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Basics
Simulation and calculation
Indoor lighting
Lighting control
Designing with light
Outdoor lighting
Lighting technology
Glossary
The Guide provides extensive
information on topics ranging
from the physical basics of light-
ing through to possible solutions
for specific lighting situations
– in short, a veritable encyclo-
paedia of architectural lighting.
The knowledge modules make
use of the interactive possibilities
offered by the Internet, e.g. for
illustrating time-dependent phe-
nomena, experiments or contrasts
between alternative solutions:
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E Guide
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E Guide
Basics
It is inadequate simply to portray
the eye as an optical system when
describing human perception. It
also needs to be explained how
the image is interpreted. Both the
perceptual psychology and the
objects of perception are impor-
tant factors in understanding
lighting design.
History Seeing and percep-
tion
3
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E Guide
Basics
History
Right up until the 18
th
century
people only had two light sources
at their disposal: natural daylight
and the flame – the latter being
the only artificial light source
since the Stone Age. These two
types of lighting dictated the
patterns of life and architecture
down through the ages, but a
new epoch was ushered in with
the invention of gas lighting and
then electric lighting.
Quantitative lighting
design
Qualitative lighting
design
Perception-orientated
lighting design
4
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With the advent of electrical
lighting, obtaining illuminance
levels similar to those of daylight
became a question of how much
technical effort one was prepared
to invest. At the end of the 19
th

century, one attempt at provid-
ing street lighting was to mount
floodlights on lighting towers.
However, the glare and harsh
shadow produced caused more
disadvantages than advantages
and so this form of outdoor light-
ing was soon abandoned.
Whereas inadequate light sources
were the main problem initially,
a prime concern later on was
how to sensibly deal with the
overabundance of light. Increas-
ing industrialisation gave rise to
intensive studies in the field of
workplace lighting, investigat-
ing the influence of illuminance
levels and lighting type on
production efficiency. The stud-
ies resulted in extensive rules
and regulations governing the
minimum illuminance levels, the
qualities of colour rendition and
glare limitation. This catalogue
of standards was to serve as a
guideline for lighting far beyond
the area of the workplace; in fact,
it still determines the practice
of lighting design right up to
the present day. However, this
approach left the psychology of
perception totally unconsidered.
The issues of how people perceive
structures clearly and how light-
ing also conveys an aesthetic
effect were beyond the scope of
the quantitative lighting rules
and regulations.
The American Electric Light Tower
(San José 1885)
E Guide
Basics | History
Quantitative lighting design
5
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Restricting the view of human
perception to a physiologically
orientated level led to unsat-
isfactory lighting concepts.
Approaches at a new lighting
philosophy that no longer solely
considered quantitative aspects
arose in the USA after World War
II. Expanding the physiology of
the visual apparatus by adding
the psychology of perception
meant that all factors involved
in the interaction between the
perceiving observer, the object
viewed and the facilitating
medium of light now came under
consideration. The perception-
orientated lighting design no
longer primarily thought in the
quantitative terms of illuminance
levels or luminance distribution,
but in terms of the qualitative
factors.
E Guide
Basics | History
Qualitative lighting design
6
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E Guide
Basics | History
Perception-orientated lighting design
The perception-orientated
lighting design of the 1960s no
longer considered man and his
needs as a mere recipient of his
visual surroundings but as an
active factor in the perception
process. The designers analysed
what was the significance of the
individual areas and functions.
Using the pattern of meaning
thus established, it was then
possible to plan the lighting as
a third factor and to develop an
appropriate lighting design. This
required qualitative criteria and a
corresponding vocabulary, which
in turn allowed both the require-
ments placed on a lighting system
and the functions of the light to
be described.
Richard Kelly William Lam
7
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Richard Kelly (1919-1977) was
a pioneer of qualitative lighting
design who borrowed existing
ideas from perception psychol-
ogy and theatrical lighting and
combined them into a uniform
concept. Kelly broke away from
the rigid constraints of using uni-
form illuminance as the central
criterium of the lighting design.
He replaced the question of light-
ing quantity with the question of
individual qualities of light. These
were designed according to a
series of lighting functions, which
were in turn geared towards the
perceiving observer. In the 1950s
Kelly made a distinction here
between three basic functions:
ambient luminescence, focal glow
and play of brilliants.
E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
Richard Kelly
Introduction
8
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E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
Richard Kelly
Focal glow
To arrive at a differentiation,
Kelly came up with a second
form of light, which he referred
to as ”focal glow“. This is where
light is first given the express
task of actively helping to con-
vey information. The fact that
brightly lit areas automatically
draw our attention now comes
into consideration. By using a
suitable brightness distribution
it is possible to order the wealth
of information contained in an
environment. Areas containing
essential information can be
emphasised by accented lighting,
whereas secondary or distracting
information can be toned down
Play of brilliants
The third form of light, ”play
of brilliants“, results from the
insight that light not only draws
our attention to information, but
can also represent information in
and of itself. This applies above
all to the specular effects that
point light sources can produce
on reflective or refractive materi-
als. Furthermore, the light source
itself can also be considered to be
brilliant. This ”play of brilliants“
can add life and ambiance, espe-
cially to prestigious venues. What
was traditionally produced by
chandeliers and candlelight can
now be achieved in a modern
lighting design by the targeted
use of light sculptures or by cre-
ating brilliant effects on illumi-
nated materials.
Ambient luminescence
Kelly called the first and foun-
dational form of light ”ambient
luminescence“. This is the element
of light that provides general
illumination of the surroundings;
it ensures that the surrounding
space, its objects and the people
there are visible. This form of
lighting facilitates general orien-
tation and activity. Its universal
and uniform orientation means
that it largely follows along the
same lines as quantitative light-
ing design, except that ambient
luminescence is not the final
objective but just the founda-
tion for a more comprehensive
lighting design. The aim is not to
produce blanket illumination, or
”one size fits all“ lighting at the
supposed optimum illuminance
level, but to have differentiated
lighting that builds on the base
layer of the ambient light.
by applying a lower lighting level.
This facilitates a fast and accurate
flow of information, whereby
the visual environment is easily
recognised in terms of its struc-
tures and the significance of the
objects it contains. This applies
just as equally to orientation
within the space (e.g. the ability
to distinguish quickly between a
main entrance and a side door) as
for emphasising certain objects,
such as when presenting goods
for sale or when highlighting the
most valuable sculpture in a col-
lection.
9
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E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
Richard Kelly
Glass House
Architect: Philip Johnson
Location: New Canaan,
Connecticut, 1948-1949
It was on this Glass House project
that Kelly developed the basic
principles of indoor and outdoor
lighting which he was to later
apply to countless residential and
business properties. Kelly avoided
the use of blinds for the sunlight
because he found they obscured
the view and impaired the feel-
ing of distant space. Instead, to
reduce the harsh daytime bright-
ness contrast between inside
and outside, Kelly used dimmed
lighting on the interior walls. For
the night, he designed a concept
that works with the reflection
of the glass facade and retains
the spatial feeling. Kelly recom-
mended candles for the interior
as this would give sparkle and add
an exciting atmosphere. Several
lighting components in the out-
door area augment the view out
of the living area and create spa-
tial depth. Projectors on the roof
illuminate the front lawn and the
trees beside the house. Additional
projectors highlight the trees
in the middle ground and the
background, thereby making the
landscape backdrop visible.
Photos courtesy of the Kelly
Collection.
Seagram Building
Architects: Ludwig Mies van der
Rohe and Philip Johnson
Location: New York, New York,
1957
The vision behind the Seagram
Building was to have a tower of
light that would be recognisable
from afar. Working together with
Mies van der Rohe and Philip
Johnson, Kelly achieved this aim
by having the building shine from
the inside out. This was done
using luminous ceilings in the
office levels, whereby a two-stage
light switch for the fluorescent
lamps enabled energy to be saved
at night. The illumined area at the
plinth of the building gave the
impression that this multi-storey
building is floating above the
street. An impressive view into
the building at night is afforded
thanks to uniform vertical illu-
mination of the building’s core,
produced by recessed ceiling
luminaires. A carpet of light starts
in the indoor area and continues
onto the forecourt. To achieve a
uniform pattern of solar protec-
tion on the facade during the
daytime, the blinds on the win-
dows only have three settings:
open, closed and half-open.
10
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E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
Richard Kelly
New York State Theater
Lincoln Center for the Performing
Arts
Architect: Philip Johnson
Location: New York, New York,
1965
For the New York State Theater
Kelly explored the use of crystal-
line structures for the design of
the chandelier in the auditorium
and the lighting of the balcony
balustrades in the foyer. The
chandelier in the auditorium had
a diameter of about three meters
and consisted of a number of
smaller ”diamonds of light“. In
the foyer, the luminaires on the
balustrade were designed to look
like jewels in a crown, thereby
underlining the grandeur of the
room. The light sources were
shielded towards the front side of
the balustrades, but on the inside
their multi-facetted structure
produced impressive reflections.
This results in brilliance effects
comparable with the sparkle of
precious stones. In addition, Kelly
also conceived the lighting in all
the other areas of the Lincoln
Center, except the interior of the
Metropolitan Opera House.
Kimbell Art Museum
Architect: Louis I. Kahn
Location: Fort Worth, Texas, 1972
The clever use of natural light
in the Kimbell Art Museum
originates from the teamwork
of Louis Kahn and Richard Kelly.
Kahn designed a series of North-
South orientated galleries whose
vaulted ceilings featured a sky-
light running along their apexes,
while Kelly was responsible for
the daylight reflector system
made of curved aluminium plate.
Perforations allow daylight to
penetrate through this plate,
thereby reducing the contrast
between the underside of this
reflector and the daylight-illu-
minated concrete vaulting. The
central section of this dished
aluminium is kept free of per-
forations so that direct daylight
is shut out. In areas with no UV
protection requirements, such as
the entrance or the restaurant, a
completely perforated reflector
is used. Computer programs were
used to calculate the reflector
contour and the lighting proper-
ties that were to be expected.
The underside of the daylight
reflector system was fitted with
tracks and spotlights. Kelly sug-
gested putting plants in the inner
courtyards in order to tone down
the harsh daylight for the indoor
areas.
11
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E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
Richard Kelly
Yale Center For British Art
Architect: Louis I. Kahn
Location: New Haven,
Connecticut, 1969-1974
Louis Kahn teamed up with Kelly
to design a system of skylights
for the illumination in the Yale
Center for British Art. The design
brief from the museum was that
on sunny and overcast days the
pictures were to be exclusively
illuminated by daylight. Artificial
lighting was only to be mixed in
when there was very low daylight.
The domed skylights feature a
permanently mounted louvre
construction on the topside,
allowing diffuse northern light
into the building while avoiding
directly incident light on walls or
floors when the sun is high. The
skylights are made of an upper
Plexiglas dome with UV-protec-
tion and a sandwich construc-
tion consisting of: a translucent
plastic plate for dust protection,
a mirror-finish light diffuser and
a bi-laminar, acrylic, prismatic
lens underneath. Tracks on the
undersides of the domed skylights
hold wallwashers and spotlights.
The design process utilised com-
puter calculations and full-scale
models.
12
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E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
William Lam
In the 1970s, William M. C. Lam
(1924-), one of the most com-
mitted advocates of qualitatively
orientated lighting design, pro-
duced a list of criteria, or rather
a systematic, context-orientated
vocabulary for describing the
requirements placed on a light-
ing system. Lam distinguished
between two main groups of cri -
teria: the ”activity needs“, which
are the needs resulting from per-
forming activities within a visual
environment, and the ”biological
needs“, which sum up the psy-
chological demands placed on
a visual environment and are
applicable in every context.
Introduction
13
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Activity needs
The ”activity needs“ describe the
needs resulting from perform-
ing activities within a visual
environ ment. The characteristics
of the visual task at hand are the
crucial factor for these needs. The
analysis of the activity needs is
therefore largely identical with
the criteria for quantitative light-
ing. There is also considerable
agreement for this area when it
comes to the objectives of light-
ing design. The aim is to arrive
at a functional lighting that will
provide the optimum visual con-
ditions for the activity in question
– be it work, leisure activities or
simply moving through the space.
In contrast to the proponents
of quantitative lighting design,
Lam objects to a uniform lighting
that is simply designed to suit
whatever is the most difficult
visual task. Instead, he proposes a
differentiated analysis of all the
visual tasks that arise, an analysis
conducted according to location,
type and frequency.
Biological needs
Lam sees the second complex
of his system, i.e. the ”biological
needs“, as being more essential.
The biological needs sum up
the psychological demands that
are placed on a visual environ-
ment and are applicable in every
context. Whereas activity needs
result from a conscious involve-
ment with the surroundings and
are aimed at the functionality of
a visual environment, biological
needs largely concern uncon-
scious requirements which are
fundamental for evaluating a
situation emotionally. They are
concerned with the feeling of
wellbeing in a visual environ-
ment. The starting point for Lam’s
definition is the fact that our
attention is only dedicated to one
specific visual task in moments
of utmost concentration. Our
visual attention almost always
widens to observe our entire sur-
roundings. This allows changes
in the environment to be perceived
immediately and behaviour to be
adapted to the altered situation
without delay. The emotional
evaluation of a visual environment
depends not least on whether that
environment clearly presents the
required information or whether it
conceals it from the observer.
E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
William Lam
Orientation
Of all the fundamental psycho-
logical demands placed on a
visual environment, Lam ranks the
need for clear orientation as par-
amount. Orientation can be ini-
tially understood in spatial terms
here. In which case, it would then
relate to how discernable desti-
nations and routes are and to
the spatial location of entrances,
exits and other specific facilities
within the environment, e.g. a
reception desk or the individual
areas of a department store. But
orientation also concerns infor-
mation on further aspects of the
surroundings, such as the time of
day, the weather or what is going
on in that area. If this informa-
tion is missing, as may be the case
in closed spaces in department
stores or in the corridors of large
buildings, then the environment is
perceived as unnatural and even
oppressive. It is only by leaving
the building that we can catch up
with the information deficit.
Orientation Time of day
Weather Surroundings
14
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E Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design
William Lam
Discernability
A second group of psychologi-
cal needs concerns how well the
surrounding structures can be
discerned and comprehended.
The first point to note here is
that all areas of the spaces are
sufficiently visible. This is the
decisive factor for our feeling of
security within a visual environ-
ment. Dark corners in subways or
in the corridors of large buildings
may harbour danger, in the same
way as glaringly overlit areas.
Comprehension of our surround-
ings does not simply mean that
absolutely everything has to be
visible however, it also includes
an element of structuring, i.e. the
need for a clearly structured and
ordered environment. We perceive
situations as positive not only
when the form and structure of
the surrounding architecture are
clearly discernable, but also when
the essential areas are clearly
delineated from their background.
Instead of constituting a confus-
ing and possibly contradictory
deluge of information, a space
presented in this way will feature
a comprehensible number of
properties that build into a clearly
structured whole. Having a nice
view or other points of visual
interest, such as a work of art,
are also important for relaxation.
Security Structuring
View
Communication
A third area covers the balance
between man’s need for com-
munication and his requirement
for a defined private sphere. Both
extremes here are perceived as
negative, i.e. complete isolation
as well as ”life in a goldfish bowl“.
A given space should facilitate
contact with other people, yet
at the same time it should also
allow private areas to be defined.
One such private area could be
defined by a patch of light that
picks out a group of seats or a
conference table from the over-
all surroundings within a larger
room.
Public life Communication
Contemplation
15
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The majority of the information
that we receive about the world
around us comes through our
eyes. Light is not only an essential
prerequisite, it is the medium by
which we are able to see. Through
its intensity, the way it is distrib-
uted and through its properties,
light creates specific conditions
which can influence our percep-
tion. Lighting design is, in fact,
the planning of our visual envi-
ronment. Good lighting design
aims to create perceptual con-
ditions which allow us to work
effectively and orient ourselves
safely while promoting a feeling
of well-being in a particular
environment. At the same time
it enhances the environment in
an aesthetic sense. The physical
qualities of a lighting situation
can be calculated and measured.
Ultimately, it is the actual effect
the lighting has on the user of a
space and his subjective percep-
tion, that decides whether a
light ing concept is successful or
not.
E Guide
Basics
Seeing and perception
Physiology of the eye Psychology of seeing Constancy
Perception of gestalt Objects of perception
16
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Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
When describing human percep-
tion, it is inadequate to portray
the eye as an optical system. The
process of perception is not a
matter of how an image of our
environment is transferred to the
retina, but how the image is
inter preted and how we dif-
ferentiate between objects with
constant properties in a changing
environment.
E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception
Physiology of the eye
Optical system Receptors Adaptation
17
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Eye and camera The process of perception is
frequently explained by compar-
ing the eye with a camera. In the
case of the camera, an adjust-
able system of lenses projects
the reversed image of an object
onto a film. The amount of light
is controlled by a diaphragm.
After developing the film and
reversing the image during the
enlarging process, a visible, two-
dimensional image of the object
becomes apparent. Similarly, in
the eye, a reversed image is pro-
jected onto the retina of the eye
via a deformable lens. The iris
takes on the function of the dia-
phragm, the light-sensitive retina
the role of the film. The image
is then transported via the optic
nerve from the retina to the brain,
where it is adapted in the visual
cortex and made available to the
conscious mind.
In regard to the eye, however,
there are considerable differ-
ences between what is actually
perceived and the image on the
retina. The image is spatially
distorted through its projection
onto the curved surface of the
retina. Through chromatic aber-
E
Perspective
Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Physiology of the eye
Optical system
Spherical aberration. Projected
images are distorted due to the
curvature of the retina.
If we perceive objects that are
arranged within a space, the
perspectives of the images pro-
duced on the retina are distorted.
A square perceived at an angle,
for example, will produce a trap-
ezoidal image on the retina. This
image may, however, also have
been produced by a trapezoidal
surface viewed front on. The only
thing that is perceived is one
single shape – the square that
this image has actually produced.
This perception of a square shape
remains consistent, even if the
viewer or object move, although
the shape of the image projected
on the retina is constantly chang-
ing due to the changing perspec-
tive.
Chromatic aberration. Images are
blurred due to the various degrees
of refraction of spectral colours.
Perceptual constancy: percep-
tion of a shape in spite of the
fact that the image on the retina
is changing with the changing
perspective.
ration – light of various wave-
lengths is refracted to varying
degrees, which produces coloured
rings around the objects viewed.
These defects, however, are elimi-
nated when the image is being
processed in the brain.
18
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Physiology of the eye
Receptors
Receptors There are two different types of
receptor: the rods and the cones,
which are not distributed evenly
over the retina. At one point, the
so-called “blind spot”, there are
no receptors at all, as this is the
point at which optic nerves enter
the retina.
Receptor density An area of the retina called the
fovea is the focal point of the
lens. In this area, the concen-
tration of the cones is greatest,
whereas the density of the cones
reduces rapidly outwards to the
periphery. Here we find the great-
est concentration of rods, which
do not exist in the fovea.
The older of these two systems,
from an evolutionary point of
view, is the one consisting of rods.
The special attributes of this sys-
tem include high light-sensitivity
and a great capacity for perceiv-
ing movement over the entire
field of vision. On the other hand,
rods do not allow us to perceive
colour; contours are not sharp
and it is not possible to concen-
trate on objects, i.e. to study
items clearly even if they are in
Rods
Number N of rods and cones on
the retina in relation to the angle
of sight
the centre of our field of vision.
The rod system is extremely sen-
sitive and is activated when the
illuminance level is less than 1 lux.
Our night vision features, particu-
larly the fact that colour is not
evident, contours are blurred and
poorly lit items in our peripheral
field of vision are more visible
– can be explained by the proper-
ties of the rod system.
The cones form a system with
very different properties. This is
a system which we require to see
things under higher luminous
intensities, i.e. under daylight or
electric light. The cone system
has lower light-sensitivity and is
concentrated in the central area
in and around the fovea. It allows
us to see colours and sharper
contours of the objects on which
we focus, i.e. whose image falls
in the fovea area. In contrast to
rod vision, we do not perceive the
entire field of vision uniformly;
the main area of perception is in
the central area. The peripheral
field of vision is also significant,
if interesting phenomena are
perceived in that area; in that
case our attention is automati-
Cones cally drawn to these points. This
is then received as an image on
the fovea to be examined more
closely. Apart from noticing sud-
den movement, striking colours
and patterns, the main reason
for us to change our direction of
view is the presence of high lumi-
nances – our eyes and attention
are attracted by bright light.
Relative spectral luminous effi-
ciency of rods V and cones V’ in
relation to the wavelength
Spectral colour sensitivity of the
cones in relation to the wave-
length
19
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Physiology of the eye
Adaptation
Day and night One of the most remarkable
properties of the eye is its abil-
ity to adapt to different lighting
conditions. We can perceive the
world around us by moonlight or
sunlight, although there is a dif-
ference of a factor of 100,000 in
the illuminance. The extent of
tasks the eye is capable of per-
forming is extremely wide – a
Luminance This ability to adapt to the illumi-
nance is only influenced to a very
small extent by the pupil. Adap-
tation is performed to a large
degree by the retina. The rod and
cone system responds to differ-
ent levels of light intensity. The
rod system comes into effect in
relation to night vision (scotopic
vision), the cones allow us to see
during the daytime (photopic
vision) and both receptor systems
are activated in the transition
times of dawn and dusk (mesopic
vision).
Although vision is therefore pos-
sible over an extremely wide area
of luminances, there are clearly
strict limits with regard to con-
trast perception in each individual
lighting situation. The reason for
this lies in the fact that the eye
cannot cover the entire range of
possible luminances at one and
Adapting from dark to light situ-
ations occurs relatively rapidly,
whereas adapting from light to
darkness requires a considerably
longer time. A good example
of this is how bright we find it
outside having come out of a
dark cinema auditorium during
the daytime or the transitory
period of night blindness we
experience when entering a very
dark room. Both the fact that
contrast in luminance can only
Adaptation time
Typical illuminances E and
luminances L under daylight and
electric lighting.
be accommodated by the eye
within a certain range and the
fact that it takes time to adapt to
a new level of lighting, or bright-
ness, have an impact on lighting
design. For that reason lighting
design requires, for instance, the
purposeful planning of different
luminance levels within a space
or deciding on the adaptation of
lighting levels in adjacent spaces.
the same time. The eye adapts to
cover one narrow range in which
differentiated perception is pos-
sible. Objects that possess too
high a luminance for a particular
level of adaptation cause glare,
that is to say, they appear to be
extremely bright. Objects of low
luminance, on the other hand,
appear to be too dark.
faintly glowing star in the night
sky can be perceived, although it
only produces an illuminance of
10-12 lux on the eye.
Luminance range L of rod vision
(1), mesopic vision (2) and cone
vision (3). Luminances (4) and
preferred luminances (5) in inte-
rior spaces. Absolute threshold of
vision (6) and threshold of abso-
lute glare (7).)
20
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception
Psychology of seeing
To understand what visual percep-
tion is all about, it is not so much
the transport of visual informa-
tion that is of significance. It is
rather the process involved in the
interpretation of this information,
the creation of visual impressions.
The question that arises is whether
our ability to perceive the world
around us is innate or the result
of a learning process. Another
point to be considered is whether
sensory impressions from outside
alone are responsible for the
perceived image or whether the
brain translates these stimuli into
a perceivable image through the
application of its own principles
of order. There is no clear answer
to this question. Perceptual psy-
chology is divided on this point.
Contour Overall shape Colour
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Psychology of seeing
Contour Experience, and the expectations
linked with it, may be so strong
that missing elements of a shape
are perceived as complete or indi-
vidual details amended to enable
the object to meet our expecta-
tions. The perception of a shape
with missing contours is simply
based on shadow formation.
Overall shape Experience leads us to recognise
an overall shape by being able to
identify essential details.
Colour This picture illustrates how a
colour is matched to the respec-
tive pattern perceived. The colour
of the central grey point adjusts
itself to the black or white colour
in the perceived pattern.
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception
Constancy
Fixed objects produce retinal
images of varying shapes, sizes
and brightness. Due to changes
in lighting, distance or perspec-
tive, this indicates that mecha-
nisms must exist to identify these
objects and their properties and to
perceive them as being constant.
There is no single, simple explana-
tion for the way perception works.
Optical illusions provide an oppor-
tunity to examine the perform-
ance and objectives of perception.
Brightness Luminance gradient Three-dimensionality
Wall structure Beam of Light Perception of colour
Perspective Size
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Constancy
Brightness The fact that a medium grey
area will appear light grey if it is
bordered in black, or dark grey if
it is bordered in white. This can
be explained by the fact that the
stimuli perceived are processed
directly – brightness is perceived
as a result of the lightness con-
trast between the grey area and
the immediate surroundings.
What we are considering here is
a visual impression that is based
exclusively on sensory input
which is not influenced by any
criteria of order linked with our
intellectual processing of this
information.
The perception of brightness
of the grey field depends on
the environment – in bright
surroundings, an identical grey
appears darker than in dark sur-
roundings.
Luminance gradient The continuous luminance gradi-
ent across the surface of the wall
is interpreted as a property of the
lighting. The wall reflectance fac-
tor is assumed to be constant. The
grey of the sharply framed picture
is interpreted as a material prop-
erty, although the luminance is
identical to the luminance in the
corner of the room.
Three-dimensionality Changing luminance levels may
arise from the spatial form of the
illuminated object; examples of
this are the formation of typical
shadows on objects such as cubes,
cylinders or spheres.
The spatial impression is deter-
mined by the assumption that
light comes from above.
By inverting the picture, the per-
ception of elevation and depth is
reversed.
The spatial form of an object can
be recognised by the gradient of
the shadows.
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Constancy
Wall structure Irregular or uneven luminances
can result in confusing lighting
situations. This is evident, for
example, when luminous pat -
terns created on the walls bear
no relation to the architecture.
The observer’s attention is drawn
to a luminous pattern that can-
not be explained through the
properties of the wall, nor as an
important feature of the lighting.
If luminance patterns are irregu-
lar, they should, therefore, always
be aligned with the architecture.
The lighting distribution on an
unstructured wall becomes a
dominant feature.
Beam of Light The visible pool of light deter-
mines whether it is perceived as
background or as a disturbing
shape. Light distribution that is
not aligned with the shape of the
picture is perceived as a disturb-
ing pattern.
The same lighting distribution on
a structured wall is interpreted as
background and not perceived.
Light distribution that is not
aligned with the architectural
structure of the space is perceived
as disturbing patterns that do not
relate to the space.
Perception of colour The perception of colour, similar
to the perception of brightness,
is dependent on neighbouring
colours and the quality of the
lighting. The necessity for us to be
able to interpret colours is based
on the fact that colour appear-
ances around us are constantly
changing. A colour is therefore
perceived as being constant both
when viewed in the bluish light
of an overcast sky or in warmer
direct sunlight – colour photo-
graphs taken under the same
conditions, however, show the
distinct colour shifts that we
must expect under the particular
type of light.
25
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Constancy
Perspective Our misinterpretation of lines of
the same length shows that the
perceived size of an object does
not depend on the size of the
retina image alone, but that the
distance of the observer from the
object is significant. Vice versa,
objects of known sizes are used
to judge distances or to recog-
nise the size of adjacent objects.
From daily experience we know
that this mechanism is sufficient
to allow us to perceive objects
and their size reliably. Therefore,
a person seen a long way away
is not perceived as a dwarf and
a house on the horizon not as a
small box. Only in extreme situa-
tions does our perception deceive
us: looking out of an aeroplane,
objects on the ground appear to
be tiny; the viewing of objects
that are considerably farther
away, e.g. the moon, is much
more difficult for us to handle.
In this case the perspective results
in an optical illusion. The vertical
line to the rear appears to be
longer than the line of identical
length in the foreground.
Size To allow for the perception of
size, we have a mechanism that
balances the perspective distor-
tion of objects. It guarantees that
the changing trapezoidal and
ellipsoidal forms in the retina
image can be perceived spatially
as being normal, rectangular or
round objects by being aware of
the angle at which the object is
viewed.
Constancy with regard to per-
ception of size. Due to the per-
spective interpretation of this
illustration, the luminaires are
all perceived as being the same
size in spite of the variations in
size of the retina images.
26
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception
Perception of gestalt
Before a property can be attrib-
uted to an object, the object
itself must be recognised, that
is to say, distinguished from its
surroundings. This process of
interpretation has been used
to formulate laws according
to which certain arrangements
are grouped together to form
shapes, i.e. objects of percep-
tion. These laws of gestalt are of
practical interest to the lighting
designer. Every lighting installa-
tion comprises an arrangement
of luminaires – on the ceiling,
on the walls or in the space. This
arrangement is not perceived
in isolation, but in forms or
groups in accordance with the
laws of gestalt. The architectural
surround ings and the lighting
effects produced by the lumi-
naires produce further patterns,
which influence in our perception
of the space.
Closed form Proximity Inside
Symmetry Shapes of equal
width
Continuous line
Pure form Identity
27
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Perception of gestalt
Closed form An essential principle of the per-
ception of gestalt is the tendency
to interpret closed forms as pure
shapes.
Proximity Elements arranged close together
are grouped according to the
law of proximity and form a pure
shape. The example on the left
demonstrates that we first see a
circle and then an arrangement
of luminaires. The circles are
arranged in such a strict order
that the imaginary linking lines
between them is not straight
lines, but forms a continuous
circle, not a polygon.
Luminaires are grouped in pairs. Four points are grouped to form
a square.
From eight points on, a circle is
formed.
Inside Shapes that are not completely
closed can also be perceived as a
gestalt. A closed shape is always
seen as being on the inside of
the linking line – the formative
effect therefore only works in
one direction. This inner side is
usually identical to the concave,
surrounding side of the line that
encloses the shape. This in turn
leads to a formative effect even
in the case of arcs or angles, mak-
ing a pure shape visible inside the
line, that is to say, in the partly
enclosed area. If this leads to a
plausible interpretation of the
initial pattern, the effect of the
inner side can be significant.
An arc makes a pure shape visible
on the inside of the line.
28
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Perception of gestalt
Symmetry In regard to symmetry, the per-
ception of a form as a pure shape
is based on simple, logical struc-
ture. On the other hand more
complex structures belonging to
the same pattern disappear into
an apparently continuous back-
ground.
Shapes of equal width A similar result occurs in parallel
shapes of equal width. This is not
strictly a case of symmetry. A
prin ciple of order and organisa-
tion is, however, evident, allowing
us to perceive a pure shape. Two
parallel lines show similarity.
Even without strict symmetry,
it is possible to recognise a pure
shape.
When two square luminaires are
added to the pattern of circular
downlights, the arrangement is
perceived according to the law
of symmetry to form two groups
of five.
Continuous line A basic law of gestalt is to prefer
to perceive lines as steady con-
tinuous curves or straight lines,
and to avoid bends and kinks.
Our preference to perceive con-
tinuous lines is so great that it
can influence our overall inter-
pretation of an image.
Law of gestalt relating to con-
tinuous lines. The arrangement is
interpreted as two lines crossing.
29
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Perception of gestalt
Pure form When it comes to two-
dimensional shapes, the law of
the continuous line conforms
with the law of pure form. In
this case, shapes are organised to
create figures that are as simple
and clearly arranged as possible.
Identity Besides spatial layout, the struc-
ture of the shapes themselves is
also responsible for their forma-
tion into groups. The shapes in
the accompanying drawing are
not organised according to prox-
imity or axial symmetry, but in
groups of identical shapes. This
principle of identity also applies
when the shapes in a group are
not absolutely identical but only
similar.
Luminaires of the same type are
grouped together.
The downlight arrangement is
grouped into two lines according
to the law of pure form.
The arrangement is interpreted as
two superimposed rectangles.
30
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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception
Objects of perception
We are not however, conscious
of every object that comes within
our field of vision. The way the
fovea prefers to focus on small,
changing scenes shows that the
perception process purposefully
selects specific things to look at.
This selection is inevitable, as the
brain is not capable of processing
all the visual information in the
field of view. It also makes sense
because not all the information
that exists in our environment is
necessarily relevant to us.
Activity Information Social
31
1,70 n
0`
10`
20`
4S`
3
2
4S`
1

