^• ". Yry " n„„ i. ir nu. ° . ".xl'""'" Pl. " [Sealer] ". ^ ^<=> ^P^ffl. Nisu-Ptah '^^T-^l^^. s to though 11. XXIX. . i^^^^jl^^--^® "i. PLS. of the pyramid.ammk <PLS. y See p. <=> after the determinative intended suffix. ". ""'^ . ^If^^'b Pth " Priest of Ptah Hathor. Deputy prophet ramily. I 'cz^ o . °' of I the registers]. Note: The spelling is 3- Son. 7- ^^->i \^\\ ™''i>nj-r ". " [Intendant of clothing].r^TTlIiljljlA(var-with^^)lf^ " — " [Over the secrets of the sealer] of the 6. 4. 18. . ntr Ht-hr hmt-ntr The [courtier]. ".^ A. to] Seshem-nefer " t^^^^^^-^ ^' Pl. 17. Sabu ". lord of the Sebek-hotep to] XXIX.. Nisu-Ptah Pl. I'^f^l 1 Nt " f ^^ 1 f] ^''^^'^ ^^'^^^ ^^^' f 4q__x. Pl. " \^^^\ZJ\$^--^1. Son. XXXI.4. > 'j'''^ShI_T O ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^'^^^• XXIX. lord of Busiris ". Vi < ^-r^ n i\ Tety". i^"^ t ". "[The ^ 6. 21. show that it was still sounded before the it was already lost. pr. Y o T o A I ^'^^- -^' God • • ^-'^ 23. 19. ^ ^\ ^ "^ Z '-' T^ o 9 i XXIX. ^^|/j('|' ^^^ ° | J| H H Pl."j Mn-ihjj " Scribe of the ^ ^S W 1 {^ P' ^'"^^ '' "- fl House of divine books . the great God. XXIX. to] Osiris. prophetess of Neith. ^'- 20. ". 21.f4-u ^ Deputy prophet of the pyramid. Servants. ^'''> ^<=> j ^^fl^l) " [Intendant of the hnei£. XXX.

XXXI. being dismembered. ". therefore constrained to rectify that which I do with some trepidation as my knowledge of the early periods is necessarily far below his. XXX. XXX. c^ an ox of the Re' cut open. 12. ". s'-f 5- filW''^'^'- Qay ". The name means " She 1. the younger" (Ht. u'd-mdw in" " Actual ". of his lord ". deceased are that he (may go upon the wishes for the beautiful roads of the west) " on which " (the honoured ones go) " to the great God". . XXVIII-XXXI 23 h'tt 's Men-ahy ". mighty ". Pl. see above) bring him gifts. Khenty-kau-es ". Courtier]. Son. 25. leads her kas ". . ". Ahy. 13- '^ y^& ^ ^P'^'^'-^^P- XXXI. uab-priest of the king. Khenty-amentyu {hntj-imntjw) are s'b irj " Judge belonging to Nekhen of the 2. [Intendant of the servants of the ka. in XXVIII. The left end only remains. in which the deceased sits before a table of offerings smelling a vase of ointment.^ " Oil of cedar /j'« ". The deceased and his wife. on both sides.TRANSLATIONS.. sits in The deceased of offerings priests front of a table and a pile hm-ntr $d " Prophet of the god Sed jackal god. hni-ntr He who is over the secrets ". formula wishing him a good burial. The tomb of Sekhem-kay appears to have been I am entirely omitted in Professor Sethe's MS. Anubis and the . PLS. XXXI. bearers of offerings. Under the panel. of whom nothing is known. Pls. On the outer columns at the sides of the stele there are. Pl. 7. XXX. [judge. " the little "). Htp dj ni-swt formula. This is a which are enumerated in a list. iv'b nis'-f smsw nb im'h s'b s-hd ss h ni-swt $hm-k'-j nds " His eldest son. lord of worthiness. VI. on the left Nos. her name at Dendera). Above : a htp dj festival 13. The deceased before him his son Sabu Below. 6. not of heart Pl. Titles. sft- swt 3- P^= ^AAAAA ^. XXX. commander nj hrj idhiv " Belonging to the overseer of lands 8. n '^ ^w«^ Nj-Pth nfr Pl- hr. R^©^!—! Nhn n ht wr " $hm-k'-i "My ka is The named. On is Pl. the names of the seven sacred oils : Wife. Architrave. N-wsr-R' " Prophet of Ne-user-Re' hm-ntr a htp dj ni-sivt Family. formula in which offerings on all Place-of-the-Heart of the obelisk of 14. XXIX in the topmost register an oryx antelope " is d' m"t n nb-f " True . on (see above. M"t " Prophet of the goddess Maat ". VII. hrj 3. hm-ntr Hthr m ist ib " ". •V I I stj-^b " Festival perfume ". fnl 7- '11^ thnw "Libyan oil". the which case the cartouche would be that Re'. Sekhem-ka-y. ' in the corresponding place. m" ndt-hr inwt in htwt-f nwt-f nt t'-mhsm' "Seeing the tribute brought from his towns and villages in Lower and Upper Egypt ". " hm-ntr Spss (?) -k'-R' " Prophet of Shepses-kais The middle it sign of the cartouche it obliter- g) „ The taking out ated is possible that may be u. Funeraland servants (for whose names. 11. Oilier Walls. there is Hathor (c/. 9. ^ . with their titles and names. of VII. 4. XXIX. 5. 2). ". Men-ahy contains the name Lady of Dendera. irj 3. ni-swt " Uab-priest of the King 10. the right without names. the ° httle son of Hathor. irj lo'h h ni-swt " [Courtier] ". 6. the judge scribe. [courtier].. On Pl. Pl. Dad-ka- The False-door of n'i'-swt West Wall. of Pharaoh. 1. im'hwi hr ntr " Worthy before the great ". CHAPTER Tomb of Sekhem-kay. This Prophet of Hathor in the is apparently the name days are desired for the dead. I 2. who 2. Doorway. expert scribe]. 11 and 12. " His son. X ^ \> hknw. omission myself. in which Osiris. Name. House sst' of the Great One ". hmt-f imj-r hm-k' irj h ni-swt Hnt-k'w-s "His wife. ". of a -'^ I ' >^ T The dismembering young oryx " ". s'b ss K'j Son. Q C\ n'i-hnm. Pls. No. mrj nb-f " Beloved of his lord God ". 12.

who grasps his father's False Door. (i) ' May before him. Sekhem- gazelle across his shoulders. with head raised and the ribbons of its collar standing (2) May Anubis give an offering. Leader of Dedu. Crossing both lines hm-k' Ttj "The ' The uab-priest of the King. Above and to the right of the Panel. and hand a fly-flap. has (5) Ipn-k' Prhii' a goose of the kind called irp " Therp ". ." Crossing both lines " The judge. Sekhemtable is " The ka-servant.• 24 4. He wears the lock of youth and holds fast . on the festival of Thoth. and the going forth of Min ". ending with the dedication to " the judge. on the festival of Seker. PL. The name Sekhem-kay is inscribed vertically up a jar ". Itmer Jambs. It is tempting to see in these two daughters the wife of User-neter and the wife of Shepses-Ptah H. pieces of meat and a going forth among the worthy ones to the God.. figure staff. TRANSLATIONS. Ynty ". funerary offerings for him on New Years' Day. gazelle ". belonging to Nekhen. (3) May Osiris give an offering. funeral offerings for of bread festivals of) the extent of and beer from the altar. . VII s't-f Hnnwt " His daughter. in his arms. Two is horizontal lines along the top. . Standing between her and the long staff of Sekhem-kay is their younger son. In his left He is a hand he holds a long staff. in the left a short Daughter. on the Great Festival. Two : the panel horizontal lines of inscription below (i) " May the King give an offering. chair . him is a small figure of his wife with her titles and name above her. (2) Prnh " The ka-servant. clothing from the Treasury. He who is from the Oasis . and over his body conventionalised leopard skin. her arm embracing his legs. on the First of the Year. Below this scene is a register of five bearers of : "May (2) Osiris give an offering. At his feet sits his wife Khentyt-kau-es. Daughter. On the left hm-k' ipt " The ka-servant. the King give an offering . Khenut 5. bird (3) shp stp " Bringing the choice ka-servant. Line i is obliterated. across both lines at this point. five men bring offerings. (i) Above the son's head are his titles and name. he wears a wig of long straight locks." of lim-k' jar. (2) May be given to him grain . s't-f Intj " His daughter.. of which the upper almost entirely destroyed. hm-k' Inn " The ka-servant. in his left a cloth In front of titles and name are above his head. The deceased standing. holds mw {nm)st " Water libation." Central portion. Grandson. hm-k' $sk " The ka-servant. itt hit ' Carrying a female the list of offerings. he holds a is fly-flap in his left hand while his right stretched out towards the offerings piled Three horizontal lines. Under his chair the dog Pesesh is awake. of offerings. vertically Sekhem-kay ". ' Ynen " has a The deceased and his wife before a table Their names and titles are almost completely obliterated. (4) Tety ". wears a short-curled wig. has a ghs " Carrying a kay. the lord of Busiris ". carries .. a nemset". facing left. and right lying flat on its neck. in his right a cloth above him are his titles and name. In front of him is a small . itt festival of) Seker . offerings (i) — " May the Gods of the necropolis give an offering. Ypet bears a the deceased seated on a high-backed high-armed basin and ewer in one hand and a bird in the other. offerings ". (i) On each side of the panel is is a scene. Perkhu ". On the right of the panel the deceased sits on a chair like that on the opposite side. ".. out from its neck. Inscriptions. a demoiselle crane. He wears a short-curled the ribbons of its collar wig Architrave.. of his eldest son. . s' s'-f Shm-k'-j " The son of his son. kay ". Unfortunately the identification cannot be proved. holds in his right staff. on the festival of Uag. : He Right The deceased standing. from the Granary. — to his father's staff. facing right.. . in his arms. Sesk ". belonging to Nekhen. Left. young hyaena hyaena ". In the register below. in his right skull-cap wears a short beard and a his hand he holds a long staff. on the (festival of the) Heat. scene is The general title of the whole shpt pr-hrw " The bringing of funerary ". of which the ' topmost is almost entirely obliterated. 