1,20 n
30`
1
0`
2
2S`
3S`
3
60`

ƒ

ƒ
ƒ

ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
1,20 n
1S` 2S` 40`
00`

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E Guide
Basics | Seeing and perception | Objects of perception
Activity The value of any particular
information relates to the cur-
rent activity of the observer.
This activity may be work or
movement-related or any other
activity for which visual infor-
mation is required. Lighting con -
ditions under which the visual
task can be perceived to an opti-
mum degree can be determined
from the above-mentioned spe-
cific features. It is possible to
define ways of lighting which
will be ideal for specific activities.
Visual field (1), preferred visual
field (2) and optimum field of
vision (3) of a person standing
and sitting for vertical visual
tasks
Preferred field of vision for
horizontal visual tasks. Preferred
angle of view 25°
Information There is another basic need for
visual information that goes
beyond the specific information
required for a particular activity.
This is not related to any particu-
lar situation, it results from man’s
biological need to understand the
world especially man’s need to
feel safe. To evaluate danger, we
must be aware of the structure
of the environment. This applies
to orientation, weather ,time of
day and information relating to
other activities occurring in the
area. If this information is not
available, e.g. in large, windowless
Social In regard to man’s social needs –
the need for contact with other
people and the need for private
space are somewhat contradic-
tory and require careful balance.
The focus on which visual infor-
mation is required is determined
by the activities and basic biologi-
cal needs. Areas likely to provide
significant information – on their
own or by being highlighted - are
perceived first. They attract our
attention. The information con-
tent of a given object is respon-
sible for its being selected as an
object of perception. Importantly,
buildings, the situation is often
considered to be unnatural and
oppressive.
the information content influ-
ences the way in which an object
is perceived and evaluated.
32
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Guide
Designing with light
E
Light plays a central role in the
design of a visual environment.
The architecture, people and
objects are all made visible by
the lighting. Light influences our
well-being, the aesthetic effect
and the mood of a room or area.
Architectural lighting Planning process Practical planning
Visualising light
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E Guide
Designing with light
Architectural lighting
Lighting interior
spaces
Connecting spaces Illuminate objects
Design with coloured
light
It is light that first enables spatial
perception. Above and beyond
this, our perception of architec-
ture can also be influenced with
light: it expands and accentuates
rooms, creates links and deline-
ates one area from another.
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Forming functional
zones
Defining spatial
borders
Emphasising archi-
tectural features
E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting
Lighting interior spaces
Light can alter the appearance
of a room or area without physi-
cally changing it. Light directs
our view, influences perception
and draws our attention to spe-
cific details. Light can be used
to divide and interpret rooms
in order to emphasise areas or
establish continuity between the
interior and exterior. Light distri-
bution and illuminance have a
decisive influence on how archi-
tecture is perceived.
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Lighting interior spaces
Forming functional zones
Light can be used to emphasise
individual functional zones in
an area, e.g. traffic areas, wait-
ing areas, and exhibition areas.
Zonal lighting with delineated
beams of light visually separates
one area from another. Different
illuminance levels establish a per-
ceptual hierarchy and direct the
viewer’s gaze. The differentiation
of light colours creates contrasts
and emphasises individual zones.
Differentiated lighting of func-
tional zones divide up an area and
improve orientation. Areas of a
space can be separated from each
other using narrow beams of light
and strong contrasts in bright-
ness. Distinct contrasts between
individual zones and their sur-
roundings remove them from
their spatial context. Large areas
that on the whole are evenly illu-
minated can appear rather mono-
tone if they are not divided up.
Low general lighting provides the
basis for adding lighting accents.
Lighting control systems allow
functional zones to be adapted to
different uses.
Observation
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Private home, New South Wales
Heart of Jesus Church, Munich
Teattri Ravintola, Helsinki
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Lighting interior spaces
Defining spatial borders
Floor illumination emphasises
objects and pedestrian surfaces.
Vertical spatial borders are
emphasised by illuminating wall
surfaces. Uniform light distribu-
tion emphasises the wall as a
whole, whereas accentuating,
grazing light gives the wall struc-
ture by adding patterns of light.
Bright walls create a high level
of diffuse light in the room.
Vertical illumination is used to
shape the visual environment.
Room surfaces can be differ-
entiated using different levels
of illuminance to indicate their
importance. Uniform illumina-
tion of the surfaces emphasises
them as an architectural feature.
A decreasing level of brightness
across a wall is not as effective as
uniform wallwashing at defining
room surfaces. Lighting effects
using grazing light emphasise
the surface textures and become
the dominant feature. Indirect
lighting of a ceiling creates dif-
fuse light in the room with the
lighting effect being influenced
by the reflectance and colour of
its surface.
Observation
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Conrad International Hotel,
Singapore
Lamy, Heidelberg
Ezeiza Airport, Buenos Aires
Light and Building, Frankfurt
Wall bright Wall dark
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Lighting interior spaces
Emphasising architectural features
The illumination of architectural
details draws attention away from
the room as a whole towards
individual components. Columns
appear as silhouettes in front of
an illuminated wall. Narrow-
beam downlights emphasise the
form of the columns. Grazing
light accentuates individual ele-
ments or areas and brings out
their form and surface texture.
Rooms can be given a visual
structure by illuminating the
architectural features. By using
different levels of illuminance,
different parts of a room can be
placed in a visual hierarchy. Graz-
ing light can cause highly three-
dimensional features to cast
strong shadows.
Observation
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Tokyo International Forum
International Hotel, Singapore
Palacio de la Aljaferia, Zaragoza
Catedral de Santa Ana, Las Palmas
38
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Inside – looking
inside
Inside – looking
outside
Outside – looking
inside
Outside – looking
outside
E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting
Connecting spaces
Combining rooms can create
complex architectural patterns.
Light interprets these in terms of
their structure and orientation.
Targeted lighting enables the
viewer to look into an area and
creates spatial depth. The con-
sideration of material qualities
in combination with the correct
illuminance, colour of light and
light distribution is an important
aspect in the design stage.
39
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces
Inside – looking inside
The bright rear wall gives the
room depth and accentuates the
spatial perspective. Illuminated
objects in the background achieve
a similar effect. If the emphasis
of the illuminance level is shifted
from the back to the front area
of the room, then the focus of
attention will also shift from the
background to the foreground.
Observation
Light makes surfaces or objects
visible and allows them to
become the focus of attention.
Dark spatial zones cause spatial
limits to disappear and recede
into the background. Differenti-
ated spatial lighting can produce
a hierarchy of how spaces are
perceived. Illuminating vertical
surfaces is of particular creative
importance for the design since
a better effect is achieved as the
result of spatial perspective than
when illuminating horizontal
surfaces.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Museum Georg Schäfer,
Schweinfurt
Catedral de Santa Ana, Las Palmas
DZ Bank, Berlin
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
40
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces
Inside – looking outside
A high illuminance level in the
interior combined with a dark
exterior creates a strong reflec-
tion on the facade plane. The
interior visually appears to double
in size from the exterior due to
the reflection. Objects in the out-
door area are not recognisable.
As the illuminance level in the
interior decreases and the lumi-
nance in the exterior increases,
the mirror effect is reduced and
objects on the exterior become
recognisable.
Observation
Conclusion The reflection on the glass
becomes less as the luminance
in front of the glass decreases
and the luminance behind the
glass increases. Well shielded
luminaires in front of the glass
plane cause less reflection. Lower
illuminance in the interior allows
better perception of the exterior.
When directing luminaries on
the exterior, direct glare into the
indoor area should be avoided.
Applications
Projects:
Miho Museum, Osaka
Harvey Nichols Restaurant,
London
Private home, New South Wales
ABN AMRO, Sydney
41
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces
Outside – looking inside
The high illuminance level of day-
light causes a strong reflection
on the glass surface. Objects in
the indoor area are not percept-
able. As the illuminance level
in the outdoor area decreases,
the reflection becomes less. This
allows illuminated objects or
surfaces in the indoor area to
become visible. The glass is no
longer perceptible.
Observation
Conclusion The reflection on the glass
becomes less as the luminance in
front of the glass decreases and
the luminance behind the glass
increases. Luminaires in front of
the glass that are well shielded
and integrated into architecture
cause less reflection of them-
selves. A low illuminance level
in the indoor area produces a
deep spatial effect at night. The
illumination of objects in indoor
areas – such as shop windows
– requires very high illuminance
to make these objects visible dur-
ing the day due to the high illu-
minance level outside. Adjusting
the indoor lighting to the chang-
ing daylight is recommendable.
A higher illuminance level during
the day and a low level in the
evening reduces the contrast. Applications
Projects:
Lamy, Heidelberg
Ritz-Carlton, Singapore
“Dat Backhus” bakery, Hamburg
Blue Lagoon Spa, Reykjavik
42
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces
Outside – looking outside
A bright rear wall lends depth to
the room and helps delineate the
room limits. Illuminated objects in
the background achieve a similar
effect. If the emphasis of the
illuminance level is shifted from
the back to the front area of the
room, then the focus of attention
will also shift from the back-
ground to the foreground.
Observation
Conclusion Light makes surfaces or objects
visible and brings them into the
foreground. Dark zones of the
room make the room limits dis-
appear and the effect of areas
recedes into the background. Due
to the low illuminance level at
night, the required illuminances
are less than for indoor lighting.
Applications
Projects:
Hong Kong Convention and
Exhibition Centre
Miho Museum, Osaka
Federal Chancellery, Berlin
Private home, Milan
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E
Light directs our view and focuses
the attention on details. The direc-
tion of light, illuminance and the
light distribution all determine
the effect of an object in its sur-
roundings.
Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting
Illuminate objects
Direction of light Vary the light
distribution
Accentuate objects
44
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E
Directed light from the front
produces a strong modelling abil-
ity. Light from above causes the
object to cast strong shadows on
itself. Light from behind creates
a silhouette. The steeper the inci-
dent light, the more pronounced
the shadow effect.
Observation
Conclusion If the light from the front is also
coming slightly from one side, it
gains a strong descriptive power.
Light that is solely head-on
hardly causes any shadow in the
direction of vision and the object
loses some of its 3-dimensional
appearance. Very steep incident
light is suitable for objects having
a very shallow texture in order to
make them more 3-dimensional.
Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects
Direction of light
45
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Applications
Projects:
Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
Hermitage, St. Petersburg
Hermitage, St. Petersburg
Arrangement The steeper the incident light, the
more pronounced the shadow
effect. Objects can be illuminated
well when the direction of light is
between 5° and 45° to the verti-
cal. The optimal direction of light
for illuminating objects is at 30°.
This avoids strong reflected glare
or undesirable shadows on people
or objects.
E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects
Direction of light
Highlighting is used for modelling
objects in:
- museums
- exhibitions
- salesrooms
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- floodlights
46
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects
Vary the light distribution
Narrow-beam spotlights accentu-
ate the object and make it stand
out against the surroundings. The
beam of light is stretched into an
oval using a sculpture lens. Flood
lenses spread out the narrow
beam and create a soft brightness
gradient.
Observation
Conclusion The narrower the beam of light
cast on the object, the stronger
the effect. Sculpture lenses are
particularly suitable for project-
ing light at objects over their
entire height. With their wide
light beam, flood lenses illumi-
nate the surroundings stronger
and represent the object in its
spatial relationship.
Spotlights
Sculpture lens
Flood lens
Applications
Projects:
Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo
Museo del Prado, Madrid
Vigeland Museum, Norway
Hermitage, St. Petersburg
Highlighting is used for modelling
objects in:
- museums
- exhibitions
- salesrooms
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights with accessories
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects
Accentuate objects
The objects and the wall are given
general lighting by wallwashers.
Beams from individual spotlights
add emphasis to the objects.
A higher brightness contrast
increases the level of accentua-
tion.
Observation
Conclusion When the brightness contrast
of the ambient surroundings to
the object is 1:2, a contrast can
hardly be noticed. When the ratio
is 1:5, a minimum brightness
contrast is established between
primary and secondary points of
interest. A contrast of 1:10 brings
out the difference very well. A
brightness contrast of 1:100
detaches the object very strongly
from its ambient surroundings
but an unintentional dissection
of the wall can arise.
1:1
1:5
1:10
Applications
Projects:
Museo Ruiz de Luna Talavera,
Spain
German Architectural Museum,
Frankfurt
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
Museo Picasso, Barcelona
Highlighting of objects on walls is
a practice used in:
- museums
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- salesrooms
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting
Design with coloured light
Colour is a significant component
of visual perception. It cannot
be perceived without daylight or
artificial lighting. The combina-
tion of lamps and filters allows
a multitude of design possibili-
ties for emphasising or altering
the lighting effect of rooms and
objects with coloured light. The
term “colour of light” covers both
white and coloured light. Warm
white, neutral white and daylight
white are derived from the white
colour of light. The coloured light
covers the entire visible spectrum.
Colour Colour systems Colour of light
Colour mixing Colour rendition Colour effect
Colour contrast Ambient colours Coloured highlighting
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Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour
The light colour refers to a colour
which is emitted by a light source.
The light colour is produced as a
result of the emitted spectrum
of light. The type of light colour
is defined by hue, saturation and
brightness. Using filters produces
coloured light. This enables the
colouration of rooms to be modi-
fied without changing the rooms
physically. Mixing several light
colours is referred to as additive
colour mixing.
Light colour
The body colour arises as a result
of the incident light and the spe-
cific absorption properties of the
surface. Therefore, the tri-stimu-
lus value of a body colour can
only be determined in combina-
tion with the type of light with
which it is illuminated. In addition
to hue, brightness and saturation,
the body colour of an object is
also defined by the reflectance.
When illuminating coloured walls
or objects with coloured light, the
reciprocal effect of light colour
and body colour is paramount.
This interplay is the basis of sub-
tractive colour mixing. The chro-
matic effects can be intensified
or altered.
Body colour
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour systems
In the CIE standard colorimetric
system, body colours and light
colours are represented in a
continuous, two-dimensional
diagram. The spectral constitu-
tion of light colours results from
the type of light, while that of
body colours results from the
type of light and the spectral
reflectance or transmittance. The
dimension of brightness is left
unconsidered here; this means
that only the hue and saturation
of all colours can be determined
in the diagram. The coloured area
is enclosed by a curve on which
the chromaticity locations of the
completely saturated spectral col-
ours lie. At the centre of the area
is the point of least saturation,
which is designated as a white
or uncoloured point. All levels of
saturation of one colour can now
be found on the straight lines
between the uncoloured point
and the chromaticity location in
question. Similarly, all mixtures
of two colours are likewise to be
found on a straight line between
the two chromaticity locations in
question. Complementary colours
are located opposite each other
in the CIE model and combine to
form white.
CIE system
In the Munsell system, body
colours are arranged according
to the criteria of brightness,
hue and saturation to produce
a complete sample catalogue in
the form of a three-dimensional
matrix. Brightness here refers to
the reflectance of a body colour;
the hue refers to the actual col-
our, while the term saturation
expresses the degree of colora-
tion, from the pure colour down
to the uncoloured grey scale.
Whereas a two-dimensional dia-
gram is sufficient for colours of
light, a three-dimensional system
is required for body colours due
to reflectance.
Munsell system
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour of light: White light
The higher red component in
warm white light allows rooms to
appear warmer than with neutral
white light. The higher blue com-
ponent in daylight white light
creates a cooler atmosphere.
Observation
On presentation lighting, making
specific use of colours of light
allows luminous colours to be
achieved on the objects being
illuminated. Daylight white light
is often used in office rooms to
augment the daylight.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Sony Center, Berlin
Glass pavilion, Glass technical
college, Rheinbach
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Warm colours of light are pre-
ferred above all at lower illumi-
nances and with directed light,
whereas cold colours of light are
accepted at high illuminances
and diffuse illumination. White
light is described by specifying
the colour temperature, colour
rendition, chromaticity location
and spectrum. The white colour
temperature is divided into three
main groups: warm white, neutral
white and daylight white. A good
colour rendition with the lighting
will only produce a low colour
deviation. The chromaticity loca-
tion identifies the colour within
the CIE diagram.
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour of light: Coloured light
Compared to the primary colours
yellow, blue and red, the colours
amber and magenta appear
weaker in their expressiveness.
Yellow and red colours of light
create a warm atmosphere in a
room. Blue colours of light allow
a room to give a cooler impres-
sion.
Observation
In architectural lighting, colours
from the daylight spectrum are
felt to be natural: magenta (con-
ditions of light at sunset), amber
(atmospheric light at sunrise),
night blue (clear night sky) and
sky blue (light of the sky by day).
For coloured light, the data con-
cerning chromaticity location
and spectrum are important. The
chromaticity location is speci-
fied by the co-ordinates in the
CIE diagram, whereby a colour of
light can be formed by different
colour spectra.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
ERCO P3, Lüdenscheid
Zürich Insurance, Buenos Aires
Teattri Ravintola, Helsinki
Teattri Ravintola, Helsinki
Coloured light is used for
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- salesrooms
- event lighting
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour mixing: Colours of light
Super imposing several colours of
light is an additive mixing proc-
ess. Mixing two of the primary
colours red, green and blue results
in magenta, cyan or yellow. By
mixing the three primary colours
in equal amounts, white light is
produced.
Observation
When illuminating objects with
differently coloured light sources,
the spatial superimposition gives
rise to interesting additive colour
mixing effects, which may even
include coloured shadows.
Conclusion
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour mixing: Light colour and body colour
Subtractive colour mixing occurs
when coloured surfaces are
illuminated with coloured light.
Mixing two of the subtractive
primary colours magenta, cyan
and yellow, produces the addi-
tive primary colours red, green
or blue. Warm body colours are
emphasised by a warm white
colour of light. Cold body colours
appear brighter and more satu-
rated under cold neutral colours
of white light, especially daylight
white.
Observation
The appearance of a body colour
can seem more saturated and
brighter when the lighting on it
is of similar colour. Body colours
appear less saturated, or darker,
when the coloured lighting is dis-
similar. The actual appearance of
the results of subtractive colour
mixing depends on the spectral
constitution of the components
being mixed.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Shop Colette, Paris
Greater London Authority
Teattri Ravintola, Helsinki
ERCO Trade Fair, Hanover
In practice, when illuminating
coloured surfaces, it is recom-
mendable to perform lighting
tests or calculations. The same
applies to the use of colour filters.
Wall: Blue
Light: Warm white
Wall: Blue
Light: Blue
Wall: Blue
Light: Magenta
Wall: Blue
Light: Yellow
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour rendition
The quality of the reproduction
of colours is termed colour rendi-
tion. Linear spectra have a very
good colour rendition. Linear
spectra only permit one single
colour to be perceived well. Mul-
tiline spectra reproduce several
colours of the relevant spectrum
well, but in the intermediate are-
as the colour rendition is weaker.
Blue and green colours appear
comparatively grey and matt
under warm white incandescent
light despite excellent colour
rendition. However, these hues
appear clear and bright under
daylight white light from fluo-
rescent lamps – despite poorer
colour rendition. When rendering
yellow and red hues, this phe-
nomenon of respective weakening
and intensifying of the chromatic
effect is reversed.
Observation
Incandescent lamp
Continuous spectra lead to good
colour rendition. Incandescent
lamps or daylight have the colour
rendition index Ra 100.
Daylight
Continuous spectra lead to good
colour rendition. Incandescent
lamps or daylight have the colour
rendition index Ra 100.
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Because the eye is able to adapt
to light of the most different
colour temperatures, the colour
rendition must be determined
dependent on the colour tem-
perature. Tungsten halogen
lamps feature very good colour
rendition. The rendition quality
of fluorescent lamps and metal
halide lamps ranges from good
to average. The degree of colour
distortion against a reference
light source is indicated using the
colour rendition index Ra or the
colour rendition grading system.
The colour rendition index is only
used for white colours of light.
Conclusion
Fluorescent lamp
Discharge lamps such as fluores-
cent lamps or metal halide lamps
feature a multiline spectrum.
Their colour rendition is therefore
lower than Ra 100.
E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour rendition
Physics The same colours of light can
produce a different rendition of
a body colour due to different
spectral constitution. Continuous
spectra lead to a unifrom colour
rendition. Linear spectra only cor-
rectly render a very small colour
range. Multiline spectra are com-
piled from different linear spectra
and thus improve the colour ren-
dition. The more spectra can be
bound to one linear progression,
the better the colour rendition.
Incandescent lamps feature a
linear spectrum, while discharge
lamps have a multiline spectrum.
Linear spectrum Continuous spectrum Multiline spectrum
Applications
Very good colour rendition is
important for
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- salesrooms
- offices
- workstations
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Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour effect
- Red is the colour of fire and
the expression for power, warmth
and energy. The colour has a
dominant effect. Where pale
red is concerned, the aspect of
warmth decreases while its light-
ness increases.
- Yellow is the lightest colour in
the colour wheel, but used in the
foreground it does not have the
same energy as red.
- Blue is the colour of the sky and
is one of the cold colours which
gives an effect of depth. Dark
navy blue has a rather melan-
choly effect, whereas blue-green
emanates peace.
- Green is the colour of vitality.
Its nuances range from calming
to refreshing.
- White is one of the non-colours
and is the polar opposite of black.
White stands for purity.
- Black stands for darkness and
appears sinister and negative.
- Grey is one of the non-colours
and appears indifferent.
Observation
The effect of colours is explained
from the physiological point-of-
view of actually seeing colour and
the psychological aspects of sen-
sory perception. The lure of col-
ours triggers associations and is
interpreted in the context of the
social and cultural environment.
The different hues belonging to
a colour can, in turn, also have
other effects. The effect of indi-
vidual colours can be increased by
way of a colour contrast.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Saab City, London
Light and Building 2000,
Frankfurt
Restaurant Aioli, Vienna
Teattri Ravintola, Helsinki
Colour effects are particularly
important for
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales areas
- restaurants
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Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour contrast
The seven colour contrasts origi-
nated from the colour theory of
Johannes Itten. This approach is
not based on physical and chemi-
cal properties of colours, but on
their subjective effects.
The primary colours yellow, red
and blue produce the strongest
contrast. The colour contrast
becomes weaker with secondary
or tertiary colours or as the satu-
ration decreases.
Colours themselves
The “non-colours” black and
white produce the strongest
contrast. Even with the “proper”
colours, their effect is significant.
A light colour next to a dark
colour has a stronger effect than
next to an equally light or lighter
colour. The effect of hues can be
intensified by greater differences
in brightness.
Light-dark
In the colour wheel, the warm
colours with red and yellow com-
ponents are located opposite to
the cold blue hues. Green and
magenta form the neutral transi-
tions. The effect of a predominant
colour can be increased when
combined with an accent from
the opposite colour.
Cold-warm
Warm Cold
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour contrast
The effect of the simultaneous
contrast has its origin in how the
eye processes perception. After
staring at a colour for a long time
and then looking at a neutral
grey, the eye forms a simultane-
ous contrast colour. Red leads to
a green tinged grey shade. Green
causes a grey area with a red
tinge to appear. Colours change
their effect due to the influence
of the surrounding colours.
Simultaneous
The pairs of colours lying oppo-
site in the colour wheel form the
complementary contrast from a
primary colour and the secondary
(mixed) colour made of the other
two primary colours. Yellow-vio-
let displays the largest light-dark
contrast, orange-blue the largest
cold-warm contrast. Red-green
have the same light intensity. The
complementary contrast causes
the brilliance of the colours to
increase.
Complementary
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Colour contrast
The quality contrast, or intensity
contrast, describes the distinction
between pure colours and murky
colours. Mixing pure colours with
grey shades makes the former
murky and dull, and the quality of
colour purity is lost. Pure colours
have a dominating effect over
murky colours.
Quality
The quantity contrast refers to
the relationship of the size of one
coloured area with the next. A
large coloured area with a small
area in a contrast colour increases
the chromatic effect of the main
colour.
Quantity
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Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Ambient colours
White light that is reflected by a
coloured surface takes on the col-
our of the surface and becomes
the predominant colour of light
for the whole room. When light-
ing a coloured wall with coloured
light, this effect can be increased,
reversed or inverted.
Observation
The colour of light in a room is
influenced by the decoration of
the room. In comparison to dif-
fuse light, direct light increases
the effect of the light when illu-
minating a coloured surface. The
effect of a body colour can be
intensified by using coloured light
of a similar colour. Strong colour
contrasts appear brighter for the
same illuminance than a weaker
colour contrast. Lesser colour
contrasts can be perceived better
Conclusion under brighter lighting. Within
closed rooms the effect is hardly
perceptible due to the phenom-
enon of colour constancy.
Wall: Yellow
White light: Warm white
Wall: Red
Coloured light: Magenta
Wall: White
Coloured light: Amber
Wall: Yellow
Coloured light: Sky blue
Applications
Projects:
Polygon Bar, London
Greater London Authority
Tennispalatsi Cultural Museum,
Helsinki
Apropos Cöln Concept Store,
Cologne
In practice, when illuminating
coloured surfaces, it is recom-
mended that lighting tests or
calculations be carried out.
Coloured accent lighting is
used for
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales areas
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E Guide
Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light
Coloured highlighting
Coloured accent lighting and
coloured background lighting
changes the effect of objects in
the room. The colour saturation
of the object increases in the
foreground when the background
brightness is decreased. Blue
colours seem to recede into the
background, while the chromatic
effect makes magenta come to
the fore.
Observation
Lighting effects can be intensified
using coloured light. Strong col-
our contrasts increase the bright-
ness contrasts. High brightness
contrasts likewise increase the
colour contrasts. Natural overall
effects arise due to warm colours
of light and filter colours such as
“Skintone”, magenta and amber,
or due to cold colours of light
such as sky blue and night blue.
Conclusion
Wall: White
Stele: Night blue
Wall: Magenta
Stele: White
Wall: Amber
Stele: Magenta
Wall: Sky blue
Stele: Amber
Applications
Projects:
Museo de Bellas Artes, Bilbao
Zürich Insurance, Buenos Aires
Teattri Ravintola, Helsinki
Light and Building 2002,
Frankfurt
Coloured accent lighting is
used for
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales areas
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Guide
Designing with light
Planning process
E
The planning process provides an
overview of the sequence of the
individual tasks in lighting design.
This process is closely linked with
the planning procedure for an
architectural design. The findings
of the analysis are firstly chan-
nelled into the concept planning
and are then finalised for imple-
mentation in the design. In addi-
tion, maintenance schedules are
a prerequisite for maintaining the
quality of light on site.
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E Guide
Designing with light | Design practice
Project analysis
The basis for every lighting design
concept is an analysis of the
project; the tasks the lighting is
expected to fulfil, the conditions
and special features. A quantita-
tive design concept can to a large
extent follow the standards laid
down for a specific task. Stand-
ards dictate the illuminance level,
the degree of glare limitation, the
luminous colour and colour ren-
dering. When it comes to quali-
tative planning, it is necessary
to gain as much information as
possible about the environment
to be illuminated, how it is used,
who will use it and the style of
the architecture.
A central aspect of project analy-
sis is the question of how the
spaces that are to be illuminated
are used; it is important to estab-
lish what activity or activities
take place in the environment,
how often and how important
they are. This comprehensive
analysis of the task gives rise to
a series of individual visual tasks,
the characteristics of which must
in turn also be analysed. Two
criteria relating to a visual task
are the size and contrast of the
details that have to be recorded
or handled; there then follows
the question of whether colour
or surface structure of the visual
task are significant, whether
movement and spatial arrange-
ment have to be recognized or
whether reflected glare is likely to
be a problem. The position of the
visual task within the space and
the predominant direction of view
may also become central issues.
Introduction
Utilisation of space
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E Guide
Designing with light | Design practice
Project analysis
From the point of view of archi-
tecture and ambience, a building
or space should be made visible,
its characteristics accentuated
and its ambience underlined. This
requires detailed information on
the architecture and on the over-
all architectural concept com-
plete with the intended indoor
and outdoor effect by day and
night, the use of daylight and the
permissible energy consumption.
This also includes information
on materials, reflectance and the
colour scheme. In Architectural
lighting it’s not primarily about
the lighting which emphasises
the building structures and char-
acteristic features for a particular
perspective, but rather how to
create the required aesthetic
effect in a space. The question
of the building shape, of spatial
shape, modules and rhythmical
patterns, which can be identified
and expressed by light and lumi-
naires – constitutes the central
issue.
Architecture and ambience
Psychological requirements The psychological requirements
include perception of the wider
surroundings to establish the
time of day, the weather and to
facilitate spatial orientation. In
large buildings frequented by dif-
ferent users, the need for visual
guidance can become a impor-
tant issue. An orderly and clearly
structured environment contrib-
utes to the general feeling of
wellbeing. Differentiated lighting
can provide spatial delineation
for areas with separate functions.
Where there are conversational
zones within larger areas, it may
make sense to create private
areas by using suitable lighting.
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E
Lighting concepts list the proper-
ties that lighting should possess.
They give no exact information
about the choice of lamps or
luminaires or about their arrange-
ment. Project analysis provides
lighting quality guidelines giving
information about the individual
forms of lighting. These relate
to the quantity and various
quality features of light, and
also gives the degree of spatial
and temporal differentiation. A
practical design concept requires
consultation with the other
trades involved. It must meet
the specifications of the relevant
standards and take both invest-
ment costs and running costs
into consideration. The challenge
of a qualitative lighting design is
to develop a design concept that
combines the technical and aes-
thetic requirements of complex
guidelines. A concept that deliv-
ers the required performance with
a commensurate level of techni-
cal expertise and the highest level
of artistic clarity will produce the
most convincing solution.
In the design phase, decisions
are made regarding the lamps
and luminaires to be used, the
arrangement and installation of
the luminaires and any required
control gear and control devices.
This also allows a reliable calcula-
tion of illuminance and costs.
No strict process can be set out,
nor even one describing gener-
ally routine design stages. The
decision regarding lamp type can
be made at the beginning of a
project or left until an advanced
planning stage; luminaire arrange-
ment can be determined by the
choice of a certain luminaire or
could be the criteria for luminaire
selection. Lighting design should
be seen as a cyclical process in
which developed solutions are
repeatedly compared to the
stated requirements.
Design
Guide
Designing with light | Design practice
Lighting concept
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E
A wide range of luminaire types
– e. g. spotlights and light struc-
tures - are exclusively designed
to be installed as additive ele-
ments. They may be mounted
on track or lighting structures,
suspended from the ceiling
(pendant luminaires) or surface
mounted onto the wall or ceil-
ing. The range of downlights and
louvered luminaires available is
so vast and their designs differ
substantially, which means that
numerous modes of installation
are required. In the case of wall
or floor mounting the luminaires
may be surface-mounted or
recessed into the fabric of the
building. Ceiling mounting allows
a variety of possibilities: recessed
mounting, surfaced mounting or
pendant mounting. The Installa-
tion Instructions for the lumi-
naires explain the installation
and maintenance of the lumi-
naires in detail.
The maintenance of a lighting
installation generally comprises
lamp replacement and the
cleaning of the luminaires, and
possibly also re-adjustment or
realignment of spotlights and
movable luminaires. The main
objective of maintenance is to
ensure that the planned illumi-
nance is maintained, i. e. to limit
the un avoidable reduction of
luminous flux of a lighting instal-
lation. The reasons for the reduc-
tion in luminous flux may be
defective lamps and the gradual
loss of luminous flux by the lamps
or a decrease in light output due
to soiling of the reflectors or
attachments. In order to avoid
a reduction in luminous flux
all lamps must be replaced and
luminaires cleaned at regular
intervals. Qualitative aspects may
also be decisive for maintenance.
When one lamp in a geometrical
arrangement of luminaires fails
it may have a detrimental effect
on the overall illuminance in the
space. The task of the lighting
designer is to draw up a main-
tenance plan that meets the
requirements of the given situa-
tion and includes the necessary
informative literature.
Maintenance
Guide
Designing with light | Design practice
Installation
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E Guide
Designing with light
Practical planning
Having completed the project
analysis and developed a lighting
concept, the next phase entails
practical planning: decisions
regarding the lamps and lumi-
naires to be used, the arrange-
ment and installation of the lumi-
naires. A detailed design can be
developed from a concept based
primarily on lighting qualities.
Choice of lamps
Mounting
Luminaire selection
Maintenance
Luminaire arrange-
ment
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning
Choice of lamps
Selecting the right lamp for the
luminaire depends on the actual
lighting requirements. For the
successful implementation of
a lighting concept the physical
aspects, such as colour rendition,
and the functional criteria are
decisive. Modelling Colour rendition Light colour
Luminous flux Economy Radiant emission
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!l ¦K} 6000 :000 4000 3000 2000
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning
Choice of lamps
Modelling and brilliance are
effects produced by directed
light. Compact light sources such
as low-voltage halogen lamps or
metal halide lamps are a prereq-
uisite for this. When illuminating
sculptures, presenting merchan-
dise or lighting interestingly
textured surfaces, the modelling
ability and brilliance are of cen-
tral importance.
The colour rendition of the light
source is determined by the
actual lamp spectrum. A continu-
ous spectrum ensures the optimal
colour rendition. Linear or band
spectra generally worsen the col-
our rendition. A very good colour
rendition quality is produced by
incandescent lamps including
tungsten halogen lamps.
Colour rendition
The light colour of a lamp
depends on the spectral distri-
bution of the emitted light. In
practice, the light colours are
categorised into warm white,
neutral white and daylight white.
Warm white lamps emphasise the
red and yellow spectral range,
whereas blue and green, i.e. cool
colours, are accentuated under
daylight white light.
Light colour
Modelling
Ranges of the colour rendition
index Ra for different lamp types
Ranges of colour temperature TF
for different lamp types
71
A
QT, QPAR
QT-NV
T
TC
HIT-CE
HST
LED
0(lm/W) 100 80 60 40 20
A
0!, 0PAR
0!-Nv
!
!C
hl!-CL
hS!
LL0
:0000 ¦ ¦|} 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000
Lanµ 0c ¦w|||n}
Uv L|j|¦ lR
A, R, PAR 0,0:-0,10 :-7 3:-60
0! 0,10-0,1: :-6 2:-30
!, !C 0,0:-0,1: 3-: 6-10
hVL 0,20-1,00 2-3 10-1:
hl! 0,20-1,00 2-: 6-10
hSL 0,01-0,0: 2-3 4-6
A
0!, 0PAR
0!-Nv
!
!C
hl!-CL
hS!
LL0
1000 P ¦w} :00 400 300 200 100
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning
Choice of lamps
The economy of a lamp depends
on the luminous efficacy, the
lamp life and the cost of the
lamp. Incandescent lamps and
tungsten halogen lamps have
the lowest luminous efficacies.
Clearly larger values are attained
by fluorescent lamps, high pres-
sure mercury vapour lamps and
metal halide lamps. Incandescent
lamps and tungsten halogen
lamps have the lowest lamp life.
The life of fluorescent lamps and
high- pressure lamps is consider-
ably higher.
Economy
Ranges of luminous efficacy η for
different lamp types
Ranges of service life t for
different lamp types
Aspects of radiation are impor-
tant in the field of exhibition and
display. Infrared and ultraviolet
radiation can cause damage on
paintings. High proportions of
infrared radiation and convec-
tion heat are emitted above all by
light sources with low luminous
efficacy, such as incandescent
lamps or tungsten halogen lamps.
With conventional and compact
fluorescent lamps the infrared
radiation is noticeably lower. The
damaging infrared and ultraviolet
components can be reduced con-
siderably by using filters.
Radiant emission
Particularly small luminous flux
values are primarily found with
LEDs and low-voltage halogen
lamps, followed by conventional
incandescent lamps and compact
fluorescent lamps. Conversely,
tungsten halogen lamps for
mains voltage, fluorescent lamps
and high-pressure discharge
lamps all feature particularly high
luminous flux values; the high-
est values are attained by metal
halide lamps.
Luminous flux
Ranges of power P for different
lamp types
Relative radiated power φe of
different lamp types, with respect
to a luminous flux of 1000 lm,
subdivided into the wavelength
ranges: UV (280 nm-380 nm),
visible light (380 nm-780 nm),
IR (780nm-10000 nm).
Example: φe = UV · lm / 1000
An A60 lamp with 100W and
1380 lm results in a UV radiated
power of 0.069-0.138 W.
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning
Luminaire selection
The choice of light sources out-
lines the technical qualities of
the lighting design concept and
the limits to the lighting qualities
that can be achieved. The light-
ing effects that can be obtained
within this range depend on the
choice of luminaires in which the
lamps are to be used. The choice
of lamp and luminaire is there-
fore closely related. Opting for a
particular light source will reduce
the choice of luminaire, and vice
versa, the choice of luminaire will
restrict the choice of lamp.
Light distribution Luminous colour Methods of mounting
Luminance Illuminance Safety requirements
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Light distribution
Uniform general lighting is a
standard lighting concept. For
general lighting, wide-beam
luminaires such as downlights
and light structures are suitable.
Uniform lighting can also be
achieved by indirect illumination.
However, a lighting concept that
aims solely to create isolated
lighting accents is the exception.
Often, accent lighting will contain
general lighting components to
allow the viewer to perceive the
spatial arrangement of the illumi-
nated objects. Spill light from the
accentuated areas is frequently
sufficient to provide adequate
ambient lighting. Luminaires that
emit a directed, narrow beam
can be used for accent lighting.
Adjustable spotlights and direc-
tional luminaires are ideal.
general – differentiated
Uniform general lighting using
wide-beamed illumination
Differentiated lighting using
narrow-beam light from
spotlights
74 Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Direct lighting allows diffuse and
oriented light, and both general
lighting and accent lighting. A
lighting plan can be used with
direct lighting that allows differ-
entiated distribution of light.
This greatly enhances the three-
dimensionality of illuminated
objects as the result of high con-
trasts.
With indirect lighting, lighting is
designed to give diffuse general
lighting. Indirect lighting pro-
duces a highly uniform, soft light
and creates an open appearance
due to the bright room surfaces.
Problems caused by direct and
reflected glare are avoided. Indi-
rect lighting alone can give a flat
and monotonous environment.
direct – indirect
Direct lighting with oriented light
Indirect lighting creates an open
spatial impression
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Light distribution
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Light distribution
The decision for narrow or
wide light distribution is closely
connected with the concept of
general or differentiated light-
ing. Luminaires with a beam
angle of less than 20° are known
as spotlights and above 20° as
floodlights. With downlights, the
cut-off angle also gives an indi-
cation of the width of the light
distribution. Wide light distribu-
tion creates a higher proportion
of vertical illuminance.
wide – narrow
Wide light distribution for
indirect lighting
Narrow-beam light for high-
lighting
76 Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Symmetrical light distribution
is used for providing even light-
ing. The light distribution can be
wide for downlights used for the
general lighting of horizontal sur-
faces. With spotlights, the light
distribution is narrow beamed to
provide highlighting. Luminaires
with asymmetric light distribu-
tion are designed to give uniform
light distribution for surfaces
located to one side. Typical lumi-
naires with this characteristic
are wallwashers and ceiling
washlights.
For luminaires with axially sym-
metrical beam emission, such as
light structures, two light inten-
sity distribution curves are given.
symmetrical – asymmetrical
Symmetrical light distribution for
general lighting
Asymmetrical light distribution
of wallwashers for uniform wall
illumination
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Light distribution
77 Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Focusing on horizontal lighting
is frequently in line with the
decision to plan functional, user-
orientated light. This applies to
the case of lighting for work-
places for instance, where the
lighting design is primarily aimed
at giving uniform lighting for
horizontal visual tasks. In such
cases, vertical lighting compo-
nents are predominantly pro-
duced by the diffuse light that
is reflected by the illuminated,
horizontal surfaces.
The decision to plan vertical
lighting may also be related to
the task of fulfilling functional
requirements when illuminating
vertical visual tasks, e.g. for
shelves, blackboards or paint-
ings. However, vertical lighting
frequently aims to create a visual
environment. Vertical lighting is
intended to emphasise the char-
acteristic features and dominant
elements in the visual environ-
ment. This applies not only to the
architecture itself, whose struc-
tures can be clearly portrayed by
illuminating the walls, but also to
the accentuation and modelling
of the objects in the space.
horizontal – vertical
Horizontal lighting for workplaces
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Light distribution
Vertical lighting accentuates the
texture using facade lighting
In most cases the choice of
luminaires will be confined to
the standard products available,
because they can be supplied at
reasonably short notice, have
clearly defined performance char-
acteristics and have been tested
for safety. Standard luminaires
can also be used in special con-
structions, such as lighting instal-
lations that are integrated into
the architecture (e.g. cove light-
ing or luminous ceilings). In the
case of large-scale, prestigious
projects consideration may also
be given to developing a custom
designed solution or even a new
luminaire. This allows the aes-
thetic arrangement of luminaires
in architecture or in a character-
istically designed interior and the
solution of specific lighting tasks
to be effected in closer relation to
the project than if only standard
products are chosen. Additional
costs for development and time
considerations must be included
in the calculation of overall costs
for the project.
Custom design
78 Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
The colour of light from a lumi-
naire depends on the lamp. The
range of white light colours is
divided into warm white, neutral
white and daylight white.
Coloured light can be produced
from these lamps by using colour
filters. The use of a coloured light
source such as an LED or fluores-
cent lamp creates coloured light
directly and avoids the reduced
transmission of colour filters.
With luminaires having RGB tech-
nology, red, blue and green pri-
mary colour light sources can be
mixed to give a multitude of col-
ours. An electronic control allows
the light colour to be changed
dynamically.
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Luminous colour
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There are two basic contrasting
concepts for the arrangement
of luminaires in an architectural
space, which can allocate differ-
ent aesthetic functions to the
lighting installation and provide
a range of lighting possibilities.
On the one hand, there is the
attempt to integrate the lumi-
naires into the architecture as
far as possible, and on the other
hand, the idea of adding the
luminaires to the existing archi-
tecture as an element in their
own right. These two concepts
should not be regarded as two
completely separate ideas, how-
ever. They are the two extremes
at either end of a scale of design
and technical possibilities, which
also allows mixed concepts and
solutions. The decision to opt for
a stationary or variable lighting
installation overlaps the decision
to go for an integral or additive
solution; it is determined by the
lighting requirements the instal-
lation has to meet rather than by
design criteria.
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Methods of mounting
Methods of mounting
In the case of integral lighting,
the luminaires are concealed
within the architecture. The lumi-
naires are only visible through
the pattern of their apertures.
Planning focuses on the lighting
effects produced by the lumi-
naires. Integral lighting can there-
fore be easily applied in a variety
of environments and makes it
possible to co-ordinate luminaires
entirely with the design of the
space. Integral lighting generally
presents a comparatively static
solution. The lighting can only be
changed by using a lighting con-
trol system or by applying adjust-
able luminaires. Typical luminaires
here are recessed wall or ceiling
luminaires.
Integral lighting
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In the case of additive lighting,
the luminaires appear as elements
in their own right. Besides plan-
ning the lighting effects which
are to be produced by these
luminaires, the lighting designer
also has to specify the luminaire
design and plan a lighting layout
in tune with the architectural
design. The range extends from
harmonising luminaires with
available structural systems to
selecting luminaires that will
have an active influence on the
overall visual appearance. What
is gained in flexibility is offset
by the task of harmonising the
visual appearance of the lighting
installation with its surroundings
and of avoiding the visual unrest
through the mixing of different
luminaire types or by a confusing
arrangement of light structures.
Typical luminaires here are spot-
lights and light structures, as well
as pendant luminaires.
Additive lighting
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Methods of mounting
With stationary, mounted lumi-
naires, different light distribu-
tions are available, e.g. adjustable
luminaires such as directional
luminaires. The luminaire layout
should be thoroughly checked
in the design phase because
any subsequent alterations to
recessed luminaires are very
costly.
Stationary lighting
81 Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
There are different ways of mak-
ing a lighting installation flexible.
The highest degree of flexibility,
as required for lighting temporary
exhibitions and for display light-
ing, is provided by movable spot-
lights mounted on track systems
or support structures. These allow
the luminaires to be realigned, or
even rearranged or replaced.
Movable lighting
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Methods of mounting
82