6. on the Monthly festival and the two Half-monthly vertically ' : festivals ". Chief of the Hill of the Snake. its nose on its paws. . but line 2 continues: "Funeral offerings for him of bread and beer on New Year's Day (on the . Under the chair his dog Pesesh (Pss) lies asleep. Oay. on (the Month and the Half-month to the eternity. may Anubis him give an offering. Pemeb ". Sekhem-ka-y.

s'b ss sht Thenty ". these figures are therefore be clearly seen published in a larger size. throughout this and the succeeding chapter are to Steindorff's publication. ". (e) carries two pieces of cloth.) predatory animal climbing the reeds to attack a nest of fledgelings. {b) the uab-priest. is entirely con- eternity. sdt h'tj " The The scene of a Plate II. the best sculpture in the tomb of Ty. The assistant is whetting his knife. dm ds " Sharpenleft another butcher skinning the animal ing the knife (5) ". represent Sekhem-kay's : family. Five These correspond with one another in arrangement. In the lowest register are four men . PL. In the top- shrine. itt are removing the fore-leg " Pull ". Four butchers dismembering an ox. two properly Two men leg. possibly intended for children. shd hm-k' Nfr " The judge scribe of nsj-b'st ". (5) Behind him and a whetstone. [expert] ka-servant. and Like occurs in all most of the scenes of the marshes. though greatly hampered by convention.s r« is right itt butcher Oednes says to " Pull thou. daughters. the Nefer of ". hm-k' inj " The ka-servant. Ny ". accoimts of the King. (d) ss pr-hd shd hm-k' Nj " The scribe of the Treasury. and the mother bird flying to The unusual shape of the heart determinative should be noted. s'b ss Spss-Pth " The judge scribe. grandson. VII. scene of birds for the sacrifice. in this case a pintail duck. is a common motive in Egyptian art. VII 25 n'i-sii't (2) Yny ". Outer Jambs. says to the butchers. Ankhu ". which bends beneath the weight. son. with (4) hm-k' Hiiw a seruitt srw " Carrying a goose in his arms . int miv " The carries a jar on his head. The seven placed presided over by ss Nfr " The judge scribe. " The ka-servant. General title the choice s'b scenes of the sacrifice of oxen. without inscription. (Ti. Nbiv " He who the fields. The third man is removing the heart from the carcass. w'g Dhwtj ibd . the first is On each side are five registers. Month and the Half-month to the extent of eternity (3) (4) DETAILS FROM THE TOMB OF TY. young infants or even unborn has five an ox the chief butcher says to his assistant. artist of this scene. Ni-ka-ankh . (i) " Bringing pieces ". (2) and two unnamed persons. . assistant the scale of reproduction to too small for the detail rk ssmw pw O butcher On . . Five bearers of offerings. Oednes ". He ". without inscription. shp stpw Scene of sacrifice. On the the In Steindorff's Gra6(^t. Khenu ". 26. is his ". [expert] ka-servant. The taking out of the heart ".nt m 'wt dt " With the of) choicest of the choice on (the festivals Uag. (/) goose (5) ". ". . the Right their (a) — (i) Seven men in the attitude of respect with the hand holding the names and titles are given. Nebu belongs to the vase. pi. wnhjw. the judge scribe. Nefer ". ss pr-hd shd hm-k' Tntj " Scribe of the Treasury. rk who holds the The second register men bringing another butcher holds a flint knife dm ds " Sharpening a knife ". has succeeded in introducing some sn-dt ic'b Mrj-m"t-ntr " The brother of The catlike gliding motion of dramatic touches. two carry portions of the dismembered ox. Mery-maat-neter ". opens a (c) ss' slid hm-k' 'nhw " Scribe of the censer. hm-k' Kins The ka-servant. whole scene reads hr stp stpw m CHAPTER Plates II-VII.— TRANSLATIONS. of whom only named shm sh Giv' " The leader of the Gua ". The inscription of the The lowest register has another sacrifice. 113. The adult bird. shpt stpw " Bringing the choice pieces ". the rescue. against (3) which " is the word sntr " Incense ". the mongoose along the papyrus stem. They are led by shd hm-k' W's-k' " The [expert] ka-servant Uash-ka ". Shepses- bringing of water Ptah (2) ". : : most are the family and friends third are bearers of offerings fifth are . (3) (4) men bearing offerings. sp " Cut following order Eldest younger son. [expert] ka-servant. without inscriptions. the above him is the inscription sft iio' " Cutting up the ox ". the ". are well rendered. in the second in and the fourth and figures in Five bearers of offerings. and the shivering terror of the httle fledgelings. [expert] {<^) ka-servant. The sft ir scene is Left — First (top) register. ii. as they are among the finest examples of the skill of the Egyptian artist The references in depicting animals and birds. . sn-dt s'b ss N-k'-'nh " The brother of eternity. fourth man is sharpening his knife. left right shoulder . Thoth.

noticeably out of place. ii. which appears to be some birds.) Two registers from one tombs of this period.-\te IV^ i-io. one end this must have been monkey. like the man skill. 113. while the cows are still almost breast-deep. Though fishing ox head. The kind of fox. which are not those of a climbing creature. ii. IV its attitude does not suggest impassioned speed of the despairing mother. animal on the horizontal part of the stem. cruelly . has a hole in the middle through . root-vegetables peeled and scraped ready for boiling. 114.) The second is it is rare to find the representation of fish used as (cf. The party are obviously nearing the bank for the water is not up to the knees of the calf-bearer. both as a sport for gentlemen and a livelihood for peasants. an attempt to portray a figure in profile similarly distorted figures occur several times in this tomb. Pl. He carries a stick carved at . [Ti. sculptor who had not yet dared to go beyond as a food according to the limits of pure convention in spite of his technical authors. sedately walking. Then comes a group of an earthenware stand filled with loaves (?). The scene of cattle crossing is passes. itself. Ill. by intensive study. Another group of four objects hanging alongside side of the post four long . p. representation of the tragedy of the marshes food Petrie. late peculiarly interesting for the fish. pi. . A round object. (Ti. I can offer no suggestion they as to what these were intended to represent may be some kind of vegetable prepared for cooking. ii. ii. owing to its is one purpose. The lower register shows The curious a boy leading two hunting dogs. are. On the right hand neither so interesting nor so convincing as that on and screaming nestlings and trembling little animal. Meditm. experiments are found occasionally in the Old Kingdom but are more common in the Middle Kingdom.26 ventional in drawing . III (i). scene. This is an important and interesting series for the study of food in the Old Kingdom. 112). whose want of observation is shown by his placing the animal on the wrong part of the bent The first artist very properly placed his stem. 27. The two objects on the left are tied to a 117. it is clear that they are by different artists. Of these No. The first of these objects is is un- explainable the second a fish split open and This texts is ready for cooking. a pat-cake perhaps.. The tomb surfaces. (Ti.) muzzled and tethered with too short a halter. would not be pi. pi. is a good study of an animal almost fullgrown yet retaining some of the aspects of an immature beast. which the suspension cord four a canal under the charge of herdsmen in common 11. xii). pi. 117) is important. the One is therefore tempted to beheve that the mother bird was done by another hand. of its decorated important for this In that mass of material it should be size and the extent of the most I think. the dramatic touch has been missed by the second artist. 115. i (Ti. 12. smaller in size and with the end pointed. In the upper register a dwarf leads a monkey larger than himself. 