A

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In the case of adjustable lumi-
naires, such as spotlights or
directional luminaires, glare also
depends on the light distribution
of the luminaire. Glare primarily
occurs if the luminaire is not cor-
rectly adjusted.
In the case of stationary lumi-
naires, such as downlights or
light structures it is necessary to
distinguish between the elimina-
tion of direct glare and reflected
glare. In the case of direct glare,
the quality of glare limitation
depends on the light distribution
of the luminaire. The greater
the cut-off angle in downlights,
the greater the visual comfort
provided by the luminaire due
to improved glare control.
Glare
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Luminance
Standards exist for the lighting
of workplaces, which stipulate
minimum cut-off angles or high-
est permissible luminances in the
cut-off range. For workstations
with VDTs there are specific
requirements. The critical area
can be defined as that portion
of the ceiling which is seen by
the user in a mirror covering
the working area. In the case of
luminaires with mirror reflectors
direct glare control improves the
greater the cut-off angle. The
standard cut-off angles are 30°
and 40°.
The UGR (Unified Glare Rating)
process is used to evaluate and
limit the direct discomfort glare
in indoor areas. The UGR value is
influenced by the light source’s
luminance, its visible size (solid
angle) and its position (position
index), as well as the luminance
of the background. It is usually
between 10 and 30. The smaller
the UGR value, the less the glare.
Standards
By projecting the field of vision
onto the ceiling surface it is
possible to define the area in
which the luminaires may have
a negative influence on contrast
rendering.
With regard to glare a distinction
is made between direct glare,
caused primarily by luminaires
(1), reflected glare in the case of
horizontal visual tasks (2) and
reflected glare in the case of
vertical visual tasks, e.g. at VDT
workstations (3).
Glare limitation at VDT work sta-
tions: for areas with VDT worksta-
tions a cut-off angle α of at least
30° is recommended.
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Illuminance
Recommended illuminance level
E according to CIE for various
activities
Visual performance generally
improves sharply as the illumi-
nance level is increased. Above
1000 lux, however, it increases
more slowly, and at extremely
high illuminance levels it even
starts to decrease due to glare
effects.
However, following a set of fixed
rules for illuminance levels gives
little consideration to actual
perception. It is not the luminous
flux falling on a given surface
– illuminance – that produces an
image in the eye, but the light
that is emitted, transmitted or
reflected by the surfaces. The
image on the retina is created
entirely by the luminance pattern
of the perceived objects, in the
combination of light and object.
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection
Safety requirements
Luminaires are required to meet
the safety requirements in all
cases; in Germany this is usually
guaranteed by the presence of a
test symbol. In some cases there
are other requirements that have
to be met and the luminaires
marked accordingly. Special
requirements have to be fulfilled
by luminaires that are to be oper-
ated in damp or dusty atmos-
pheres, or in rooms where there is
a danger of explosion. Luminaires
are classified according to their
mode of protection and protec-
tion class, whereby the protec-
tion class indicates the type
of protection provided against
electric shock, and the mode of
protection its degree of protec-
tion against contact, dust and
moisture.
Protection mode
Identification of protection
mode (IP):
code X, foreign body protection
Identification of protection
mode (IP):
code Y, water protection
Special requirements to fire
safety have to be fulfilled when
luminaires are installed in or on
furniture or other inflammable
materials.
Protection classes
Protection classes for the
electrical safety of luminaires
Identification of special
luminaire properties and safety
requirements
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning
Luminaire arrangement
Designing the lighting layout
should not be seen as a solely
technical or functional process.
In quantitative lighting design,
it has become preferred practice
to plan the lighting layout of
ceiling-mounted luminaires to
produce a completely uniform
grid, with the aim of providing
uniformly distributed lighting.
Consequently, there is no direct
link between lighting layout
and lighting effect; by exploit-
ing the wide range of luminaires
available it is possible to achieve
a designed pattern of lighting
effects using a variety of light-
ing layouts. The lighting design
should make use of this scope,
producing ceiling designs that
combine functional lighting with
an aesthetic lighting layout that
relates to the architecture.
Floor Ceiling Wall
Object Linear elements Point source patterns
86
A
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
Floor
The recommended offset from
the wall (a) is half the luminaire
spacing (d). The luminaire spac-
ing (d) between two adjacent
structures should correspond to
the height (h) above the floor or
work surface.
Floor
Cut-off angle The greater the cut-off angle,
the greater the visual comfort
provided by the luminaire due to
improved glare control. The same
lighting layout of downlights
produces different distributions
on the wall.
A cut-off angle of 40° gives
the best possible compromise
between the necessary horizon-
tal illuminance on the floor and
vertical illuminance.
Vertical illuminance is important
in places such as salesrooms
where products should be well
illuminated. On downlights with a
30° cut-off angle, the maximum
luminous flux is emitted at a high
lateral angle.
Due to their narrow light distri-
bution, downlights with a 50°
cut-off angle achieve very a high
visual comfort for high rooms.
No light is emitted beyond the
cut-off angle.
30° cut-off angle
40° cut-off angle 50° cut-off angle
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
Wall
The distance from the wall for
wallwashers should be at least
one third of the room height.
Alternatively, the wall offset is
given by a 20 degree line extend-
ing from the base of the wall up
to the ceiling. Whereas for normal
room heights the luminaire spac-
ing is the same as the wall offset,
in high rooms this spacing must
be reduced to compensate for
the illuminance which is gener-
ally reduced. Wallwashers do not
Wall
Room corner
The recommended distance of
downlights to the wall is gener-
ally half the distance between
the downlights. Corner-mounted
luminaires should be mounted on
the 45° line to produce identical
scallops on both walls.
give optimum uniformity until at
least three luminaires are used.
A wallwasher in a room corner
should be positioned on the 45°
line.
Mirrored walls
For mirrored walls, the lighting
layout should be chosen such that
the pattern continues uniformly
in the reflection.
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E
Wall element
In spaces with dominant architec-
tural features, the lighting layout
should harmonise with the archi-
tectural elements.
Ceiling
Ceiling lighting requires sufficient
room height to achieve even light
distribution. Ceiling washlights
should be mounted above eye-
level to avoid direct glare. The
ceiling offset depends on the
degree of evenness required and
should generally be 0.8m.
Object
Objects can be illuminated with
light directed from between 30°
to 45° to the vertical. The steeper
the incident light, the more pro-
nounced the three-dimensionality
of the illuminated object. If the
angle of incidence of the light is
approximately 30°, the so-called
“museum angle”, this produces
maximum vertical lighting and
avoids reflected glare that may
disturb the observer. In the case
of reflecting surfaces, e.g. oil
paintings or pictures framed
behind glass, attention must be
paid to the angle of incidence
of the light to avoid disturbing
reflections that may arise in the
observer’s field of vision. This will
also avoid any heavy shadow, e.g.
picture frame shadows on the
picture.
Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
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E
Horizontal surfaces
High luminance values reflected
by surfaces or objects cause
secondary glare. The luminaires
should not be positioned in criti-
cal areas. Indirect illumination
with diffuse light reduces the
secondary glare. The beam should
be aimed such that shadows on
the work surface are avoided.
Vertical surfaces
If a reflective surface is arranged
transversely, luminaires can be
mounted in front of the excluded
ceiling zone. If a reflective surface
is arranged vertically, they can
be mounted next to the excluded
ceiling zone.
Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
90 Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E
Point source The simplest layout of these
points is a regular grid, in a par-
allel or staggered arrangement.
A regular pattern of identical
luminaires can easily result in a
monotonous ceiling appearance,
plus the fact that differentiated
lighting is practically out of the
question.
Point source combinations An alternating grid of different
individual luminaires or luminaire
combinations can produce more
interesting arrangements; in this
case luminaires of the same or
different types can then be pur-
posefully combined.
Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
Point source patterns
Point sources:
regular and staggered layouts
The point sources may be
luminaires of different shapes
and sizes, or compact groups of
luminaires.
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Line A further step towards more
complex design forms is the linear
arrangement of point sources. In
contrast to simple lighting lay-
outs in grid patterns, the ceiling
design in this case relates more
closely to the architecture of the
space. The ceiling is designed
along the lines dictated by the
architectural form of the space.
This may involve following exist-
ing lines or purposefully arrang-
ing the luminaires in contrast to
the existing formal language.
E
Forms Since the linear arrangement of
the luminaires does not neces-
sarily relate to an actual line such
as the course of a wall, ceiling
projections or joists, the luminaire
arrangement can only be created
on the basis of the perception
of gestalt. These laws of gestalt
must receive special attention
during the planning phase. The
crucial criteria are the equidis-
tance and proximity of luminaires
to each other.
Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
Point source patterns
Point sources:
linear arrangements
Luminaire arrangements can
follow existing architectural
structures or create patterns of
their own.
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Line Whereas linear arrangements
consisting of a series of points are
only produced indirectly by our
perception of the gestalt, they
can also be directly formed of
linear elements. These linear ele-
ments can be particular types of
luminaires, or even trunking sys-
tems. Light structures and track
arrangements or other trunking
systems belong to this design
category.
The formal language of linear
arrangements is identical to that
of rows of points. As the visual
forms produced when linear
luminaires are used are real and
not just implied, more complex
arrangements can be planned
with no danger of distortion
through perception.
Linear and point sources Creative design allows both the
alternating application of dif-
ferent luminaire forms and the
use of spotlights on lighting
structures or trunking systems.
This allows differentiated lighting
without the individual luminaires
disturbing the intrinsic appear-
ance of the structure.
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
Linear elements
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E
Decorative solutions The combination of different ele-
ments gives rise to a broad range
of design possibilities, including
decorative solutions.
Linear structures The rectangular arrangement of
tracks corresponds to the shape
of the room. This allows flexible
lighting of all wall surfaces and
accentuating of objects in the
space.
Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement
Linear elements
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning
Mounting
Both technical and design aspects
are important when mounting.
If the arrangement of the lumi-
naires is already fixed, then the
focus shifts to the mounting
detail. Various mounting versions
are available for downlights, e.g.
surface-mounting, recessed-
mounting or pendant suspension.
Floor Ceiling Wall
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Suspended ceilings In the case of flat suspended ceil-
ings, e.g. plasterboard ceilings,
the luminaires can almost always
be arranged irrespective of the
suspended ceiling grid. The lumi-
naires are fixed firmly in the ceil-
ing apertures provided; if neces-
sary, the weight of the luminaire
must be carried by additional
suspensions fixed onto or in
close proximity to the luminaire.
If the ceiling is to be plastered,
plaster rings are required for the
luminaire apertures.
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Mounting
Ceiling
Panel ceilings For open grid ceilings and
honey comb-grid ceilings there
are recessed cassettes available
complete with suitable apertures
for the recessed mounting of
downlights. The cassettes are
dimensioned to suit the respec-
tive ceiling grids. They can replace
a ceiling panel or allow the instal-
lation of luminaires between ceil-
ing panels which would otherwise
not be suitable to take the static
load.
Ceiling channel Light sources can be mounted in
a track ceiling channel in order to
integrate them invisibly into the
ceiling.
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Pendant luminaires Pendant mounting can be
effected in a variety of ways.
Light-weight luminaires are usu-
ally suspended by the connecting
cable. Heavier luminaires require
a separate suspension device. This
may take the form of a stranded
wire cable or a pendant tube,
which generally contains the
connecting cable.
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Mounting
Ceiling
Concrete ceilings For recessed mounting into con-
crete ceilings the luminaire aper-
tures are created when the ceiling
is cast. Another possibility is to
install prefabricated housings,
which are also attached onto the
concrete shuttering and remain in
the ceiling. It is essential to check
that the planned lighting layout
is compatible with the structure
of the ceiling, whether specific
installation locations must be
avoided, for example, due to con-
cealed joists or whether the rein-
forcement of the ceiling should
be co-ordinated with the lighting
layout.
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Wall Luminaires can be mounted onto
wall surfaces or recessed into
the wall. The latter can be in
either concrete or hollow walls.
Luminaires can be mounted on
wall brackets or cantilever arms
for indoor partitions or outdoor
facades.
E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning | Mounting
Floor Luminaires for floor or ground
installation can be surface-
mounted or recessed-mounted.
When recess-mounted in the
floor or ground, the luminaire
cover must be robust and provide
protection against the ingress of
moisture. Bollard luminaires and
mast luminaires may also be used
outdoors.
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E Guide
Designing with light | Practical planning
Maintenance
By stipulating a light loss factor
when planning the lighting, the
intervals at which maintenance is
to be carried out can be control-
led. By keeping light loss factors
low, the lighting level will initially
be higher and the period during
which luminous flux is gradually
reduced to below the critical
value will be extended. Using
a suitable maintenance factor,
lamp replacement and the clean-
ing of luminaires can be timed
to take place simultaneously. The
adjustment of luminaires is also
classified as maintenance in the
interest of the qualitative aspects
of the lighting installation. In
the area of display lighting in
particular, luminaires have to be
realigned to accommodate the
layout of a new arrangement.
A maintenance plan should
enable the operator to service the
installation at regular intervals,
checking whether the technical
requirements are being met and
the lighting is performing as
planned.
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E Guide
Designing with light
Visualising light
Representing lighting installa-
tions and their lighting effects
in architecture plays a key role in
lighting design. The range of rep-
resentations includes the whole
gamut from technically oriented
ceiling plans to graphic illustra-
tions of varying complexity to
computer-calculated room repre-
sentations and three-dimensional
models of architecture or light-
ing installations. Skilled lighting
designers use ceiling plans and
diagrams to derive a realistic idea
of the lighting effects achieved.
Others in the planning process
with less expertise have to rely
on visual representations and
technical specifications.
Drawing Model Simulation
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E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light
Drawing
The graphic methods employed
extend from simple sketches to
detailed and elaborate processes.
The more elaborate the method
used, the more accurate is the
representation of the illuminated
environment and the lighting
effects. Perspective room repre-
sentations include the positioning
of the lighting equipment in the
room.
Sketch Mood board Story board
Technical drawing Diagram
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E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing
Sketch
In the simplest case, lighting
effects can be shown in a graphic
format by light beams designed
either as contours, as coloured
surfaces or in grey tones contrast-
ing with the background. Draw-
ings that show light beams using
light, coloured pencils or chalk
on a dark background achieve an
intense luminosity and are par-
ticularly useful for representing
outdoor lighting at night. When
visualising an overall concept, a
deliberately simplified sketch can
demonstrate the lighting effects
produced more effectively than an
allegedly realistic representation
with artificially scaled brightness
ratios.
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Facade Entrance
Foyer Reception
Room, variant 1 Room, variant 2
Room, variant 3 Detail
Using rough sketches for visuali-
sation, the story board acts as a
creative script detailing the spa-
tial and temporal progression of
the lighting effects. It is an effec-
tive tool in scenographic lighting
design to look at the dynamic
processes in the building. These
processes result from aspects
such as the spatial progression
encountered as you walk through
the building, but also from the
time dimension experienced in a
room throughout the course of
a day.
E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing
Story board
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E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing
Mood board
The mood board is a collection
of pictures, sketches, materials,
colours, and terms to describe
emotions. Where different moods
are required as special effects
in a room, parallel collages with
diverse themes can be used to
underline the statements on con-
trasts and colours for the differ-
ent light scenes. While the mood
board initially focuses on a broad
collection of pictures, the process
of evaluation and concentration
is more analytical.
Mood board with warm, direc-
tional light
Mood board with diffuse, cool
light
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Technical drawing Technical drawings provide exact
information on the type and
positioning of the luminaires
used in the ceiling plan and the
sectional drawing. For spotlights,
for example, the drawing can
also specify the alignment of the
luminaires. For a better overview,
a table can be used to list all the
luminaires with their symbols and
features. The electrical designers
also require details on circuits,
switches, push-buttons and pro-
tection modes.
E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing
Diagram Diagrams can be used to docu-
ment aspects such as the illumi-
nance or luminance distribution
in a room. In the Isolux diagrams,
contours indicate the same illu-
minances, while the contours in
Iso-candela diagrams specify the
luminances.
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While the spatial representations
of simulation programs reproduce
the illuminance levels in a room
by way of diagrams, they also
provide a visual impression of the
lighting concept. In contrast to
the drawing, the computer graphic
furnishes objective information, as
it is based on precise calculations.
E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light
Simulation
Qualitative simu-
lation
Animation Quantitative simu-
lation
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E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light | Simulation
Qualitative simulation The light simulation for qualita-
tive representations focuses
on portraying atmosphere. The
spatial perspective provides an
accurate impression useful for
the presentation of the lighting
design. The degree of detailing
can include photorealistic illus-
trations.
Quantitative simulation The quantitative simulation is
used for the analysis of a lighting
design. It determines the physi-
cally correct numerical values for
specific visual tasks. The simula-
tion also helps to check compli-
ance with requirements specified
in standards, such as uniformity
of illuminance. A further effec -
tive visualisation method is false-
colour diagrams which allow
levels to be represented through
a colour scale.
Animation Animation combines individual
images generated through simu-
lation to produce a film. It is ideal
to demonstrate dynamic lighting
effects. Animations where either
the camera angle remains the
same but the lighting changes or
the lighting stays the same but
the camera is moved are compara-
tively simple. Animations where
both the lighting and the camera
position change are far more com-
plex since each individual image of
the film has to be recalculated. The
alternative is to use special video
post-editing processes.
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One of the significant advantages
resulting from the use of models
is that light is not just represented
but becomes effective. Lighting
effects are visualised in all their
complexity, not merely schema-
tised. A further advantage of
models is the aspect of interac-
tion in that the observer can
accurately check every angle. A
distinction has to be made here
between a working model and a
presentation model.
E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light
Model
Model making Daylight simulation Mock-up
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E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light | Model
Model making Size and accuracy limit the infor -
mative value of the simulation
and should be determined accor-
dingly. The scale ranges from 1:100
or 1:200 for the daylight effect of
whole buildings to scales of 1:20
to 1:10 for differentiated lighting
effects in individual areas.
The most critical factor, specifi-
cally when using very small-scale
models, is usually the size of the
luminaires themselves. Variations
in the light intensity distribution
are clearly reflected in the result.
The accuracy of luminaire repro-
ductions is limited on account of
the dimensions of the light sources
available. The result is that design-
ers often use light guide systems
from an external light source to
simulate the output from several
luminaires.
Mock-up A mock-up is a reproduction of a
room situation at a scale of 1:1.
A mock-up of the luminaire or
the architectural space concerned
is ideal as a basis for decisions
specifically when assessing cus-
tomised luminaires or luminaires
which are to be integrated into
the architecture. To limit the effort
involved, a mock-up is based on an
architectural section for maximum
benefit.
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Daylight simulation In the simplest case, both the
sun and the daylight can be used
directly in outdoor scenes or else
be reproduced exactly using a
solar simulator or an artificial
sky. When simulating sunlight
outdoors, a sundial-type display
instrument is used to position the
model at precisely the angle of
incidence of the light that cor-
responds to a specific season and
time of day. In the solar simulator,
this is performed by a movable,
artificial sun. Both methods allow
reliable studies of the lighting
effects in and around a building
and of engineering designs for
daylight control or sun protec-
tion even for small-scale models.
Cameras are used to capture these
observations and to document the
lighting changes throughout the
day or year.
The artificial sky is used to simu-
late the lighting conditions on a
cloudy day and to take measure-
ments of the daylight ratio.
E Guide
Designing with light | Visualising light | Model
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Types of lighting Luminaire groups Lighting applications
Guide
Indoor lighting
E
Light determines the mood of
a room. Lighting applications
and the corresponding lighting
effects of different luminaires are
rehearsed using simulations and
architectural examples.
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Guide
Indoor lighting
Types of lighting
E
The effect of rooms, areas and
objects greatly depends on the
type of lighting. This ranges from
uniform washlighting through to
highlighting and the projection
of gobo images.
General Washlighting Accentuation
Projection Orientation
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting
General
direct, aimed direct, diffuse indirect
General lighting refers to an even
illumination, usually related to a
horizontal working plane. Quanti-
tative aspects are often a primary
consideration at the work place or
in pedestrian traffic zones. Direct
lighting permits both diffuse and
directed light. Indirect lighting,
on the other hand, produces a
very even, soft light.
direct and indirect
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A direct and aimed general light-
ing produces an even illumination
on the horizontal working plane.
The architecture is visible and it is
possible to orientate oneself and
work in the room.
The directed light produces good
modelling and brilliance. The
uniformity on the working plane
increases as the room height
increases or as the beam angle
widens. Directed light enables
good appreciation of form and
surface texture. The visual com-
fort increases as the cut-off angle
increases. A feature of direct illu
-mination is its highly efficient
use of energy. At the work place,
secondary glare must be taken
into consideration.
Observation
Conclusion
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
direct, aimed
Applications
Projects:
Dubai International Airport
Centre Pompidou, Paris
Congress Palace, Valencia
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
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A direct, diffuse general lighting
designates an even illumination
with respect to a horizontal work-
ing plane. The architecture is vis-
ible and it is possible to orientate
oneself and work in the room.
Observation
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
direct, diffuse
Light structures
Downlights, diffuse
Wall-mounted downlights,
diffuse
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Direct diffuse light produces
a soft illumination with little
shadow and reflection. The lim-
ited formation of shadow results
in weak modelling capabilities.
Shapes and surface textures are
only slightly emphasised. One
feature of using fluorescent
lamps for general lighting is
an efficient use of energy.
Conclusion
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
direct, diffuse
Luminous ceiling
Applications
Projects:
Congress Centre, Valencia
Prada, Milan
German Architectural Museum,
Frankfurt
Fondation Beyeler, Basel
Direct, diffuse general lighting for
- working areas
- multifunctional rooms
- museums
- exhibitions
- pedestrian traffic areas
Preferred luminaire groups:
- light structures
- downlights
- wall-mounted downlights
- luminous ceilings
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An indirect general lighting uses a
ceiling, wall or other surface as a
secondary reflector. The brighten-
ing of these surfaces that deline-
ate the room or area gives an
open spatial impression.
Observation
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
indirect
Light structures
Uplights
The diffuse light produces limited
shadows and a weak modelling.
Using indirect illumination alone
gives a lower spatial differentia-
tion. Compared to direct illumi-
nation, a considerably higher
luminous flux is necessary for
achieving the same illuminance
on the working plane. The sec-
ondary reflector should boast
a high reflectance. Direct and
secondary glare are extensively
avoided.
Conclusion
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
indirect
Applications
Projects:
British Museum, London
Ezeiza Airport, Buenos Aires
Eremitage, St. Petersburg
Villa, Salzburg
The prerequisite for an even dis-
tribution of light is a sufficiently
high room. Indirect illumination
should be mounted above eye-
level. The distance from the ceil-
ing depends on the level of even-
ness required and should
be at least 0.8m.
Indirect general lighting for:
- working areas
- multifunctional rooms
- pedestrian traffic areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- light structures
- uplights
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Direct/indirect general lighting
refers to a combination of direct
and indirect illumination with
respect to the horizontal working
plane. The ceiling or walls serve
here as reflection surfaces. The
brightening of these surfaces that
delineate the room or area gives
an open spatial impression.
Observation
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
direct and indirect
Light structures
Pendant downlights
The uniformity on the working
plane increases as the room
height increases. Directed light
enables a good appreciation of
form and surface texture. The
secondary reflector should boast
a high reflectance. The uniformity
on the ceiling increases the fur-
ther away the luminaire is from
the ceiling. A feature of general
lighting with fluorescent lamps is
its highly efficient use of energy.
Conclusion
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Applications
Projects:
Civic Cleaning Adult-Education
Centre, Berlin
Reichstag, Berlin
Palacio de la Aljaferia, Zaragoza
Fibanc, Barcelona
Direct/indirect general lighting
for
- working areas
- multifunctional rooms
- pedestrian traffic areas
Preferred luminaire groups:
- light structures
- pendant downlights
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
direct and indirect
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting
Washlighting
symmetrical asymmetrical
Washlighting illumination refers
to an architecture-related and
object-orientated illumination.
The primary purpose is to make
visible the room proportions and
room limits. Symmetrical flood-
lights are used for washlighting
of horizontal surfaces or for
general lighting in the area of
presentation. A feature of asym-
metrical floodlights is the uni-
form light intensity distribution
on surfaces.
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Symmetrical washlighting pro-
duces an even illumination on
objects or surfaces. Washlight
illumination is characterised by
high uniformity and a soft gradi-
ent of light intensity distribution.
The illuminated areas of the room
are emphasised by washlighting.
Observation
The directed light produces good
modelling abilities and enables
good appreciation of form and
surface structure. Washlighting
illumination can serve as a back-
ground for accent lighting.
Conclusion
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting
symmetrical
Applications
Projects:
Catedral de Santa Ana, Las Palmas
Passeig de Gràcia, Barcelona
Royal Armouries Museum, Leeds
Museo ‚Fournier‘ del Naipe,
Vitoria
Mounting floodlights on tracks
allows a flexible positioning of
the luminaires.
Washlighting illumination for:
- exhibitions
- museums
- sales and presentation areas
- multifunctional rooms
Preferred luminaire groups
- floodlights
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Asymmetrical washlighting illu-
mination is used for illuminating
surfaces evenly. Wallwashing is
a highly valued tool in architec-
tural lighting. Vertical illumina-
tion emphasises the walls – or
other room limits – in terms of
their physical makeup. Brighten-
ing the wall surfaces makes the
room look bigger.
Observation
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting
asymmetrical
Wallwasher spotlight
Washlights
Wallwasher
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Perimeter luminaire
Uplights
Floor washlights
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting
asymmetrical
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting
asymmetrical
Point-form luminaires lend the
wall surface a higher brilliance,
whereas with linear luminaires
a higher uniformity is achieved.
With asymmetrical washlighting,
areas of a room can be defined
and thus have attention attracted
to them. It can also serve as a
background for accent lighting
or form the ambient brightness
for the work place. To obtain a
uniform light intensity distribu-
tion the correct positioning of
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
British Museum, London
Reichstag, Berlin
Palacio de la Aljaferia, Saragoza
Modern art museum, Frankfurt
Washlighting for
- exhibitions
- museums
- sales and presentation areas
- multifunctional rooms
Preferred luminaire groups
- wallwasher spotlights
- washlights
- wallwashers
- uplights
- perimeter luminaires
the luminaires is of great impor-
tance.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting
Accentuation
Highlighting emphasises indi-
vidual objects or architectural
elements. This makes it possible
to establish a hierarchy of how
noticeable each item is and to
attract attention.
Observation
Spotlights
Contour spotlights
Directional luminaires
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting
Accentuation
Task light
Accent lighting enables good
appreciation of form and sur-
face structure. The focused light
produces pronounced shadows
and good modelling ability, as
well as brilliance. A narrow beam
and a high brightness contrast to
the surroundings give the object
particular emphasis.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Neue Wache, Berlin
Iglesia del Sagrado Corazón,
Bilbao
Issey Miyake, Paris
Pinacoteca Vaticana, Rome
Accent lighting creates points
of interest and improves the
local visual performance, e.g. at
the work place. Structures and
textures of objects are clearly
emphasised by the directed light.
Accent lighting for:
- exhibitions
- museums
- sales and presentation areas
- restaurants, cafés, wine bars
- working areas
Preferred luminaire groups:
- spotlights
- contour spotlights
- directional downlights
- directional recessed floor
luminaires
- task lights
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting
Projection
Projectors are used for project -
ing signs, patterns and images.
This enables an additional level
of information and awareness
to be built up.
Observation
Interesting effects can be created
using gobos and filters.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Aragon Pavillon, Sevilla
Hannover Messe
Teattri Ravintola, Finland
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Projection Application
- exhibitions
- museums
- sales and presentation areas
- restaurants, cafés, wine bars
- hotels
Projections can be made with
- spotlight projectors
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting
Orientation
Orientation lighting is defined
first and foremost by the task of
providing orientation. This can be
achieved by luminaires that func-
tion as sources of illumination or
as signals. Illuminating the room
is of secondary importance here;
instead, a row of these luminaires
is typically arranged to form an
orientation line.
Observation
Floor washlights
Wall-mounted downlights
Recessed floor luminaires
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Low illumination levels are suf-
ficient for orientation purposes.
Small luminaires with high lumi-
nance clearly set themselves
apart form their surroundings.
Orientation lighting improves
orientation in complex buildings
and makes it easier to find fire
exits in emergencies.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Light and Building, Frankfurt
Palazzo della Ragione, Bergamo
Hilton Hotel Dubai
Hilton Hotel Dubai
Orientation lighting for the
identification of
- architectural lines
- steps and exclusion zones
- entrances
- routes
- emergency exit routes
Preferred luminaire group
- floor washlight
- wall-mounted downlights
- recessed floor luminaires
- orientation luminaires
Orientation luminaires
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Types of lighting
Orientation
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Guide
Indoor lighting
Luminaire groups
E
Luminaires are available in a
wide variety of types, each
intended to fulfil different light-
ing requirements. The same light
distribu tions can be achieved with
different luminaires. The choice
depends on whether the lumi-
naires are to be a design feature
in their own right, or whether
an integrative design approach
is being followed. Compared to
luminaires that are permanently
mounted, track-mounted lumi-
naires offer a higher degree of
flexibility.
Track Spotlights Floodlights
Wallwasher Light structures Downlights
Task lights Wall-mounted
luminaires
Perimeter luminaires
Recessed floor
luminaires
Orientation
luminaires
Directive luminaires
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Tracks form the basis for a vari-
able and flexible lighting design
that can orientate itself around
the changing interior design and
usage of a room. Mating adapters
on the luminaires perform both
the electrical and mechanical
connection.
Tracks provide a flexible form
of voltage supply for spotlights,
floodlights and wallwashers, for
accent lighting and washlighting
of all professional lighting situ-
ations. Using multiphase tracks
makes it possible to operate dif-
ferent circuits simultaneously.
Recessed tracks are inconspic-
uous architectural details. The
tracks can also be suspended
via pendant tubes or wire rope.
They should correspond to the
architecture in their arrangement
and form.
Light
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Track
Applications
Projects:
Teattri Ravintola, Helsinki
Christie's Showroom, New York
Caras Gourmet Coffee Kranzler-
eck, Berlin
Kayser private home, Neuenrade
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Spotlights
The mounting location and the
orientation are variable. Spot-
lights are offered with different
beam emission angles and light
distributions.
Criteria for spotlights
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, brilliance, functional life,
light intensity
- emission angle determines the
beam of light and is defined by
the reflector
- cut-off angle limits glare and
increases visual comfort
- rotatable and tiltable
- accessories:
lenses, filters; glare control
Light
Spotlights
Spotlights have a narrow-beam
(spot approx. 10°) to wide-beam
(flood approx. 30°) light distribu-
tion with a rotationally symmetri-
cal beam.
The use of accessories is also
typical for spotlights:
- lenses:
spread or sculpture lenses
- filters:
- filters: colour filters, ultraviolet
or infrared filters
- barn doors, dazzle cylinders,
multigroove baffles or honey-
comb anti-dazzle screens
Contour spotlights
Contour spotlights with lenses
for projection for various beam
emission angles.
Some types of spotlight are
equipped with convex lenses or
Fresnel lenses for a variable beam
angle. In addition, spotlights with
image contouring or project-
ing systems (contour spotlights)
enable different beam contours
or projected images by project-
ing through apertures or stencils
(gobos).
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Applications
Projects:
Christie´s Auctioneers, New York
Gmurzynska Gallery, Cologne
Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo
Expo Seville, Spain
For highlighting or projection in:
- museums
- exhibitions, art galleries
- sales rooms
- presentation and display areas
Since they enable variable mount-
ing locations and orientation,
spotlights can be adapted to suit
changing tasks. A narrow light
distribution enables smaller areas
to be illuminated, even from a
larger distance. Conversely, the
wide light distribution of projec-
tor floodlights enables a larger
area to be illuminated with a sin-
gle luminaire. Gobos and struc-
tured lenses are used to project
lighting effects. In addition, filter
foils can also be used.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Spotlights
On pictures on walls or objects in
a room, the light should be inci-
dent at an angle of less than 30°.
Arrangement
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Floodlights
Light
Flooldights feature a wide-beam
characteristic. They are offered
with a predominantly symmetri-
cal light distribution.
Criteria for floodlights
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, brilliance, functional life,
efficiency, light intensity
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
- gradient: soft edge to the beam
of light
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Applications
Projects:
Catedral de Santa Ana, Las Palmas
Passeig de Gràcia, Barcelona
Royal Armouries Museum, Leeds
Museo ‚Fournier‘ del Naipe,
Vitoria
Floodlights provide even illumi-
nation of areas or objects for:
- museums
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales areas
- presentational areas
The luminaires should corre-
spond to the architecture in
their arrangement and form.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Wallwasher
Wallwashers have a wide-beam
characteristic. They are offered
with an asymmetric light distri-
bution.
Criteria for wallwashers
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, brilliance, functional life,
light intensity
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
- gradient: soft edges to the beam
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Light
Wallwashers (spotlights)
Wallwashers have an asymmet-
ric light distribution for evenly
illuminating wall faces. Track-
mounted wallwashers allow the
luminaire spacing to be flexibly
adjusted as required.
Wallwashers, tiltable
(spotlight)
Spotlights with wallwasher attach-
ment feature a asymmetric light
distribution for evenly illuminat-
ing wall surfaces. Track-mounted
wallwashers allow the luminaire
spacing to be flexibly adjusted
as required. Wallwashers with
kick-reflector have an asymmetric
light distribution for evenly illu-
minating wall faces.
Washlights
Wallwashers have an asymmetric
light distribution for evenly illu-
minating wall faces. In addition,
they also feature a downlight
component for evenly illuminat-
ing the floor.
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Double-focus wallwashers
Double-focus wallwashers have
an asymmetric light distribution
for evenly illuminating wall faces.
The shielding of the lamp provides
high visual comfort and prevents
the emission of spill light. The
homogeneity of the wallwashing
is particularly high.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Wallwasher
Lens wallwashers
Lens wallwashers have an asym-
metric light distribution for
evenly illuminating wall faces.
The lens serves to spread out
the beam.
Wallwashers
Wallwashers have an asymmetric
light distribution for illuminating
wall faces.
Perimeter luminaires
Perimeter luminaires with reflec-
tors have an asymmetric light dis-
tribution for illuminating vertical
surfaces. As a linear light source,
they produce an even illumina-
tion of wall surfaces.
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Applications
Projects:
British Museum, London
Crescent House, Wiltshire
Mediathek, Sendai
Weimar College of Music
Wallwashing is an important
component of architectural light-
ing for adding emphasis to room
areas and for illuminating higher,
vertical faces or wall areas for:
- museums
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- auditoriums
- halls in public buildings and
shopping malls
- sales areas
- presentational areas
Surface-mounted luminaires act
as a feature in the room. They
should correspond to the archi-
tecture in their arrangement and
form.
The offset from the wall for
wallwashers should not be less
than one third of the wall height.
This corresponds to an angle of
at least 20°. The optimal ratio of
wall offset to luminaire spacing
for avoiding evenly illumination
is 1:1. Independent of the actual
room height and offset from the
wall, tiltable luminaires must be
aligned on the lower part of the
wall.
Arrangement
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Wallwasher
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Light structures are luminaires
that additionally allow the pos-
sibility for attaching mobile
luminaires, often using integrated
tracks or singlets. Light structures
consist of a tubular or panel ele-
ments and are usually suspended
from the ceiling. First and fore-
most, light structures use ele-
ments with integrated luminaires
for linear light sources that can
be used both for direct general
lighting and for indirect lighting
with light reflected by the ceil-
ing. Elements with integrated
downlights or directional lumi-
naires provide accent lighting.
Light
Luminaires
Direct
Light structures with direct light
have an axially symmetric light
distribution emitted downwards
for illuminating the usable sur-
faces.
Luminaires
Indirect
Light structures with indirect
light distribution have an axially
symmetric light distribution emit-
ted upwards for illuminating the
ceiling.
Luminaires
Direct/Indirect
Light structures with direct/indi-
rect light distribution have an
axially symmetric light distribu-
tion emitted upwards and down-
wards for illuminating the usable
surfaces and the ceiling.
Luminaires
Wallwashing
Light structures for wallwashing
have an asymmetric light distri-
bution for evenly illuminating
wall faces.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Light structures
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Applications
Projects:
Reichstag, Berlin
Xaverian Brothers High School,
Westwood MA
Regional Govt., Berlin
Shanghai Museum
General lighting in
- offices, medical practices
- pedestrian traffic areas
- additional accent lighting
and washlighting with the help
of spotlights, floodlights and
wallwashers
The offset from the wall (a) is
recommended as being half
the luminaire spacing (d). The
luminaire spacing (d) between
two neighbouring structures
should correspond to the height
(h) above the floor or work sur-
face. The distance to the ceiling
depends on the level of evenness
required on the ceiling. The dis-
tance to the ceiling should meas-
ure at least 0.8 m for indirect
lighting so that an even illumi-
nation is ensured.
Arrangement
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Light structures
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Downlights
Downlights emit a beam that is
directed downwards at either a
perfectly vertical or an adjust-
able angle. They are offered
with narrow-beam, wide-beam,
symmetrical or asymmetric light
distribution.
Criteria for downlights
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- emission angle determines the
beam of light and is defined by
the reflector
- cut-off angle limits glare and
increases visual comfort
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Light
Double-focus downlights
Double-focus downlights have a
rotationally symmetric beam that
is directed vertically downwards.
On double-focus downlights, a
special reflector shape enables
a high luminous flux even for
smaller ceiling apertures.
Downlights
Downlights have a rotationally
symmetric beam that is directed
vertically downwards.
Washlights
Washlights have an asymmetric
beam that is directed vertically
downwards and onto vertical
surfaces. They provide an even
illumination for wall and floor
surfaces. Special forms are double
washlights for illuminating two
opposite wall sections and corner
washlights for illuminating cor-
ners of rooms.
The cut-off angle of narrow-beam
downlights makes them a highly
free of glare. On downlights with
Darklight reflector, the lamp's
cut-off angle is identical to that
of the luminaire. This gives a
luminaire with the widest beam
possible while simultaneously
having an optimised light output
ratio. The use of a diffuser reduc-
es the luminance in the luminaire
and thereby improves the visual
comfort.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Downlights
Lens wallwashers
Lens wallwashers have an asym-
metric light distribution, which
is aimed at vertical surfaces.
They are used for illuminating
wall surfaces evenly. On lens
wallwashers special lens reflec-
tion systems ensure even wall
illumination. The light is spread
out by lenses and directed onto
the wall by wallwasher reflectors.
The Darklight reflectors of the
lens wallwashers are visible from
below and are glare-free.
Wallwashers
Wallwashers have an asymmetric
light distribution, which is aimed
at vertical surfaces. They are used
for illuminating wall surfaces
evenly.
Directional downlights
Directional downlights are used
for highlighting individual areas or
objects with a medium to narrow
light distribution. They combine
the advantages of a downlight
with the flexibility of directional
spotlights. Above the rotational
symmetric darklight reflectors, the
reflector lamps emit their beam of
light perpendicularly downwards,
yet they can be rotated by 360°
and tilted up to 20°. Because the
Darklight reflector ensures that
a cone of light is formed from
directional luminaires, the cut-off
angle is consistent on all direc-
tions.
Double-focus wallwashers
Double-focus washlights have an
asymmetric light distribution that
is directed at vertical sur faces.
They are used for illuminating
wall surfaces evenly. Double-
focus wallwashers are fitted with
special, internal wallwasher seg-
ments. With this special kind of
reflector technology the lamp is
hidden from the direct view of
the observer at all times.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Downlights
The offset from wall should
measure approximately half of
the luminaire spacing in order to
achieve sufficient brightness on
the wall and well proportioned
scallops of light. To attain an even
illumination on a reference plane,
the luminaire spacing should not
exceed the mounting height h
by more than 1.5:1. An optimal
evenness is achieved when d = h.
To obtain symmetrical scallops in
a corner, one downlight must be
positioned on the 45° diagonal.
Arrangement
Downlights
The offset from the wall should
measure at least one third of the
room height. Alternatively, the
offset from the wall is where a
20 degree line projected upwards
from the base of the wall inter-
sects the ceiling. An optimum
evenness is obtained when the
luminaire spacing is the same as
the offset from the wall, or at
least does not exceed it by more
than 1.5 times. Wallwashers only
develop their optimal evenness
as of a minimum number of three
luminaires. The position of a
wallwasher in a corner of a room
should lie on the 45° line.
Arrangement
Wallwashers
Directional luminaires
Directional downlights are used
for highlighting individual areas
or objects with a medium to nar-
row light distribution.
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Applications
Projects:
Maritime Museum Osaka
British Museum, London
Centre Pompidou, Paris
Armand Basi Shop, Barcelona
Downlights are a universal instru-
ment for functional, architectonic
and accentuating lighting.
Recessed downlights are incon-
spicuous architectural details,
whereas surface-mounted down-
lights and pendant down lights
act as features in the room. They
should correspond to the archi-
tecture in their arrangement and
form.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Downlights
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Task lights
Task lights emit their light down-
wards onto a work surface. They
are offered with narrow-beam or
wide-beam light distribution.
Criteria for task lights
- The choice of lamp determines
light colour, functional life, effi-
ciency and light intensity
- Gradient: soft edges to the
beam of light
- glare-free light
- rotatable and tiltable
Light
Applications
Projects:
Architectural office, Stockholm
Khalil Al-Sayegh, Dubai
Success advertising agency
Nordwalde; Regional Govt., Berlin
Task lights are designed for
individual lighting for the work-
station.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Wall-mounted luminaires
Wall-mounted downlights are
defined first and foremost by
their type of mounting and not
by their light characteristics.
Different light distributions are
possible such as narrow-beamed,
wide-beamed, symmetrical or
asymmetrical in various direc-
tions.
Criteria for wall-mounted
downlights
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- emission angle determines the
beam of light and is defined by
the reflector
- cut-off angle limits glare and
increases visual comfort
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Light
Ceiling washlights
Ceiling washlights have an asym-
metric light distribution and emit
light upwards onto horizontal
surfaces. The ceiling surface is
illuminated evenly and over a
large area. On ceiling washlights,
the section of the ceiling to be
illuminated can be partly clipped
along the luminaire's main axis
with the help of infinitely adjust-
able cut-off shields. Uplights
differentiate themselves from
ceiling washlights by their differ-
ent reflector geometry, altered
light distribution, and higher light
output ratio.
Floor washlights
Floor washlights have an asym-
metric light distribution and emit
light downwards onto horizontal
surfaces.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Wall-mounted luminaires
Applications
Projects:
Citibank, Paris
Museo de Historia, Barcelona
Hilton Hotel Dubai Creek
Light and Building, Frankfurt
For illumination of ceilings or
floors in:
- churches
- theatres
- museums
- pedestrian traffic areas
Recessed wall-mounted down-
lights are inconspicuous archi-
tectural details, whereas surface-
mounted downlights act as a
feature in the room They should
correspond to the architecture in
their arrangement and form.
Ceiling washlights should be
mounted above eye-level. The
distance to the ceiling depends
on the level of evenness required
on the ceiling. The distance to the
ceiling should measure at least
0.8 m for indirect lighting so that
an even illumination is ensured.
Arrangement
Ceiling washlights
The mounting height (h) of floor
washlights near to seats or seat-
ing should be less than eye-level
(1.2 m), normally 0.8 m above the
floor level.
Arrangement
Floor washlights
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Perimeter luminaires
Perimeter luminaires are linear
luminaires with a wide-beamed
characteristic for evenly illumi-
nating vertical surfaces. Perimeter
lighting refers to a lighting con-
cept whereby fluorescent lamps
are sunk directly into a joint to
the wall. These luminaires are
available with or without reflec-
tor. A higher, even quality of
lighting is obtained however by
luminaires with reflectors and set
a distance from the wall. The low
Light
Perimeter luminaires
Perimeter luminaires with reflec-
tors have an asymmetric light dis-
tribution for illuminating vertical
surfaces. As linear light sources
they provide an even illumination
of wall faces.
Linear grazing light
Perimeter luminaires for grazing
light are positioned directly on
the wall. The illuminance on the
wall decreases greatly as the dis-
tance from the lamp increases.
luminance and linear format of
fluorescent lamps result in a low
briliance.
Criteria for perimeter luminaires
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
Applications
Projects:
Reichstag, Berlin
The Tricycle, London
Pacific Rim Restaurant, Hong
Kong
Polygon Bar and Grill, London
For illuminating vertical surfaces
in:
- museums
- exhibitions
- presentational areas
Perimeter lighting out of
haunches emphasises archi-
tectonic features. Due to the
recessed ceiling mounting,
perimeter luminaires are gener-
ally inconspicuous archi tectural
details. Luminaires with a sur-
face-mounted section and reflec-
tor that protrude down from the
ceiling give a transitionless, uni-
form wall illumination from the
ceiling to the floor.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Recessed floor luminaires
Recessed floor luminaires emit
their beam upwards. They are
offered with narrow-beamed,
wide-beamed, symmetrical or
asymmetrical light distribution.
Criteria for recessed floor lumi-
naires:
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, service life, efficiency and
light intensity
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
- range of tilt for directional
luminaires with high glare pro-
tection
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Light
Uplights
Uplights feature an upwards
directed beam with symmetrical
light distribution. The narrow,
rotationally symmetrical beams
are used for highlighting objects.
Directional luminaires
Directional luminaires are used
for highlighting individual areas
or objects with a medium to nar-
row light distribution. The beam
can be tilted.
Uplight, diffuse
Recessed floor luminaires with
diffuse light intensity distribution
are used for marking paths or
emphasising architectural lines.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Recessed floor luminaires
Applications
Projects:
Deutsche Bank, Tokyo
Burj Al Arab, Dubai
Burj Al Arab, Dubai
Maritim Museum, Osaka
Accent lighting or floodlighting
for
- theatres
- presentational areas
- sales areas
- reception and entrance areas
- architectural features
Recessed floor luminaires are
inconspicuous architectural
details. They should correspond to
the architecture in their arrange-
ment and form.
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Orientation luminaires
The defining feature of orienta-
tion luminaires is that they are
designed first and foremost to
provide orientation. Such lumi-
naires may also function as sourc-
es of illumination or as signals.
Criteria for orientation luminaires
- luminance: noticeability of the
luminaires in their surroundings
Light
Orientation luminaires, local
Orientation luminaires with
point-form front lens act as a
local orientation light.
Floor washlights
Floor washlights form points of
light on the wall and serves as
an orientation light on the floor
surface.
Applications
Projects:
Sevens department store,
Düsseldorf
Hilton Hotel, Dubai
Instituto Frances, Barcelona
Hilton Hotel, Dubai
For identifying:
- architectural lines
- steps or restricted areas
- entrances
- routes
- emergency exit routes
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Directive luminaires
Directive luminaires provide
information or give directions by
way of pictograms or texts. Emer-
gency lighting refers to lumi-
naires that indicate the escape
route to improve orientation in
emergency situations.
Criteria for emergency lighting
and directive luminaires
- luminance: noticeability of the
luminaire in its surroundings
- form and colour: to comply with
the standards
- luminaire position: to describe
correctly the escape route
- emergency power supply
- effectiveness: to continue
lighting signs upon mains power
failure
Light
Luminaires
Emergency lighting and directive
luminaires can be subdivided into
three groups:
- directive lighting: pictograms or
texts providing information
- emergency lighting: lighting for
escape routes, anti-panic lighting
and emergency lighting for work
places with special hazards
- backup lighting: takes over the
function of providing artificial
lighting for maintaining opera-
tions over a limited period
Applications
Projects:
Palazzo della Ragione, Bergamo
Potsdamer Platz, Berlin
Norwegian Aviation Museum,
Bodo
GIRA, Radevormwald
For identifying:
- exits
- emergency exits, fire exits
- escape and rescue routes
Directive luminaires are often
secondary lighting features and
should match with the archi-
tecture. Luminaires that change
colour allow controllable dynamic
route markings. Safety and rescue
sign luminaires must comply with
the regional guidelines.
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Guide
Indoor lighting
Lighting applications
E
Light plays a central and multi-
faceted role in the design of a
visual environment. In addition
to the requirements and demands
made by the user on lighting
design, the architectonic concept
also stipulates a framework for
the design of the illumination. Working plane Wall Ceiling
Floor Object Orientation lighting
Directive lighting
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Working plane
Work station Area, small Area, large
Illuminating a horizontal surface
is one of the most common light-
ing tasks. Most of the lighting
tasks governed by work place
standards and standards for
pedes trian traffic routes come
under this category, whether
these be the illumination of
work surfaces or the actual floor.
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Demanding visual tasks not only
require general lighting but
also additional lighting for the
workstation.With task lights the
light can be directed to the task
in hand. Light structures with
fluorescent lamps emit diffuse
light.Directional luminaires emit
an accentuating light onto the
workstation. Indirect light with
uplights lends the room general
background lighting.
To provide an energy efficient
lighting, the general lighting can
be lower than the illumination
of the working area. Combined
lighting with direct and indirect
components provides good visual
comfort both in the room and on
the work surface.

Observation
Conclusion
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane
Work station
Task light
Light structure
Directional luminaire
Lighting criteria for task lighting
- illuminance level dependent on
activity
- illuminance distribution for
avoiding direct- and secondary
glare
- cut-off angle and position of
the luminaire restrict glare and
increase visual comfort
- the choice of lamp determines
the light colour and colour ren-
dition
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Applications
Projects:
Shanghai Museum
Success advertising agency
Palacio de la Aljaferia, Zaragoza
Fibanc, Barcelona
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane
Work station
High luminances reflected from
surfaces or objects cause second-
ary glare. The luminaires should
not be positioned in the critical
areas. Indirect illumination with
diffuse light reduces the second-
ary glare. When aiming the beam
of light, care should be taken
to avoid shadows on the work
surface.
Arrangement
The quantitative lighting criteria
are primary considerations for
task lighting. Energy can be saved
by reducing the general lighting
in favour of local task lighting
and daylight dependent control.
Preferred luminaire group
- task lights
- light structures
- directional luminaires
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Usable areas can be illuminated
directly and indirectly: downlights
and pendant downlights emit
direct illumination into the room.
Light structures have a diffuse
light distribution. Uplights illu-
minate the room indirectly with a
diffuse, uniform light.
Observation
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane
Area, small
Light structures
Downlights
Pendant downlights
Uplights
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane
Area, small
Applications
Projects:
Dansk Design Center, Copenhagen
DZ Bank, Berlin
Fibanc, Barcelona
Fondation Beyeler, Basel
The quantitative lighting criteria
are paramount considerations for
lighting usable areas.
Applications
- office workstations
- conference rooms
- workshops and shopfloors
- reception and entrance areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- light structures
- downlights
- uplights
Compared to indirect lighting
with diffuse light, the direct
aimed light results in better
modelling capability. Combined
lighting with direct and indirect
components ensures good visual
comfort both in the room and on
the work surface.
Conclusion Lighting criteria for usable areas:
- illuminance level dependent on
activity
- luminance distribution to avoid
direct and secondary glare
- cut-off angle and position of
the luminaire restrict glare and
increase visual comfort
- the choice of lamp determines
the light colour and colour ren-
dition
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Under consideration of the
energy aspects, direct lighting
with permanently mounted
downlights are the most suitable
for large rooms.
Whereas downlights represent
fixed-location general lighting,
spotlights can be used flexibly in
the area of exhibitions and pres-
entations. Due to their narrow-
beam light distribution, spotlights
have high glare control. Directed
light results in good modelling
capabilities.
Observation
Conclusion
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane
Area, large
Downlights
Pendant downlights
Spotlights
Lighting criteria for usable areas:
- illuminance level, depending on
the activity
- luminance distribution to avoid
direct and secondary glare
- cut-off angle and position of
the luminaire restrict glare and
increase visual comfort
- the choice of lamp determines
the light colour and colour ren-
dition
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Applications
Projects:
Reichstag, Berlin
Bank of China, Beijing
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Ständehaus art gallery, Düsseldorf
The quantitative lighting criteria
are paramount considerations
for lighting usable areas. Direct
illumination here is considerably
more economical than indirect
illumination.
General lighting for
- workshops and shopfloors
- museums
- exhibitions
- sales and representational areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- downlights
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane
Area, large
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Wall, 3m Wall, 5m Wall with texture
Wall lighting can fulfil a number
of tasks. Firstly, it can be aimed
at fulfilling vertical visual tasks
on the walls, whether this be
informative material such as
notice boards, presentational
objects such as paintings or mer-
chandise, architectonic structures
or the surface of the wall itself.
Wall lighting can, however, also
be aimed solely at presenting the
wall in its capacity as the surface
delineating the room; finally,
wall illumination can be a means
of indirect general lighting for a
room.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Wall
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 3m
Walls can be lit using point-form
or linear luminaires. Wallwasher
spotlights offer flexible adjust-
ment for different wall heights.
Wallwashers are characterised by
the even progression of bright -
ness along the wall. Lens wall-
washers have special lens reflec-
tor systems. Washlights project
the light evenly onto the wall
surface, while maintaining the
downlight effect on the room.
Linear light sources for wall-
Observation
Point-form light sources
Wallwasher spotlights
washing with fluorescent lamps
brighten the wall with perfect
uniformity. Using a Softec lens
achieves an extremely even illu-
mination of the whole wall even
in the higher area right up to the
ceiling. Perimeter illumination out
of a haunch is positioned directly
on the wall. It produces a grazing
light effect emphasising the sur-
face texture. The evenness of the
wallwashing is only secondary
here.
Point-form light sources
Washlights
Point-form light sources
Lens wallwashers
Linear light sources
Wallwashers
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 3m
Linear light sources
Light structure
Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire
Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire Softec lens
Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire Cove
Conclusion Vertical illumination emphasises
the wall faces in terms of their
physical make-up. The room is
made to look bigger by brighten-
ing its walls and ceiling etc. Point
light sources make the wall sur-
face much more vivid, whereas
with linear luminaires a higher
uniformity is achieved.
Lighting criteria for walls:
- uniformity of the lighting
- the choice of lamp determines
the light colour and colour ren-
dition
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 3m
Arrangement The offset from the wall should
be at least one third of the
room height. Alternatively, the
offset from the wall is where a
20 degree line projected from
the base of the wall intersects
the ceiling. An optimum evenness
is obtained when the luminaire
spacing is the same as the offset
from the wall. Wallwashers only
develop their optimal evenness
as of a minimum number of
three luminaires. The position of
a wallwasher in a room corner
should lie on the 45° line.
Applications
Projects:
British Museum, London
Crescent House, Wiltshire
Mediathek, Sendai
Weimar College of Music
Washlighting illumination for
vertical surfaces of:
- museums
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales and representational areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- wallwashers
- washlights
- lens wallwashers
- double washlights
- perimeter luminaires
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 5m
In high rooms the luminaires are
beyond the direct field of vision.
As the room height increases the
brightness of the wall decreases,
if the lighting remains constant.
Wallwashers are characterised
by the even progression of
brightness along the wall. Lens
wallwashers have special lens
reflector systems. Linear light
sources for wallwashing with
fluorescent lamps provides a
perfectly uniform brightening of
Observation
Point-form light sources
Wallwasher spotlights
the room. Using a Softec lens, an
extremely even illumination of
the whole wall can be achieved
even in the higher area right
up to the ceiling. The perimeter
illumination out of a haunch is
positioned directly on the wall. It
produces
a grazing light effect and empha-
sises the surface texture. The
evenness of the wallwashing is
secondary.
Point-form light sources
Lens wallwashers
Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire
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Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire Softec lens
Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire Cove
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 5m
Conclusion Vertical illumination emphasises
the walls – or other room limits
– in terms of their physical make-
up. The room is made to look big-
ger by brightening the wall faces.
Point-form light sources make
the wall surface much more vivid
while with linear luminaires a
higher uniformity is achieved. As
the room height increases the dis-
tance of the luminaire to the wall
must be increased. The reduction
of the mean illuminance in higher
rooms can be compensated for
by having a higher lamp power
and by increasing the number of
luminaires. Wallwashing only pro-
duces an even brightness on matt
surfaces.
Lighting criteria for high walls
- uniformity of the lighting
- the choice of lamp determines
the light colour and colour ren-
dition
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Arrangement Whereas for normal room heights
the luminaire spacing is the same
as the offset from the wall, in
higher rooms it must be reduced
to compensate for the other-
wise sinking illuminance. The
offset from the wall is where a
20 degree line projected from
the base of the wall intersects
the ceiling. The position of a
wallwasher at the end of the wall
should lie on the 45 degree line.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 5m
Applications
Projects:
Heart of Jesus Church, Munich
Bank of China, Beijing
BMW factory, Leipzig
Martin-Gropius building, Berlin
Washlighting illumination for
vertical surfaces in:
- museums
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales and representational areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- wallwasher
- washlights
- lens wallwashers
- perimeter luminaires
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall with texture
Point-form wallwashers make
surface textures clearly visible.
When using linear light sources
the wall face appears even
and the surface texture is only
emphasised to a limited extent.
When using perimeter luminaires
mounted directly on the wall,
there is no evenness and great
vividness is created.
Observation
Point-form light sources
Downlights
Point-form light sources
Lens wallwashers
Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire
Linear light sources
Perimeter luminaire Cove
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Conclusion Linear light sources at a short
offset from the wall most vividly
enhance the surface texture.
Conversely, point-form light
sources at a short offset from
the wall produce their own light
pattern that, admittedly, does
accentuate the texture, but does
not permit an even wallwashing.
Grazing light on walls can accen-
tuate any surface irregularities.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall with texture
Applications
Projects:
Burj Al Arab, Dubai
Conrad International Hotel,
Singapore
ABN AMRO, Sydney
Heart of Jesus Church, Munich
The smaller the offset from the
wall, the clearer the surface
texture is enhanced. When using
grazing light, the evenness of
the wall illumination is greatly
reduced.
Preferred luminaire groups
- wallwashers
- washlights
- lens wallwashers
- perimeter luminaires
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Ceiling, plan Structural elements
With ceiling illumination, either
light is shone to illuminate the
ceiling in its own right or the ceil-
ing is merely used as a reflector
for general lighting. The ceiling is
primarily emphasised, when it has
an intrinsic communicative value,
e.g. due to architectonic struc-
tures. Illuminating the ceiling to
provide indirect general lighting
requires it has a high reflectance.
It should be noted the ceiling will
then be the brightest surface in
the room and will therefore be
emphasised.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Ceiling
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Ceiling, plan
The luminaires for washlighting
the ceiling can be mounted on
the walls or in the ground. As
linear luminaires, light structures
act as independent architectural
elements, whereas ceiling wash-
lights are more secondary to the
architecture. Light structures emit
diffuse light with low brilliance.
Observation
Light structures
Ceiling washlights
Arrangement The prerequisite for ceiling illu-
mination is a sufficiently high
room in order to achieve an
even distribution of light. Ceiling
washlights should be mounted
above eye-level. The distance
from the ceiling depends on the
level of evenness required and
should be at least 0.8m.
The choice of luminaire type is
dependent on the ratio of room
area to room height. In low rooms
with large floor areas an even
illumination of the ceiling using
light structures presents itself
as the best option. Ceiling wash-
lights require a large distance
from the ceiling due to their
asymmetric light distribution.
Conclusion
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Ceiling, plan
Applications
Projects:
Weimar College of Music
Shanghai Museum
Ezeiza Airport, Buenos Aires
Washlighting ceiling illumina-
tion for
- offices
- historical buildings
- churches
- theatres
- passages
Preferred luminaire groups
- ceiling washlights
- uplights
- light structures
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Structural elements
Luminaires for lighting support
structures can be mounted on
the structure itself, on the walls
or in the floor. A washlighting
illumination adds emphasis to
the whole ceiling surface. Nar-
row-beamed luminaires accen-
tuate the support structure in
par ticular.
Observation
Light structures
Light structures with ceiling
washlights
Ceiling washlights
Spotlights
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Applications
Project:
Palacio de la Aljaferia, Zaragoza
Indirect ceiling lighting for
- historical buildings
- churches
- theatres
- passages
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- light structures
- ceiling washlights
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Structural elements
The selection of the type of
luminaire is dependent on the
scale and the proportion of the
support structure. Spotlights
can also be attached directly
to components of the support
structure. The arrangement of
the luminaires should be oriented
around the design of the support
structure. Ceiling washlights, due
to their asymmetric light distribu-
tion, require a larger offset from
the ceiling.
Conclusion
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Floor
For floor lighting, either wash-
lighting is applied to the floor
surface alone or the room as
a whole is illuminated with
downlights with direct light from
above. Floor washlights particu-
larly highlight the floor surface
and its physical make-up.
Observation
Downlights
Floor washlights
Due to their asymmetric light dis-
tribution, floor washlights provide
grazing light illumination of the
floor. They ensure a high degree
of visual comfort thanks to their
low mounting height. The elimina-
tion of glare from downlights is
determined by the cut-off angle.
The evenness of the downlight
lighting is higher.
Conclusion
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Floor
Applications
Projects:
Lamy Innovation Workshop,
Heidelberg
Konrad Adenauer Fund, Berlin
Floor washlighting for
- walkways and foyers in hotels,
theatres, cinemas and concert
halls
- hallways
- steps and stairs
Preferred luminaire groups:
- downlights
- floodlights
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Object in the space Object on the wall
Objects can be accentuated with
great effect to turn them into real
eye-catchers. Visual impressions
can be given an unusual appear-
ance by selecting a crisp edged
illumination. The opposite of such
dramatic lighting is a uniform,
large area lighting solution.
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Object
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Object in the space
Objects in the room or area can
be illuminated flexibly using
track-mounted spotlights or
floodlights. When illuminating an
object with one spotlight in the
direction of vision, the modelling
effect is weak. Two spotlights,
with sculpture accessories, shin-
ing from different directions cre-
ate a balanced, three-dimensional
effect. The brightness contrasts
are milder compared to when
using just one spotlight. Illumi-
Observation
Spotlight, front elevation
nating from below produces
interesting effects since the light
is coming from an angle which is
unusual for the observer.
Spotlight, side elevation
Spotlight, isometric
Spotlight, underside
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Floodlights
Narrow beam spotlights accentu-
ate the object while floodlights
show the object in the context
of its surroundings. This reduces
the modelling effect. Lighting
from below can have the effect of
making things look very strange.
The possibility of dazzle must be
prevented here in particular.
Conclusion
E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Object in the space
Arrangement Objects in the room can be illumi-
nated with an angle of incidence
of 30° to 45° to the vertical. The
steeper the incident light, the
stronger the shadows. When the
angle of incidence is 30°, strong
reflection or undesirable shad-
ows on people and objects are
avoided.
Applications
Projects:
Passeig de Gràcia, Barcelona
Museum of Contemporary Art,
Helsinki
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
Accent lighting for
- museums
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales and representational areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- floodlights
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Object on the wall
Objects on the wall can be flexibly
illuminated with track-mounted
spotlights or floodlights. Spot-
lights highlight the wall-mounted
picture and create a decorative
effect. Individual wallwashers
accentuate the picture more
discretely than spotlights. Sev-
eral wallwashers illuminate the
wall evenly. The object is not
emphasised. Floodlights provide
a homogenous illumination of
the entire wall surface. A contour
Observation
Spotlights
spotlight ensures very strong,
effective emphasis of the wall-
mounted picture.
Wallwasher spotlights
Floodlights
Contour spotlights
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Object on the wall
Narrow beam spotlights accentu-
ate the object while floodlights
show the object in the context of
its surroundings. Contour spot-
lights can illuminate the object
with a crisp focused beam and
thus highlight particularly well.
This can result in an effect that
makes the object look strange
because the object itself seems
to emit light.
Conclusion
Arrangement Objects on the wall can be illumi-
nated with an angle of incidence
of 30° to 45° to the vertical. The
steeper the incident light, the
more vivid the object appears. On
reflective surfaces, e.g. artworks
behind glass or oil paintings, care
must be taken that the angle of
incidence does not cause second-
ary glare in the observer‘s line
of vision. In addition, unwanted
shadow, e.g. cast by the picture
frame onto the picture surface,
should also be avoided.
Applications
Projects:
Museum of Contemporary Art,
Barcelona
Museo Deu, El Vendrell
Palacio Real de Madrid
Reichstag, Berlin
Accent lighting for
- museums
- exhibitions
- trade-fair stands
- sales and representational areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- wallwashers
- floodlights
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Orientation lighting
Floor washlights
Wall-mounted downlights
Recessed floor luminaires
Orientation luminaires
Orientation lighting is defined
first and foremost by the task of
providing orientation. This can
be done using luminaires that
provide visibility or ones that act
as a sign. Floor washlights and
wall-mounted downlights provide
orientation by illuminating either
the floor surface or the room. Ori-
entation luminaires and recessed
floor luminaires typically provide
orientation by being arranged
into lines or by marking out areas.
Observation
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Orientation lighting
Low illumination levels are suf-
ficient for orientation purposes.
Small luminaires with high lumi-
nance clearly set themselves
apart form their surroundings.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Light and Building, Frankfurt
Palazzo della Ragione, Bergamo
Deutsche Bank, Tokyo
Sevens, Düsseldorf
Orientation lighting for the
identification of
- architectural lines
- steps and exclusion zones
- entrances
- routes
- emergency exit routes
Preferred luminaire groups
- floor washlights
- wall-mounted downlights
- recessed floor luminaires
- orientation luminaires
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E Guide
Indoor lighting | Lighting applications
Directive lighting
Applications
Projects:
Palazzo della Ragione, Bergamo
Burj Al Arab, Dubai
Norwegian Aviation Museum,
Bodo
Taschenberg-Palais, Dresden
Application: for identification of:
- exits
- emergency exits, fire exits
- escape and rescue routes
Directive luminaires are often
secondary lighting features and
should match with the archi-
tecture. Luminaires that change
colour allow controllable dynamic
route markings. Safety and rescue
sign luminaires must comply with
the regional guidelines.
Preferred luminaire groups
- directive luminaires
- safety sign luminaires
- luminaires for pictograms
Observation Directive luminaires provide infor-
mation or give directions by way
of pictograms and inscriptions.
Safety and rescue sign luminaires
inform on the direction of an
escape route or emergency exit.
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Guide
Outdoor lighting
E
Outdoor lighting concepts can
form a continuous whole with
the indoor lighting designs. Lumi-
naires built to high protection
mode form the basis for adding
dramatic lighting to architecture,
cityscapes and vegetation by
night. Types of lighting Luminaire groups Lighting applications
Design examples Lighting design
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The effect of rooms, facades,
objects and vegetation greatly
depends on the type of lighting.
This ranges from general lighting
through to specific highlighting.
Washlighting forms the back-
ground for accent lighting for
emphasising objects. In terms of
orientation lighting, points of
light or rows of lights are used
to provide orientation in the
outdoor area.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting
Types of lighting
General Washlighting Accentuation
Orientation
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E
General lighting designates an
even illumination related to a
horizontal working plane or pedes-
trian traffic zones. Quantitative
aspects are often a primary con-
sideration. Direct lighting permits
both diffuse and directed light.
direct, aimed direct, diffuse
Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting
General
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A direct and aimed general light-
ing produces an even illumina-
tion on the horizontal working
plane. The architecture is visible
and it is possible to orientate
oneself in the room.
The directed light produces good
modelling and brilliance. The
uniformity on the working plane
increases as the mounting height
increases or as the beam angle
widens. Directed light enables
good appreciation of form and
surface texture. The visual com-
fort increases as the cut-off angle
increases. A feature of direct illu-
mination is its highly efficient
use of energy.
Observation
E
Conclusion
Projects:
Repsol petrol station, Spain
Congress Palace, Valencia
Federal Chancellery, Berlin
City Hall, London
Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
direct, aimed
Applications Downlights cater for an even light
distribution on the horizontal
plane. They have an inconspicuous
design and can be integrated well
into the architecture.
Direct, directed general lighting
for:
- entrance areas
- arcades
- passages
- atria
Preferred luminaire group
- downlights
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | General
direct, diffuse
A direct, diffuse general lighting
designates an even illumination
with respect to a horizontal work-
ing plane. The architecture is vis-
ible and it is possible to orientate
oneself in the room.
Direct, diffuse light produces
a soft illumination with little
shadow and reflection. The lim-
ited formation of shadow results
in weak modelling capabilities.
Shapes and surface textures are
only slightly emphasised. One
feature of using fluorescent
lamps for the general lighting
is an efficient use of energy.
Observation
Conclusion
Projects:
Private residence, Ravensburg
Private residence, Ravensburg
Bodegas Vega Sicilia Wine Cellar,
Valladolid
Applications Direct, diffuse general lighting for
- entrance areas
- overhanging or cantilevered
roofs
- floor lighting on access drive-
ways, paths and public squares
Preferred luminaire groups
- downlights
- wall-mounted downlights
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E
Washlighting illumination refers
to an architecture-related and
object-orientated illumination.
The primary purpose is to make
visible the room proportions and
room limits. Symmetrical flood-
lights are used for washlighting
of horizontal surfaces or for
general lighting in the area of
presentation. A feature of asym-
metrical floodlights is the uni-
form light intensity distribution
on surfaces.
symmetrical asymmetrical
Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting
Washlighting
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting
symmetrical
Symmetrical washlighting pro-
duces an even illumination on
objects or surfaces. Washlight
illumination is characterised by
high uniformity and a soft gradi-
ent of light intensity distribution.
The illuminated areas of the room
are emphasised by washlighting.
The directed light produces good
modelling abilities and enables
good appreciation of form and
surface structure. Washlighting
illumination can serve as a back-
ground for accent lighting.
Observation
Conclusion
Projects:
Private residence, Southern
Highlands, Australia
ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid
Church, Rörvik
Monastery ruins, Paulinzella
Applications Washlighting illumination for:
- wall lighting
- facades
- entrance areas
- cantilever roofs
- trees
- park and garden complexes
- sculptures
- objects
Preferred luminaire group
- floodlights
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting
asymmetrical
Asymmetrical washlighting illu-
mination is used for illuminating
surfaces evenly. Wallwashing is
a highly valued tool in architec-
tural lighting. Vertical illumina-
tion emphasises the walls – or
other room limits – in terms of
their physical make up. Brighten-
ing the wall surfaces makes the
room look bigger.
Observation
Wallwashers
Recessed luminaires
Floor washlights
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Projects:
Regional government of Lower
Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein
in Berlin
Kaufhof media facade, Hamburg
Museo del Teatro de Caesar-
augusta, Zaragoza
Porches de la Boquería, Barcelona
Applications Washlighting illumination for
- facades
- entrance areas
- passages
- atria
- cantilever roofs
- park and garden complexes
Preferred luminaire groups
- floodlights
- washlights
- wallwashers
- recessed floor luminaires
Point-form luminaires lend the
wall surface a higher brillance,
whereas with linear luminaires
a higher uniformity is achieved.
With asymmetrical washlighting,
areas of a room can be defined
and thus have attention attracted
to them. It can also serve as a
background for accent lighting
or form the ambient brightness
for the work place. To obtain a
uniform light intensity distribu-
tion the correct positioning of the
luminaires is of great importance.
Conclusion
Recessed floor luminaires
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting
asymmetrical
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Accent lighting enables good
appreciation of form and surface
structure. The focused light pro-
duces pronounced shadows and
good modelling ability, as well as
brilliance. A narrow beam and a
high brightness contrast to the
surroundings give the object par-
ticular emphasis.
Conclusion
Projectors
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting
Accentuation
Highlighting emphasises indi-
vidual objects or architectural
elements. This makes it possible
to establish a hierarchy of how
noticeable each item is and to
attract attention.
Observation
Directional luminaires
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Projects:
ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Sri Senpaga Vinayagar Temple,
Singapore
Tommy Hilfiger, Düsseldorf
Applications Accent lighting creates points of
interest. Structures and textures
of objects are clearly emphasised
by the directed light.
Accent lighting for:
- facades
- entrance areas
- arcades
- park and garden complexes
- objects
Preferred luminaire groups
- projectors
- directional luminaires
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting
Accentuation
195
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Floor washlights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting
Orientation
Orientation lighting is defined
first and foremost by the task of
providing orientation. This can be
achieved by luminaires that func-
tion as sources of illumination or
as signals. Illuminating the room
is of secondary importance here;
instead, a row of these luminaires
is typically arranged to form an
orientation line.
Observation
Wall-mounted downlights
Recessed floor luminaires
196
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Low illumination levels are suf-
ficient for orientation purposes.
Small luminaires with high lumi-
nance clearly set themselves
apart form their surroundings.
Conclusion
Orientation luminaires
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting
Orientation
Projects:
Sevens department store,
Düsseldorf
Hilton Hotel, Dubai
Bathing platform Kastrup Sobad,
Copenhagen
Private residence, Palamos
Applications Orientation lighting for the
identification of
- architectural lines
- steps and exclusion zones
- entrances
- routes
- emergency exit routes
Preferred luminaire groups
- floor washlights
- wall-mounted downlights
- recessed floor luminaires
- orientation luminaires
197
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E
Luminaires are available in a wide
variety of types, each intended to
fulfil different lighting require-
ments. For external applications it
is primarily permanently mounted
luminaires that are used.
Projectors Floodlights
Guide
Outdoor lighting
Luminaire groups
Wallwasher
Luminaires for open
area and pathway
lighting
Downlights Ceiling and wall-
mounted downlights
Recessed floor
luminaires
Orientation
luminaires
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Projectors illuminate a narrowly
constrained area. The type of
mounting and the orientation are
variable. Projectors are offered
with different beam emission
angles and light distributions.
Criteria for projectors
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, brilliance, functional life,
light intensity
Light
Projectors have narrow-beam
light distribution with a rotation-
ally symmetrical beam.
The use of accessories is also
typical for projectors:
- lenses: spread lenses or sculp-
ture lenses
- filter: colour filter, UV or IR
filter
- glare control: anti-dazzle screen
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Projectors
- emission angle determines the
beam of light and is defined by
the reflector and the lamp
- cut-off angle limits glare and
increases visual comfort
- rotatable and tiltable
Applications
Projects:
Norwegian Aviation Museum,
Bodo
ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid
ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Accent lighting for:
- facades
- entrance areas
- arcades
- park and garden complexes
- objects
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Floodlights have a wide-beam
characteristic. They are offered
with a axially symmetrical or
asymmetrical light distribution.
Criteria for floodlights
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
Light
Floodlights, axially symmetrical
Floodlights with axially symmetri-
cal light distribution provide even
illumination of objects or areas.
Light distribution with focal
emphasis.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Floodlights
- gradient: soft edge to the beam
of light
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Applications
Projects:
Private residence, Southern
Highlands, Australia
ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid
Centenary Hall, Bochum
Sri Senpaga Vinyagar Temple,
Singapore
Washlighting provides an even
illumination for:
- wall lighting
- facades
- entrance areas
- overhanging or cantilevered
roofs
- park and garden complexes
- sculptures
- objects
Surface-mounted luminaires
act as features themselves. Their
arrangement should match their
surroundings.
Floodlights, asymmetrical
Floodlights with asymmetrical
light distribution provide even
illumination of areas. The lumi-
naires can be mounted on walls,
ceilings or floors and in addition
can also be tilted.
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Wallwashers have a wide-beam
characteristic. They are offered
with an asymmetric light distri-
bution.
Criteria for wallwashers:
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
- gradient: soft edges to the beam
of light
Light
Wallwashers
Recessed-mounted wallwashers
with asymmetric light distribu-
tion provide an even illumination
of areas.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Wallwasher
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Applications
Projects:
Regional government of Lower
Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein,
Berlin
Kaufhof Media Facade, Hamburg
ERCO P1, Lüdenscheid
Concentration Camp memorial,
Belzec
Wallwashing is an important
component of architectural
lighting for adding emphasis to
facades. Further applications are:
- entrance areas
- passages
- atria
- overhanging or cantilevered
roofs
- park and garden complexes
As recessed luminaires, wall-
washers are inconspicuous archi-
tectural details. Surface-mounted
downlights act as a room feature.
They should correspond to the
architecture in their arrangement
and form.
Wallwasher, tiltable
Recessed-mounted wallwashers
with asymmetric light distribu-
tion provide an even illumina-
tion of areas. Surface-mounted
downlights can be mounted on
walls, ceilings or floors and in
addition can also be tilted.
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Luminaires for open area and
pathway lighting have a wide-
beam characteristic. They are
offered with an asymmetric light
distribution.
Criteria for luminaires for open
area and pathway lighting
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
- gradient:
soft edges to beam of light
- cut-off angle increases visual
comfort and limits glare and light
pollution
Light
Luminaires for pathway
lighting
Pathway lighting luminaires with
asymmetric light distribution
provide uniform illumination on
pathways. The light is spread in
its width so that pathways can
be evenly illuminated. Their small
design makes these luminaires
suitable for lighting steps.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Luminaires for open area and pathway lighting
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Luminaires for open area
lighting
Light for illuminating open spaces
is generated by an asymmetric
reflector-flood system. A sculp-
ture lens acting as safety glass
directs the light deep into the
outdoor area.
Facade washlights
Floor washlights with asymmetric
light distribution provide an even
illumination of buildings.
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Applications
Projects:
Panticosa resort, Panticosa
Private residence, Berlin
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Art hall, Emden
Luminaires for open area and
pathway lighting are mainly used
for illuminating the following:
- facades
- entrance areas
- arcades
- passages
- floor lighting on access drive-
ways, paths and public squares
- orientation lighting on path-
ways, drives, entrances and steps
- park and garden complexes
As recessed luminaires, these
are inconspicuous architectural
details. Free-standing luminaires
act as features in the room. Their
arrangement should correspond
to the surroundings.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Luminaires for open area and pathway lighting
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Downlights emit a beam that is
directed downwards at either a
perfectly vertical or an adjustable
angle. They are usually mounted
on the ceiling and illuminate the
floor or walls. They are offered
with narrow-beam, wide-beam,
symmetric or asymmetric light
distribution. The cut-off angle of
narrow-beam downlights means
they are largely free of glare. On
downlights with Darklight reflec-
tor, the lamp‘s cut-off angle is
identical to that of the luminaire.
This gives a luminaire with the
widest beam possible while simul-
taneously having an optimised
light output ratio. The use of a
diffuser reduces the luminance
in the luminaire and thereby
improves the visual comfort and
the evenness.
Light
Downlights
Downlights have a rotationally
symmetric beam that is directed
vertically downwards.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Downlights
Criteria for downlights
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- emission angle determines the
beam of light and is defined by
the reflector and the lamp
- cut-off angle limits glare and
increases visual comfort
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Directional luminaires
Directional luminaires provide
highlighting for individual areas
or objects with a medium to
narrow light distribution.
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Applications
Projects:
Repsol petrol station, Spain
Congress Palace, Valencia
Federal Chancellery, Berlin
City Hall, London
Downlights provide general light-
ing for
- entrance areas
- arcades
- passages
- atria
Recessed downlights are incon-
spicuous architectural details,
whereas surface-mounted down-
lights and pendant luminaires
act as room features. They should
correspond to the architecture in
their arrangement and design.
The offset from wall should
measure approximately half of
the luminaire spacing in order to
achieve sufficient brightness on
the wall and well proportioned
scallops of light. To attain an even
illumination on a reference plane,
the luminaire spacing should not
exceed the mounting height h
by more than 1.5:1. An optimal
evenness is achieved when a=h.
Arrangement
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Downlights
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Ceiling and wall-mounted
downlights are defined first
and foremost by their type of
mounting and not by their light
characteristics. They are available
with narrow-beam, wide-beam,
symmetrical or asymmetric light
distribution. Some luminaires
can be positioned either on the
wall or on the ceiling.
Criteria for ceiling and wall-
mounted downlights
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- uniformity: optimised reflector
for even illumination of areas
Light
Facade luminaires
Facade luminaires are offered
with narrow-beam, wide-beam,
symmetrical or asymmetric light
distribution. The light can be dis-
tributed either via a single-sided
or double-sided light aperture.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Ceiling and wall-mounted downlights
- cut-off angle increases visual
comfort and limits glare and light
pollution
Wall-mounted downlights
Wall-mounted downlights, with
their diffuse beam in the room,
provide good visual comfort.
They can also be mounted on
the ceiling.
Wall-mounted downlights,
shielded
Wall-mounted downlights with
half-shielded face offer good
visual comfort and illuminate
the floor area in particular.
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Applications
Projects:
Private residence, Ravensburg
Private residence, Ravensburg
Zara, Munich
Cultural Centre and Coastal
Museum NORVEG, Rörvik
For illumination of:
- facades
- entrance areas
- overhanging or cantilevered
roofs
- floor lighting on access drive-
ways, paths and public squares
The position and design of the
ceiling and wall-mounted down-
lights should be chosen to match
the with the architecture. Facade
luminaires should be arranged
such that the elements to be illu-
minated are optimally lit and no
light shines past the objects.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Ceiling and wall-mounted downlights
207
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Recessed floor luminaires emit
their beam upwards. They are
offered with narrow-beamed,
wide-beamed, symmetric or
asymmetric light distribution.
Criteria for recessed floor lumi-
naires:
- choice of lamp determines light
colour, functional life, efficiency,
light intensity
- uniformity with wallwashers:
optimised reflector for even illu-
mination of areas
- range of tilt for directional
luminaires with high glare pro-
tection
Light
Uplights
Uplights feature an upwards
directed beam with symmetrical
light distribution. The narrow,
rotationally symmetrical beam
is used for highlighting objects.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Recessed floor luminaires
- light output ratio is increased by
optimised reflector technology
Lens wallwashers
Lens wallwashers feature an
upwards directed beam with
asymmetrical light distribution.
They provide an even illumina-
tion of walls.
Directional uplights
Directional luminaires provide
highlighting for individual areas
or objects with a medium to nar-
row light distribution. The beam
can be titled.
Uplight, diffuse
Recessed floor luminaires with
diffuse light intensity distribution
are used for marking paths or
emphasising architectural lines.
208
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Applications
Projects:
Glass pavilion, Glass technical
college, Rheinbach
Brandenburg Gate, Berlin
Khalil Al-Sayegh, Dubai
Benrath Castle, Düsseldorf
Accent lighting or floodlighting
for
- facades
- entrance areas
- arcades
- passages
- atria
- overhanging or cantilevered
roofs
- park and garden complexes
Recessed floor luminaires are
inconspicuous architectural
details. They should correspond
to the architecture in their
arrangement and form.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Recessed floor luminaires
209
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Orientation luminaires are
defined first and foremost by
the task of providing orientation.
This can be achieved by lumi-
naires that function as sources
of illumination or as signals.
Criteria for orientation luminaires
- luminance: noticability of the
luminaires in their surroundings
Light
Orientation luminaires
Orientation luminaires with
point-form front lens act as
a local orientation light.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Orientation luminaires
Floor washlights
Floor washlights form points of
light on the wall and serves as
an orientation light on the floor
surface.
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Applications
Projects:
Sevens department store,
Düsseldorf
Hilton Hotel, Dubai
Bathing platform Kastrup Sobad,
Copenhagen
Private residence, Palamos
For identifying:
- architectural lines
- steps or restricted areas
- entrances
- routes
- emergency exit routes
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups
Orientation luminaires
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Guide
Outdoor lighting
Lighting applications
E
Illuminating facades by night
changes the atmosphere of a
city. In urban areas or civic parks,
points of interest can be created
to enable orientation and to
establish spatial reference points.
Light in the outdoors also extends
one‘s perception when looking
outside from with a building.
Wall Ceiling Floor
Object Facade Vegetation
212
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications
Wall
Wall, 3m Wall, 5m Wall with texture
Wall and facade lighting at night
extends one‘s perception and
defines spatial limits. Vertical
illumination is significant in the
visual surroundings for identify-
ing areas in terms of their form,
regardless of whether they are
facades or walls covered with
climbing plants. The objective
may be to obtain a uniform
wallwashing comparable to that
in the indoor area, or to gently
illuminate a building against
the nocturnal environment. The
arrangement of the luminaires
is dependent on the desired
uniformity and illuminance. In
the outdoor area at night, a low
brightness is often sufficient for
making objects visible and for
making contrasts.
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Wallwashers are noted for giving
an even progression of brightness
on the wall.
Vertical illumination emphasises
the surfaces delineating the room
in terms of their physical makeup.
The room is made to look bigger
by brightening the wall faces.
Point-form light sources make
the wall surface much more vivid.
Wallwashing only achieves a uni-
form brightness on matt surfaces.
Lighting criteria for walls:
- uniformity of the lighting
- the choice of lamp determines
the light colour and colour rendi-
tion
Observation
Conclusion
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 3m
Wallwashers, plan view
Wallwasher, underside
Recessed-mounted washlight
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Applications
Projects:
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Benrath Castle, Düsseldorf
Berliner Tor Center, Hamburg
Concentration Camp memorial,
Belzec
The offset from the wall should
be at least one third of the wall
height. Alternatively, the light‘s
angle of incident should be 20°
to the vertical. An optimum
evenness is obtained when the
luminaire spacing is the same as
the offset from the wall, or at
least does not exceed it by more
than 1.5 times. Wallwashers only
develop their optimal evenness
as of a minimum number of three
luminaires.
Arrangement
Washlighting illumination for
vertical surfaces of:
- wall lighting
- facades
- entrance areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- wallwashers
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 3m
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Given the same lighting, as
the wall height increases the
brightness of the wall decreases.
Wallwashers are characterised by
the even progression of bright-
ness along the wall. Lens wall-
Vertical illumination emphasises
the wall faces in terms of their
physical makeup. The room is
made to look bigger by brighten-
ing its walls and ceiling. Directed
light makes the wall surface much
more vivid. As the wall height
increases the distance of the
luminaire to the wall must be
increased. The reduction of the
mean illuminance on the wall
can be compensated for by hav-
ing a higher lamp power and by
increasing the number of lumi-
naires.
Lighting criteria for high walls:
- uniformity of lighting
- the choice of lamp determines
the light colour and colour rendi-
tion
Observation
Conclusion
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 5m
Wallwashers
Lens wallwashers
washers have special lens reflec-
tor systems.
216
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Applications
Projects:
Regional government of Lower
Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein
in Berlin
Georg Schäfer Museum,
Schweinfurt
Brandenburg Gate, Berlin
Sacred Heart church, Munich
Whereas for normal wall heights
the luminaire spacing is the same
as the offset from the wall, for
higher walls it must be reduced
to compensate for the otherwise
sinking illuminance. The offset
from the wall is given where a 20°
line projected down from the top
of the wall meets the ground.
Arrangement
Washlighting illumination for
vertical surfaces of:
- wall lighting
- facades
- entrance areas
Preferred luminaire groups
- wallwashers
- lens wallwashers
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall, 5m
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall with texture
Point-form light sources at a
short offset from the wall pro-
duce their own light pattern that,
admittedly, does accentuate the
texture, but does not permit an
even wallwashing. Grazing light
Directed grazing light makes
surface textures clearly visible.
Observation
Conclusion
Downlights
Wallwashers
Lens wallwashers
on walls can emphasise any sur-
face irregularities.
Directional luminaires
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Applications
Projects:
Rohrmeisterei restaurant,
Schwerte
Sri Senpaga Vinayagar Temple
Private residence, Germany
The smaller the offset from the
wall, the clearer the surface
texture is enhanced. When using
grazing light, the evenness of
the wall illumination is greatly
reduced.
Preferred luminaire groups
- downlights, narrow-beamed
- wallwasher
- recessed floor luminaires
(uplights, lens wallwashers,
directional luminaires)
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall
Wall with texture
219
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Ceiling, plan Structural elements
With ceiling illumination, either
light is shone to illuminate the
ceiling in its own right or the ceil-
ing is merely used as a reflector
for general lighting. The ceiling
is primarily emphasised, when it
has an intrinsic communicative
value, e.g. due to architectonic
structures.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications
Ceiling
220
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Ceiling, plan
The luminaires for washlighting
the ceiling can be mounted on
the walls or in the ground.
Observation
Uplights
Recessed floor luminaires
Conclusion Selecting the luminaire type is
dependent on the room and its
use. For ceiling washlights, a min-
imum distance to the ceiling is
required. To avoid glare, recessed
floor spotlights for illuminating
ceilings should not be installed
in heavily trafficked areas.
Arrangement The prerequisite for ceiling illumi-
nation is a sufficiently high room
in order to achieve an even dis-
tribution of light. Ceiling wash-
lights should be mounted above
eye-level. The distance from the
ceiling depends on the level of
evenness required and should be
at least 0.8m.
221
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Applications
Projects:
Stansted Airport, London
Glass pavilion, Glass technical
college, Rheinbach
Jahrhunderthalle, Bochum
Cosmo petrol station, Tokyo
Washlighting ceiling illumina-
tion for
- entrance areas
- arcades
- passages
- atria
- overhanging or cantilevered
roofs
Preferred luminaire groups
- ceiling washlights
- recessed floor spotlights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Ceiling, plan
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Luminaires for lighting support
structures can be mounted on
the structure itself, on the walls
or in the floor. A washlighting
illumination adds emphasis to the
whole ceiling surface. Narrow-
beamed luminaires accentuate
the support structure in particu-
lar.
Observation
Spotlights
Floodlights
Recessed floor luminaires,
directional luminaires
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Structural elements
223
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Recessed floor luminaires,
uplights
Conclusion The selection of the type of lumi-
naire is dependent on the scale
and the proportion of the support
structure. Spotlights can also be
attached directly to components
of the support structure. The
complete support structure can
be illuminated with floodlights.
To avoid glare, recessed floor
spotlights for lighting the support
structure should not be installed
in heavily trafficked areas. The
arrangement of the luminaires
should be oriented around the
design of the support structure.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling
Structural elements
Applications
Projects:
Burj Al Arab, Dubai
Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias,
Valencia
Petronas Twin Towers, Kuala
Lumpur
Museo del Teatro de Caesar-
augusta, Zaragoza
Ceiling lighting for:
- entrance areas
- arcades
- passages
- atria
- overhanging or cantilevered
roofs
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- ceiling washlights
- recessed floor luminaires
224
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When floor lighting, the floor
surface can be illuminated with
direct light from downlights or
from floodlights positioned on
the sides. Floor washlights partic-
ularly emphasise the floor surface
and its physical make-up.
Observation
Pathway luminaires
Luminaires for open-area lighting
Downlights
Downlights, narrow-beamed
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications
Floor
225
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Conclusion Due to their asymmetric light dis-
tribution, floor washlights provide
grazing light illumination of the
floor. They ensure a high degree
of visual comfort thanks to their
low mounting height. A soft beam
gradient reduces the contrast
with the surroundings. The elimi-
nation of glare from downlights is
determined by the cut-off angle.
Applications
Projects:
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Greater London Authority
Private residence, Berlin
Private residence, Palamos
Floor washlighting for:
- driveways
- pathways
- public squares
Preferred luminaire groups:
- downlights
- floor washlights
- bollard luminaires
- mast luminaires
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications
Floor
Floor washlights
226
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Object, free-standing Objects on the wall
Objects can be accentuated with
great effect to turn them into real
eye-catchers. The appearance of
objects can be made to look unu-
sual by selecting a strong grazing
light. The opposite of such dra-
matic lighting is a uniform, large
area lighting solution.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications
Object
227
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Objects in the room or area can
be illuminated with spotlights or
floodlights. When illuminating an
object head-on with one spot-
light in the direction of vision,
the modelling effect is weak.
Two spotlights, with sculpture
accessories, shining from differ-
ent directions create a balanced,
three-dimensional effect. The
brightness contrasts are milder
compared to when using just
one spotlight. Illuminating from
Observation
Spotlights
below produces an interesting but
mysterious effect since the light
is coming from an angle which is
unusual for the observer.
Floodlights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Object, free-standing
Directional luminaires
Directional uplights
228
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Applications
Projects:
Norwegian Aviation Museum,
Bodo
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Rhenish State Museum, Bonn
Let The Dance Begin, Strabane
Accent lighting for
- park and garden complexes
- sculptures
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlight
- floodlights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Object, free-standing
Arrangement Objects in the room can be illumi-
nated with an angle of incidence
of 30° to 45° to the vertical. The
steeper the incident light, the
stronger the shadows.
Narrow-beam spotlights place
emphasis on the object alone,
whereas floodlights show the
object in the context of its sur-
roundings. This reduces the
modelling effect. Lighting from
below can have the effect of
making things look very strange.
Conclusion
229
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Objects on the wall can be illumi-
nated with spotlights or flood-
lights. Spotlights highlight the
object and create a decorative
effect. Due to their even illumina-
tion of the complete wall surface,
Observation floodlights accentuate the object
less than spotlights.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Objects on the wall
Spotlights
Floodlight from above
Floodlight from below
Recessed floor and directional
luminaire
Lens wallwashers
230
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Narrow-beam spotlights accentu-
ate the object while floodlights
show the object in the context of
its surroundings.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Vietnam Veterans Memorial,
Washington DC
Sinnet Tennis Club, Warsaw
Accent lighting for
- facades
- entrance areas
- park and garden complexes
- sculptures
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlight
- wallwashers
- uplights
Arrangement Objects on the wall can be illumi-
nated with an angle of incidence
of 30° to 45° to the vertical. The
steeper the incident light, the
more three-dimensional the
object appears.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object
Objects on the wall
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Solid facade Facade, vertically
divided
The form of facades is determined
not only by their material and
shape but also by the light and its
direction and colour. The appear-
ance of a facade alters during
the course of the day due to the
changing direction of light and
the varying components of dif-
fuse and direct light. Different
light distributions and the use
of lighting control systems give
facades an appearance of their
own at night. Varying illumi-
nances differentiate components
or areas of a facade. Grazing light
emphasises facade details. Wash-
lighting facades allows them to
appear in their entirety. Shining
any light beyond the facade sur-
faces, either to the sides or over
the top, should be avoided.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications
Facade
Horizontally divided
facade
Facade with projecting
or recessed sections
Perforated facade Banded facade
Transparent facade
232
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Washlighting creates a very uni-
form light distribution on the
facade. A line of light marks out
the edge of the building against
the night sky. Uplights rhythmi-
cally divide up the facade. Under
Observation
Floodlight, below
the light of up-downlights,
graphic patterns are produced by
the definite beams.
Line of light, above
Uplights
Facade luminaires downlights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Solid facade
Facade luminaires uplights and
downlights
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Washlighting facades can make
them appear flat. Reducing the
illuminance as the facade height
increases gives a low-contrast
transition to the dark night sky.
Grazing light emphasises the
surface textures of materials.
Progressions of light on untex-
tured walls become the dominat-
ing feature and are seen as inde-
pendent patterns in their own
right. Large, uniform surfaces can
be given structure with patterns
Conclusion
Arrangement The facade lighting can be posi-
tioned on the ground, on a mast
or on the building. Wallwashers
offset from the facade at one
third to half the facade height
avoid long shadows. Luminaires
positioned close to the facade
produce grazing light with a
strong emphasis on the surface
textures and structures. Recessed
floor luminaires are architectur-
ally discrete. Overgrown vegeta-
tion must be prevented. Mast
of light. Beams of light that do
not match or correspond with
the architecture are perceived as
disturbing.
Recessed floor luminaires
Surface-mounted floor luminaires
Upright supporting tube
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Solid facade
luminaires will appear as additive
features in front of the facade.
Cantilever arms allow direct
mounting to the building. Shining
any light beyond the facade sur-
faces, either to the sides or over
the top, should be avoided.
234
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Applications
Projects:
Georg Schäfer Museum,
Schweinfurt
ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid
ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid
Cultural Centre and Coastal
Museum NORVEG, Rörvik
Mast
Cantilever arm
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Solid facade
Facade luminaires
235
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Floodlights produce a uniform
illumination on the facade.
Washlighting with point-shaped
light sources makes the surface
texture and structure clearly vis-
ible. Accentuating the columns
detaches these from the surround-
ing facade. Uplights positioned on
two sides emphasise the volume
of the column. Downlights accen-
tuate the column and illuminate
the floor area. The combination
of uplights and downlights aug-
Observation
Floodlights
ments the vertical facade division
by lighting from above and below.
Uplights
Uplights, double-sided layout
Downlights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Facade, vertically divided
236
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Downlights and uplights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Facade, vertically divided
Narrow beams of light intensify
the effect of the vertical divi-
sion. To avoid shadows at the
side, the luminaires should be
positioned at right angles, paral-
lel to the facade. Strong con-
trasts and heavy shadow can be
compen sated for by washlighting
the facade as a form of general
lighting. The luminaires should
be positioned in a rhythm corre-
sponding to that of the facade
divisions.
Conclusion
Applications
Projects:
Brandenburg Gate, Berlin
Municipal works, Lüdenscheid
Ruhr Festival Theatre Congress
Centre, Recklinghausen
Faena Hotel, Buenos Aires
237
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Floodlights illuminate the entire
facade and emphasise the hori-
zontal divisions by casting heavy
shadows. Lines of light echo the
horizontal structure on the darker
facade surface.
Observation
Floodlights
Lines of light
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Horizontally divided facade
Luminaires positioned close to
the facade highly emphasise
its three-dimensional nature.
Long heavy shadows cast by
facade divisions can be reduced
by increasing the offset of the
Conclusion luminaire from the facade. The
steeper angle of incidence for the
light in the upper region of the
facade casts longer shadows than
in the lower area.
Applications
Projects:
Millennium Grandstand, Dubai
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank,
Hong Kong
Palazzo della Borsa, Triest
Kaufhof department store,
Mönchengladbach
238
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Facade with projecting or recessed sections
Wide-beam floodlights set far
from the building illuminate the
facade evenly. Facades with large
protruding sections or insets will
feature heavy shadows. Differ-
ent illuminances or light colours
augment the differentiation of
the facade. Uplights mark out
the internal corners with grazing
light.
Observation
Floodlights
Spotlights with different
illuminances
Spotlights with different light
colours
Uplights
239
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Applications
Projects:
Museum of Arts and Crafts,
Hamburg
Palacio de la Aljaferia, Zaragoza
Differentiated illuminances, light
distributions and light colours
add rhythm to the appearance
of the facade. Harsh contrasts
between accentuated and unlit
areas can be compensated for by
using washlighting to perform
the general lighting. Increasing
the luminaire offset from the
facade reduces the formation
of heavy shadow. The luminaire
arrangement should correspond
to the pattern of facade division.
Conclusion
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Facade with projecting or recessed sections
240
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Perforated facade
Under daylight conditions the
window surfaces appear dark.
At night, illuminated interiors
provide a strong contrast between
the dark facade surface and bright
windows. Floodlights produce uni-
form light distribution over the
facade. Illuminating the window
embrasure accentuates the frame
of the facade opening, whereas
narrow-beam uplights emphasise
the facade‘s grid pattern.
Observation
Daylight
Downlights, indoor
Floodlights
Lines of light
241
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Applications
Projects:
Humboldt-University, Ehrenhof,
Berlin
Pentacon Tower, Dresden
Ernst-August-Carree, Hannover
DZ Bank, Berlin
Indoor users should not be
dazzled. Luminaires shining into
the interior impair the view out
of the building. Lighting control
systems can be used to control
the light in individual rooms and
to create patches of light on the
facade.
Conclusion
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Perforated facade
Uplights
242
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Banded facade
Under daylight conditions the
strip of windows appears dark.
Illuminating the indoor areas at
night forms a strong contrast
between dark facade surfaces and
a bright strip of windows. The
lighting on the balustrades aug-
ments their horizontal structure.
Observation
Daylight
Uplights, indoor
Band of light
The strong contrast between
bright indoor lighting and the
dark outer surface at night can
only be compensated for to a
small extent with facade wash-
lighting.
Conclusion
243
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Applications
Projects:
Greater London Authority, London
Municipal works, Lüdenscheid
E-Werk event halls/SAP SI offices,
Berlin
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Banded facade
244
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Transparent facade
Under daylight conditions,
the transparent facade appears
dark and reflects its surround-
ings. Indoor lighting allows the
observer to see into the building.
Ceiling washlights in the indoor
area emphasise the ceiling sur-
faces and increase the overall
impression of interior brightness
at night. The facade construction
is silhouetted. Lines of light in
the ceiling area of the individual
floors underline the horizontal
Observation
Daylight
building structure. Uplights
emphasise the vertical elements
of the facade.
Downlights, indoor
Uplights, indoor
Lines of light
245
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade
Transparent facade
Applications
Projects:
Mediathek, Sendai
Ruhr Festival Theatre Congress
Centre, Recklinghausen
Zürich Insurance, Buenos Aires
Maritime Museum, Osaka
The visual perspective from the
ground makes the lighting effect
of the indoor area appear larger
with uplights than with down-
lights. Dazzling the users of the
indoor area should be avoided.
Luminaires shining into the
indoor area will impair the view
out of the building.
Conclusion
Uplights, outdoor
246
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Trees Types of trees
In the field of landscaping, trees
are the most important elements
for forming areas. The shape and
size of the trunk and tree crown
vary depending on the type of
tree. The most well-known tree
forms are rounded, columnar,
spreading and flat-crowned (e.g.
a palm). The winter scene is char-
acterised by filigree branches,
while in the summer the leaves
of the crown thicken to form a
voluminous mass. In addition to
the shape, the appearance of trees
is also characterised by blossom
and foliage in the course of the
seasons.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications
Vegetation
Clusters of trees
Rows of trees Tree-lined avenue Spacing of trees
247
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Floodlights aimed upwards make
the tree crown appear three-
dimensional. Two floodlights from
the front, yet to the side, illumi-
nate the crown evenly as a volu-
minous mass, while floodlights
mounted at the side add greater
emphasis to the three-dimension-
ality. Floodlights arranged around
three sides illuminate the crown
evenly from all sides and reduce
the three-dimensionality of the
tree form. Floodlights in the
Observation
Types of illumination
Floodlight in front
background create back-lighting
and make the tree crown into a
silhouette Uplights at the trunk
accentuate the trunk as a linear
feature and visually connect the
crown to the ground. Depending
on the season, light from above
will either emphasise the contour
of the crown or accentuate the
shadows of the branch structure
on the ground.
Floodlight on the right
Floodlights right and left
Floodlights on three sides
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Trees
248
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Floodlight behind
Uplight
Spotlight from above
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Trees
Luminaires arranged on several
sides give an even illumination
of the tree, while one or two
luminaires create a greater three-
dimensional effect. Narrow-
beamed uplights are suitable for
highlighting any striking, tall tree
trunks. The texture of the bark is
brought out stronger when light-
ing from the front. Positioning
the luminaires to the side gives
rise to a narrow line of light on
the trunk. When illuminating a
wall behind a tree, the silhouette
of the crown and trunk becomes
apparent. Spotlights mounted
in atria or on facades can cast
the contour of the tree and/or
branches as a shadow on the
ground.
Conclusion
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Trees
Small tree
Large tree
One or two luminaires accentuate
trees of small dimensions. Sev-
eral floodlights produce an even
illumination of large, fully grown
trees.
Observation
Tree growth
Tree growth and avoiding glare
are two points that must be
considered when arranging and
aiming the luminaires. On large
trees, several luminaires may be
necessary to achieve an even illu-
mination and to avoid a distorted
perception of light and dark parts.
Flexible, directable luminaires
with ground spikes can be repo-
sitioned and re-aimed as the tree
grows. Luminaires recessed into
the ground blend into the area
Conclusion of landscape better but require
more work to reposition however.
250
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Trees
Floodlit illumination of the tree
crown particularly brings out the
beauty of the outermost blossom
in the springtime. In the summer,
the dense foliage makes the crown
appear as a solid mass. Coloured
Observation
Season
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Lamp selection is a factor that
influences the colour of light and
the colour rendition of the leaves
and blossom. Daylight white col-
ours of light emphasise blue-green
foliage colours, whereas warm
white colours of light accentuate
brownish-red leaves.
Conclusion
leaves are characteristic for the
autumn. In the winter, the light-
ing effect is reduced to the fili-
gree branch work.
251
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Applications
Projects:
Ernst-August-Carree, Hannover
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Lighting for
- park and garden complexes
- entrance areas
- atria
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- floodlights
- uplights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Trees
252
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Types of trees
Floodlit illumination emphasises
the shape of the tree crown as
a solid volume. Positioning the
luminaires close to the tree under-
lines with grazing light the texture
of the crown and of the trunk. The
illumination from below brings
out the three-dimensionality of
the crown when the foliage is
quite open.
Observation
Floodlight, front
Floodlight on the right
Floodlights on three sides
Floodlight behind
Tree form: rounded
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Spotlight from above
Floodlight in front
Floodlight on the right
Floodlights on three sides
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Types of trees
Uplight
Tree form: Weeping
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Uplight
Spotlight from above
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Types of trees
Spotlight in front
Spotlight on the right
Floodlight behind
Tree form: columnar
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Types of trees
Spotlight behind
Uplight
Floodlight at front
Floodlight on the right
Spotlights on three sides
Tree form: conical
256
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Floodlight behind
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Types of trees
Spotlight in front
Spotlight on the right
Spotlights on three sides
Floodlights on three sides
Tree form: palm
257
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Rounded, weeping trees with
dense, low hanging foliage that
cannot be seen through, lend
themselves to floodlit illumina-
tion and the luminaires are best
positioned outside the area under
the tree. On spreading trees with
thin, see-through foliage, illumi-
nating from within the area under
the tree, using uplights allows
the whole tree crown to appear
aglitter. Illuminating a tree with
grazing light requires a flat inci-
dent beam at approximately 15
degrees. Spherical trees require a
greater distance between lumi-
naire and crown than columnar
trees do here. Narrow-beamed
uplights are particularly suit-
able for lighting high palms.
Conclusion The desired illuminance must be
selected to suit the reflectance
of the leaves.
Uplight
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Types of trees
Spotlight behind
258
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Clusters of trees
Floodlights located in front illu-
minate the tree crowns evenly.
Floodlights positioned at the
sides produce a hard contrast of
light and shadow. Luminaires on
two sides avoid hard shadows.
Uplights at the trunk emphasise
the trunk as a vertical linear
feature.
Observation
Luminaires
Floodlight at front
Floodlights at sides
Uplights
259
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The cluster of trees can be visu-
ally differentiated by using dif-
ferent luminaires and differently
aimed. Spatial depth is created by
adding lighting emphasis in the
foreground, middle ground and
background. Stronger brightness
contrasts support this effect. Nar-
row-beamed luminaires provide
highlighting, while broad-beamed
floodlights take on the task of
general lighting.
Observation
Light distribution
Having several luminaires with
high cut-off angles reduces the
glare compared to a few broad-
beamed luminaires. Narrow-
beamed and well-aimed lumi-
naires reduce the superfluous
emission of light into the sur-
roundings. The decentralised illu -
mination of trees allows a differ-
entiated lighting of a cluster of
trees. Spotlights are suitable for
additional highlights. Tree growth
and the avoidance of glare are to
Conclusion be considered when positioning
and aiming the luminaires.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Clusters of trees
Projects:
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Bank of China, Beijing
Bank of China, Beijing
Applications Lighting for
- park and garden complexes
- entrance areas
- atria
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- floodlights
- uplights
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Rows of trees
Upwardly directed spotlights
emphasise the tree canopy. Flood-
lights with asymmetric light distri-
bution give homogenous light
from base to canopy even on tall
and broad rows of trees. Narrow-
beamed uplights highlight the
tree trunk as a vertical, linear
feature.
Observation
Tree form: rounded
Floodlight
Tree form: columnar
Spotlights
Tree form: rounded
Uplights
Tree form: columnar
Uplights
261
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Tree form: palm
Uplights
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Rows of trees
The effectiveness of rows of trees
to delineate space depends to a
very large extent on the type of
tree. Thus, depending on the type
of tree, a closely planted row of
trees can appear as a ‚wall‘ or a
‚colonnade‘. Narrow-beamed and
well-aimed luminaires reduce the
glare and the spill light into the
surroundings. The tree growth
must be considered when posi-
tioning and aiming the lumi-
naires.
Conclusion
Tree form: palm
Spotlights
Applications
Projects:
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
Loher Wäldchen park,
Lüdenscheid
Lighting for
- park and garden complexes
- entrance areas
- pathways
Preferred luminaire groups
- spotlights
- floodlights
- uplights
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Tree-lined avenue
Upwardly directed spotlights
emphasise the tree crowns.
Floodlights with asymmetric light
distribution give homogenous
lighting from base to canopy even
on extensive avenues of tall trees.
Narrow-beamed uplights high-
light the tree trunk as a vertical,
linear feature.
Observation
Tree form: rounded
Floodlights
Tree form: rounded
Uplights
Tree form: columnar
Spotlight
Tree form: columnar
Uplights
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Tree form: palm
Spotlights
Tree form: palm
Uplights
The spatial profile of tree-lined
avenues depends to a very large
extent on the type of tree. Thus,
depending on the type of trees, an
avenue of narrowly spaced trees
can act as a wall and segregate a
definite area or can appear as a
colonnade. Narrow-beamed and
well-aimed luminaires reduce the
glare and spill light into the sur-
roundings. The tree growth must
be considered when positioning
and aiming the luminaires.
Conclusion
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Tree-lined avenue
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Spacing of trees
Broad, upwardly directed beams
of light emphasise the underside
of the tree canopy. Narrow-
beamed uplights highlight the
tree trunk as a vertical, linear
feature.
Observation
Tree form: weeping
Uplights, narrow-beam
Tree form: weeping
Uplights, wide-beam
Tree form: columnar
Spotlights
Tree form: columnar
Uplights
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation
Spacing of trees
Tree form: palm
Spotlights
Tree form: palm
Uplights
The tree crowns of narrowly
spaced trees combine to take on
the effect of a canopy. Having
several narrow-beamed lumi-
naires reduces the glare compared
to a few broad-beamed lumi-
naires. On pathways and traffic
routes, it must be ensured that
the luminaires are well shielded
to prevent glare.
Conclusion
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E
In this subchapter, application
possibilities for outdoor lumi-
naires are shown using design
examples. Design variations are
presented using simulations.
Entrance area, small Entrance area, large
Guide
Outdoor lighting
Design examples
Historical facade
Pathway
267
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The entrance area is formed by
a negative volume, which is set
apart from the outdoor area by
a few steps.
Situation
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Entrance area, small
Planning Design 1
The wallwashers integrated in
the ceiling provide a very homoge-
nous illumination of the wall. The
luminaires are integrated into the
architecture.
Design 2
The light intensity distribution
of the downlights determines the
overall impression of the scene.
On the wall, uniform beams of
become apparent and become
the formative element. The mate-
rial texture on the back wall is
brought out by the light.
Design 3
To meet the functional criteria
of an entrance, it is sufficient to
illuminate the ground. The overall
volume of the entrance recedes
into the background.
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Design 2
To achieve a decorative lighting
effect, the downlights are posi-
tioned near to the wall.
Arrangement
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Entrance area, small
Design 1
The offset of the wallwashers
from the wall measures half the
wall height. The luminaire spac-
ing is equal to the offset from
the wall.
Design 3
The floor washlights are located
at a height of 60cm in order to
avoid glare.
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The design draft shows a repre-
sentational entrance area with a
canopy roof projecting out a long
way. This is supported by evenly
arranged struts. The main task is
to reinforce the representational
character using the lighting.
Situation
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Entrance area, large
Planning Design 1
Downlights follow the form of the
cantilever roof along the struts.
The circles of light made by the
beams on the floor emphasise the
dynamics of the circular facade.
The wall adjoining onto the glass
facade is delicately brightened by
recessed ceiling wallwashers.
Design 2
Light is projected onto the canti-
lever roof via ceiling washlights.
The roof reflects the light onto
the floor. The indirect lighting
casts evenly diffused light onto
the ground. Additional illumina-
tion of the wall can be dispensed
with since the wall is also given
sufficient light by the reflection
from the roof. The luminaires
appear as independent architec-
tural elements.
Design 3
Each strut is highlighted by four
surface-mounted downlights. The
physical makeup of the struts is
emphasised.
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Design 2
The ceiling washlights are
mounted at two thirds of the
strut height.
Arrangement
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Entrance area, large
The arrangement of the narrow-
beam recessed downlights fol-
lows the circular course of the
roof edge. To achieve a relation
between wall and luminaires, the
offset of recessed ceiling wall-
washers from the wall measures
only a quarter of the wall height.
Design 3
The offset of the recessed ceiling
wallwashers from the wall meas-
ures a quarter of the wall height.
The surface-mounted downlights
are placed in a circular arrange-
ment around the struts at a short
distance away.
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Historical facades require light-
ing concepts that are in harmony
with the architectural features.
For classical facades, the follow-
ing features are to be given con-
sideration in the lighting concept:
- columns
- porticoes
- friezes
- facade division into three areas:
portal and two side wings
In all the examples listed a faint
general lighting of the facade is
ensured via lens wallwashers. The
lighting should not be incident
too steeply, since otherwise irri-
tating heavy shadows could be
cast in the area of the friezes.
Situation
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Historical facade
Planning Design 1
The columns are silhouetted
against the entrance area, which
is illuminated by surface-mount-
ed downlights. The three-dimen-
sional impression of the portico
is greatly reduced by the columns
that now appear almost flat. The
front elevation of the building is
clearly divided into three because
of the emphasis given to the
facade‘s central section.
Design 2
The columns are illuminated with
narrow-beam uplights. The tym-
panum is illuminated separately.
The fact that the entrance area
is set forward from the facade
becomes much more pronounced.
The view is attracted to the cen-
tral section of the building.
Design 3
The facade is clearly given a hori-
zontal division by illuminating the
frieze. The overall breadth of the
facade becomes more significant.
The columns were illuminated
as in design 2, but with reduced
light intensity so as not to overly
emphasise the entrance. Overall,
this differentiated lighting con-
cept lends the historical facade
a most magnificent character.
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Design 2
The columns are emphasised by
narrow-beam uplights arranged
circularly around the columns.
Arrangement
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Historical facade
The starting point of all three
design examples is the homoge-
nous general lighting of the
facade with lens wallwashers
mounted as recessed floor lumi-
naires. These are arranged in a
line at a distance of one third
of the building height in front
of the right and left sections of
the facade.
Design 3
Directional luminaires for high-
lighting the frieze are located at
a distance of one tenth of the
wall height in front of the two
side sections of the facade. The
spacing between the directional
luminaires themselves is relatively
small so that an even illumination
of the frieze is obtained. Narrow-
beam uplights in the semicircle
around the four columns add
brightness.
Design 1
One surface-mounted downlight
with a wide light intensity distri-
bution is positioned behind each
and every column.
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Orientation along pathways can
be provided either by primary
lighting of the path surface or
by emphasising certain reference
points in the area.
Situation
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Pathway
Planning Design 1
Orientation is provided here on
the one hand by linearly arranged
points of light from floor wash-
lights and on the other by mark-
ing points of interest. In this
example, a low illumination of
the pathway by floor washlights
is sufficient because illuminating
the row of trees provides orien-
tation.
Design 2
The path surface is well lit with
wide-beam floor washlights. The
evenly arranged floor washlights
guide one‘s view. The adjacent
trees are silhouetted against the
evenly illuminated wall behind
them. The spatial limits are
emphasised and this gives the
viewer an indication about the
volume of the area.
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Design 2
The lens wallwashers for illumi-
nating the wall are recessed in
the floor at an offset from the
wall of a third of the wall height.
Arrangement Design 1
The uplights are arranged to the
right and left of the trees. A row
of floor washlights runs parallel
to this.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Design examples
Pathway
275
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E Guide
Outdoor lighting
Lighting design
The development in architecture
towards transparency transforms
buildings at night into effigies
shining from the inside out.
Light has advanced to become a
marketing topic for a number of
cities. A sensitive treatment of
light in the outdoor area is crucial
for acheiving a clear view of the
night sky.
Dark Sky
276
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Dark Sky stands for a lighting
design in the outdoor area where-
by the lighting concentrates on
what is actually essential. Any
kind of light pollution is avoided
and observation of the night sky
is enabled. This approach com-
bines a lasting design concept
with a luminaire technology
tailored to suit. The cooperative
teamwork of lighting designers,
architects, landscape gardeners,
building sponsors, electrical fit-
ters and luminaire manufacturers
forms the basis for a successful
implementation of the Dark Sky
concept.
Introduction
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting design
Dark Sky
Light pollution The term ”light pollution” refers
to that spill light which, due to
its illuminance, its direction or its
spectrum, causes interference in
the context in question. Spill light
and glare reduce the visual com-
fort and the desired content of
information cannot be conveyed.
The ecological consequences
include the waste of energy and
the negative effects on flora and
fauna.
Graphic: Artificial Night Sky
Brightness in Europe
Credit: P. Cinzano, F. Falchi (Uni-
versity of Padova), C. D. Elvidge
(NOAA National Geophysical Data
Center, Boulder). Copyright Royal
Astronomical Society. Reproduced
from the Monthly Notices of the
RAS by permission of Blackwell
Science.
www.lightpollution.it/d msp/
277
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Luminaires Luminaires suitable for Dark Sky
applications feature precise light
control and a defined cut-off for
optimum visual comfort. Having
no emission of light above the
horizontal plane is a decisive cri-
terium for open area and pathway
luminaires. A low luminance at
the light aperture avoids exces-
sive contrasts in luminance levels
in the outdoor area.
E Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting design
Dark Sky
Planning
Arrangement
The first design task for a Dark
Sky concept is to ascertain for
what purpose and with what
quality the particular areas are
to be illuminated. The following
is decisive for a lasting lighting
concept:
- adequate illuminance
- avoidance of spill light above
the horizontal plane
- correct alignment of luminaires
- reduce or switch off the lighting
when no longer needed
The luminaires should be arranged
such that the elements to be illu-
minated are optimally lit and no
light shines past the objects. This
avoids dazzling the observers.
Planning
Control
With the Dark Sky concept the
lighting control takes on special
significance for regulating the
intensity and duration of the
lighting for individual zones,
thus regulating the overall light
emission. The lighting control
allows switching and dimming for
individual areas. Predefined light
scenes can be recalled dependent
on the time of day and season
via time sensors and motion sen-
sors. Function-dependent lighting
scenes for the twilight, evening
and night can be controlled
dependent on sensors.
278
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Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Lighting control
Lighting control not only enables
the lighting to be adjusted to suit
the visual requirements but also
allows it to shape and interpret
the architecture. Light scenes are
easily set up using the appropri-
ate software and can be recalled
via an interface. The inclusion of
light colours and the time dimen-
sion opens up a room for sceno-
graphic lighting with dynamic
effects. Lighting control systems
with sensors or time programs
also help adjust the power con-
sumption in a room to its usage
and thus optimise the economic
efficiency of a lighting system.
Controlling the light Devices Control systems
Design examples
279
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The atmosphere in a room can be
changed by controlling a number
of variables. These include basic
functions such as switching
circuits on and off through to
automatically timed colour pro-
gressions. Programming the light
scenes means that the settings
are saved but can be redefined
and adjusted to suit changing
requirements.
E Guide
Lighting control
Controlling the light
Functions
280
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light
Functions
Switching and dimming are two
basic functions of a lighting
control system that can be used
to produce different lighting
situations. Luminaires with vari-
able light colours also include a
colour setting mode. Features
such as cross-fading and dynamic
colour progression are crucial for
dynamic lighting designs. Light-
ing changes can be initiated and
regulated automatically via time
and sensor control.
Switching Light colour Dimming
Scene Dynamic colour
progression
Cross-Fading
Sequence Sensor Timer
281
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Switching
The easiest situation is to turn
the light on and off with a switch
or a push-button. For a variety of
light scenes different circuits with
separate switches are required.
Suitably positioned switches
result in easier usage. Most lamps
produce full light output imme-
diately. High-pressure discharge
lamps, however, usually have a
run-up time of several minutes
and an even longer cooling-down
period before re-ignition.
282
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Dimming
Dimming is the infinitely variable
adjustment of the light output
of a light source. It enables the
creation of different light scenes,
increases the visual comfort and
optimises the power consump-
tion. Dimming also prolongs
the life of incandescent lamps.
Thermal radiators such as tung-
sten halogen lamps are easily
dimmed. Fluorescent lamps and
LEDs require special dimmable
control gear.
283
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Light colour
The light colour of luminaires
with variable colours of light
can be defined by hue, satura-
tion and brightness. The possible
colours depend on the lamp and
the lighting technology used.
Coloured light can change the
atmosphere of a room and high-
light individual objects. RGB col-
our mixing technology controls
the individual primary colours
red, green and blue to produce
the required light colour.
284
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Scene
A scene is a static lighting situ-
ation. It defines the state of all
lighting components such as
luminaires, light ceilings and light
objects with their different switch
and dimmer settings. The scenes
can be saved in lighting control
systems. The user can preset
complex luminaire settings and
conveniently recall them either
manually or automatically.
285
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Cross-Fading
In regard to lighting, cross-
fading refers to the transition
from one light scene to another.
The cross-fading time is the
period required for the scene
change. It varies between instant
change and a transition of several
hours. High-contrast scenes with
a short cross-fading time gener-
ate considerable attention. Subtle
transitions with lengthy cross-
fading times, on the other hand,
are hardly noticeable. The scene
change can be initiated by the
user, a sensor, or a timer.
286
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Dynamic colour progression
Dynamic colour progression
refers to the chronology of colour
changes. Within a defined total
running time, specific colours are
triggered at specified times. There
are different options available to
repeat this progression, including
infinite loop and “forward and
back“.
287
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Sequence
A sequence refers to a progression
of successive light scenes. The
definition of a sequence requires
both individual scenes and infor-
mation on their transition. A
sequence can automatically be
repeated once completed or,
alternatively, end.
288
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Timer
A timer allows light scenes to be
recalled at predefined times. Time
and calendar functions provide
great flexibility for the automa-
tion of scenographic lighting.
Specified start and end times,
for example, set the lighting to
specific shop-opening times or
licensing hours.
289
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E Guide
Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions
Sensor
Sensors monitor properties
such as brightness or motion
and allow an automatic adjust-
ment of the lighting to changing
ambient conditions. A brightness
sensor can be used for daylight-
dependent lighting control.
Motion sensors register move-
ment in the room and control
the light depending on activity
to reduce power consumption.
290
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E Guide
Lighting control
Control systems
Buildings increasingly use
automatic control systems. The
lighting is only one component,
operation of solar screen equip-
ment, air-conditioning and secu-
rity systems are others. Special
lighting control systems have
the advantage that they can be
designed to suit the requirements
of a lighting design and are less
complex than more extensive
building control systems.
Lighting control
systems
Programming the
lighting
General control
systems
291
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Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Lighting control | Control systems
Lighting control systems
Lighting control systems switch
and dim luminaires, set up light
scenes and manage them in space
and time. The decision to select
a specific system depends on the
size of the lighting system, the
requirements in regard to con-
trollability, user-friendliness
and economic considerations.
Digital systems that allow lumi-
naires to be addressed individu-
ally provide great flexibility. Their
user-friendly features include
easy programming and operation
along with a simple installation
process. Lighting control systems
can be integrated as a subsystem
into a building management
system.
1V-10V DALI DMX
292
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Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Lighting control | Control systems | Lighting control systems
1V-10V
Electronic Control Gear (ECG) is
controlled by analogue 1V-10V
signals. This technology is widely
used in low-complexity lighting
systems. The dimmer setting is
transmitted via a separate control
line. The control gear regulates
the output of light from the
luminaire. Since this type of ECG
cannot be addressed, the control
circuit for the control line must
be carefully planned, because its
allocation cannot be changed.
The grouping of the luminaires
is determined by the circuits in
the electrical installation. Any
change of use requires a new
arrangement of the connection
and control lines. Feedback on
DMX
The DMX (Digital Multiplexed)
digital control protocol is pre-
dominantly used for stage light-
ing. In architectural lighting, this
protocol is used for features such
as media facades or stage-like
room lighting effects. The data
is transmitted via a dedicated
5-core cable at a transfer rate of
250 Kbits/s which can control up
to 512 channels. Each luminaire
must have a bus address. When
using multi-channel devices with
colour control and other adjust-
able features, each function
requires a separate address. For a
long time, the data transfer was
unidirectional and only enabled
the control of devices. It did not
provide feedback on aspects such
as lamp failure. The DMX 512-A
version now allows for bidirec-
tional communication.
DALI
Digital Addressable Lighting
Interface (DALI) is a control pro-
tocol that makes it possible to
control luminaires which have
DALI control gear individually. The
system allows user-friendly light
management in architecture and
can be integrated as a subsystem
into modern building control sys-
tems. The two-wire control line
with a transfer rate of 1.2 Kbits/s
can be run together with the
mains supply cable in a 5-core
cable. The bidirectional system
allows feedback from the lumi-
naires on different aspects such
as lamp failure. The DALI protocol
limits the number of devices to
64. The standard version stores
the settings for a maximum of
16 luminaire groups and 16 light
scenes within the control gear.
General information on DALI:
www.dali-ag.org
The ERCO Light System DALI,
saves settings in a central
controller with a greater stor-
age capacity. This allows more
luminaire groups, light scenes and
fading times along with the cod-
ing of the control gear memory
for other features. The system
is compatible with other DALI
devices. Light System DALI can
provide both economical light
management and scenographic
lighting.
lamp failure, etc., is not possible
with the 1V-10V technology.
293
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Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E
Building management systems
are used to control different
building systems such as the
heating, solar screening equip-
ment, and the lighting. They
are more complex than systems
that solely control the lighting
and thus are more involved in
terms of planning, installation
and operation. An established
protocol ensures communica-
tion between the systems over
a flexible network. The control
systems form the basis for build-
ing automation, to simplify and
automate the different func-
tions in a building. The building
automation is divided into three
levels: the management level
for user-friendly visualisation,
the automation level for data
exchange, and the local level with
sensors and actuators. There are
no integrated receiving devices
in the luminaires (interfaces) for
decoding control signals; lighting
control is achieved by wiring indi-
vidual circuits.
KNX LON
Guide
Lighting control | Control systems
General control systems
294
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Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Lighting control | Control systems | General control systems
KNX
Konnex (KNX), known through
the European Installation Bus
(EIB), is a standardised digital
control system which controls
not only the lighting but also
other systems such as heating,
ventilation and solar screening
equipment. KNX is suitable as a
network of electronic installa-
tions for building automation.
Remote monitoring and control
make it easy to use. The data is
transmitted over a separate 24V
control line-twisted pair wire at
a rate of 9.6 Kbits/s. The decen-
tralised communication is bidi-
rectional so that the receiver can
also provide feedback. Each bus
device can transmit independ-
ently. An allocation of priorities
ensures proper communication
and prevents data collisions. Due
to the individual addresses of the
sensors and actuators, this alloca-
tion is flexible and can easily be
changed. KNX is used in domestic
buildings and in large installa-
tions such as offices or airports.
LON
Local Operating Network (LON) is
a standardised digital control pro-
tocol which controls building sys-
tems and is also used in industrial
and process automation. Via TCP/
IP, LON networks can be combined
to form cross-region networks and
be remote-controlled. LON is based
on intelligent sensors and actua-
tors. The microprocessor of each
LON node, called a ”neuron”, can
be programmed and configured.
The data transfer for up to 32,000
nodes is over a twisted pair wire,
as a separate control line, at a rate
of up to 1.25 Mbit/s.
295
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E
Lighting systems can be pro-
grammed with software to pro-
vide great flexibility and allow an
adjustment of the lighting to indi-
vidual requirements. This results
in complex lighting systems with
sensors and interfaces that often
require professional installation
and maintenance. Users require
simple day-to-day operation that
allows them to make changes
themselves.
Non-standard systems can include
a great deal of complexity to cater
for special building requirements.
Problems or changes, however,
may require the support of a pro -
fessional programmer. So, stand-
ardised lighting systems that
allow certain parameters to be
changed are easier to operate and
enable lighting designers or users
to make the necessary changes.
The decision on the type of light-
ing control system and software
depends on technical aspects such
as the size of the lighting system,
its integration with AV technology
or building control systems, and
the complexity of the installation.
Further criteria for the user to
Guide
Lighting control | Control systems
Programming the lighting
consider are ergonomics, flexi-
bility, and maintenance. A simple
installation process, rapid famil-
iarisation and easy to use soft-
ware aid setup and operation.
296
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E
Lighting control systems are com-
posed of different components:
sensors register changes in the
surroundings, control panels
enable light scenes to be recalled
or new lighting parameters to be
programmed. The output devices
translate the control circuit sig-
nals into actions. The connection
to the computer allows for easy
operation of the lighting control
system through software, while
gateways facilitate the combina-
tion of different control systems.
Guide
Lighting control
Devices
Sensors Output devices Control panels
Interfaces Software
297
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E
Sensors are measuring devices
that register ambient conditions
such as brightness or motion.
The lighting is adjusted when the
lighting control system receives
an impulse or a value above or
below a predetermined level.
Guide
Lighting control | Devices
Sensors
Light sensor Motion sensor
298
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E Guide
Lighting control | Devices | Sensors
A light sensor monitors light
levels and enables the automatic
control of light scenes depend-
ing on available daylight. Using
a lighting system in combination
with changing daylight levels in
rooms ensures a controlled illumi-
nance, which is useful, for exam-
ple, in order to maintain mini-
mum values for workplaces or to
reduce the radiation exposure on
exhibits in museums. A daylight
sensor on the roof (external sen-
sor) measures the illuminance
of the daylight and controls the
lighting inside. If the light sensor
is in the room (internal sensor),
it measures the total illuminance
of the incident daylight and the
lighting in the room in order to
Light sensor
Motion sensors register movement
in the room and can be used, for
example, in vacant offices to dim
or switch off the light automati-
cally in order to save power. In
museums, the lighting on sensi-
tive exhibits can be reduced when
there are no visitors. Installed out-
doors, motion sensors can reduce
power consumption at night as
lighting is switched on only when
and where required. The switching
thresholds must be set to suit the
situation.
Motion sensor
control the light level depending
on the daylight. The first process
is referred to as open loop con-
trol, the second as closed loop
control.
In combination with scene con-
trol, light scenes can be control-
led depending on the daylight,
for example, by using a twilight
switch. In the same manner, the
sensor control can be used to
operate solar screening equip-
ment.
299
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Simple applications only require a
push-button to operate the light-
ing control system. Control panels
with displays are recommended
for sophisticated applications and
can also be used to program the
lighting system. A remote control
device allows light scenes to be
recalled from anywhere in the
room.
Guide
Lighting control | Devices
Control panels
Push-button Switch Remote control
GUI
300
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E Guide
Lighting control | Devices | Control panels
A push-button closes or opens
a circuit to switch a luminaire
group or light scene on or off. To
use different functions, a system
requires several push-buttons.
The functions are determined
when the lighting control system
is installed.
Push-button
A switch opens and closes a cir-
cuit. It locks into position and
does not require continuous
pressing as does a push-button.
A light switch controls the light-
ing by switching it on or off.
Switch
A remote control is used to con-
trol the light separately from
wall-mounted control panels.
In conference rooms, a remote
control is a convenient device to
recall different light scenes from
anywhere in the room. An infra-
red remote control requires an IR
receiver to recall any functions.
Remote control
Graphical User Interface (GUI) is
the familiar way of interaction
with software on computers or
control panels based on graphical
images. Simple user interfaces
prevent users having to learn
complex command languages
and simplify the operation. A GUI
can be combined with a touch
screen so that interaction takes
place directly on the screen.
GUI
301
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E
Output devices are actuators or
controllers that translate the
signals in a control circuit into
an action. Actuators (e.g. relays)
or dimmers operate or control
the light output through voltage
changes. Controllers have their
own processors and send signals
to the control gear.
Guide
Lighting control | Devices
Output devices
Relay Dimmer Controller
302
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E Guide
Lighting control | Devices | Output devices
A relay is a switch that is acti-
vated by electric current. When
operating metal halide lamps, a
run-up time of several minutes
and a longer cooling-down phase
before re-ignition must be taken
into account.
Relay
The dimmer is used for the infi-
nitely variable regulation of the
output from a light source. Lead-
ing edge control is applied to
incandescent lamps. Low-voltage
halogen lamps with electronic
transformer are dimmed using
trailing edge technology. Ther-
mal radiators such as tungsten
halogen lamps are easy to dim.
Fluorescent lamps require spe-
cial control gear, while compact
fluorescent lamps require special
electronic control gear units.
Conventional compact fluores-
cent lamps cannot be dimmed.
LEDs can easily be dimmed with
the appropriate control gear.
In analogue 1V-10V technology,
dimming is possible by using a
special ECG with input for the
1V-10V control voltage and
a potentiometer or a control
system supply ing analogue 1V-
10V control voltage, such as the
Dimmer
Controllers are electronic units
for process control. A lighting
control system such as the Light
System DALI saves light scenes
and controls the luminaires.
The amount of data which can
be used to store the settings is
limited by the storage capacity
of the controller. The user oper-
ates the controller via software
or a control panel. A control line
establishes a connection to the
luminaires and transmits the sig-
nals to the control gear.
In a LON system, D/A modules
are used to save and recall light
scenes. As output devices, they
allow the connection of external
dimmers or direct control of dim-
mable ECGs or transformers.
Controller
ERCO Area Net or KNX actuators.
The dimmers are often installed
in switch cabinets. The control
lines are permanently connected
to luminaires or groups of lumi-
naires. The digital control pro-
to col, DALI, on the other hand,
allows for the individual control
of the dimmable ECGs for all the
connected luminaires.
303
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E Guide
Lighting control | Devices
Interfaces or ‚Gateways‘ enable
the exchange of signals and data
between different data networks
or bus systems. Where several
control systems are used in a
building, the data needs to be
transferred between these sys-
tems. Lighting control systems
can be integrated as subsystems
into a building management sys-
tem by means of a gateway. In
the same manner, gateways can
be used, for example, for DALI
lighting control systems to acti-
vate 1V-10V controllers for the
sun screening equipment.
Lighting control software turns
any PC connected to a lighting
control system into a control
panel and programming device
for the lighting system. The PC
can be connected to the lighting
control system using interfac-
ing standards such as USB. The
brightness and light colour
settings are combined in light
scenes. The light scenes are pro-
grammed using the software
and recalled via control panels.
The software can provide many
additional functions, such as
spatial and timed control. A
timer program ensures lighting
control according to predefined
sequences or calendar settings.
With sequential control, the light
scenes are repeated in cycles.
The calendar function recalls the
light scenes according to prede-
termined times or days. The DALI
system with individually address-
able luminaires allows flexible
allocations and regrouping.
The firmware is the software
required for the operation of
devices and is saved in a flash
memory. The PC software is used
to operate the lighting control
system on the computer and is
saved on the hard drive.
Interfaces
Software
304
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E
The application area for a lighting
control consists of the functional
adaptation of the individual light-
ing requirement, the optimisation
of the use of energy and the dif-
ferentiated design of architecture,
exhibition and presentation.
Guide
Lighting control
Design examples
Museum Office Showroom
Restaurant Multifunctional room
305
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Museum
Room of museum for presenta-
tion of paintings and sculptures.
Requirements: The illuminance
level is kept low as long as no
visitors are in the room. When
someone enters the room the
optimum exhibition lighting is
switched on.
Observation
306
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Museum
Planning
307
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Office
Requirements: Several illumi-
nance levels can be set; they are
controlled dependent on the
daylight.
It is operated via push-buttons
on the door. A maximum of four
different lighting levels can be
selected via the push-buttons.
The light scenes are defined for
different uses according to the
illuminances. The actual regula-
tion to the set value within the
light scene is performed via the
daylight regulation.
Observation
308
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Office
Observation
309
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Planning
E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Office
310
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Showroom
Observation Requirements: The lighting pro-
gram is made up of differentiated
light scenes. It is operated via a
Preset at the reception. A daylight
control optimises the power con-
sumption.
311
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Showroom
Observation
Planning
312
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Restaurant
Observation Requirement: different light
scenes can be recalled at break-
fast, lunch and dinner times.
313
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Restaurant
Observation
314
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Restaurant
Planning
315
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Multifunctional room
Observation
Large room
Requirement: Various light scenes
for different purposes with differ-
ent room allocation:
- training/seminar, large room
- meeting, large room
- training, small room
316
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E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Multifunctional room
Observation
Large room
Planning
317
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Observation
Small room
E Guide
Lighting control | Design examples
Multifunctional room
318
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The spectrum of lighting tech-
nology covers information on
photometric values, light sources
and luminaire technology. These
contents aid orientation so that
an appropriate technical solution
can be found for the lighting task
in question. Dimensions, units
E Guide
Lighting technology
Lamps Luminaire technology
319
A
QT, QPAR
QT-NV
T
TC
HIT-CE
HST
LED
0(lm/W) 100 80 60 40 20