112. judging by the marks on it. (Ti. xiv. . possibly a journey- the pole cleaned. always worth while to look for indications of individuality. pi. Though the technique is equally good in both scenes. and the paws. The fluttered are less tragic than the silent narrow objects with square tips are suspended from a short bar which hangs from the pole they appear to be threaded on the bar from which they hang. 115. It represents a shed where various kinds of food were prepared and then hung on a horizontal pole which is supported by posts. rather 129.) Details of offerings. PLS. Plate {Ti. Below it hang more of the root-vegetables. one of which hangs from the pole. The little creature turns its head and calls in terror to its mother. to differentiate the work (2) of the various artists. COPIES. 118. The young ox. was tabu and classical scenes abound. possible. is too heavy for the stem up which it is In comparing the two scenes. Attached to the lower end of each of these objects is a similar object. The little procession is always headed by a calf carried on the back of one of the cow-herds. ii. like an open hand for beating the distortion of the boy's right shoulder is apparently . pis. pi. who replies. Next is an object like a thick sausage it is obviously soft for it is thinner in the middle where the suspension cord compresses it. the other from the stand. not unlike the hieroglyph of a dagger. Such artistic cord fastened to the pole and are not attached to ii. in this case a young boy. where its footing would be secure. and flanked on either side by a globular vase. A slender pointed pot sealed with a large cap of clay is the next object. So little is known about the artists it is who sculptured the tombs at Saqqara that of Ty.

This animal is more conventionally rendered and has not the same youthful {Ti. These special hiero- The two young animals are by a twist of cord round the hind leg the buck is more strongly secured by a double twist very slightly larger. pi. pi. V-VII {Ti. they are known as late as the Ptolemaic The animal was either very common or . 3. {Ti. 114. is leg. tied . Das . the bars being omitted by the much uncertainty as to the meaning of this sign of the it is now supposed to be the representation Man. is a combination of consonant of the word.) Read yri. young ducks The box was probably of osier or papyrus. (Ti. in Grab-denkmal des pp. figures of hedgehogs are found. and the notes therefore those which have some special interest. a food-animal whose use did not survive. Here it is clearly the pintail duck. The distended crop appears to be its characteristic as a hieroglyph. is numhevs in brackets refer des Ti ".) to Steindorff's " Grab indicated by the new-born calf. The fillet and feather For the knobbed sticks I. is xxxvii. as offerings later. means " to carry ". ii. but 28. 13. ii. {Ti. I. Mast. I. Mast. 118. is ii. 112. p. it The alphabetic sign for h. born has been peculiarly successful in his rendering of the rounded forms and loosecalf the artist jointed build of a very 2.) interesting. 133. Old Kingdom.) In the new- offerings It from the earliest to the latest periods.) The ordinary determinative is a Kingdom period. 8. p.) In the full-grown buck the The markings on the pinions distinguishes it from the other two birds. like the hyaena (see Sag. this for The little hedgehog in a cage the number of representations References are given only to the rarer signs. see Sag. ii. pi. (PI. pi. in Borchardt. 71. captivity. The former is common in the hieroglyphs as the writing of the the exquisite detail make this little name it of Hapi.) was clearly a large . it must have been. pi. 115. 27 confusing to the spectator and obscuring offering. but the rest of the birds are diverse in attitude. ii. is the origin of the 'k of the hieroglyphic script. CHAPTER VIII. a rare feature in this sign. animals led by the farm women are miniature creatures specially bred by wealthy the HIEROGLYPHS FROM THE TOMB OF TY. glyphs from the tomb of Ty are published here as being either unusually fine examples or as showing some peculiarity. (PI. Mast. a fine example of the decorative effect beloved of the Egyptian artist. drew the attention included the of the artists.) are finely differentiated The two magnificent birds in shape and markings. headdress are unusual. for of other materials (usually pottery) in the New 48. man. known to need refer only to {Ti.) A box-like crate of also a common offering. one of the genii of crowd one of the most charming and in the whole tomb. but the full-grown buck only 29. 