,
) !P
A
0!, 0PAR
0!-Nv
!
!C
hl!-CL
hS!
LL0
Ra 100 80 b0 40 20
Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Lighting technology
Dimensions, units
Light plays a central role in the
design of a visual environment.
The architecture, people and
objects are all made visible by
the lighting. Light influences our
well-being, the aesthetic effect
and the mood of a room or area.
Luminous flux Light intensity Luminous efficacy
Illuminance Luminance Exposure
Colour of light Colour rendition
320
'

A
QT, QPAR
QT-NV
T
TC
HIT-CE
HST
LED
0(lm/W) 100 80 60 40 20
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Luminous flux describes the
total light power emitted by a
light source. As a rule, this radi-
ant power could be expressed
as emitted energy in the unit of
watts. However, this method is
inadequate for describing the
optical effect of a light source,
since the emitted radiation is
recorded without discrimination
over the entire frequency range
and the different spectral sensi-
tivity of the eye is not considered.
The inclusion of the spectral sen -
sitivity of the eye results in the
quantity termed lumen. A radiant
flux of 1W emitted at the maxi-
mum extent of spectral optical
sensitivity (photopic, 555 nm)
gives a luminous flux of 683 lm.
Conversely, the same radiant flux
emitted at frequency ranges of
lower sensitivity as per the V (l)
results in correspondingly smaller
luminous fluxes.
Luminous flux
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Luminous flux, luminous efficacy
The luminous flux F is a measure
for the amount of light of a light
source.
F = lumen (lm)
The luminous efficacy describes
the efficacy of a lamp. It is
expressed as the ratio of the
emitted luminous flux in lumen
and the power used in watts. The
theoretically attainable maximum
value assuming complete conver-
sion of energy at 555 nm would
be 683 lm/W. The luminous effica-
cies that can actually be attained
vary depending on the lamp, but
always remain far below this ideal
value.
Luminous efficacy
h = F / P
h = lm / W
321

' )
C 00|270°
C 0|180°
ª
)
ª
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Definition
An ideal, point light source radi-
ates its luminous flux evenly in
all directions in the room, with its
light intensity being equal in all
directions. In practice, however,
there is always an uneven spatial
distribution of luminous flux,
partly due to the lamp design
and partly due to the manner in
which the luminaire is formed.
The Candela, as the unit of light
intensity, is the basic unit of
lighting engineering from which
all other lighting engineering
values are derived.
Light intensity
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Light intensity
The light intensity I is a measure
for the luminous flux F emitted
per solid angle O
I = F / O
[I]=lm / sr
lm / sr = Candela [cd]
Representation
The spatial distribution of the
light intensity of a light source
results in a three-dimensional
body of light intensity distribu-
tion. A section through this light
intensity body will give the light
intensity distribution curve, which
describes the light intensity dis-
tribution in one plane. The light
intensity is, usually displayed in
a polar co-ordinate system as a
function of the emission angle.
To enable direct comparison of
the light intensity distribution of
different light sources, the values
are expressed in relation to 1000lm
luminous flux. With rotationally
symmetrical luminaires, a single
light intensity distribution curve
is sufficient to describe the lumi-
naire. Axially symmetrical lumi-
naires need two curves, although,
these can usually be represented
on one diagram.
Rotationally symmetrical light
sources
Light intensity distribution of
a rotationally symmetrically
emitting light source. A section
through this light intensity distri-
bution form in the C-plane gives
the light intensity distribution
curve.
322
C 0|180°
C 00|270°
ª
)
ª
0° 30°
60°
00°
-30°
-60°
-00°
l'
l'
2
'
A
B
Y
-40° -20° 0° 20° 40°
l'
2
l'
'
A A B
Y
Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Axially symmetrical luminaire
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Light intensity
Light intensity distribution form
and light intensity distribution
curves (planes C 0/180° and
C 90/270°) of an axially sym-
metrically luminaire.
Emission angle
A light intensity distribution
curve scaled to 1000 lm, shown
in polar coordinates. The angular
range within which the maximum
light intensity l‘ decreases to l‘/2
denotes the emission angle β. The
cut-off angle α brings the limit
emission angle YG to 90°.
323
% !
%H %V

%M
!

)
%P
A

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The illuminance is a measure for
the luminous flux density on a
surface. It is defined as the ratio
of the luminous flux incident on a
surface to the size of that surface.
The illuminance is not tied to a
real surface, it can be determined
anywhere in the room. The illu-
minance can be derived from the
light intensity. Whereby, the illu-
minance reduces by the square of
the distance from the light source
(inverse square law).
Illuminance
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Illuminance
Illuminance E as dimension for
the luminous flux per surface
area unit A
Horizontal illuminance Eh and
vertical illuminance Ev in indoor
areas.
The average horizontal illumi-
nance Em is calculated from the
F luminous flux, incident on the
surface in question A.
E
m
=
F

A
The illuminance at a given point
Ep is calculated from the light
intensity l and the distance a
between the light source and the
said point.
E
p
=
I

a
2
[E
p
] = lx
[I] = cd
[a] = m
Horizontal illuminance
Average horizontal illuminance
Illuminance at a point
324

,
) !P
%H %V
*

*

,
,
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Exposure is described as the
product of the illuminance and
the exposure time through which
a surface is illuminated. Exposure
is an important issue, for example,
regarding the calculation of light
exposure on exhibits in museums.
Exposure
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Exposure, luminance
Whereas illuminance expresses
the luminous power incident on a
surface, the luminance describes
the light given off by this surface.
This light can be given off by the
surface itself (e.g. when consid-
ering luminance of lamps and
luminaires). Luminance is defined
as the ratio of light intensity and
the area projected perpendicu-
larly to the emission direction.
The light can also be reflected or
transmitted by the surface how-
ever. For diffuse reflecting (matt)
and diffuse transmitting (murky)
materials, the luminance can be
calculated from the illuminance
and the reflectance or transmit-
tance . Brightness correlates with
luminance; although, the actual
impression of brightness is still
influenced by how well the eyes
have adapted, by the surrounding
contrast levels and by the infor-
mation content of the viewed
surface.
The luminance L of a luminous
surface is given by the ratio of
light intensity I and its projected
area Ap.
L = I / Ap
[L] = cd / qm
Luminance
The luminance of a diffusely
reflecting illuminated surface is
proportional to the illuminance
and the reflectance of the surface.
L1 = Eh . R1 / p
L2 = Ev . R2 / p
[L] = cd / qm
[E] = lx
325
0.26
0.34
0.42
0.S0
0.S8
0.72 0.32 0.48 0.64 0.40 0.S6
S000
4000
3000
2000 K
1600 K
Sµcc¦:a| co|ou: |oc|
uw
x
,
¦w
ww
2S00 K
3300 K
6000
8000
S6S
S80
600
620
600-
780
L
1 2
3
S
6
4
A
0 6S
0.26
0.34
0.42
0.S0
0.S8
0.72 0.32 0.48 0.64 0.40 0.S6
Sµcc¦:a| co|ou: |oc|
x
,
Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Light colour is the colour of the
light emitted by a lamp. Light
colour can be expressed using
x,y coordinates as chromaticity
coordinates in a standard colori-
metric system, or, for white light
colours, it can also be given as the
colour temperature TF. In the CIE
standard colorimetric system, the
colour of light is calculated from
the spectral constitution and
represented in a continuous, two-
dimensional diagram. The hue is
defined via the chromaticity co-
ordinates of the spectral colour
and via the saturation level. The
design of the diagram features a
coloured area that contains every
possible real colour. The coloured
area is encompassed by a curve
on which the chromaticity loca-
tions of the completely saturated
spectral colours lie. At the centre
of the area is the point of least
saturation, which is designated
as a white or uncoloured point.
All levels of saturation of one
colour can now be found on the
straight lines between the uncol-
oured point and the chromaticity
location in question. Similarly,
all mixtures of two colours are
likewise to be found on a straight
line between the two chromatic-
ity locations in question.
CIE-system
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Colour of light
Closest colour temperature
Planck‘s curve contains the chro-
maticity locations of Planck‘s
radiation of all temperatures.
Since the chromaticity location
of a light source often lies near to
the curve, starting from the curve
of Planck‘s radiator, a host of
straight lines of the closest colour
temperatures is added. With their
help, even those light colours
that are not on this line can be
identified by the closest colour
temperature. On temperature
radiators, the closest colour tem-
perature corresponds to some-
thing approaching the actual
temperature of the lamp filament.
On discharge lamps, the closest
colour temperature is stated.
Planck‘s curve with the host
of lines
Section from the coloured area
with Planck‘s curve and the host
of lines of chromaticity loca-
tions of the same (closest) colour
temperature between 1600 and
10000K. The ranges of the light
colours warm white (ww), neutral
white (nw) and daylight white
(dw) are shown.
Planck‘s curve with typical
light sources
Section from the coloured area
with Planck‘s curve and the chro-
maticity locations of the standard
types of light A (incandescent
lamp light) and D 65 (daylight) as
well as the chromaticity locations
of typical light sources: candle
flame (1), incandescent lamp (2),
tungsten halogen lamp (3), fluo-
rescent lamps ww (4), nw (5) and
dw (6).
326
L|j|¦ sou:cc ! ¦K}
Caud|c 1000-10S0
Ca:uou í||ancu¦ |anµ 2100
lucaudcsccu¦ |anµ 2700-2000
l|uo:csccu¦ |anµs 2800-7S00
Voou||j|¦ 4100
Suu||j|¦ S000-6000
0a,||j|¦ S800-6S00
¦suus||uc, u|uc s|,}
0vc:cas¦ s|, 6400-6000
C|ca: u|uc s|, 10000-26000
0,S0 0,40 0,30
0,26
0,34
0,42
x
,
¦w
uw
ww
3300 |
S000 |
0,S0 0,40 0,30
0,26
0,34
0,42
x
,
¦w
uw
ww
3300 |
S000 |
0,S0 0,40 0,30
0,26
0,34
0,42
x
,
¦w
uw
ww
3300 |
S000 |
Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
In addition, white colours of
light are divided into three main
groups: the warm white range
(ww) with the closest colour
temperatures below 3300K, the
neutral white range (nw) between
3300 and 5000K and the daylight
white range (dw) with the closest
colour temperatures over 5000K.
The same colours of light may
have different spectral distribu-
tions and a correspondingly dif-
ferent colour rendition.
Main groups colour
temperatures
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Colour of light
Warm white
Closest colour temperature T
typical light sources
Neutral white
Daylight white
327
A
0!, 0PAR
0!-Nv
!
!C
hl!-CL
hS!
LL0
Ra 100 80 60 40 20
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Colour rendition refers to the
quality of the reproduction of
colours under a given illumina-
tion. The degree of colour distor-
tion is indicated using the colour
rendition index Ra and/or the
colour rendition grading system.
A comparative light source with
continuous spectrum serves as a
reference light source, whether
this be a temperature radiator of
comparable colour temperature
or the daylight.
Colour rendition
E Guide
Lighting technology | Dimensions, units
Colour rendition
To enable the colour rendition of
a light source to be determined,
the chromatic effects of a scale of
eight body colours viewed under
the type of illumination being
scrutinised and also under the
reference illumination are calcu-
lated and related to each other.
The resulting quality of colour
rendition is expressed in colour
rendition indices; these can relate
both to the general colour rendi-
tion (Ra) as an average value or
to the rendition of individual col-
ours. The maximum index of 100
signifies ideal colour rendition as
experienced with incandescent
lamp light or daylight. Lower
values refer to a correspondingly
worse colour rendition. Linear
spectra of light lead to good col-
our rendition. Linear spectra in
general lead to a worse rendition.
Multiline spectra are composed
of several different linear spectra
and improve the colour rendition.

Colour rendition index
Ranges of the colour rendition
index Ra for different lamp types
328
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E Guide
Lighting technology
Lamps
Having technical knowledge
about lamps will help to make
the right selection with regards
to brilliance, colour rendition,
modelling ability and energy
efficiency. The spectrum ranges
from thermal radiators through
to semiconductor spotlights. Lamps, general Discharge lamps Thermal radiators
Electroluminescent
luminaires
329
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The electric light sources can be
divided into three main groups,
divided according to how they
convert electrical energy into
light. One group is that of the
thermal radiators, this contains
incandescent lamps and tung-
sten halogen lamps. The second
group is made up of the discharge
lamps; this consists of a large
spectrum of light sources, e. g.
all forms of fluorescent lamps,
sodium vapour lamps and metal
halide lamps. The third group
consists of the semiconductors
with the LEDs.
E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps
Lamps, general
Lamp overview Lamp designation
330
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Lamps, general
Lamp overview
331
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Lamps, general
Lamp designation
Abbreviations
Usual codes for lamps in the
Guide. The letters in brackets are
not used in practice, this results
in the abbreviations given on
the right.
Abbreviations for identifying
special versions are separated
from the code by a dash.
Letter code
The 1
st
letter refers to the method
of light generation.
The 2
nd
letter identifies the bulb
material on incandescent lamps
or the gas fillings on discharge
lamps.
The 3
rd
letter or combination of
letters refers to the bulb shape.
332
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps
Thermal radiators
Thermal radiators generate light
by using an incandescent metal
filament. As the temperature
increases the spectrum of light
shifts from the red heat of the
filament to warm white light.
Characteristic features are low
colour temperature, excellent
colour rendition and brilliance
as a point light source.
General service lamps Tungsten halogen
lamps
R and PAR lamps
Halogen reflector
lamps
333
¦un} 700 600 S00 400
100
80
60
40
20
20
¦7} U|UN
¦7} 2800 K
2700 K
2600 K
2:00 K
2400 K
2300 K
2200 K
2100 K
2000 K
100 80 60 40
Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
A low colour temperature is
characteristic for the general
service lamp. It is perceived as
being warm. The continuous
spectrum of the incandescent
lamp results in an excellent col-
our rendition. As a point light
source with high luminance it
produces brilliance. Incandescent
lamps can be dimmed without
problem. They do not require any
additional equipment for their
operation. The disadvantages
Properties
E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators
General service lamps
The general service lamp is a ther-
mal radiator. Electrical current
causes a metal filament to glow.
Part of the radiated energy is vis-
ible as light. When dimming, the
reducing temperature causes the
light spectrum to shift towards
the range of longer wavelengths
– the warm white light of the
incandescent lamp changes to
the red heat of the filament.
The maximum radiation is in the
infrared range. A lot of thermal
radiation is generated in com-
parison to the visible component;
conversely there is very little UV
radiation. The continuous spec-
trum of the incandescent lamp
results in an excellent colour
rendition.
Physics
Relative spectral distribution Colour temperature
Models Incandescent lamps are available
as A-lamps (All-purpose lamps)
in many forms. Their bulbs can be
clear, matt or white. The light is
emitted in all directions.
Dimming behaviour of incandes-
cent lamps. Relative luminous
flux F and colour temperature
in dependence on the relative
voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction
causes an over-proportional drop
in luminous flux.
of incandescent lamps are low
luminous efficacy and a relatively
brief nominal service life.
334
¦un} 700 600 S00 400
100
80
60
40
20
20
¦7} U|UN
¦7} 2800 K
2700 K
2600 K
2:00 K
2400 K
2300 K
2200 K
2100 K
2000 K
100 80 60 40
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators
R and PAR lamps
A low colour temperature is
characteristic for the reflector
and parabolic aluminised reflector
lamps. The continuous spectrum
of the incandescent lamp results
in an excellent colour rendition.
As a point light source with high
luminance it produces brilliance.
They do not require any additional
equipment for their operation.
Properties
The incandescent lamp is a ther-
mal radiator. Electrical current
causes a metal filament to glow.
Part of the radiated energy is vis-
ible as light. When dimming, the
reducing temperature causes the
light spectrum to shift towards
the range of longer wavelengths
– the warm white light of the
incandescent lamp changes to
the red heat of the filament.
The maximum radiation is in the
infrared range. A lot of thermal
radiation is generated in com-
parison to the visible component;
conversely there is very little UV
radiation. The continuous spec-
trum of the incandescent lamp
results in an excellent colour
rendition.
Physics
Relative spectral distribution Colour temperature
Models The R (Reflector) lamps are
blown from soft glass and direct
the light due to their shape and
a partial mirror coating on the
inside.
The PAR lamps are manufactured
from pressed glass in order to
achieve high resistance to tempera-
ture change and high accu racy
of shape. The parabolic reflector
is available with different half
peak spreads and produces a
defined beam emission angle. On
coolbeam lamps, a subgroup of
the PAR lamps, a dichroic mirror
coating is used. Dichroic reflec-
tors focus the visible light but
allow a large part of the thermal
radiation to pass through unaf-
fected. This allows the thermal
Dimming behaviour of incandes-
cent lamps. Relative luminous
flux F and colour temperature
in dependence on the relative
voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction
causes an over-proportional drop
in luminous flux.
Left: reflector lamp with soft
glass bulb and ellipsoid reflector
with moderate focusing power.
Right: reflector lamp with pressed
glass bulb and powerful parabolic
reflector
load on the illuminated objects to
be reduced by approximately half.
The disadvantages of incandes-
cent lamps are low luminous
efficacy and a relatively brief
nominal service life.
335
¦un} 700 600 S00 400
100
80
60
40
20
20
¦7} U|UN
¦7} 2800 K
2700 K
2600 K
2:00 K
2400 K
2300 K
2200 K
2100 K
2000 K
100 80 60 40
Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators
Tungsten halogen lamps
The tungsten halogen lamp emits
a whiter light than conventional
incandescent lamps. Its light col-
our is in the range of warm white.
Due to the continuous spectrum,
the colour rendition is excellent.
Its compact form makes the tung-
sten halogen lamp an ideal point
light source. The particularly good
directability of the light produces
brilliance. The luminous efficacy
and life of tungsten halogen
lamps is above that of ordinary
Properties
Halogens in the gas filling reduce
the material loses of the fila-
ment caused by evaporation and
increase the performance of the
lamp. The evaporated tungsten
combines with the halogen to
form a metal halide, and is chan-
nelled back to the filament.
The lamp‘s compact shape not
only enables the temperature
to increase but also allows an
increase in the gas pressure, which
reduces the tungsten‘s rate of
evaporation. As the temperature
increases the light spectrum shifts
towards the short wavelength
range – the red heat of the fila-
ment becomes the warm white
light of the incandescent lamp. A
lot of thermal radiation is gener-
ated in comparison to the visible
component; conversely there is
very little UV radiation. The tung-
sten halogen reflector lamp emits
a continuous spectrum and thus
produces an excellent colour
rendition.
Physics
Relative spectral distribution Colour temperature
Models Tungsten halogen lamps are
available for operation on mains
voltage. They usually have a spe-
cial fixing. Some feature a screw
fixing and an additional external
glass capsule and can be used
just like conventional incandes-
cent lamps. The advantages of
the low-voltage halogen lamp
primarily concern the high lumi-
nous power for its small dimen-
sions. The lamp enables compact
luminaire designs and a very
narrow focussing of the light.
Low-voltage halogen lamps are
available for different voltages
and in various shapes and must
be powered via transformers. The
lamps emit light in all directions.
Halogen lamps with low-pressure
technology are permitted for all
Dimming behaviour of incandes-
cent lamps. Relative luminous
flux F and colour temperature
in dependence on the relative
voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction
causes an over-proportional drop
in luminous flux.
From left to right: tungsten halo-
gen lamp for nominal voltage
with E27 fixing and enveloping
capsule, with bayonet fixing, with
double-ended fixing. Low-voltage
halogen lamp with axial filament
corresponding luminaires. Halo-
gen lamps without low-pressure
technology are only permitted in
luminaires with protective cover.
The advantages of the low-pres-
sure version are improved lumi-
nous flux throughout the entire
service life.
incandescent lamps. Tungsten
halogen lamps can be dimmed
and do not require any additional
control gear; low-voltage halogen
lamps, however, must be powered
via transformers.
336
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100
80
60
40
20
20
¦7} U|UN
¦7} 2800 K
2700 K
2600 K
2:00 K
2400 K
2300 K
2200 K
2100 K
2000 K
100 80 60 40
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators
Halogen reflector lamps
The tungsten halogen reflec-
tor lamp emits a whiter light
than conventional incandescent
lamps. Its light colour is in the
range of warm white. Due to
the continuous spectrum, the
colour rendition is excellent.
Its compact form makes the
tungsten halogen reflector lamp
an ideal point light source. The
particularly good directability
of the light produces brilliance.
The luminous efficacy and life of
tungsten halogen reflector lamps
is above that of ordinary incan-
descent lamps. Tungsten halogen
reflector lamps can be dimmed
Properties
Halogens in the gas filling reduces
the material loses of the filament
caused by evaporation and increase
the performance of the lamp. The
evaporated tungsten combines
with the halogen to form a metal
halide, and is channelled back to
the filament. The lamp‘s compact
shape not only enables the tem-
perature to increase but also allows
an increase in the gas pressure,
which reduces the tungsten‘s rate
of evaporation. As the temperature
increases the light spectrum shifts
towards the short wavelength
range the red heat of the filament
becomes the warm white light of
the incandescent lamp. A lot of
thermal radiation is generated in
comparison to the visible com-
Physics
Relative spectral distribution Colour temperature
Models Tungsten halogen reflector lamps
are available for operation on
mains voltage. They usually have
a special fixing. Some feature a
screw fixing and an additional
external glass capsule and can be
used just like conventional incan-
descent lamps. The advantages
of the low-voltage halogen lamp
primarily concern the high lumi-
nous power for its small dimen-
sions. The lamp enables compact
luminaire designs and a very
narrow focussing of the light.
Low-voltage halogen reflector
lamps are available for different
voltages and in various shapes
and must be powered via trans-
formers. They are available with
different half peak spreads. The
versions with coolbeam reflectors
Dimming behaviour of incandes-
cent lamps. Relative luminous
flux F and colour temperature
in dependence on the relative
voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction
causes an over-proportional drop
in luminous flux.
Low-voltage halogen lamp with
pin base and coolbeam reflector
made of glass, with aluminium
reflector for higher performance.
radiate the heat away to the sides
and reduce the thermal loading
in the focused beam. The halogen
parabolic reflector lamp combines
the advantages of halogen tech-
nology with the technology of
the PAR lamps.
and do not require any additional
control gear; low-voltage halogen
reflector lamps, however, must be
powered via transformers. Nar-
row or wide beam reflectors are
available. Lamps with coolbeam
reflector place less thermal load-
ing on the illuminated objects.
Lamps with an integrated cover
glass permit operation in open
luminaires.
ponent; conversely there is very
little UV radiation. The tungsten
halogen reflector lamp emits a
continuous spectrum and thus
produces an excellent colour
rendition.
337
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps
Discharge lamps
Discharge lamps comprise those
light sources whereby the genera-
tion of light does not rely, or does
not solely rely, on the tempera-
ture of the materials. Depending
on the type, a differentiation is
made between photo lumines-
cence and electroluminescence.
The light is generated principally
using chemical or electrical proc-
esses. The discharge lamp group
is subdivided into low-pressure
and high-pressure lamps.
Fluorescent lamps Metal vapour lamps Compact fluorescent
lamps
High-pressure
sodium vapour lamps
338

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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps
Fluorescent lamps
With fluorescent lamps, the light
is emitted from a large surface
and is mainly diffuse light with
little brilliance. The light colours
of fluorescent lamps are warm
white, neutral white and daylight
white. Fluorescent lamps feature
a high luminous efficacy and long
life. Both starters and control
gear (chokes) are necessary for
operating fluorescent lamps. They
ignite immediately and attain
their full luminous power after a
brief moment. An immediate re-
ignition is possible if the current
is interrupted. Fluorescent lamps
can be dimmed depending on the
control gear.
Properties
The electrode (1) releases elec-
trons (2) that then collide into
mercury atoms (3). This causes the
electrons of the mercury atom (4)
to become excited, causing them
to emit UV radiation (5). In the
fluorescent coating (6), the UV
radiation is converted into visible
light (7).
Technology
The fluorescent lamp is a low-
pressure discharge lamp that
works using mercury. The gas
filling consists of an inert gas
that makes the ignition easier
and controls the discharge. The
mercury vapour emits ultra-
violet radiation upon excitation.
Fluorescent substances on the
inside surface of the discharge
tube convert the ultraviolet
radiation into visible light using
fluorescence. A voltage surge
is used to ignite the lamp. The
discontinuous spectrum of fluo-
rescent lamps has a poorer colour
rendition property than that
of incandescent lamps with a
continuous spectrum. The colour
rendition of fluorescent lamps
can be improved at the cost of
luminous efficacy. Conversely,
increasing the luminous efficacy
causes a worsening of the colour
rendition. The light colour can be
in the warm white, neutral white
or daylight white range, depend-
ing on the proportion of the indi-
vidual fluorescent substances.
Physics
Colour temperature
warm white
Relative spectral distribution
339
!26 18w, 36w, S8w
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Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Models Fluorescent lamps are usually
shaped as a straight tube, whereby
the luminous power depends on
the length of the lamp. Special
forms such as U-shape or ring-
shape fluorescent lamps are avail-
able.
Colour temperature
neutral white
Relative spectral distribution
Colour temperature
daylight white
Relative spectral distribution
Physics
E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps
Fluorescent lamps
340
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0,S0 0,40 0,30
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0,34
0,42
x
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,
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3300 |
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps
Compact fluorescent lamps
By bending or coiling the dis-
charge tubes, compact fluores-
cent lamps are made shorter than
ordinary fluorescent lamps. They
have fundamentally the same
properties as the conventional
fluorescent lamps, above all these
are high luminous efficacy and
long life. The relatively small vol-
ume of the discharge tubes can
produce a focused light using the
luminaire‘s reflector. Compact
fluorescent lamps with integrated
starters cannot be dimmed. How-
ever, there are types with external
starter available, which can be
operated on electronic control
gear and allow dimming.
Properties
The fluorescent lamp is a low-
pressure discharge lamp that
works using mercury. The gas
filling consists of an inert gas
that makes the ignition easier
and controls the discharge. The
mercury vapour emits ultra-
violet radiation upon excitation.
Fluorescent substances on the
inside surface of the discharge
tube convert the ultraviolet
radiation into visible light using
fluorescence. A voltage surge
is used to ignite the lamp. The
discontinuous spectrum of fluo-
rescent lamps has a poorer colour
rendition property than that of
incandescent lamps with continu-
ous spectrums. The colour rendi-
tion of fluorescent lamps can be
improved at the cost of luminous
efficacy. Conversely, increasing
the luminous efficacy causes a
worsening of the colour rendi-
tion. The light colour can be in
the warm white, neutral white or
daylight white range, depending
on the proportion of the individ-
ual fluorescent substances.
Physics
Colour temperature
warm white
Relative spectral distribution
Colour temperature
neutral white
Relative spectral distribution
341
!C-L 18w, 24w, 36w, 40|SSw
!C Sw, 7w,
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!C-! 18w, 26w,
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!C-0 10w, 13w,
18w, 26w
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0,S0 0,40 0,30
0,26
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x
,
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uw
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3300 |
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Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Models Compact fluorescent lamps are
primarily available as a straight
tube. Starters and fluorescent
lamp chokes are necessary for
their operation; on two pin lamps,
however, the starters are already
integrated into the end cap. In
addition to these standard forms,
there are also compact fluores-
cent lamps with integrated starter
and control gear. These feature a
screw-in fixing and can be used
just like incandescent lamps.
Colour temperature
daylight white
Relative spectral distribution
Physics
E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps
Compact fluorescent lamps
342
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0,34
0,42
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3300 |
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0,S0 0,40 0,30
0,26
0,34
0,42
x
,
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uw
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3300 |
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps
Metal vapour lamps
Metal halide lamps feature excel-
lent luminous efficacy while
simultaneously having good
colour rendition; their nominal
service life is high. They represent
a compact light source. The light
can be optically well directed. The
colour rendition is not constant.
Metal halide lamps are available
in the light colours warm white,
neutral white and daylight white
and are not dimmed. Metal halide
lamps require both starters and
chokes for their operation. They
require an ignition time of several
minutes and a longer cooling-
down phase before re-igniting.
Properties On some forms an immediate re-
ignition is possible using special
starters or the electronic control
gear.
Metal halide lamps are compara-
ble with high-pressure mercury
vapour lamps in design and func-
tion. They additionally contain a
mixture of metal halides. In addi-
tion to increasing the luminous
efficacy, improved colour rendi-
tion is also attained. Due to com-
binations of metals, an almost
continuous multiline spectrum
is produced. Metal halide lamps
are available in the light colours
warm white, neutral white and
daylight white. Compared to
quartz technology, the lamps with
ceramic discharge tube feature
higher luminous efficacy and bet-
ter colour rendition due to the
increased operating temperature.
Physics
Colour temperature
warm white
Relative spectral distribution
Colour temperature
neutral white
Relative spectral distribution
343
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Models Metal halide lamps are available
as single-ended or doubled-ended
tubular lamps, as elliptical lamps
and as reflector lamps. Metal hal-
ide reflector lamps combine the
technology of the metal halide
lamps with that of the PAR lamps.
Colour temperature
daylight white
Relative spectral distribution
Physics
E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps
Metal vapour lamps
Metal halide lamps with single-
ended cap (HIT), double-ended
cap (HIT-DE) and metal halide
reflector lamp (HIPAR)
344
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps
High-pressure sodium vapour lamps
High-pressure sodium vapour
lamps have excellent luminous
efficacy and a high nominal serv-
ice life. Their colour rendition is
moderate to good. High-pressure
sodium vapour lamps are oper-
ated with a control gear and a
starter. They require an ignition
time of several minutes and a
cooling-down phase before being
re-ignited. On some forms an
immediate re-ignition is possible
using special starters or the elec-
tronic control gear.
Properties
High-pressure sodium vapour
lamps are comparable with the
high-pressure mercury vapour
lamps in design and function. The
mixture inside the lamps consists
of inert gases and a mercury-
sodium amalgam, whereby the
inert gas and mercury component
serves the ignition and stabilisa-
tion of the discharge. When the
pressure is sufficiently high, a
virtually continuous spectrum
is produced with a yellowish to
warm white light while giving
moderate to good colour rendi-
tion.
Physics
Colour temperature
Relative spectral distribution
Models High-pressure sodium vapour
lamps are available as clear
lamps in tubular form and as
coated lamps in ellipsoid form.
Furthermore, there are also
double-ended compact straight
tube lamps, which allow imme-
diate re-ignition and represent
a particularly compact light
source. One part of the high-
pressure sodium vapour lamps
has a coated outer capsule. This
coating serves only to reduce
the lamp luminance and to give
a more diffuse light emission, it
does not contain any fluorescent
substances.
345
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps
Electroluminescent luminaires
In electroluminescent luminaires,
the electrical energy produces
visible radiation. One of the char-
acteristic aspects of light emit-
ting diodes, LEDs, is their narrow
banded spectrum, while their
advantages include a compact
form, high colour density, a long
life, and low power consumption.
LED
346
!NODE
3UBSTRATE
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#ATHODE
800 ¦un} 700 600 S00 400
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Electroluminescent luminaires
LED
Light emitting diodes, LEDs,
have extremely long life, impact
resistance and low energy con-
sumption. When dimmed, the
light colour remains constant.
When connected to the mains,
they require control gear to
ensure the correct operating
current. The point light source
provides for precise light control
while the plastic encapsulation
of the diode acts as protection
and lens. The output of the LED
decreases with increasing tem-
perature. Consequently, good
heat dissipation is important for
smooth operation. Direct solar
radiation should be avoided
so too installation near other
sources of heat. With an average
rated life of 50,000 hours, LEDs
are suitable for long operating
times. As they start instantly and
react directly to control, they
are ideal for quick, dynamic light
scenes. The development of LEDs
currently focuses on more com-
Properties pact designs, a higher luminous
flux, and better luminous efficacy
as well as a more economical
production process. A further goal
is the reduction of production-
related colour deviations. Manu-
facturers sort LEDs by luminous
flux and dominant wavelength
and give them a bin code and
a rating. This sorting of LEDs is
called binning.
General
LEDs are semiconductor diodes
that belong to the group of elec-
troluminescent sources. The light
is generated by recombining
charge-carrier pairs in a semicon-
ductor with an appropriate energy
band gap. LEDs produce narrow-
band radiation. The colour tem-
perature remains constant as the
light intensity decreases. LEDs
used for lighting do not produce
UV or IR radiation.
Physics
When voltage is applied to the
cathode and the anode, the LED
emits light from the barrier layer.
Electrons change their energy
level and through recombination
release photons at the pn-junc-
tion. The wavelength of the light
produced depends on the semi-
conductor materials.
Coloured LEDs
LEDs produce a narrow banded
spectral range. The dominant
wavelength determines the col-
our locus of the LED. Compared to
coloured fluorescent lamps, LEDs
have a higher colour density. The
composition of the semiconduc-
tor material determines the light
spectrum emitted. Differently
coloured LEDs of the same con-
nected load produce different
levels of luminous flux.
Relative spectral distribution:
red, green and blue LEDs
CIE colour triangle with colour
loci of red, green and blue LEDs
347
800 ¦un} 700 600 S00 400
800 ¦un} 700 600 S00 400
Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Models
T-type LED
The standard T-type LED has a
plastic housing measuring 3-5mm
for the wired LED. The shape of
the lens determines the light
emission angle. As a light source
with a low luminous flux it is
used as an orientation or a signal
luminaire.
SMD LED
With the “Surface Mounted
Device“ (SMD) type, the compo-
nent is glued directly to the cir-
cuit board and the contacts
are soldered.
COB LED
The “Chip on Board“ (COB) tech-
nology places the chip directly on
a circuit board without its own
housing. The anode and cathode
contact can be made using thin
wires. The chip is sealed to pro-
tect it.
White LED
White light cannot be produced
with semiconductor materials.
Consequently, white light is cur-
rently generated using two meth-
ods: RGB mixing or luminescence
conversion. The colour rendition
of white LEDs currently approxi-
mates a colour rendition index
Ra of 90. The light colours avail-
able include warm white, neutral
white, and daylight white LEDs of
2500K to 8000K.
RGB LED
By combining three light diodes
with the light colours red, green
and blue (RGB), the light colours
can be mixed to produce a wide
range of colours, including white.
The red, green and blue LEDs can
be controlled to adjust their dif-
ferent light intensities.
Luminescence conversion
The spectrum of coloured LEDs
can be converted by using phos -
phors as a luminous layer. Pro-
Relative spectral distribution: LED
with luminescence conversion
Relative spectral distribution:
RGB LED
E Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Electroluminescent luminaires
LED
T-type LED SMD LED
COB LED
ducing blue LEDs with yellow
phosphors is easier than UV LEDs
with RGB phosphors.
High-power LED
High-power LEDs are LEDs with a
power consumption of over 1W.
This includes both SMD and COB
LEDs. The key factor is their spe-
cial construction that ensures
very low thermal resistance
between the chip and the circuit
board. High-power LEDs are usu-
ally used on metal core circuit
boards requiring special thermal
management in the luminaire.
348
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E Guide
Lighting technology
Luminaire technology
Luminaires perform a range of
functions. The most important
task of a luminaire is to direct the
lamp‘s luminous flux. The objec-
tive here is to distribute light in a
way that best suits the particular
tasks of the luminaire while mak-
ing the best possible use of the
energy expended. In addition to
design-related aspects of lumi-
naires as a constituent part of
a building‘s architecture, those
aspects relating to installation
and safety are also relevant.
Principles of control-
ling light
Lens systems Reflectors
Filters Lighting technology
accessories
Prismatic systems
Colour mixing
349
Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.erco.com
The most essential task of a lumi-
naire is to direct the lamp lumens;
whereby, a light distribution is
striven for that corresponds to
the particular job of the luminaire
for the best possible utilisation of
the energy used.
A step towards a targeted and
specific light control was real-
ised by the introduction of the
reflector lamps and PAR lamps.
The light is focused by reflectors
integrated into the lamp and can
be directed in the desired direc-
tion with defined beam emission
angles. The demand for more dif-
ferentiated lighting control, for
enhanced luminaire efficiency
and improved glare limitation led
to the reflector being taken from
the lamp and integrated into the
luminaire. This means that it is
possible to construct luminaires
that are designed to meet the
specific requirements of the light
source and the task.
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Principles of controlling light
Reflectance Transmission Absorption
Refraction Interference
350
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light
Reflectance
In the case of reflection, the light
incident on a surface is fully or
partially reflected, depending
on the reflection factor of the
surface. Besides reflectance
the degree of diffusion of the
reflected light is also significant.
In the case of specular surfaces
there is no diffusion. The greater
the diffusing power of the reflect-
ing surface, the smaller the spec-
ular component of the reflected
light, up to the point of com-
pletely diffused reflection where
only diffuse light is reflected.
Luminous intensity distribution I
in the case of diffuse reflection
Luminous distribution L in the
case of diffuse reflection. It is the
same from all angles of vision.
Luminous intensity distribution in
the case of mixed reflection
Luminous intensity distribution in
the case of specular reflection
Diffusion
Specular reflection is a key factor
in the construction of luminaires;
by using suitable reflector con-
tours and surfaces, it enables a
targeted control of light and is
also responsible for the magni-
tude of the light output ratio.
Surface forms
Specular reflection of parallel
beams of light falling onto a flat
surface (parallel optical path)
Concave surface
(converging beam)
Convex surface
(diverging beam)
351
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da:| j:c,, da:| :cd, 0.10-0.20
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A|un|u|un, na¦¦ í|u|s| 0.S0-0.7S
S||vc:, µo||s|cd 0.00
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S¦cc|, µo||s|cd 0.S0-0.60
bu||d|uj na¦c:|a|s
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C,µsun 0.70-0.80
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Couc:c¦c 0.30-0.S0
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b:|c|, :cd 0.10-0.20
C|ass, c|ca: 0.0S-0.01
Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light
Reflectance
Reflectances of common metals,
paints and building materials
Reflectances
352
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light
Transmission describes how the
light incident on a body is totally
or partially transmitted depend-
ing on the transmission factor
of the given body. The degree of
diffusion of the transmitted light
must also be taken into account.
In the case of completely trans-
parent materials there is no dif-
fusion. The greater the diffusing
power, the smaller the directed
component of the transmitted
light, up to the point where only
diffuse light is produced. Trans-
mitting materials in luminaires
can be transparent. This applies
to simple front glass panels or
filters that absorb certain spec-
tral regions but transmit others,
thereby producing coloured light
or a reduction in the UV or IR
range. Occasionally diffusing
materials, e.g. opal glass or opal
plastics, are used for front covers
in order to reduce lamp lumi-
nance and to help control glare.
Luminous intensity distribution I
in the case of diffuse transmission
Luminous distribution L in the
case of diffuse transmission. It is
the same from all angles of vision.
Luminous intensity distribution in
the case of mixed transmission
Luminous intensity distribution
in the case of mixed transmission
through transparent material
Transmission
Absorption describes how the
light incident on a surface is
totally or partially absorbed
depending on the absorption
factor of the given material. In
the construction of luminaires
absorption is primarily used for
shielding light sources; in this
regard it is essential for visual
comfort. In principle, however,
absorption is not desirable since
it does not direct but rather
wastes light, thereby reducing
the light output ratio of the
luminaire. Typical absorbing ele-
ments on a luminaire are black
multigroove baffles, anti-dazzle
cylinders, barn doors or louvres
of various shapes and sizes.
Absorption
353
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light
Refraction
When beams of light enter a clear
transmitting medium of differing
density, e.g. from air into glass
and vice versa from glass into
the air, they are refracted, i.e. the
direction of their path is changed.
In the case of objects with paral-
lel surfaces there is only a parallel
light shift, whereas prisms and
lenses give rise to optical effects
ranging from change of radiation
angle to the concentration or
diffusion of light to the creation
of optical images. In the construc-
tion of luminaires refracting ele-
ments such as prisms or lenses
are frequently used in combina-
tion with reflectors to control the
light.
When transmitted from one
medium with a refractive index
of n1 into a denser medium with
a refractive index of n2, the rays
of light are diffracted towards
the axis of incidence (ε1>ε2).
For the transition from air to
glass the refractive index is
approx. n2/n1=1.5.
When transmitted through a
medium of a different density,
rays are displaced in parallel.
Introduction
Prisms and lenses Typical ray tracing of parallel
incident light through an asym-
metrical prism structure (top
left), symmetrical ribbed prism
structure (top right), Fresnel lens
(bottom left) and collecting lens
(bottom right).
Refractive index
There is an angular limit εG for
the transmission of a ray of light
from a medium with a refrac-
tive index of n2 into a medium
of less density with a refractive
index of n1. If this critical angle
is exceeded the ray of light is
reflected into the denser medium
(total internal reflection). For the
transition from glass to air the
angular limit is approx. εG = 42°.
Fibre-optic conductors function
according to the principle of total
internal reflection (right).
354

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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light
Interference
Interference is described as the
intensification or attenuation of
light when waves are superim-
posed. From the lighting point
of view, interference effects are
exploited when light falls on
extremely thin layers that lead to
specific frequency ranges being
reflected and others being trans-
mitted. By arranging the sequence
of thin layers of metal vapour
according to defined thicknesses
and densities, selective reflectance
can be produced for specific fre-
quency ranges. The result can be
that visible light is reflected and
infrared radiation transmitted,
for example – as is the case with
cool-beam lamps. Reflectors and
filters designed to produce col-
oured light can be manufactured
using this technique. Interference
filters, so-called dichroic filters,
have a high transmission factor
and produce particularly distinct
separation of reflected and trans-
mitted spectral ranges.
Mirror-finish reflectors with good
material quality are free of inter-
ference.
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Reflectors are probably the
most important elements in the
construction of luminaires for
controlling light. Reflectors with
mirrored surfaces are mainly
used. Diffusely reflective surfaces
– usually white or with a matt
finish are also used. Reflectors – general Darklight reflectors Parabolic reflectors
Spherical reflectors Elliptical reflectors Involute reflectors
Double reflector
systems
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Reflectors
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors
Reflectors – general
Anodized aluminium or chrome-
plated or aluminium-coated
plastic are generally used for
reflectors. Plastic reflectors are
reasonably low-priced, but can
only take a limited thermal load
and are therefore not so robust
as aluminium reflectors, whose
highly resistant anodized coating
provides mechanical protection
and can be subjected to high
temperatures.
Material
Surface
Reflector surfaces: specular Matt
Textured Facetted
The surfaces of the reflectors can
have a specular or matt finish.
The matt finish produces greater
and more uniform reflector lumi-
nance. If the reflected light beam
is to be slightly diffuse, be it to
attain softer light or to balance
out irregularities in the light dis-
tribution, the reflector surfaces
may have a facetted or textured
finish. Metal reflectors may
receive a dichroic coating, which
can control light luminous colour
or the UV or IR component.
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Reflectors can be divided into dif-
ferent reflectance groups: mirror-
finish, specular and satin matt.
Mirror-finish reflectors with
good material quality are free of
interference. The high reflectance
and the highest specular quality
make the luminaire appear as a
“dark hole” in the ceiling. Reflec-
tions of items such as bright room
furnishings are possible in the
reflector. A further characteristic
is high luminance contrasts in the
reflector.
The lower specular quality of
specular reflectors reduces the
disadvantages associated with
highly specular reflectors.
Satin-matt reflectors are also
interference free if the anodising
thickness is sufficient. The high
reflectance and the low specu-
lar quality lead to low contrast
within the reflector. This means
that disturbing reflections from
room furnishings are prevented
and it also produces a calm room
ambiance. Diffuse surface reflec-
tion can cause luminances of
>200cd/m
2
in the area beyond
the cut-off angle. There is usually
no disturbance on VDU screens.
Reflectance
Reflectance of reflectors:
mirror-finish
Specular
Satin matt
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors
Reflectors – general
Light distribution is determined
to a large extent by the form of
the reflector. Almost all reflector
shapes can be attributed to the
parabola, the circle or the ellipse.
Geometry
Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola
Path of beam from point light
sources when reflected by:
358
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The most widely used reflectors
are parabolic reflectors. They allow
light to be controlled in a variety
of ways, e.g. narrow-beam, wide-
beam or asymmetrical distribu-
tion, and provide for specific glare
limitation characteristics. If the
reflector contour is constructed
by rotating a parabola or parabolic
segment around its own axis, the
result is a reflector with narrow-
beam light distri bution. In the case
of linear light sources a similar
effect is produced when rectan-
gular reflectors with a parabolic
cross section are used.
Reflector contour
Reflector contours for parallel
beam/parabola
Converging beam/ellipse
Diverging beam/hyperbola
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors
Parabolic reflectors
Converging-diverging beam
In the case of parabolic reflectors,
the light emitted by a light source
located at the focal point of the
parabola is radiated parallel to
the parabolic axis.
If there is a short distance between
a parabolic reflector’s focal point
and its apex, the reflector will act
as a shield to direct rays.
If this distance is large, then the
direct rays will not be shielded.
However, these can be shielded
using a spherical reflector.
Focal point
If the reflector contour is con-
structed by rotating a parabolic
segment around an axis, which is
at an angle to the parabolic axis,
the result is a reflector with wide-
beam to batwing light distribu-
tion characteristics. Beam angles
and cut-off angles can therefore
basically be defined as required,
which allows luminaires to be
constructed to meet a wide range
of light distribution and glare
limitation requirements.
Wide-beam light
distri bution
359