112. In late writing the figure (PI. comment. 4. hoofs show that the animal had always lived on the soft straw-strewn floor of the farmyard and had never had them hardened by the abrasive sand and rocks of the desert it must have been bred in . 165-171. xi. This sign belongs almost the peculiarities of its appearance and behaviour entirely to the 4.) among the offerings of food-animals in Old Kingdom. pi. There used to be . 129. 3. 13) that I have already pointed out little {Sag. springiness of gait as the calf. ii. p. The greater number are too well round the front 5. the size is In the series of three animals here given. the determinative and the principal Read /' . cranes. delightful scenes of birds the dead does not occur in offerings after the Middle Kingdom. {Plate owners. pi.COPIES. 125.) artist as his view of the {Ti. The beard 3. 129. The group of demoiselle herded together by a man at each side. pi. as here. the fawn is rather smaller. {Ti. Plate V (i).) handsome bird and popular it was probably as a denizen of the farmyard more prolific and more easy to rear than the hap. often female. 129. The pekhst with its full crop 9. ii. The re is the principal bird found in the . ii. creature in .) Read yn. The delicate outline and The hap is a rarer bird in the offerings than the re. Plates VI and VII. 9. In the Old Kingdom they appear in landscapes and. young animal. of Egyptian art is remarkable. placenta (see Murray and Seligman. 29). and the beard. 2. As it is so often (PI. of blue faience in the Middle Kingdom. 1. with a pair on either side is symmetrical. The central group of a single bird 7. PLS.

In late examples the lower end of the lashing is lengthened and drawn like a human leg and foot. 129. held in a man's hand it off. 76-7.] As the sign is the determinative of the verb " to follow ". I are transliterated it origin is generally overlooked or forgotten. In this instance the thickness of the walls of the vessel it by three pi. also used as the determinative for and in detailed examples is always full of liquid. represented as being is Its proper colour the blue. and though they sometimes have a spout to facilitate copper. 133. 85. It is the name of one of Ty's farms. 56. the hoodless cobra. and suggest that . the invariable colour for copper in (PI. (PI. This sign general^ called aleph. and holchng the hunting knife. As the sacred object of Aphroditopohs it reads w'dt. 88. In some examples the upper end of the lashing is drawn like a knife. which again shows the idea of the king as connected with . " copper ". It is. and consists of the usual town-sign surmounted pouring they are often only plain circular pots. Also Sethe. or that equally poisonous snake. is not clear. clearly that xhv. in the form of one of the compositae. Read bd't. 1st dynasty. which seems to indicate that there was another snake-nome on the east side of the Nile. 114. which is the same as the cobra-goddess of the North. ears of bearded wheat. the food offerings in the Old Kingdom. of depended on the individual artist. group are on the stone bowls of the 31. is Read d. A charming example of the bunch papyrus stems. 32. stands for it is therefore regarded as some kind of female organ. as the name of a king of the 1st dynasty. This is a composite the principal hieroglyphs. and the choice of the plant appears to have Read dr. project above [In this case it represents the follower carrying the hunting shield on his back. It represents a crucible for melting group of the determinative consonant of the word. perhaps when hunting. 116. The rope lashing of the two implements is exactly the same. The earliest examples of this 13. Why the later have conventionalised it. Late forms omit or alter the detail.) Read hm-t. This sign " is so in Greek commonly used its as the word for " woman that and Coptic when Egyptian words into those languages. passim). It always of represents a young shoot. This example shows a heavy staff with a curved top to the middle of the shaft a large packet is lashed.) again in cxxiv a reaper grasps a similar bunch. 