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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors
Parabolic reflectors
Parabolic reflectors can also be
applied with linear or flat light
sources, e.g. PAR lamps or fluores-
cent lamps, although these lamps
are not located at the focal point
of the parabola. In these cases,
the aim is not so much to produce
parallel directional light but opti-
mum glare limitation. In this type
of construction, the focal point of
the parabola lies at the nadir of
the opposite para bolic segments,
with the result that no light from
the light source located above the
reflector can be emitted above
the given cut-off angle. Such
constructions are not only pos-
sible in luminaires, but can also
be applied to daylight control
systems; parabolic louvres, e.g. in
skylights, direct the sunlight so
that glare cannot arise above the
cut-off angle.
Linear light sources
360
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In the case of the conventional
parabolic reflectors clearly defined
light radiation – and effective
glare limitation – is only possible
for exact, point light sources.
When using larger radiating
sources, e.g. compact fluorescent
lamps, glare will occur above the
cut-off angle; glare is visible in
the reflector, although the lamp
itself is shielded. By using reflec-
tors with a variable parabolic
focal point (so-called darklight
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors
In the case of spherical reflec-
tors the light emitted by a lamp
located at the focal point of the
sphere is reflected to this focal
point. Spherical reflectors are
used predominantly as an aid in
conjunction with parabolic reflec-
tors or lens systems. They direct
the luminous flux forwards onto
the parabolic reflector, so that it
also functions in controlling the
Spherical reflectors
With involute reflectors the light
that is emitted by the lamp is
not reflected back to the light
source, as is the case with spheri-
cal reflectors, but reflected past
the lamp. Involute reflectors are
mainly used with discharge lamps
to avoid the lamps over-heating
due to the retro-reflected light,
which would result in a decrease
in performance.
Involute reflectors
Darklight reflectors reflectors) this effect can be
avoided; brightness will then
only occur in the reflector of
larger radiating sources below
the cut-off angle, i.e. when the
light source is visible.
light, or to utilize the light radi-
ated backwards by means of retro
reflection back towards the lamp.
361
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Double reflector systems consist
of a primary and secondary reflec-
tor. The primary reflector aligns
the light in a parallel or narrowly
focused beam and directs it to the
secondary reflector. The actual
light distribution is created by the
secondary reflector. The direct
view of upon the high luminance
of the lamp is prevented with
double reflector systems, result-
ing in improved visual comfort.
The precise alignment of the
reflectors determines the effi-
ciency of the system.
Double reflector systems
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors
In the case of elliptical reflec-
tors the light radiated by a lamp
located at the first focal point
of the ellipse is reflected to the
second focal point. The second
focal point of the ellipse can be
used as an imaginary, secondary
light source.
Elliptical reflectors are used in
recessed ceiling washlights to pro-
duce a light effect from the ceiling
downwards. Elliptical reflectors are
also ideal when the smallest pos-
sible ceiling opening is required for
downlights. The second focal point
will be an imaginary light source
positioned at ceiling level; it is,
however, also possible to control
the light distribution and glare
limitation by using an additional
parabolic reflector.
Elliptical reflectors
Double-focus downlight Double-focus wallwashers
Spotlight
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Lenses are used almost exclusively
for luminaires for point light
sources. As a rule the optical sys-
tem comprises a combination of
one reflector with one or more
lenses.
Collecting lenses Sculpture lens Fresnel lenses
Spread lens Softec lens Flood lens
Projecting systems
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Lens systems
363
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lens systems
Collecting lenses direct the light
emitted by a light source located
in its focal point to a parallel
beam of light. Collecting lenses
are usually used in luminaire
constructions together with a
reflector. The reflector directs the
overall luminous flux in beam
direction, the lens is there to con-
centrate the light. The distance
between the collecting lens and
the light source is usually vari-
able, so that the beam angles
can be adjusted as required.
Collecting lenses
Fresnel lenses consist of concen-
trically aligned ring-shaped lens
segments. The optical effect of
these lenses is comparable to the
effect produced by conventional
lenses of corresponding shape
or curvature. Fresnel lenses are,
however, considerably flatter,
lighter and less expensive, which
is why they are frequently used
in luminaire construction in place
of converging lenses. The optical
performance of Fresnel lenses
is confined by aberration in the
regions between the segments;
as a rule the rear side of the
lenses is structured to mask
visi ble irregularities in the light
distribution and to ensure that
the beam contours are soft.
Fresnel lenses Luminaires equipped with Fresnel
lenses were originally mainly used
for stage lighting but are now
also used in architectural light-
ing schemes to allow individual
adjustment of beam angles when
the distance between luminaires
and objects varies.
The sculpture lens produces
asymmetrical light distribution.
It spreads the beam of light in
one axis, while leaving the light
distribution unchanged on the
other axis. The parallel ribbed lens
produces a vertical oval when the
ribs are orientated horizontally.
Sculpture lens
The spread lens is used with wall-
washers. It produces asymmetrical
light distribution. It spreads the
beam of light in one axis, while
leaving the light distribution
unchanged for the other axis.
The parallel ribbed lens produces
a vertical oval when the ribs are
orientated horizontally. This pro-
duces very even wallwashing.
Spread lens
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The flood lens spreads the beam
symmetrically. In addition, this
textured lens gives softer transi-
tion at the beam edge.
Flood lens
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lens systems
Projecting systems comprise an
elliptical reflector or a combina-
tion of spherical reflector and
condenser to direct light at a
carrier, which can be fitted with
optical accessories. The light is
then projected on the surface to
be illuminated by the main lens in
the luminaire.
Image size and beam angle can be
defined at carrier plane. Simple
aperture plates or iris diaphragms
can produce variously sized light
beams, and contour masks can be
used to create different contours
on the light beam. With the aid of
templates (gobos) it is possible to
project logos or images.
Projecting systems
Projector with optical system: a
uniformly illuminated carrier (1)
is focused via a lens system (2).
The ellipsoidal projector (left)
with high light output, and the
condenser projector (right) for
high quality definition.
The ability of the Softec lens
results in a soft beam. This can be
produced via a textured or frosted
glass. Softec lenses are used to
smooth out visible striations from
reflector lamps. As a lamp cover,
it prevents dazzle by reducing the
lamp luminance.
Softec lens
In addition, different beam angles
or image dimensions can be
selected depending on the focal
length of the lenses. In contrast
to luminaires for Fresnel lenses it
is possible to produce light beams
with sharp contours; soft con-
tours can be obtained by setting
the projector out of focus.
365
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60
20
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40
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500 600 800 700 nm 400
Standard light
type A
T = 47%
100
80
60
20
0
40
T(%)
500 600 800 700 nm 400
Standard light type A
T = 65%
100
80
b0
20
0
40
800
!¦7}
400 :00 700 b00 un 300
S¦auda:d ||j|¦
¦,µc A
! - 037
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Filters are optically effective ele-
ments which allow selective trans-
mission. Only part of the incident
beam is transmitted; consequently,
either coloured light is produced
or invisible beam components
(ultraviolet, infrared) are filtered
out. Filter effects can be attained
using selective absorption or using
interference. The filters‘ perme-
ability to light is known as trans-
mittance.
Types of filters Corrective filters Colour filters
Protective filters
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Filters
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Standard light type A
T = 65%
100
80
60
20
0
40
T(%)
500 600 800 700 nm 400
Standard light type A
T = 38%
100
80
60
20
0
40
T(%)
500 600 800 700 nm 400
Standard light type A
T = 6%
100
80
60
20
0
40
T(%)
500 600 800 700 nm 400
Standard light type A
T = 8%
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Absorption filters absorb certain
spectral ranges and transmit the
remaining radiation. The absorp-
tion process causes the filters to
become hot. The separation of
transmitted and reflected spectral
components is not as exact as
with interference filters and leads
to a reduced edge steepness of
the transmittance. Consequently,
coloured glass filters create rather
unsaturated colours. They have
great longevity however.
Types of filters
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Filters
Interference filters (edge filters)
are classed as reflection filters
and give a high transmittance
and an exact separation of trans-
mitted and reflected spectral
components. Glass filters coated
with an interference coating can
produce saturated colours. An
accumulation of heat is avoided
since reflection, and not absorp-
tion, takes place. The reflection
spectrum is dependent on the
angle of observation. Due to the
vaporised coating, their scuff
resistance is less than that of
absorption filters.
Absorption filter
Reflection filter
Magenta
Amber
Colour filters only transmit a cer-
tain part of the coloured, visible
spectrum, whereby the remaining
components of the radiation are
filtered out. Colour filters made of
plastic film are not heat resistant.
Conversely, heat is not so critical
for glass filters and, to an extent,
they are resistant to temperature
change. Absorption filters made
of coloured glass attain lower
colour saturation compared to
interference filters. The colour-
filtering property of interference
colour filters is not immediately
apparent – they do not look col-
oured.
Colour filters
Properties
Night Blue
Sky Blue
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100
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60
20
0
40
T(%)
500 600 800 700 nm 400
Standard light
type A
T = 65%
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In architectural lighting too, col-
ours from the daylight spectrum
are felt to be natural: Magenta
(conditions of light at sunset),
Amber (atmospheric light at sun-
rise), Night Blue (clear night sky)
and Sky Blue (light of the sky by
day). In scenic lighting, all colours
of light come into play for high-
lighting and forming contrasts. In
practice, when illuminating col-
oured surfaces, it is recommend-
able to perform lighting tests.
Colour filters
Applications
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Filters
Corrective filters designed as
conversion filters will increase or
reduce the colour temperature of
the light source due to the spec-
tral progression of the transmis-
sion. Skintone filters only correct
the lamp‘s light spectrum in the
green and yellow spectral range
and thereby produce a very natu-
ral and pleasant effect on skin
tones. Daylight-conversion filters
transform the warm white colour
temperature in the range of the
neutral white colour of light, i.e.
from 3000K to 4000K.
Corrective filters
Properties
Corrective filters
Applications
Skintone Daylight
Skintone filters are colour filters
which improve the effect of natu-
ral warm colours, especially the
colours of the skin. It is beneficial
to use Skintone filters in commu-
nication areas, such as those of
restaurants or cafés.
Conversion filters are used to
adapt the warm white [light col-
our=1961] from halogen lamps
to daylight lighting. Furthermore,
by using daylight-conversion
filters in warm white illuminated
areas, it is also possible to create
zones with neutral white light
atmosphere.
368
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40
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!¦7}
400 S00 700 600 un 300
S¦auda:d ||j|¦
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! - 037
100
80
60
20
0
40
800
T(%)
400 500 700 600 nm 300
Standard light
type A
T = 92%
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Filters
Protective filters
UV filters are suitable for com-
pletely blocking ultraviolet
radiation while allowing optimal
transmission of visible light. The
separation between reflexion
and transmission takes place at
400nm. The steeper the edge of
the transmission curve, the less
the will be the colour distortion
in the visible spectrum. UV filters
are transparent (clear), the trans-
mission is directional.
Properties
UV filter
IR filter
Applications Filtering out virtually all the ultra-
violet radiation effectively delays
the photochemical process of
decay in textiles, watercolours,
historic documents, artworks and
other exhibits that are sensitive
to light. This particularly applies
to the bleaching of colours and to
yellowing. In practice, since the
UV component of high-pressure
discharge lamps is already reduced
by prescribed safety glasses,
the highest ultraviolet loading
is found from non-cap sulated
tungsten halogen lamps.
The use of infrared filters signifi-
cantly reduces the thermal load
and thus decreases the heat on
an object or its surface. Materials
sensitive to heat and humidity
can thus be protected from drying
out or distorting. High propor-
tions of infrared radiation are
emitted predominantly from light
sources with low luminous effi-
cacy, such as thermal radiators.
Infrared filters absorb or reflect
the thermal radiation above
800nm while allowing optimal
transmission of visible light
spectrum. The thermal load on
objects is reduced to a minimum.
IR filters are transparent (clear),
the transmission is directional.
Adequate seperation between
lamp and filter avoids a build-up
of heat within the luminaire.
UV filters are suitable for use in:
- art museums
- art galleries
- natural-science museums
- antiquarian bookshops
IR filters are suitable for use in:
- art museums
- art galleries
- natural-science museums
- antiquarian bookshops
- food shops
UV filter
IR filter
369
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Prismatic systems
Properties
Typical light distribution of a
fluorescent lamp with prismatic
systems
Another means of controlling
light optically is to deflect it
using a prism. It is known that the
deflection of a ray of light when
it penetrates a prism is depend-
ent on the angle of the prism. The
deflection angle of the light can
therefore be determined by the
shape of the prism.
If the light falls onto the side of
the prism above a specific angle,
it is not longer refracted but
reflected. This principle is also
frequently applied in prismatic
systems to deflect light in angles
beyond the widest angle of refrac-
tion and, in so doing, to cut out
the light.
Prismatic systems are primarily
used in luminaires that take fluo-
rescent lamps to control the beam
angle and to ensure adequate
glare limitation. This means that
the prisms have to be calculated
for the respective angle of inci-
dence and combined to form a
lengthwise oriented louvre or
shield which in turn forms the
outer cover of the luminaire.
370
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E
Many luminaires can be equipped
with accessories to change or
modify their photometric quali-
ties. Additional glare shields or
honeycomb anti-dazzle screens
can be used to improve glare
limitation.
Anti-dazzle attach-
ments
Cross baffle Honeycomb anti-
dazzle screen
Framing attachment
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Lighting technology accessories
Gobo
371
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E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lighting technology accessories
Anti-dazzle attachments Barn doors allow the emitted
beam to be separately restrained
in each of the four directions and
provide improved glare control.
A cylindrical anti-dazzle attach-
ment also restricts the view into
the luminaire and reduces glare,
but without the flexibility of barn
doors.
The anti-dazzle attachments are
usually externally mounted on
the light head. Glare limitation
increases with the size of the
anti-dazzle attachments. The
black painted finish absorbs light
and reduces the luminance con-
trasts.
Honeycomb anti-dazzle
screen
The honeycomb anti-dazzle
screen is used to control the
beam and reduce glare. Honey-
comb anti-dazzle screens are used
where there are high demands
for visual comfort in exhibition
areas. Its limited depth means
that the honeycomb anti-dazzle
screen can be integrated within
the luminaire. The black painted
finish absorbs light and reduces
the luminance contrasts.
Cross baffle The cross baffle is used to reduce
glare. Cross baffles are used where
there are high demands for visual
comfort in exhibition areas. The
black painted finish absorbs light
and reduces the luminance con-
trasts.
372
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Framing attachment
A framing attachment allows
various contours of the beam
to be adjusted. Reflector-lens
imaging systems make it possible
to produce a sharp-edged beam.
However, a blurred projection
results in a soft-edged beam. The
separately adjustable sliding com-
ponents can, for example be used
to create rectangles on walls in
order to highlight objects crisply
around their contours.
Applications:
Museo Deu, El Vendrell
Museo Ruiz de Luna Talavera,
Toledo
Goya exhibition, Madrid
Gobo
The term “gobo“ refers to an
aperture plate or image template
through which light is projected
by an imaging projector. Gobos
make it possible to project letter-
ing or images.
Reflector-lens imaging systems
can be used to create crisp images
or even soft-edged transitions
using blurred projections.
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lighting technology accessories
Applications:
Teattri Ravintola,
Finland
Aragon Pavilion,
Seville
ERCO, Lüdenscheid
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The incorporation of coloured light
opens up interesting possibilities
for influencing the atmosphere
of rooms. Under electronic con-
trol, a large number of colours
can be generated and a smooth
colour changes produced in the
luminaire. Varychrome
Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology
Colour mixing
374
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Introduction The addition of the name ‚vary-
chrome‘ to ERCO luminaires iden-
tifies those luminairs whose col-
our can be changed dynamically.
These luminaires are electroni cally
controlled to generate variable
light colours by additive colour
mixing of the primary colours red,
green and blue (RGB technology).
They enable an infinitely variable
adjustment of different light
colours.
The advantages of colour mixing
using coloured lamps are that
complex mechanical components
are not needed and colour filters
with low transmission are avoided.
The term ‚varychrome‘ refers to
the mixing of colours.
It is derived from the Latin adjec-
tive ‚varius‘ meaning different
and the Greek word ‚chroma‘ for
colour.
E Guide
Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Colour mixing
Varychrome
Technology In principle, the colours of the
fluorescent lamps can be chosen
at will. A multitude of colours
can be mixed from the coloured
fluorescent lamps in red, green
and blue. The saturation and
the chromaticity location of the
lamps determine the size and
shape of the resulting colour tri-
angle. The lamps in warm white,
neutral white and daylight white
can create various different white
light colours. The fluorescent
lamps primarily produce diffuse
light with low brilliance.
LED
The luminaires with LEDs feature
a high colour density, which
therefore results in a large colour
triangles. Characteristic for LEDs
are low luminous flux, compact
dimensions and long service life.
Fluorescent lamps
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Light simulation and light cal-
culation have become essential
components of lighting design.
They enable the creative design
of lighting solutions on the com-
puter and range from the evalua-
tion of experimental concepts to
photorealistic presentations. The
calculation methods are used for
quantitative analyses to verify the
required illuminances. However,
to ensure efficient use of this
technology, knowledge of the
underlying technical principles
is necessary.
Introduction Simu-
lation
Planning examples
Calculations Light simulation
Planning data
376
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Architects and lighting designers
use different methods to convey
ideas and technical details and
communicate these to those
involved in the planning process.
Concepts can be visually compared
during the design phase in order
for decisions to be made prior to
construction. Since the 80s the
established methods of sketch-
ing, model making, sampling and
drawings have been extended by
techniques of digital simulation.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Introduction Simulation
Evaluation and
presentation
Quantitative and
qualitative simulation
Simulation and image
processing
Simulation and
reality
Design process Interaction
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Evaluation and presentation Comparable to model making,
the simulation also differentiates
between the working model and
the presentation model. While
the working model simplifies the
design process in that it provides
rough, sketched variants, the
presentation model includes elab-
orate details. In lighting design,
sketches, digital drawings and
photo realistic representations are
quick visualisation methods. For
further examination this is fol-
lowed by general light simulation,
omitting exact details of materi-
als or luminaires. In a subsequent
step, the simulation is improved
by including realistic surfaces and
specific luminaires with accurate
photometrics for detailed plan-
ning and presentation purposes.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Introduction Simulation
Simulation and image
processing
Simulation is generally associated
with 3D models and an accurate
representation of the lighting
effect. However, for schematic
visualisations, designers often
use digital image processing in
a 2D or 3D representation. The
advantage lies in the speed of
abstraction and realisation. If the
space to be illuminaited is com-
plex then this method does not
allow detailed planning due to
limitations associated with scal-
ing and complicated geometry.
Quantitative and qualitative
simulation
In lighting design, simulation
includes two aspects. The quanti-
tative simulation provides physi-
cally correct, numerical values to
verify the illuminances and lamp
luminances specified. The quali-
tative simulation, on the other
hand, focuses on atmosphere
and is used by lighting designers
to communicate their aesthetic
idea of the lighting design.
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Introduction Simulation
Simulation and reality Often, the quality of a simulation
is judged by its proximity to real-
ity and the question is asked as to
whether the rendering is correct
or no more than a photorealistic
representation. The criterion of
physically correct data refers to
the numerical values provided
by the quantitative simulation.
Screen displays or colour print-
outs can never give the same
impression as the actual environ-
ment. A photographer controls
the incident light by opening
or closing the aperture and the
same creative approach is taken
in the production of a rendering.
A further limitation is the range
of contrasts on the output media.
None of the following can cor-
rectly reproduce the luminance
contrast which will be seen in
reality: colour printout, screen
display or the projected image
of a beamer.
A photorealistic impression of a
qualitative simulation can provide
a far more authentic representa-
tion of the anticipated lighting
effect, such as the progression of
light and shadow or reflections
off surfaces.
Interaction To visualise changes instantly
during the processing stage,
designers prefer an interactive
simulation. Based on the cur-
rent state of the art, however,
the interaction is limited by the
available programs and signifi-
cantly depends on the hardware.
Interactive aspects in the pro-
grams usually include changes to
the geometry, camera position,
texture and simple modifications
of the light sources and material
properties. Currently changes to
reflections, complex shadows and
indirect light are excluded.
379
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Introduction Simulation
Design process A crucial factor in ensuring an
efficient light simulation during
the design process is a reason-
able degree of detailing and the
assistance of an expert. Time and
cost can be controlled by limiting
the scope of the presentation.
The implementation of the light
simulation can either be handled
by the design office itself or out-
sourced to a specialist provider.
If handled internally, a rendering
can be prepared in conjunction
with the design process. Simula-
tions, on the other hand, using
an external service provider
involve considerable information
exchange. This is compensated
for by the fact that the service
provider has greater experience,
can produce quicker results and
this can lead to reducing the cost
for the design.
The sequence of a light simulation
can be divided into four steps: the
modelling of the geometry, the
definition of materials, the illu-
mination of the model, and the
actual rendering process.
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The light simulation has proven
to be a useful tool in the visuali sa-
tion and verification of the light-
ing design. Initially, a number of
steps are required for the prelimi-
nary planning of the rendering:
the concept idea and the sketch,
the 3D CAD model and the specifi-
cation of the light sources and sur-
face properties. For professional
light simulations, the designer
uses specialised software such
as 3ds VIZ/Max or DIALux. Most
CAD programs are not able to
simulate light with physically
accuracy.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Light simulation
3D model Light Surface
Rendering Hardware Evaluation
Software Developments
381
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A simulation is based on the 3D
data of a room which is used to
produce images. This 3D data can
be imported from simple CAD
programs or specialised applica-
tions. If the design office already
works with 3D data, they can be
imported into the light simulation
software. The more sophisticated
the 3D model, the more realistic
the light simulation will be, but
also of course the more time-
consuming.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
3D model
Export and import Geometry Topology
382
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Export and import Where a 3D model exists in a
program other than the one used
for light simulation, the data can
be transferred using the export
and import functions. Since 3D
models contain complex data, the
designer must consider sources of
error and allow for manual correc-
tions. It is advisable to export the
data simultaneously in several
established exchange formats.
These 3D CAD exchange formats
include DWG, DXF, and 3DS.
E
Topology CAD programs increasingly work
with component-orientated func -
tions such as the generation of pil-
lars or ceilings. Often, however, it
remains unclear as to whether the
elements are made up of surfaces
or volumes. In the simulation
programs, though, the designer is
confronted with the basic 3D ele-
ments without component details;
these can be vertex, edge, face/
polygon and surface normal: the
vertex with the X, Y and Z coordi-
nates, an edge is defined by two
vertices and a surface by three.
The normal is positioned verti -
cally on the surface and reveals
its front face. After exporting
from a component-orientated
CAD program, the designer needs
to be prepared eventually for a
different structure where modi-
fications of the geometry are
made in the simulation program.
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
3D model
383
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E
Geometry Since CAD models can be used
for other requirements than light
simulation, the geometry model
frequently causes problems in
the simulation. While the wire
cables of a banister can easily
be designed as high-resolution
cylinders in a CAD program, the
calculation of the cylinder sur-
face is complicated to render.
The designer must take this into
account as early as possible in
the preparation of the 3D model
in order to review the export set-
tings. Since simulations require
extensive calculations and will
continue to do so, an optimised
geometry considerably reduces
the work and time involved in
producing light simulations. Small,
highly detailed geometries on a
separate, inactive layer can reduce
the calculation time. Similarly, it
is advisable to use a material-
based layer structure for quick
provisional calculations.
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
3D model
384
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Materials are recognised solely
through definition of the surface
properties. Depending on the
complexity required, the simula-
tion programs allow for anything
between simple and complex
settings.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Surface
Shading Texture
385
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Shading The term ”shading” refers to the
representation of shades. The
designer uses a shader to define
the lighting properties through
the colour, the reflectance and
the transparency. These deter-
mine how the light will appear
on an object and affect the sur-
roundings. The lighting effect of
the material properties always
depends on the type and position
of the light sources and is visible
only in the combination of shad-
ing factors and lighting: hence,
shiny spots on reflecting surfaces
appear only when the light from
the light sources shines directly
onto these surfaces.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Surface
Texture To show objects which don‘t have
a uniform surface colour, the sur-
face can be given a texture. This
method, known as "mapping“,
places abstract, graphical patterns
or photos on the model. Simula-
tion programs provide extensive
material collections in libraries
to enable designers to show tex-
tures such as wood or exposed
concrete. Using special mapping
methods (bump mapping), micro-
structures can be modified so as
to give the impression of three-
dimensional surfaces.
A highly realistic impression
results if by photos are assigned
as textures to polygons. To ensure
acceptable quality, the photo
should be high resolution, be
taken head-on and contain no
light or other reflections. It must
also be without distortions due
to the lens.
386
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Where the atmosphere of a room
is to be shown realistically, light
is one of the key factors in the
visualisation. It is essential in the
perception of the environment
and determines how rooms and
objects are interpreted. Simulat-
ing light using a rendering in a
3D model is a time-consuming
process. To do so, the designer
can resort to standardised light
sources or work with digital data
records to reproduce specific
luminaires.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Light
Direct light Indirect light Light sources
Daylight
387
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Light
Direct light Direct light refers to rays of light
shining directly onto the surface.
If there is no obstruction then
a point on the surface is illumi-
nated. The calculation of direct
light requires minimum time and
has been possible from the early
days of computer graphics. This
has one significant limitation in
that indirect light is not included:
hence, a room illuminated using
only ceiling washlights would be
completely dark, except for the
areas where the ceiling is illumi-
nated by the direct light.
Indirect light Indirect light is produced as a
result of light reflecting off a sur -
face. The reflectance of the sur-
face and the degree of diffusion
which is often assumed, deter-
mines the calculated, reflected
indirect light. To create an accu-
rate impression of the room,
designers need to calculate as
many interreflections as possible
to achieve a representational
light distribution in the room.
It was not until the 1990s that
progress in hardware allowed
such a complex calculation. The
calculation of indirect light is
also known as ”global illumi-
nation”.
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Light sources
Light distribution
Simulation programs include
general light sources such as
spot, point, area and sunlight.
The representation of special
luminaires, however, requires an
interface that can import the
light distribution data from the
luminaires. These data records
are available from most luminaire
manufacturers and describe the
specific light intensity distribu-
tion of each luminaire. The IES
format is a common international
data format. Luminaires with an
asymmetric light distribution, for
example, cannot be calculated
correctly in any other way. The
use of accessories such as a sculp-
ture lens affects the light distri-
bution and requires a separate
data record.
Daylight The combination of daylight with
direct sunlight and the diffuse
sky light, gives simulations the
impression of reality. While the
calculation of daylight for pres-
entations and shading studies is
easy, quantitative representation
is difficult. Accurate information
on glare control at workplaces and
on heat transmission for different
types of sun protection glazing
can only be obtained using special
software with appropriate analysis
tools.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Light
Light sources
3D model
Rather than being limited to a
quantitative light simulation, if
the designer also wants to dem-
onstrate the effect of luminaires
in the room, the luminaires must
be available as 3D models. To do
this some luminaire manufactur-
ers provide what are called virtual
luminaires, which include the 3D
geometry of the luminaire, the
surface properties, the functional
rotation axis and the light inten-
sity distribution. Using inverse
kinematics, spotlights can be set
up quickly and realistically: if the
designer adjusts the light distri-
bution in the room, the movable
parts of the luminaires automati-
cally follow.
389
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A render engine is an application
that allows photorealistic images
to be generated from a 3D model.
Every simulation program has
special rendering procedures,
each of which has advantages
and disadvantages. Experience
has shown that every three or
four years, the progress made in
hardware performance allows
new methods of calculation.
Despite the improvements in
simulation programs, the qual -
ity of the renderings still ulti-
mately depends on the skill of
the designer.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Rendering
Radiosity Photon mapping Ray tracing
390
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Rendering
Radiosity
In calculations of light distribu-
tion using the radiosity process
the rays are emitted by the light
source and are reflected back by
a surface. This process continues
with a defined number of itera-
tions and consequently also takes
into consideration the light
reflecting off other surfaces.
A key advantage of radiosity is
the storage of light properties in
a grid on the model geometry. In
this way, the camera angle can
subsequently be changed without
requiring a revised calculation.
The disadvantage of radiosity is
the effect on the calculation time
of details, spheres or complex
scenes with a very large number
of polygons. A relatively coarse
grid of values for quicker calcula-
tion, on the other hand, can lead
to errors in the light intensity
distribution.
Photon mapping
Photon mapping is similar to
the ray tracing process. While
ray tracing is based on rays from
the observers/camera position,
photon mapping is based on rays
emitted from the light source.
Photon mapping uses virtual
”photons” radiating light into the
room. When they hit a surface,
they are reflected back and the
luminance values are summated.
The photon outputs are stored
in a photon map. This map is not
bound to the geometry and can be
used for simulations with distrib-
uted calculations in the network.
The camera position can be modi-
fied without the need to revise
the calculation – this process,
though, is not interactive.
The more photons a model has,
the more accurate the transitions
will be in the rendering and the
more complex the calculation.
After a certain number of reflec-
tions/iterations, the photon map
Radiosity was one of the first
processes used for the calculation
of light distribution. Due to the
possibility of calculating indirect,
diffuse light, this process is now
widely used. If it is only the cam-
era angle that changes in the ani-
mation of an architectural model,
and not the light, the different
perspectives require no more than
a single calculation.
has the required precision. In a
further process, the points can
be merged through gathering.
Photon mapping is used as for
further calculations. To show
details more accurately, the proc-
ess is combined with ray tracing.
If the calculation is based exclu-
sively on ray tracing it is too com-
plex for very small models and
very bright light sources.
391
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Ray tracing
(Backward) ray tracing, also called
Monte Carlo ray tracing, is the
second of the two most popular
processes used for the calculation
of light distribution. Unlike radios-
ity and photon mapping, however,
it does not trace a ray of light
from the light source. Instead,
the rays start from the eye and
are followed backwards to the
model and the light sources. If the
rays from the eye hit a surface,
other rays of light are used to see
whether this point reflects light
or contains shadows. The result is
shown as pixels on a focal plane.
The higher the resolution required
on the focal plane and the more
reflecting surfaces there are, the
more rays of light are required
for the simulation and the more
complex the calculation becomes.
Ray tracing has the advantage of
producing exact representations
of details and the smallest shad-
ows. Since this method depends
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Rendering
on the focal plane, a change
of angle and the line of vision
requires a new calculation. Scenes
with very high contrast ratios are
difficult to represent, as the inci-
dental rays of light for calculation
start from the observer/camera
position and light apertures such
as small windows in a large wall
can initially be disregarded.
392
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In the same manner as photos
can be evaluated based on tech-
nical quality criteria, designers
can check renderings for errors.
Where the first impression often
determines the general aesthetic
appearance and the similarity of
the lighting effect to the natural
environment, there are various
criteria for a critical technical
evaluation. The desire for maxi-
mum precision in a visualisation
has to be balanced with the com -
plexity of detailed modelling and
the time-consuming calculation.
So, designers need to find a rea-
sonable compromise between
precision and speed for the simu-
lation.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Evaluation
Image design Artefacts
393
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Image design The image design is assessed,
focussing on aesthetic aspects.
The perspective - whether with
isometry or a central or two-
point perspective – determines
the geometric or natural impres-
sion. In the same manner, the
overall brightness, contrast and
colour density contribute to a
realistic representation. Carefully
defined surfaces create a realistic
impression.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Evaluation
394
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Lighting Objects Correct settings for the calcula-
tion of illuminance of objects
can be seen by the details of the
objects. Curved edges that show
aliasing effects such as sharp
edges or hard transitions require
less computing power.
Often, the calculation times can
be reduced many times over if
only a few sample points are
smoothed and gathered. While
this shortcut is not visible on
smooth surfaces, the error will be
visible on small, complex forms.
This aspect is relevant where
details have high luminance con-
trasts. This is similar to the lumi-
nance progression on component
edges or the weak shadow of an
object due to excessive interpo-
lation of the shadow-effect in
the room.
If the grid is too coarse and the
components are not accurately
connected, the light distribution
can be wrong, resulting, for exam-
ple, in light apparently shining
through a wall or a ceiling.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Evaluation
Room with few sample points Room with numerous sample
points
Shadow with strong interpolation Detail shadow with strong
interpolation
Shadow with good interpolation Surfaces with few sample points
395
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Hardware
The effects of faster hardware on
the computing power are more
obvious in light simulation than
in other areas of application,
including communication or word
processing. To ensure an efficient
simulation process, it is crucial
to establish a harmonic balance
between the processor, the mem-
ory and the graphics card.
Processor Main memory Graphics card
396
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Hardware
Processor The processor (CPU, Central
Processing Unit) is responsible
for the computing power. A
processor working twice as fast
as others reduces the calcula-
tion time for a rendering by half.
Today the use of dual processors
is recommended. Some worksta-
tions have several CPUs instead.
For complex tasks, the designer
can include other computers in
the network for distributed cal-
culations.
Main memory The main memory (RAM, Random
Access Memory) does not directly
affect the computing speed. In
the first instance, it determines
how big the edited scene can be,
before the computer writes data
onto the hard drive. This writing
process is tedious and slows down
the rendering process. Since the
dependence here is not linear,
the performance drops signifi-
cantly once a certain threshold
is reached. If the calculation fre-
quently coincides with hard drive
activity, it is advisable to increase
the main memory.
Graphics card The graphics card determines the
degree of possible interactivity
with the 3D model, specifically
in case of textured objects. The
actual computing speed is hardly
affected by the graphics card.
Some developments, however,
show that the graphics card will,
in future, also be used for simu-
lations.
397
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Software
There is a wide range of programs
available for light simulation. The
software spectrum covers every-
thing from fast, quantitative
analyses to sophisticated visuali-
sation methods. Whether a soft -
ware package can produce accu -
rate light simulations is indicated
in the manual, which must spec-
ify support of global illumination
or radiosity and the IES or Eulum-
dat format. If it does then the
designer can combine the photo-
metric data with the respective
3D DXF data.
DIALux Autodesk Radiance
398
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DIALux DIALux is a free of charge lighting
design software application for
calculation and visualisation. The
program is provided by the Deut-
sches Institut für Angewandte
Lichttechnik (DIAL – German Insti-
tute of Applied Lighting Technol-
ogy). The DIALux software gives
a quick and easy quantitative
analysis of a design and includes
simple 3D and rendering func-
tions. The ULD data format for
the luminaires comprises the 3D
geometry of the luminaire, the
light intensity distribution, and
an article description. The plug-
in packages of luminaire manu-
facturers contain additional plan-
ning data such as maintenance
factors or UGR values.
For further information on the
DIALux software visit
www.dialux.com.
Autodesk One of the products available
from Autodesk is the VIZ software,
a program for sophisticated visual-
isations. The luminaire data for
Autodesk VIZ and also for 3ds Max
include a 3D model of the lumi-
naire. This includes surface prop-
erties, textures and the possible
motion of components (inverse
kinematics). Inverse kinematics
allows directional luminaires to
be aligned through a few simple
adjustments. A light simulation
requires additional photometric
data. Autodesk VIZ and 3ds Max
enable radiosity calculations to
produce numerically accurate
light simulations.
Radiance Radiance is a professional light
simulation program from Berkeley
Lab. Its wide range of calculation
and analysis tools requires exten-
sive knowledge of operating sys -
tems and shell commands and
consequently, it is mostly used in
research institutes and by highly
specialised companies. Due to its
complexity, the program is not
suitable for quick representations
of qualitative lighting designs.
A physically correct light simu-
lation is possible with IES lumi-
naire data.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Software
399
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Developments
Compared with other technolo-
gies such as digital photography
or desktop publishing, the 3D
visualisation method is far from
being fully developed. Within a
few years, innovations can sig-
nificantly change the processes.
A number of developments in
light simulation are expected in
the near future.
HDR Light spectrum Real-time rendering
400
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Light simulation
Developments
HDR
The acronym HDR stands for “High
Dynamic Range“ and describes a
technical format that stores and
displays a higher luminance con-
trast. Today’s graphical output
devices largely work with a “Low
Dynamic Range” with 255 tones
per colour channel for RGB (8bit).
In a scene with a very high lumi-
nance contrast, as may be caused
by the sun, for example, some are-
as can be 100,000 times brighter
than shaded areas. If the image
is saved as a TIFF or jpg file, the
contrast range is compressed such
that the sun is only 255 times
brighter than the shadow. The
sun and a white vase can both be
white in an image and thus fail to
reproduce the luminance contrast
correctly. Because the full range
of contrast levels is maintained in
HDR format images (32bit), new
possibilities arise for a subsequent
exposure or for renderings. Where
this is common practice already,
Light spectrum
In most simulation modules, the
quality of the colour rendition
cannot yet be reproduced because
the appropriate data and pro-
grams are not available. Rather
than calculating the entire visible
spectrum of light, the software
currently only calculates certain
segments: red, green and blue.
Since the various types of lamp
do not have a uniform spectrum,
the result is different colour
renditions that are not covered
by the simulation programs. Con-
sequently, specifics on the colour
rendition of illuminated textiles in
a shop, for example, are not pos-
sible with the current state of the
art. Appropriate future functions
would additionally require the
definition of the spectral charac-
teristics of both the light sources
and the surfaces..
Real-time rendering
Simulations always result in
some time delay between input
and result. Consequently real
time calculations would be ideal.
Many functions can already be
performed in real time. Often,
however, the technical progress
also involves higher representa-
tion requirements, which results
in speed reduction. The real-time
technology is inspired by com-
puter games, where interaction
directly modifies the image
sequence. Computer game users
benefit from elaborate prelimi-
nary calculations that are uncom-
mon in architectural simulations.
The solutions developed by the
manufacturers of rendering pro-
grams depend on the hardware
functions of powerful graphics
cards.
the development of HDR-compat-
ible monitors will raise this tech-
nology to even higher levels. In
the medium term, the HDR format
will replace the current image for -
mats. The RAW photo format is
already a step in this direction.
Incandescent lamp relative
spectral distribution
High-pressure discharge lamp
relative spectral distribution
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The planning and design of
lighting installations involves
a number of technical and eco-
nomical calculations. Usually,
these relate to the average light-
ing level or the exact illuminance
at individual points in the room.
In addition, it may be useful to
determine the luminance levels
in specific areas of the room,
the quality features of the light-
ing such as shadow effects and
contrast rendition or the cost of
a lighting installation including
maintenance cost.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Calculations
Connected load Maintenance Factor Point illuminances
UGR method Lighting costs Utilisation factor
method
402
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When planning the connected
load, the specific luminaire and
light source used is taken into
consideration to determine the
load, or the number of luminaires,
required to achieve the specified
illuminance. Alternatively, the
specified connected load and
light source can be used to cal-
culate the average illuminance.
The connected load is used in the
planning of regular luminaire
grids. To estimate the approxi-
mate lighting levels, luminaire
manufacturers provide tables
indicating the illuminances of
specified numbers of luminaires.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
Connected load
Number of luminaires Illuminance
403
Specifications
22227.000
Connected load of one luminaire
P: 66.0 W
Connected load per 100lx
P*: 2.81 W/m
2
E
m
Maintained value of illuminance
DIN EN 12464
f Correction factor from separate
correction table 0.93
MF Maintenance factor, reference
value 0.80
Example with P*
E
m
· a · b · P*
n =
P · f · MF
500lx · 12m · 14m · 2.81W/m
2
n =
66W · 0.93 · 0.81 · 100lx
n = 48
Specifications
22227.000
Connected load of one luminaire
P: 66.0 W
Connected load per 100lx
P*: 2.81 W/m
2
E
m
Maintained value of illuminance
DIN EN 12464
f Correction factor from separate
correction table 0.93
MF Maintenance factor, reference
value 0.80
Example with P*
n · P · f · MF
E
m
=
a · b · P*
48 · 66W · 0.93 · 0.80 · 100lx
E
m
=
12m · 14m · 2.81W/m
2
E
m
=499
Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Number of luminaires The required number of lumi-
naires for a specific illuminance
can be calculated on the basis of
the connected load values given
for a luminaire and 100lx. A fur-
ther parameter to be included is
the maintenance factor to ensure
the required illuminance over
the entire period of operation.
Since the values only apply to a
standard room, the calculation
for other conditions requires a
correction factor.
E
Illuminance In order to calculate the illumi-
nance of a specified number of
luminaires, the designer requires
information on the connected
load per luminaire per 100lx.
The maintained level of illumi-
nance is determined using the
maintenance factor. The main-
tained value is the minimum
illuminance level that must be
maintained during the opera-
tion of the lighting installation.
Since these values only apply to
a standard room, the calculation
for other conditions requires a
correction factor.
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
Connected load
404
Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
The illuminance distribution at
certain points in the room can
be calculated using the inverse
square law. This is based on the
fact that the illuminance reduces
with the square of the distance
from the light source. Indirect
lighting components are not
included in this calculation. Point
illuminances can be calculated
for a single luminaire or several
luminaires. For confined areas
with individual luminaires, man-
ual calculations can be appropri-
ate. Where there are a number of
luminaires and functional areas
in a room, designers use lighting
design programs that then include
the indirect lighting components.
The programs can determine the
illuminance for all room surfaces
and working planes. The results
are displayed in graphic represen-
tations of Isolux charts or false
colour diagrams.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
Point illuminances
405
Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
To ensure that the required illumi-
nance is provided over a period of
time, the lighting design includes
a maintenance factor MF that
takes into account the reduction
of luminous flux. The new value
for the illuminance of an installa-
tion is calculated from the main -
tained value of illuminance, and
the maintenance factor. The
maintenance plan specifies the
cleaning frequency of the lumi-
naires and the room and the
lamp replacement. The main-
tained value of illuminance thus
depends on the luminaires, the
lamps and the room conditions.
Luminaire
Maintenance Factor
Room Surface
Maintenance Factor
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
Maintenance Factor
Lamp Lumen
Maintenance Factor
Lamp Survival Factor
406
Cleaning frequency (a)
Environmental conditions
A Open luminaires
B Open-top reflectors
C Closed-top reflectors
D Closed reflectors
E Dustproof luminaires
F Luminaires with indirect emission
1 2 3
P C N D P C N D P C N D
0.96 0.93 0.89 0.83 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.78 0.91 0.85 0.79 0.73
0.96 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.89 0.84 0.80 0.75 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68
0.94 0.89 0.81 0.72 0.88 0.80 0.69 0.59 0.84 0.74 0.61 0.52
0.94 0.88 0.82 0.77 0.89 0.83 0.77 0.71 0.85 0.79 0.73 0.65
0.98 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.81 0.94 0.90 0.84 0.79
0.91 0.86 0.81 0.74 0.86 0.77 0.66 0.57 0.80 0.70 0.55 0.45
1 2 3
P C N D P C N D P C N D
0.99 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94
0.96 0.92 0.88 0.85 0.93 0.89 0.85 0.81 0.90 0.86 0.82 0.78
0.94 0.88 0.82 0.77 0.91 0.84 0.77 0.70 0.84 0.78 0.72 0.64
Classification of Environmental
Conditions
P (very clean room) pure
C (clean room) clean
N (average conditions) normal
D (dirty room) dirty
Cleaning frequency (a)
Environmental conditions
Direct emission
Direct/indirect emission
Indirect emission
Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Luminaire Maintenance Factor The luminaire maintenance factor
LMF takes into account the reduc-
tion of luminous flux due to the
soiling of the luminaire. It signi-
fies the ratio of a luminaire’s light
output ratios before and after
cleaning. The LMF depends on the
version of the luminaire and the
related possibility of soiling. The
LMF classification is indicated
next to the product. At this point,
the optimal cleaning frequency
must be defined for the mainte-
nance plan.
Room Surface Maintenance
Factor
The room surface maintenance
factor RSMF takes into account
the reduction of luminous flux
due to the soiling of the room sur-
faces. It signifies the ratio of the
room surface reflectances before
and after cleaning. The RSMF
depends on the degree of soiling
of the room or the ambient condi-
tions of a room and the specified
cleaning frequency. Further influ-
encing factors are the size of the
room and the type of lighting
(direct to indirect emission).
The room surface maintenance
factor consists of four classifica-
tions for room surface deteriora-
tion: P pure (very clean room),
C clean (clean room), N normal
(average conditions) and D dirty
(dirty room).
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
Maintenance Factor
407
2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000
0.95 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
0.86 0.82 0.75 0.69 0.66 -- -- -- -- --
0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.95 0.94
0.92 0.88 0.85 0.83 0.83 -- -- -- -- --
0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.89 0.88 0.88
Hours of operation (h)
Tungsten halogen lamps/
low-voltage
Metal halide lamps
High-pressure sodium vapour
lamps
Compact fluorescent lamps
Fluorescent lamps
Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Lamp Lumen Maintenance
Factor
The lamp lumen maintenance
factor LLMF takes into account
the reduction of luminous flux
due to the ageing of the lamp.
It signifies the ratio of the lamp
lumens at a specific time and the
new value. The current data pro-
vided by the lamp manufacturers
must be taken into account here.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
Maintenance Factor
Lamp Survival Factor The lamp survival factor LSF takes
into account the variation of the
life of individual lamps from the
mean life of the lamps. The LSF
depends on the service life of the
lamp. The latest data provided by
the lamp manufacturers must be
taken into account here. If defec-
tive lamps are replaced imme-
diately, the lamp survival factor
applied is LSF = 1. The mainte-
nance plan for a lighting installa-
tion must also specify the optimal
lamp replacement frequency. This
depends on the degree of use of
the lamp and is determined by
analysing the period of illumina-
tion and the mean service life of
the specific lamps.
408
3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations
the portion of luminous flux emitted by
the light sources, which falls on the
working plane after interaction with lumi-
naires and roomsurfaces. The deciding
factor in this calculation is the utilance,
which is derived fromthe geometry of
the space, the reflectance of the roomsur-
faces and the efficiency and the distri-
bution characteristics of the luminaires
used.
To be able to calculate the appropriate
utilance in each individual case, there
are tables available, which contain the
utilance of a standardised space with
changing room geometry, changing re-
flection factors and luminaires with a
variety of distribution characteristics. The
basic, idealised space is presumed to be
empty and of regular shape and propor-
tions, i.e. rectangular and having the ratio
of length to width approx. 1.6 to 1. The
luminaires are presumed to be arranged
in a regular pattern on the ceiling, either
mounted directly onto the ceiling or sus-
pended fromthe ceiling. These standar-
dised values have a decisive influence on
the accuracy of the calculations for the
application. If the conditions inherent in
the basic concept are in line with those in
the model space, the results will be rea-
sonably accurate. The more the basic con-
ditions deviate from the standardised
conditions, e. g. if the lighting layout is
distinctly asymmetrical, it must be accepted
that an increasing number of errors will
occur in the calculation.
When using the utilisation factor
method an appropriate utilance table has
to be used for each type of luminaire. The
corresponding standard luminaire classifi-
cation table can be used for this purpose.
Luminaire classification in accordance
with DIN 5040 and the German Lighting
Engineering Society is made up of one
letter and two digits, a combination indi-
cates a number of luminaire qualities.
The letter defines the luminaire class and
indicates whether a luminaire emits
light primarily in the upper or lower part
of the space, i.e. direct or indirect ligh-
ting. The first digit refers to the proportion
of luminous flux falling onto the working
plane in the lower part of the space. The
second digit indicates the corresponding
value for the upper part of the space. It is
often not necessary to use the standard
table of luminaire classification, as exact
tables are supplied by the lighting manu-
facturers.
155
Light output ratio hLB:
ratio of the luminous
flux emitted by a lumi-
nair ÏLe under opera-
ting conditions to the
luminous flux of the
lamp ÏLa.
Utilisation factor
method: formula for
calculating the nominal
illuminance EN for a
given number of lumi-
naires or the number
of luminaires n for
a given illuminance.
Typical light output
ratios hLB for direct
luminaires with various
cut-off angles and
lamp types.
Luminaire Lamp type hLB
Louvred luminaire 30° T26 0.65–0.75
Louvred luminaire 40° T26 0.55–0.65
Louvred lumin. square TC 0.50–0.70
Downlight 30° TC 0.60–0.70
Downlight 40° TC 0.50–0.60
Downlight 30° A/QT 0.70–0.75
Downlight 40° A/QT 0.60–0.70
EN (lx) Nominal illuminance
n Number of luminaires
a (m) Length of space
b (m) Width of space
Ï (m) Luminous flux per luminaire
hR Utilance
hLB Light output ratio
V Light loss factor
ÏLa
ÏLe
æLB =
ÏLe
ÏLa
EN = V
.
n
.
Ï
.
æ
R
.
æ
LB
a
.
b
n =
.
En
.
a
.
b
Ï
.
æR
.
æLB
1
V
3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations
the portion of luminous flux emitted by
the light sources, which falls on the
working plane after interaction with lumi-
naires and roomsurfaces. The deciding
factor in this calculation is the utilance,
which is derived fromthe geometry of
the space, the reflectance of the roomsur-
faces and the efficiency and the distri-
bution characteristics of the luminaires
used.
To be able to calculate the appropriate
utilance in each individual case, there
are tables available, which contain the
utilance of a standardised space with
changing room geometry, changing re-
flection factors and luminaires with a
variety of distribution characteristics. The
basic, idealised space is presumed to be
empty and of regular shape and propor-
tions, i.e. rectangular and having the ratio
of length to width approx. 1.6 to 1. The
luminaires are presumed to be arranged
in a regular pattern on the ceiling, either
mounted directly onto the ceiling or sus-
pended fromthe ceiling. These standar-
dised values have a decisive influence on
the accuracy of the calculations for the
application. If the conditions inherent in
the basic concept are in line with those in
the model space, the results will be rea-
sonably accurate. The more the basic con-
ditions deviate from the standardised
conditions, e. g. if the lighting layout is
distinctly asymmetrical, it must be accepted
that an increasing number of errors will
occur in the calculation.
When using the utilisation factor
method an appropriate utilance table has
to be used for each type of luminaire. The
corresponding standard luminaire classifi-
cation table can be used for this purpose.
Luminaire classification in accordance
with DIN 5040 and the German Lighting
Engineering Society is made up of one
letter and two digits, a combination indi-
cates a number of luminaire qualities.
The letter defines the luminaire class and
indicates whether a luminaire emits
light primarily in the upper or lower part
of the space, i.e. direct or indirect ligh-
ting. The first digit refers to the proportion
of luminous flux falling onto the working
plane in the lower part of the space. The
second digit indicates the corresponding
value for the upper part of the space. It is
often not necessary to use the standard
table of luminaire classification, as exact
tables are supplied by the lighting manu-
facturers.
155
Light output ratio hLB:
ratio of the luminous
flux emitted by a lumi-
nair ÏLe under opera-
ting conditions to the
luminous flux of the
lamp ÏLa.
Utilisation factor
method: formula for
calculating the nominal
illuminance EN for a
given number of lumi-
naires or the number
of luminaires n for
a given illuminance.
Typical light output
ratios hLB for direct
luminaires with various
cut-off angles and
lamp types.
Luminaire Lamp type hLB
Louvred luminaire 30° T26 0.65–0.75
Louvred luminaire 40° T26 0.55–0.65
Louvred lumin. square TC 0.50–0.70
Downlight 30° TC 0.60–0.70
Downlight 40° TC 0.50–0.60
Downlight 30° A/QT 0.70–0.75
Downlight 40° A/QT 0.60–0.70
EN (lx) Nominal illuminance
n Number of luminaires
a (m) Length of space
b (m) Width of space
Ï (m) Luminous flux per luminaire
hR Utilance
hLB Light output ratio
V Light loss factor
ÏLa
ÏLe
æLB =
ÏLe
ÏLa
EN = V
.
n
.
Ï
.
æ
R
.
æ
LB
a
.
b
n =
.
En
.
a
.
b
Ï
.
æR
.
æLB
1
V
Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
The UGR method (Unified Glare
Rating) is an international index
presented by CIE in publication
117 and is used to evaluate and
limit the psychological direct
glare from luminaires. Contrary
to previous methods where the
glare was rated using the lumi-
nance values of a single lumi-
naire, this method calculates
the glare of the entire lighting
installation at a defined observer
position. According to DIN EN
12464, the UGR reference value
is provided for a standard room.
An exact calculation of the UGR
value at a defined observer posi-
tion in a room is possible with
modern lighting design programs.
The lower the UGR value, the
lower the glare. Where the lumi-
nance is < 1000 cd/m
2
, additional
data is provided on the elevation
angle, either 65°, 75° or 85°. This
is the critical angle above which
the luminaire has an all-round
luminance of 1000 cd/m
2
.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
UGR method
The utilisation factor method is
used for an estimated calcula-
tion of lighting installations. It is
used to calculate the number of
luminaires required for the target
illuminance on the working plane
or the illuminance achieved by a
specified number of luminaires.
The utilisation factor method is
based on the fact that the aver-
age horizontal illuminance for a
room of a specific size can be cal-
culated using the total luminous
flux of the installed luminaires
and the light output ratio along
with the utilisation factor.
The utilisation factor method is
rarely relevant to routine plan-
ning any more since it is based
on standardised rooms. Today,
it is much easier and quicker to
calculate individual rooms using
computer programs. The utilisa-
Utilisation factor method
Utilisation factor method: formula
for calculating the nominal illumi-
nance EN for a given number of
luminaires or the number of lumi-
naires n for a given illuminance
tion factor method is still used
as the basis for the relevant Euro -
pean standard and for planning
programs, to calculate the aver-
age illuminance for rooms on
regular luminaire grids..
409
Eh
P
A L

h
Eh
P
L
å
Ev
Eh
3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations
3.3.6.4 Lighting costs
When calculating the costs for a lighting
installation it is necessary to differentiate
between the fixed costs and the variable
costs. The fixed costs do not apply to the
operating time of the lighting installation,
they comprise the amotised costs for
the luminaires, for their installation and
cleaning. The variable costs are dependent
on the operating time. They comprise costs
for energy, material and wages for staff
carrying out lamp replacement. On the
basis of these values it is possible to cal-
culate the different qualities of a lighting
installation.
The annual costs of a lighting instal-
lation are of particular interest. It is often
advisable to compare the economic effi-
ciency of different lamp types in the plan-
ning phase. This data can be calculated
either as annual costs or as costs for the
production of a specific quantity of light.
The pay-back time is important in both
completely new projects and refurbishment
projects, that is to say the period of time
within which the operating costs that have
been saved can be set off against the
investment costs for the new installation.
159
Horizontal illuminance
Eh at point P, produced
by luminous surface A
of luminance L
at angle ™.
Horizontal illuminance
Eh at point P, produced
by a circular luminous
surface of luminance L,
whereby the surface
extends to an angle 2 å.
Vertical illumnancee Ev,
produced by luminance
L from one half of the
space.
Horizontal illuminance
Eh, produced by lumi-
nance L from one half
of the space.
Formula for calculating
the costs of a lighting
installation K from the
fixed costs K' and the
annual operating costs
K".
Formula for calculating
the pay-back time t
of a new installation.
Comparison of the
pay-back time t of two
new installations,
whereby installation B
has higher investment
costs and lower opera-
ting costs.
Calculating illumi-
nances from the lumi-
nance of flat light
sources.
a (EU/kWh) Energy costs
K (EU/a) Annual costs for a
lighting installation
K' (EU/a) Fixed annual costs
K" (EU/a) Annual operating costs
K1 (EU) Costs per luminaire incl. mounting
K2 (EU) Costs per lamp
incl. lamp replacement
Kl (EU) Investment costs (n· K1)
n Number of luminaires
p (1/a) Interest payments for the installa-
tion (0.1–0.15)
P (kW) Wattage per luminaire
R (EU/a) Annual cleaning costs
per luminaire
t (a) Pay-back time
tB (h) Annual operating time
tLa (h) Service life of a lamp
Eh =
.
cos
4