141. though it would be impossible to carry a knife or any other long narrow object at that angle. This sign standing alone . It is the fetish or crest of the town of Aphroditopohs and is then represented with the feather of the west on its back. (PI. it. and below the package. COPIES.) Read h'. Dramatische Texte. either lying The sign is used in baskets or carried by offerers. The hand with water pouring over it is the usual indication of the use of the ewer and basin among the offerings. A later king of the same dynasty bears a name. which is still known in Egypt. The creature must therefore be either the hooded cobra with the hood down. and its long narrow shape show was a crucible . and is there the earliest example of a king being personally Readsm.28 Sahu-re' . the blade becomes the ploughshare to which are attached the ploughhandles for guiding it. cut into lengths and tied with a Bundles of stems of this kind occur among rope. either flower bud or leaf bud. 63. but the sound of its the Arabic aleph would not account for or for the various vowels which replace use in from two signs. is The development of the plough the hoe clearly seen in these the transliteration of foreign words into Egyptian it 121. hn. where pi. . PLS. it probably represents the equipment which a servant carried behind his master. plaited basket A rare sign representing a with a long handle ending in a preparatory to cutting 62. is The little bunch of three ears found it is in Steindorff. and Crucibles are known from Badarian times. it then the name of a king of the 1st dynasty probably reads Wazti [W'dtt). . 41. scribes should 105. and 133. The handle of the hoe elongated becomes the pole for yoking the draught animals. 125. F. (Pis. Udy-mu. the sound called hamza in Arabic any language which did not possess that sound would omit it in transliteration and use only the vowels which follow 47. and the ends of the lashing true meaning. P. Read The divergence form in this sign in early examples makes it one of the most interesting of the hieroglyphs. pp. V-VII ii. and confusion has arisen in attempts to explain the connected with the food supply.) knot. however. The small vulture is is the alphabetic sign '. Grab des Ti.

Read im'h. strap. they appear to be amulets. Diospolis Parva. which would also indicate is the model pair in ivory of the predynastic period (Petrie. 22) real . Nar-mer's sandals are carried by an attendant when he was in action. 19. No explanation of this sign red. of the thatched roof The sandal shows both toe-strap and ankleThe ankle-strap does not appear to have been tied it must have been a loose ring of leather over which the toe-strap was fastened. The proper colour of it is which may mean wood or cloth. The structure is as yet forthcoming. p. In the early examples it is not a true rectangle here it is slightly obtuse.COPIES fertility. No example among among of the object in use This is one of the 148. The earliest the king as a temple builder. and is a bundle it of reeds lashed together and bent is so as to form the angle-piece joins the wall. 129. . instance of sandals a reference to agriculture. (PI. 29 Professor Petrie suggests that the bundle of stems represents flax. 144. while in the ritual object in the Xllth Dynasty (Petrie. Its use in ritual dances may refer to probably part of the royal insignia which later became democratized.) Read h'p. Sandals were common in the Old Kingdom. mysterious objects used in the ritual dances of the king. pi. of the object suggests wood. Still earlier they were 145. the tomb scenes . . but the loop suggests thread or string. The sign is used as both determinative and ideogram of h'p " to conceal ". It represents the comer-piece of a reed the unexplained hut. Koptos. x. pi. has yet been found remains therefore hieroglyphs. 142. and would thus bring him into connection with the goddess of building as well as the gods who possessed temples. ix) the angle . where Part of the thatch shown lying over the angle-piece. it is acute. an appropriate meaning for such a method of roof construction.


. Confusion of pantheon 3 Conversations of workmen 15. Lists of I Cloth.. el ..5. Lioness deity Facial types.. 26 27 Euphemism representations of for King's death Executioner of divine victim 4.9 Suggested meaning of 10 5. 13 .. 25 25 4 Fetish of Oxyrhynchus Firth.. 27 5. (Mrs Firth) 7 Nemes-cioih Ne-user-re . . . 6 „ . Lists of . 6. 4 I Masked . F.. . Hathor-nefer-hetep 12 6 12 23 Cobra Cockerell. Lists of 14. Death-hut Deicide Deities.. . Nut..4 2 II.. 9 16 25 Ashtoreth-Karnaim Ateta Attitude of respect Axe man or builder Bast. 4 7 . 3 -zseq Disposal of the dead Divine King .. 5. .. Farms. Individuality of artists 19 26 Petrie. . . 6.. . 13... Story of 18 23 5. 3 4. . Goddess of 10. 24 12. ... Meanings of hieroglyphs . . . Priestesses . . • . . name Book of Dead . ... 24. .. of Cusae the Pillar . 10 8 8 8 Sycamore • . Miniature animals 7 of sign Mongoose II. . • 9 9 Cat sacred Cats as snake-killers Cattle in canal Child porters City of Ut Classification of gods .. Shrine of . .7 7 12 Meaning of name Oxyrhynchus. 28 29 I Lady . 18 6. 10. 2. i i Likeness to Zoser Ororo (King Osiris cycle Osiris.6 3 Collar of high priest ..... 10 Ptah-hotep I Ptah-hotep II 14 .. . Titles of I. II I 26 3 . Mrs.. 19. . . 8. 9 Hedgehogs Herodotus Horus and Anubis Hotep-Akhety-her . Ka-aper (Sheikh Ka-em-hesut . 8. 6.. . 25 . . Lady .. Guardian Names Neith . . 24 i. 9 Ergamenes . (Lady Cockerell) Lattice shrine 6 i .. King .INDEX PAGE Abydos as royal Ankh-pendants Angle-piece of roof . 12.. Arrows and bows . 26 17 Hathor .. 23 5 17 seq. of . II.. 27 9 Falcon totem of King. . priest .6. 14. 6 3 12 . Democratisation of religion Description of necklace „ ... . Suggested meaning Bubastis Building. 26 25.. 10 5 14. Lists of farms festivals oils • representation of birds 15.. 5.. 24. 26 26 Kingkiller Kingsford... Method of hair-dressing Brewing women Bst. .. of the . Festivals. 4. 7 15. F. . 3. Deities classified Instrument of punishment • 26 Royal . . . . . . burial-place 7 Development hoe Disk-pendants of plough from 28 2 29 2 Anu Anubis and death „ . 5 Khenut Khuyu-en-Ptah King as divine victim . Goddess of . . 13. 4 4. .. . 28 Lady .. . Titles of 6. 4-7 10 Dogs Dwarf Elder of the registers .. . Goddess Oasis Offering table Oils. Emblems Hansard. 24. 11. Names of . animals „ 26. 8. 24 12 • 4. 10 3. 26. 28 Hyaena Identifications . makers Food stored Fusion of deities • II Menkaure. Fetish of Pendants on necklace Pesesh (dog) . ... . 27-9 Suggested the meaning of Fish as food Fledgelings 7 10 II 8 Flint tool . wig . 6 8.. 3. 7 29 Burial customs God God of Death lion 2 9 9 I Monkey 27 25 26 of the gate . . 7 „ Architecture... 19.6 3.. killer) . . 16 8. of Neith Artistic experiment .. • 17.12 19. Sir Flinders . Development Pintail of 25 28 13 Jackal Jackal-figure on necklace „ . 16 . on shrine 31 . name 9 . . Cow-goddess Crucible . .. Beled) . . 10 2 I duck Plough. . 11. Farms of 15. 26 . 20. 4 2 6. 29 . 5 5. 5. names 6.

21 Young animals 12 .. 23 10.3 9 9...21 seq. . and seven-year periods Standards Sycomore goddess Thatched huts Titles of Anubis „ High priest . 13 . 3. 7-8 . .. Unusual hieroglyph User-neter Ut..... . .. . . 6 10 7 6 .9 25 25 18 seq. . .. changes in deities ..5. Religion. . . PAGE 13 PAGE PAGE Titles of Priest of . . . .. . .1. 6..21 . Memphis Zefau .. 5.. . .. . II 8 29 7 Weights Wig of Seker-kha-bau Writing. . . . . 10 Seshat Meaning of sign Seth „ Titles of priest of Sethe. Uty . .32 INDEX Ptah-hotep desher PjTamid Texts . . Washing women . Sekhem-kay Sekhmet Seshat . .. 11-23 Great Doors Ty.11 3.6 2. God . . 4. 7 . 11 „ Horus . 18 . . 2.6 .. 18 II II 11 4. 3. Lattice Six- .. . Goddess of 8 I II 26. ^. • i seq.. . . tomb details . 6. 4.> 3 5. . 10 ID Shepses-Ptah I Shepses-Ptah II Sheikh el Beled Shilluk customs Shrine. 29 23 3 seq. 6. Two Ra Rekhyut Royal Rui Ruti Sandals Sed. . i Likeness to Sa-nekht . Ptah Seth . of 12. . .. . Seker Seker-kha-bau. 5. 3 14. . City of . 27 6. 4.... Professor K. . . 6. 6. .

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