L
.
A
h
2
Eh = π
.
L
.
sin
2
å
[E] = lx
[l] = cd/m
2
[h] = m
[A] = m
2
K = K' + K''
K' = n (p
.
K1 + R)
K'' = n
.
tB (a
.
P + )
K2
tLa
K = n [p
.
K1 + R + tB (a
.
P + )]
K2
tLa
t =
Kl (new)
K'' (old) – K'' (new)
t =
Kl (B) – Kl (A)
K'' (A) – K'' (B)
Eh = π
.
L EV =
.
L
π
2
Eh
P
A L

h
Eh
P
L
å
Ev
Eh
3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations
3.3.6.4 Lighting costs
When calculating the costs for a lighting
installation it is necessary to differentiate
between the fixed costs and the variable
costs. The fixed costs do not apply to the
operating time of the lighting installation,
they comprise the amotised costs for
the luminaires, for their installation and
cleaning. The variable costs are dependent
on the operating time. They comprise costs
for energy, material and wages for staff
carrying out lamp replacement. On the
basis of these values it is possible to cal-
culate the different qualities of a lighting
installation.
The annual costs of a lighting instal-
lation are of particular interest. It is often
advisable to compare the economic effi-
ciency of different lamp types in the plan-
ning phase. This data can be calculated
either as annual costs or as costs for the
production of a specific quantity of light.
The pay-back time is important in both
completely new projects and refurbishment
projects, that is to say the period of time
within which the operating costs that have
been saved can be set off against the
investment costs for the new installation.
159
Horizontal illuminance
Eh at point P, produced
by luminous surface A
of luminance L
at angle ™.
Horizontal illuminance
Eh at point P, produced
by a circular luminous
surface of luminance L,
whereby the surface
extends to an angle 2 å.
Vertical illumnancee Ev,
produced by luminance
L from one half of the
space.
Horizontal illuminance
Eh, produced by lumi-
nance L from one half
of the space.
Formula for calculating
the costs of a lighting
installation K from the
fixed costs K' and the
annual operating costs
K".
Formula for calculating
the pay-back time t
of a new installation.
Comparison of the
pay-back time t of two
new installations,
whereby installation B
has higher investment
costs and lower opera-
ting costs.
Calculating illumi-
nances from the lumi-
nance of flat light
sources.
a (EU/kWh) Energy costs
K (EU/a) Annual costs for a
lighting installation
K' (EU/a) Fixed annual costs
K" (EU/a) Annual operating costs
K1 (EU) Costs per luminaire incl. mounting
K2 (EU) Costs per lamp
incl. lamp replacement
Kl (EU) Investment costs (n· K1)
n Number of luminaires
p (1/a) Interest payments for the installa-
tion (0.1–0.15)
P (kW) Wattage per luminaire
R (EU/a) Annual cleaning costs
per luminaire
t (a) Pay-back time
tB (h) Annual operating time
tLa (h) Service life of a lamp
Eh =
.
cos
4

L
.
A
h
2
Eh = π
.
L
.
sin
2
å
[E] = lx
[l] = cd/m
2
[h] = m
[A] = m
2
K = K' + K''
K' = n (p
.
K1 + R)
K'' = n
.
tB (a
.
P + )
K2
tLa
K = n [p
.
K1 + R + tB (a
.
P + )]
K2
tLa
t =
Kl (new)
K'' (old) – K'' (new)
t =
Kl (B) – Kl (A)
K'' (A) – K'' (B)
Eh = π
.
L EV =
.
L
π
2
Eh
P
A L

h
Eh
P
L
å
Ev
Eh
3.3 Practical planning
3.3.6 Calculations
3.3.6.4 Lighting costs
When calculating the costs for a lighting
installation it is necessary to differentiate
between the fixed costs and the variable
costs. The fixed costs do not apply to the
operating time of the lighting installation,
they comprise the amotised costs for
the luminaires, for their installation and
cleaning. The variable costs are dependent
on the operating time. They comprise costs
for energy, material and wages for staff
carrying out lamp replacement. On the
basis of these values it is possible to cal-
culate the different qualities of a lighting
installation.
The annual costs of a lighting instal-
lation are of particular interest. It is often
advisable to compare the economic effi-
ciency of different lamp types in the plan-
ning phase. This data can be calculated
either as annual costs or as costs for the
production of a specific quantity of light.
The pay-back time is important in both
completely new projects and refurbishment
projects, that is to say the period of time
within which the operating costs that have
been saved can be set off against the
investment costs for the new installation.
159
Horizontal illuminance
Eh at point P, produced
by luminous surface A
of luminance L
at angle ™.
Horizontal illuminance
Eh at point P, produced
by a circular luminous
surface of luminance L,
whereby the surface
extends to an angle 2 å.
Vertical illumnancee Ev,
produced by luminance
L from one half of the
space.
Horizontal illuminance
Eh, produced by lumi-
nance L from one half
of the space.
Formula for calculating
the costs of a lighting
installation K from the
fixed costs K' and the
annual operating costs
K".
Formula for calculating
the pay-back time t
of a new installation.
Comparison of the
pay-back time t of two
new installations,
whereby installation B
has higher investment
costs and lower opera-
ting costs.
Calculating illumi-
nances from the lumi-
nance of flat light
sources.
a (EU/kWh) Energy costs
K (EU/a) Annual costs for a
lighting installation
K' (EU/a) Fixed annual costs
K" (EU/a) Annual operating costs
K1 (EU) Costs per luminaire incl. mounting
K2 (EU) Costs per lamp
incl. lamp replacement
Kl (EU) Investment costs (n· K1)
n Number of luminaires
p (1/a) Interest payments for the installa-
tion (0.1–0.15)
P (kW) Wattage per luminaire
R (EU/a) Annual cleaning costs
per luminaire
t (a) Pay-back time
tB (h) Annual operating time
tLa (h) Service life of a lamp
Eh =
.
cos
4

L
.
A
h
2
Eh = π
.
L
.
sin
2
å
[E] = lx
[l] = cd/m
2
[h] = m
[A] = m
2
K = K' + K''
K' = n (p
.
K1 + R)
K'' = n
.
tB (a
.
P + )
K2
tLa
K = n [p
.
K1 + R + tB (a
.
P + )]
K2
tLa
t =
Kl (new)
K'' (old) – K'' (new)
t =
Kl (B) – Kl (A)
K'' (A) – K'' (B)
Eh = π
.
L EV =
.
L
π
2
Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
The cost of a lighting installa-
tion is divided into fixed and
flexible costs. The fixed costs are
unrelated to the operating time
of the lighting installation and
comprise the annual costs for the
luminaires, their installation and
their cleaning. The flexible costs,
on the other hand, depend on the
operating time and include the
electricity costs and the material
and labour costs for lamp replace-
ment. These values form the basis
for the calculation of a number
of features of the lighting instal-
lation. Of particular interest here
are the costs accruing annually
for a lighting installation. Often,
however, it also makes sense in
the planning phase to compare
different types of lamps in terms
of their efficiency. Again, these
can be calculated as annual costs
or as costs for the production of
a specific quantity of light. When
planning a new installation and
specifically when improving an
existing, lighting installation, it is
helpful to calculate the pay-back
time, i.e. the period required for
the operating costs savings to
offset the investment costs of
the new installation.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations
Lighting costs
410
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The lighting design process
requires detailed information
to ensure compliance with the
standards relating to illuminances
and visual comfort. Thus for the
simulation programs, luminaire
manufacturers provide files that
contain data on the lighting
technology of the luminaires.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Planning data
Light simulation Maintained value
411
Edition: 11/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
For the light simulation, designers
use data on three-dimensional
light intensity distribution and
geometry to determine the illumi-
nances and the luminance levels.
They also use them to evaluate
the visual impression of a lumi-
naire in the room.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning data
Light simulation
IES / Eulumdat DXF i-drop
412
Edition: 11/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
IES / Eulumdat The IES data format is an inter-
nationally accepted data format
used to describe the light distri-
bution of luminaires. It can be
used in numerous lighting design,
calculation and simulation pro-
grams. Originally, the format
was the standard of the IESNA
(Illuminating Engineering Society
of North America). The current
version is IES LM-63-95.
Eulumdat is the European lumen
data format as the equivalent of
the IES.
E
DXF The DXF format stores the
geometry of a luminaire; the
materials and light distribution
are not saved in this exchange
format. This data format can be
imported into most CAD systems.
DXF data with 2D elements are
used in the planning process to
enter the luminaires on the ceil-
ing plan. DXF data with 3D ele-
ments give an accurate impres-
sion of the luminaires in spatial
representations.
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning data
Light simulation
i-drop i-drop is a technology provided
by the software manufacturer
Autodesk. Using the ”drag & drop”
function, it enables contents to
be imported from the Internet
into the software application.
For the light simulation, virtual
luminaires can be downloaded
with the relevant photometric
data directly from the website
of the luminaire manufacturer
and included in the simulation
program. The data comprise
the 3D geometry, photometry
and textures. A luminaire can
be ”dropped” directly into the
required position in the light
simulation scene. To align the
luminaire automatically with
the room surfaces or any surface
normal, the ”autogrid” function
needs to have been previously
activated. Using inverse kinemat-
ics, the luminaire is aligned with
the target of the light source.
i-drop works with programs
including VIZ 4 VIZrender, 3ds
Max 5 and 6, AutoCAD, and
DIALux. System requirement is
the Microsoft Internet Explorer
and activation of the Active X
functions.
413
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning data
Maintained value
The maintained value of a lighting
installation is calculated using the
light output ratio and the lumi-
naire maintenance factor speci-
fied for the luminaire.
Light output ratio Luminaire
Maintenance Factor
414
Cleaning frequency (a)
Environmental conditions
A Open luminaires
B Open-top reflectors
C Closed-top reflectors
D Closed reflectors
E Dustproof luminaires
F Luminaires with indirect emission
1 2 3
P C N D P C N D P C N D
0.96 0.93 0.89 0.83 0.93 0.89 0.84 0.78 0.91 0.85 0.79 0.73
0.96 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.89 0.84 0.80 0.75 0.84 0.79 0.74 0.68
0.94 0.89 0.81 0.72 0.88 0.80 0.69 0.59 0.84 0.74 0.61 0.52
0.94 0.88 0.82 0.77 0.89 0.83 0.77 0.71 0.85 0.79 0.73 0.65
0.98 0.94 0.90 0.86 0.95 0.91 0.86 0.81 0.94 0.90 0.84 0.79
0.91 0.86 0.81 0.74 0.86 0.77 0.66 0.57 0.80 0.70 0.55 0.45
Edition: 11/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning data
Maintained value
Light output ratio According to DIN/EN 13032/2,
the LOR (Light Output Ratio)
describes the ratio of the lumi-
nous flux of the luminaire to
the lumens of the lamps used.
Luminaires with direct/indirect
emission also specify the ”DLOR”
(Downward Light Output Ratio)
and the ”ULOR” (Upward Light
Output Ratio) as separate com-
ponents. These indicate the light
intensity distribution of a lumi-
naire in the lower and upper
parts of the room.
Luminaire Maintenance Factor The luminaire maintenance factor
LMF takes into account the reduc-
tion of luminous flux due to the
spoiling of the luminaire. It signi-
fies the ratio of a luminaire’s light
output ratios before and after
cleaning. The LMF depends on the
version of the luminaire and the
related possibility of soiling. The
luminaires are classified by their
”maintenance factor according
to CIE”.
415
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
These planning examples illustrate
why light simulations are useful
tools in the planning process.
Along with the representation
of optimised luminaire arrange-
ment, the visualisations also help
communicate the design concept.
At the same time, the examples
give an account of a historical
development – from the first use
of virtual luminaires to reflector
calculations to the representation
of dynamic, coloured lighting
concepts.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation
Planning examples
Simulation Virtual prototyping
416
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
This selection of projects provides
insight into the use of simula-
tions for monuments, religious
and administrative buildings and
sales rooms.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples
Simulation
Chiesa Dives in
Misericordia
Brandenburg Gate Ara Pacis
Scottish Parliament BMW Mini dealership Film: Tune the light
417
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Simulation The lighting design of the Chiesa
Dives in Misericordia in 1998
constitutes a milestone in that
this is the first time that virtual
luminaires from ERCO were used
for light simulation. This made it
possible to show, check and ana-
lyse concept variants at an early
planning stage. Approximately
160 virtual luminaires were used
in the model of the church. The
individual images from the Light-
scape program were combined
with interactive modules, which
were accessible to all designers
via the Internet and allowed
them to evaluate the various
light scenes.
E
Planning The lighting concept uses direct,
directional light to zone the
sanctuary area and to accentu-
ate the main focal points such
as pulpit and crucifix. To do this,
spotlights were fixed to the steel
construction of the skylight. The
other component of the concept
consists of the uniform illumina-
tion of the interior of the arched
concrete shell with spotlights
and floodlights fitted above the
skylights.
Architect:
Richard Meier, New York
Lighting design:
Fisher Marantz Stone, New York
Place:
Rom
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Simulation
Chiesa Dives in Misericordia
418
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Simulation
Brandenburg Gate
Simulation The Brandenburg Gate, the sym-
bol of Berlin, has been restored
and given a lighting makeover.
The lighting designers intensively
used light simulations throughout
the entire planning process. Trial
lighting was not possible as the
building was covered throughout
the design phase through to the
unveiling. Virtual luminaires with
their photometric light distribu-
tion enabled both qualitative
conclusions and quantitative
analyses. The results were used
to determine the arrangement
and alignment of the luminaires.
The intensive use of simulations
for the competitive tender was
a crucial factor in the success of
the project.
Planning The columns are accentuated by
in-ground lens wallwashers. The
wall surfaces of the passages are
illuminated by floodlights with
an asymmetrical light distribu-
tion. In the main, the spotlights
for the Quadriga monument on
top of the gate were discreetly
positioned on adjacent buildings.
Architect:
Carl Gotthard Langhans
(1732-1808)
Lighting Design:
Kardorff Ingenieure, Berlin
Place:
Berlin
419
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Simulation For the simulations of the Ara
Pacis, an ancient altar of peace,
the designers used the photo
texture method. The whole of
the temple was photographed
and the photos assigned to the
individual structural parts. The
DIALux program was then used
to provide an exceptionally real-
istic impression. One of the focal
points of the simulation was the
analysis of the ideal angle of
incidence for the relief, to check
the formation of shadows result-
ing from the protruding frieze,
and to integrate the luminaires
perfectly within the architecture.
An external view at night was
created using the photo texture
of the travertin wall panels. The
model was also used for daylight
simulations. The building was
embedded into the environment
in an image processing program.
The accessible areas in the build-
ing were documented with their
illuminance levels and in the form
of Isolux curves.
E
Planning Visitors enter the building
through a closed atrium, before
the hall with the altar opens up
before them, bathed in daylight.
Spotlights installed in the niches
of the concrete grid ceiling illu-
minate the reliefs on the temple.
The luminaires fitted with day-
light conversion filters corres-
pond harmoniously with the light
colour of the daylight. The warm
light colour of the halogen light,
on the other hand, optimally
emphasises the colour of the
travertine wall panels.
Architect:
Richard Meier, New York
Lighting design:
Fisher Marantz Stone, New York
Place:
Rome
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Simulation
Ara Pacis
420
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Simulation The Scottish Parliament with its
asymmetrically vaulted ceilings,
its visible roof supporting struc-
ture and its seating arrangement
for the Parliament has a complex
geometry that complicated the
lighting design. This situation
required the use of light simula-
tions to ensure compliance with
the specifications relating to the
direction of light and the illumi-
nance for television broadcasts.
Due to the fact that the varying
distances between luminaire and
area to be illuminated resulted in
substantial brightness contrasts,
the illuminance was calculated
on the basis of the faces at the
conference table and increased,
where necessary, by additional
luminaires. The “Autodesk 3ds
Max” program enabled the use
of virtual luminaires with 3D
geometries and photometric data
records, which also allowed the
designers to check the size of
the luminaires in the room.
For the execution phase, a sepa-
rate application was developed
to translate the 3D data on the
900 luminaires of the simulation
into 2D drawings and provide the
luminous flux, position, alignment
and view of each luminaire.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Simulation
Scottish Parliament
Ground plan
3D model
Study for luminaire arrangement
Analysis of illuminance
Application for the analysis of
illuminance
Test Rendering
421
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Planning In the plenary chamber, the high
illuminance level required for
TV broadcasts is achieved using
200 spotlights with Vario-lenses
for 150W HIT-CE with 4200K,
which also ensure visual comfort
for the parliamentarians. The
Vario-lenses enable the light-
ing designer to adjust the beam
angles individually to suit the
different distances to the illu-
minated areas.
Architects:
EMBT Enric Miralles, Benedetta
Tagliabue, Barcelona; RMJM,
Edinburgh
Lighting design:
Office for Visual Interaction (OVI),
New York
Place:
Edinburgh
Simulation:
Pierre-Félix Breton, Montreal
www.pfbreton.com
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Simulation
Scottish Parliament
422
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Simulation The simulations for the dealer-
ship were used, on the one hand,
to review the lighting concept
and, on the other, for a realistic
presentation of the design to the
client. The scope of the simula-
tions included the calculation of
illuminance and luminance levels
for the vehicles, walls and work-
spaces to analyse critical lumi-
nance contrasts and to evaluate
the avoidance of glare. In contrast
to the exclusive use of technical
drawings with ground plan and
section, the visualisations gave
those involved in the planning
process a better spatial picture
of the lighting solution.
E
Planning The glare-free general lighting
of the showroom is provided by
pendant downlights for 150W
HIT-CE metal halide lamps. Addi-
tional spotlights on suspended
light structures emphasise the
presentation areas. A row of
uplights accentuates the shape
of the building and illuminates
the cantilevered aluminium roof
structure.
Architect:
Scaramuzza/Rubelli
Lighting designer:
Piero Comparotto, Arkilux, Verona
Place:
Brescia
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Simulation
BMW Mini dealership
423
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
Simulation The simulation of dynamic, col-
oured light is extremely complex
as seen when moving through
a space. In a film, the individual
images can differ both in light
and perspective. To ensure maxi-
mum flexibility in the design,
the luminaire groups were calcu-
lated separately without setting
the final light colour. The video
processing program was then
used to put together the films of
the different luminaire groups
and to combine the dynamic col -
our settings. In this way, the col-
ours could be adjusted without
requiring new calculations for
the film.
E
Planning In the function room, the indi-
vidual tables are accentuated
by narrow-beam spotlights to
give them the impression of
them being islands. Floodlights
with variable light colours alter
the atmosphere through colour
changes, while the projection
of gobos creates eye-catching
patterns of light.
Simulation:
Aksel Karcher, Berlin
www.akselkarcher.com
Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Simulation
Film: Tune the light
424
Edition: 04/01/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com
In luminaire development, virtual
prototyping is used at an early
stage in the design process. It
is used to analyse aesthetic and
technical aspects such as lighting
technology, static and thermal
calculations. This is done through
simulation without the actual
luminaire being available. This
method accelerates the develop-
ment process and supports deci-
sions on design alternatives.
E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples
Virtual prototyping
Luminaires Reflector
425
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Virtual prototyping
Luminaires
Simulation To relate the form and aesthetics
of the design of a luminaire to
existing product photos, a model
of the luminaire is simulated in a
virtual photo studio. The actual
lighting situation of the photo
studio is transferred to the soft-
ware by making a digital image
of the photo studio in HDR for-
mat. With a mirror ball taking the
place of the luminaire to be rep-
resented, the photographer takes
a series of photos with different
exposure times. In the appropriate
image processing program, this
series is then used to calculate
a High Dynamic Range Image
(HDRI). HDRI covers a far greater
range of luminance contrasts
than conventional digital photos.
The HDR image is imported as an
environment into which the sim-
ulation program provides infor-
mation on beam direction, light
colours, relative luminances, types
of shadow and reflections, as will
exist in an actual photo studio.
Luminaire design: ERCO
Simulation: ERCO; Aksel Karcher,
Berlin
426
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E Guide
Simulation and calculation | Planning examples | Virtual prototyping
Reflector
Simulation The simulation of reflectors pro-
vides very precise information on
light distribution intensities in a
very short time, without having
to use expensive tools to produce
prototype reflectors. For the reflec-
tor simulation, the lamps to be
used are initially measured accu-
rately and the individual compo-
nents of the lamp designated to
luminances and other lighting
characteristics. Subsequently, the
geometry of the light aperture
and the lamp position are defined.
Starting from a basic reflector
form, the designer then changes
the contour of the reflector step
by step to achieve the required
light distribution. After each
change of contour, the program
calculates the illuminance for a
sample area to enable an assess-
ment of the light distribution,
and produces a light intensity
distribution curve of the virtual
luminaire. Programs for reflector
simulation are usually based on
the (forward) ray tracing method,
where the rays of light are emit-
ted from the lamp.
Definition of
lamp properties
Rendering Lamp
Reflector simulation
Light distribution on test surface
Light distribution curve
427
Edition: 12/02/2008 | Updated version at www.erco.com
A
Absorption
The inability of materials to reflect
or transmit light. The parameter is
the degree of absorption, defined
as the ratio of absorbed to inci-
dent →luminous flux.
Accent lighting
Emphasis on individual areas
within a room or objects by direct
lighting significantly above the
level of general lighting.
Accommodation
The adjustment made by the eye
when focusing on objects at vary-
ing distances. Process by which
the lens of the eye distorts.
Adaptation
The adjustment made by the eyes
to →luminances in the field of
vision. Process initially effected
by the enlarging or contracting
of the pupils, but far more com-
prehensively by changes in the
sensitivity of the receptors of the
retina, and the shift from cone to
rod vision or vice versa (see also
→eye).
Adapter
The element connecting a lumi-
naire – especially a →spotlight or
→floodlight – mechanically and
electrically to a →track.
Additive colour mixing
Description used for mixing col-
ours by combining light of differ-
ent spectral ranges. According to
the tri-colour theory, in additive
colour mixing the complementary
colours are the primary colours
(red, green, blue). Evenly mixed,
the three primary colours produce
white light.
Ambient luminescence
Ambient luminescence provides
general lighting of the visual
environment. Architecture, objects
and people in the environment
are made visible, to allow for
orientation, work and communi-
cation.
Anti-dazzle cap
Anti-dazzle element to prevent
direct light emission from the
lamp in the direction of the beam.
The beam is restricted to the main
emission direction to reduce or
prevent spill light.
E Guide
Glossary
Anti-dazzle screen
Anti-dazzle element used to
improve the →visual comfort.
The crosswise grating restricts
the view of the reflector and the
lamp.
Anti-glare protection
→Sun protection
Architectural lighting
Description of lighting concepts
using →daylight and electric
lighting, where the technical
solution is an integral part of the
architecture itself.
B
Backlighting
Type of lighting projected from
behind the object, which results in
visible shadows and may produce
a contour line of light around the
perimeter of the object. In stage
lighting, backlighting is used for
dramatic light effects.
Barn doors
Term used for anti-dazzle baffles
arranged in a square, similar to
stage spotlights, to reduce direct
glare.
Beam spread
→Emission angle
Brilliance
The effect of light on glossy
surfaces or transparent material.
Brilliance is caused by the reflec-
tion of the light source or refrac-
tion of the light; it requires
incident light from narrow beam
light sources.
C
C.I.E. standard colorimetric
system
A numerical system for classify-
ing light and surface colours. The
standard colorimetric system is
a two-dimensional diagram in
which the colour location of all
colours and colour mixes are rep-
resented in graded intensity from
the pure colour right through to
white, and can be numerically
described by their xy co-ordinates.
Colour mixes are located in align-
ment between the colours to
be mixed; the →light colour of
→thermal radiators lies on the
defined curve path of the Planck
curve.
Candela, cd
The unit of →luminous intensity;
basic measurement of lighting
technology. 1cd is defined as the
luminous intensity generated by
a monochromatic light source
with a radiated power of 1/683W
at 555nm. Equal to 1 lumen per
steradian.
CCG
Abbreviation of conventional
→control gear (switch start con-
trol gear).
Ceiling washlight
Type of luminaire normally
mounted in or on walls, singly
or in rows, above eye-level to
illuminate the ceiling area evenly
and with no dazzle, using mainly
→tungsten halogen lamps,
→fluorescent lamps or →high-
pressure discharge lamps.
Ceramic discharge tube
The discharge tube of high-
pressure discharge lamps. The
ceramic discharge tube technol-
ogy produces improved colour
stability and higher →luminous
efficacy than the quartz tech-
nology.
Colour adaptation
The ability of the eye to adapt
to the →luminous colour of an
environment. Allows relatively
natural colour perception even
under different luminous colours.
Colour compensation
Process in lighting technology
used to correct the →luminous
colours of several luminaires to
ensure a uniform colour appear-
ance for the same lighting tasks.
Colour filter
→Filter
Colour mixing
Term used for the mixing of
colours. In lighting technology,
the spectral ranges are broadened
by additive mixing of the colours
red, green and blue to produce
secondary (mixed) colours. The
three primary colours together
produce white light. Subtractive
colour mixing starts with the
primary colours cyan, yellow and
magenta and filters out spectral
components.
Colour rendition
Quality of colour appearance
under a specific light source.
The degree of colour deviation
against a reference light source is
indicated using the colour rendi-
tion index Ra and/or the colour
rendition grading system.
Colour rendition index
Degree of colour distortion under
a particular light in comparison
with a reference light source. The
index for perfect colour rendition
Ra is 100.
Colour saturation
Quantity referring to the intensity
of a colour between the pure
colour and the white point in the
→standard colorimetric system.
Together with hue and brightness,
it makes up the three basic char-
acteristics of a colour. The colour
saturation is usually indicated as
a percentage.
Colour temperature
Indication of the →colour of a
light source. In →thermal radia-
tors it corresponds approximately
to the temperature of the lamp
filament in Kelvin (K). In →dis-
charge lamps, it indicates the
nearest colour temperature. This
is the temperature at which a
→thermal radiator emits light of
a comparable colour.
Compact fluorescent lamps
→Fluorescent lamps with
especially compact dimensions
created by bending the discharge
tube. Compact fluorescent lamps
have only one lamp cap.
Compact projector
Spotlight with optical systems
for projection of →gobos or pat-
terned filters for various lamp
types. Depending on the optical
system, a distinction is drawn
between condenser and ellipsoid
projector.
Condenser projector
→Compact projector
Cone vision
→Photopic vision
Cones
→Eye
Connected load
The total of the →nominal power
of all electrical equipment
amounts to the connected load.
428
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E Guide
Glossary
Connected power of illumination
The maximum output of the total
lighting installation (lamps and
control gear), independent of the
actual energy used; the average
connected power of an adminis-
tration building is nominally of
the order of 20W/m
2
.
Constancy
The ability of visual perception
to discern constant features of
objects (size, shape, reflectance,
colour) despite changes in the
environment (distance, position,
lighting). The constancy phenom-
enon is vital in the creation of a
structured image of reality from
the shifting patterns of lumi-
nance on the retina.
Contrast
Difference in the →luminance or
colour of two objects or an object
and its surroundings. As contrast
decreases, the visual task becomes
increasingly difficult.
Contrast rendition
Criterion for secondary glare.
Contrast rendition is expressed
by the contrast rendition factor
(CRF), defined as the relation of
the luminance contrast of a visual
task under given lighting to that
of the luminance contrast under
reference lighting.
Control gear (1)
Current limiting control gear for
→discharge lamps. Current limi-
tation is effected either inductive-
ly, using a choke, or electronically.
Inductive ballasts are available
as former conventional (CB) or
low-loss ballasts (LLB). They may
require an additional igniter or
starting device. Electronic ballasts
(EB) do not require additional
igniters and do not produce
disturbing humming noises or
→stroboscopic effects.
Control gear (2)
Control gear is the equipment
required to operate a lamp. It
consists mainly of current limit-
ing →ballasts and →igniters for
the operation of →discharge
lamps, as well as transformers to
operate →low-voltage halogen
lamps.
Coolbeam
→Coolbeam reflector
Coolbeam reflector
Dichroic reflector that predomi-
nantly reflects visible light, but
lets through (glass reflectors) or
absorbs (metal reflectors) infrared
radiation. Coolbeam reflectors
place a lower thermal load on the
illuminated objects. Coolbeam
reflectors are also often known
as multi-mirror reflectors.
Cover glass
Surface of a luminaire through
which light is emitted. Depend-
ing on the lighting technology, a
luminaire has one or more planes.
The luminance of the cover glass
is used to determine the direct
glare of the luminaire.
Cut-off angle
The angle above which no
→reflection of the light source is
visible in the →reflector. The cut-
off angle of →Darklight reflectors
is identical to the shielding angle.
D
DALI
Abbreviation of →Digital
Addressable Lighting Interface
Dark Sky
Term used in lighting design for
outdoor illumination which pre-
vents →light pollution to avoid
light being emitted into the night
sky.
Dark Sky technique
A special reflector technique pro-
ducing no light emission above
the horizontal plane through the
luminaire to avoid →light pollu-
tion. No disturbing glare results
from the lamp contained within
the reflector system.
Darklight technique
Special reflector technology that
ensures the observer is not dazzled
as long as the lamp is hidden
within the reflector's cut-off area.
The lamp's →cut-off angle and
the reflector's →cut-off angle are
identical. The Darklight technol-
ogy provides maximum →visual
comfort and optimum efficiency.
Daylight
Daylight includes both direct,
incident sunlight, with the sur-
rounding light of the sky, as well
as the diffuse light of a cloudy
sky. The →illuminance levels of
daylight are far higher than arti-
ficial lighting.
Daylight factor
Relation of the →illuminance
created by daylight on a room's
working plane to the exterior
illuminance; the daylight factor
can be measured by a →daylight
simulator.
Daylight simulator
Technical device for simulating
sunlight and daylight. Daylight
can either be simulated by the
hemispherical arrangement of
numerous luminaires or by reflec-
tion of a luminous ceiling in a
room fitted with mirrors. Sunlight
is simulated by a parabolic mirror
whose movement reproduces
the sun's path during a day or
year for any latitude. A daylight
simulator allows the simulation
on a model of the relationship
between light and shadow in
planned buildings, testing light-
ing control elements and measur-
ing daylight factors on the model.
Daylight systems
Technical measures taken based
on →reflection and →refraction
in a window and/or skylight, to
improve the supply of daylight to
a room, thereby saving energy.
Daylight white, tw
→Light colour
Daytime vision
→Photopic vision
Dichroic reflector
Reflector with a multi-layered
selective →reflective coating,
which reflects a part of the spec-
trum while transmitting others.
Dichroic reflectors are used pri-
marily for the reflection of visible
light and the transmission of
→infrared radiation in →cool-
beam reflectors.
Diffuse light
Diffuse light is given off from
large luminescent surfaces,
whereby it produces a soft, even
illumination with low modelling
ability and brilliance.
Diffuser
Optical element used for the
control of light to produce a soft-
edged beam. Used on a luminaire,
it reduces the lamp luminance
and glare.
Digital Addressable Lighting
Interface
Digital control protocol used for
architectural lighting. The system
allows luminaires to be controlled
individually and can be integrated
into building control systems
as an independent subordinate
system.
Dimmer
Controller for infinitely variable
adjustment of the →luminous
flux of a light source. Functions
using low loss leading edge
control or by directly control-
ling electronic control gear. For
use with →incandescent lamps,
→low-voltage halogen lamps and
→fluorescent lamps. Although
it is technically possible to dim
high-pressure discharge lamps,
this is not common practice.
Direct illuminance
Illuminance produced directly
on the working plane, e.g. by
downlights.
Directed light
Directed light is emitted from
point light sources. One specific
direction of light is given preemi-
nance and this therefore provides
good effects in terms of →model-
ling and brilliance. Even unaltered
beams from point-form light
sources can produce directed light;
in which case, however, since the
main direction of the beam is
spread with varying intensity over
different parts of the room, the
common practice is to focus the
light into a uniformly directed
beam by →light control.
Directional luminaire
In general, a recessed luminaire
with a projection angle that may
be selected within defined limits
(pan and tilt); suitable for retail
and →exhibition purposes.
Directive luminaires
Often corresponding formally
with standard safety signs;
mounts for backlit messages.
Discharge lamps
Light sources in which light is
created by an electrical discharge
into gases or metallic vapour.
There is a distinction drawn
between low-pressure and high-
pressure discharge lamps. Low-
pressure discharge lamps include
→fluorescent lamps and →com-
pact fluorescent lamps, where
light is created by energy excita-
tion of the fluorescent material.
High-pressure discharge lamps
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Glossary
include →mercury vapour lamps,
→metal halide and →high-
pressure sodium vapour lamps.
Their high operating pressure
gives an intensive light spectrum.
DMX
Abbreviation of Digital Multi-
plexed. This digital control proto-
col is primarily used for lighting
control in stage lighting.
Dominant wavelength
Measure of a combination of
colours into representative wave-
lengths. In the →C.I.E. standard
colorimetric system, the domi-
nant wavelength is determined
by extending a line from the
white point through the colour
locus on the spectral colour line.
The opposite is the complemen-
tary wavelength. The dominant
wavelength is used, for example,
for the colour classification of
→LEDs.
Double washlights
A luminaire used to uniformly
illuminate parallel walls in hall-
ways as well as the floor.
Double-focus downlight
Downlight with elliptical reflector
system and a darklight reflector
below; producing high light out-
put ratio even from a small visible
aperture.
Double-focus wallwasher
A luminaire used for the uniform
illumination of walls. The optical
system concentrates the light to
a second focal point so as to only
emit reflected light. →Visual com -
fort is raised through the total
shielding of the lamp.
Downlight
A luminaire, normally of small
dimensions and with a round
aperture. They can be designed
for recessed or surface instal-
lation in or on ceilings or for
suspended mounting. Their light
is predominantly, but not exclu-
sively, directed downwards onto
horizontal surfaces.
E
ECG
Abbreviation of electronic
→control gear
Electronic control gear
→Control gear
Ellipsoid projector
→Compact projector
Elliptical reflector
→Reflector
Emergency lighting
Term used to describe the light-
ing of emergency exits and
routes, using emergency lighting
luminaires, and the indication of
emergency exits by illuminated
safety signs.
Emission angle
The angle between the limits at
which the →light intensity of
a →light intensity distribution
curve is reduced to 50% of the
value measured at the centre of
the main beam direction. The
beam angle is used to determine
the light beam diameter.
Ethernet
Data network technology for local
networks which allows a data
exchange between all the devices
of a local network (→LAN).
Eulumdat
European lumen data format that
describes the →light intensity
distribution of luminaires.
Exhibition lighting
Lighting designed specifically to
highlight exhibits; it can either be
general or accented. →Protection
against the harmful effects of
light is an important considera-
tion in museums and galleries.
Eye
The eye is an optical system in
which the cornea and flexible
lens project surrounding images
onto the retina; the iris provides
rudimentary control of incoming
light by adjusting the opening of
the pupil. In the retina, incident
light stimuli are converted by
receptors to neuronal impulses.
The eye has two receptor sys-
tems: cones and rods. The rods,
distributed relatively evenly
throughout the retina, are highly
photosensitive and provide wide
visibility in poorly-lit surround-
ings (→scotopic vision). Focus is
poor, however, and colours can-
not be distinguished. Cones, on
the other hand, are concentrated
in the fovea situated on the axis
of vision. They provide sharply-
focused sight, in colour, within a
limited angle of vision but require
a high level of illuminance
(→photopic vision).
F
Facetted reflector
Reflector with even, facetted
elements to produce a more
improved beam than mirror-
finish, conventional reflectors.
Fading
Transition between →light scenes.
Fading in refers to the calling-up
of a light scene, while fading out
refers to the ending of the light
scene.
Fading time
The duration of fading in and
fading out of the light scene is
known as the fading time.
Fibre optics
Optical instrument for conduct-
ing light along any course, even
curved. Light is transported by
total reflection in cylindrical solid
or tubular conductors made of
transparent material (glass or
acrylic fibres, pipes or rods).
Fill light
Lighting effect that is used to
counteract and soften strong
shadows on an object discreetly
without being consciously per-
ceived by the observer. The fill
light supplements the →key light.
Filter
Optically effective elements with
selective →transmission. Only
a particular spectrum of the
incident light is transmitted and
either coloured light is created
or invisible elements (ultraviolet,
infrared) can be filtered out. Filter
effects can be achieved through
→absorption (absorption filter)
or →reflection (reflection filter).
Interference filters with vapor-
ised special dichroic coatings are
effective reflection filters.
Flood
Common term used for wide
beam →reflectors or →reflector
lamps.
Floodlight
Luminaires with a wide beam
distribution that can be directed
at any point by turning and swiv-
elling; used mainly with →track.
Floor washlights
Type of luminaire placed in or on
walls, singly or in rows providing
glare-free, even illumination of
the floor.
Fluorescence
Fluorescence is a process by
which substances are excited by
means of radiation and made to
produce light. The wavelength
of the light emitted is always
greater than the wavelength of
the radiation used to excite the
substances. Fluorescence is used
in technical applications mainly
for luminous substances that
convert →ultraviolet radiation
into visible light.
Fluorescent lamp
A tubular coated, low-pressure
→discharge lamp filled with
mercury vapour. The →ultraviolet
radiation emitted by the mercury
discharge is transformed into
visible light by the fluorescent
material coating the inner walls
of the discharge tube. Different
fluorescent materials give a wide
range of colours and quality of
→colour rendition. Fluorescent
lamps generally have heated elec-
trodes which means that they can
be switched on using relatively
low voltage. Fluorescent lamps
require starters and →ballasts or
electronic ballasts.
Focal glow
Focal glow refers to accent light-
ing. Light is used deliberately to
convey information by visually
accentuating significant areas
and allowing the insignificant
areas to remain in the background.
Fovea
→Eye
Fresnel lens
Stepped lens where the lens
effect is achieved by the flat,
concentric arrangement of lens
segments. Fresnel lenses are
mainly used for stage spotlights
and spotlights having an adjust-
able →beam spread.
G
Gateway
Protocol converter that allows
different protocols to communi-
cate in a network.
General lighting
Uniform lighting of an area with
no specific allowances made for
individual visual tasks.
General service lamp
→Incandescent lamp
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Glossary
Glare
Collective term for the reduced
ability to see, or the disruption
of perception, by the intensity
or contrasts in →luminance in
a visual environment. There is
a distinction drawn between
physiological glare, where there
is an objective reduction in visual
performance, and psychological
glare, where there is a subjective
reduction in perception caused by
disparity between light intensity
and the information content of
the area perceived. Glare can be
caused by the light source itself
(direct glare) or by its →reflection
(reflected glare).
Global illumination
Calculation process used in three-
dimensional computer graphics,
which refers to the simulation of
all possibilities of beam diffusion.
Global radiation
The combination of solar radia-
tion and radiation from the sur-
rounding sky.
Gobo
Common term in spotlight illu-
mination for a mask or patterned
filter, projected using optical
projection, and creating lighting
effects.
Grazing light
Type of lighting that falls onto a
surface at a flat angle to empha-
sise and accentuate the surface
structures.
H
HDR
Abbreviation of →High Dynamic
Range
High Dynamic Range
Description of a very high con-
trast ratio in a digital image.
Images in HDR format can store
a higher luminance contrast than
those in the Low Dynamic Range
with 255 tonal values.
High-pressure discharge lamps
→Discharge lamps
High-pressure sodium vapour
lamp
High-pressure →discharge lamp
filled with sodium vapour. As the
aggressive sodium vapour would
destroy the glass at high pressure,
the inner discharge container is
made of ceramic, encased in
the external glass envelope. The
→light colour is in the warm
white range. High-pressure sodium
vapour lamps require an →igniter
and →ballast.
Honeycomb anti-dazzle screen
Anti-dazzle screen with a honey-
comb structure used to control
the beam and reduce →glare.
Hotel lighting
In the public domain with par-
ticularly stringent demands on
the quality of the lighting design;
it encompasses architecturally-
oriented lighting in entrance
areas, atmospheric lighting in the
restaurant areas, multifunctional
lighting in conference centres,
commercial lighting in high-
traffic areas and domestic lighting
atmosphere in the bedroom areas.
Hub
Nodal point for the connection of
network segments or →hubs, e.g.
via →Ethernet.
I
IES
Internationally accepted data for-
mat used for describing the light
distribution of luminaires.
Igniter
Control gear causing the ignition
of →discharge lamps by creating
voltage peaks.
Illuminance
Unit: Lux (lx). Illuminance is
defined as the relation of the
luminous flux falling on a surface
to the size of that surface.
Incandescent lamp
A →thermal radiator where light
is created by heating a tungsten
filament. The filament is con-
tained in a glass bulb filled with
an inert gas (nitrogen or rare gas)
which prevents it from oxidising,
and delays the vaporisation of
the filament material. Incandes-
cent lamps are available in many
forms; the most common are
general service lamps with pear-
shaped, clear or matt bulbs,
R lamps with a variety of inner
reflective coatings, and PAR lamps
made of moulded glass with inte-
gral parabolic reflector.
Indirect lighting
Illumination cast indirectly from
lamps over reflecting surfaces
onto the working plane, e.g. by
→uplights.
Infrared radiation
Invisible heat radiation in the
> 780nm wavelength range.
Infrared radiation is generated
by all light sources, especially
→thermal radiators, such as
incandescent lamps in which
it forms the greater part of the
radiation emitted.
Interference
Physical appearance during
interference of out-of-phase
waves that could lead to selec-
tive reduction of wave ranges.
Interference is used in →filters
and →reflectors for selective
→transmission and →reflection.
Interference filter
→Filter
Intersecting beam
Hyperbolic shape of a light
beam, e.g. on a wall produced by
downlights.
Inverse square law
Law that describes the →illumi-
nance as the function of the dis-
tance from the light source. The
illuminance decreases with the
square of the distance.
IP rating (Protection class)
In luminaires, the indication of
measures taken to prevent mov-
able metal parts conducting elec-
tricity in case of malfunction.
Isoluminance contour diagram
A diagram representing the dis-
tribution of luminance, in which
lines of identical luminance are
depicted on a single plane of
reference.
Isolux diagram
A diagram representing the dis-
tribution of illuminance levels, in
which lines of similar illuminance
are depicted on a single plane of
reference.
K
Key light
Type of lighting which uses
→accent lighting predominantly
for the perception of an object
or a scene. Additional →fill light
reduces harsh contrasts.
KNX
Abbreviation of Konnex. Digital
standardised system for build-
ing control applications such as
lighting, heating and air condi-
tioning.
L
Lamp
Electric light source, for
example →incandescent lamps,
→discharge lamps, →LEDs. In a
→luminaire, the lamp produces
light which can be directed by
→reflectors onto objects.
Lamp cap
Component of the →lamp which
provides the electric contact to the
→lampholder in the →luminaire.
Lamp designation system
Standardised system for the des-
ignation of electric lamps. The
abbreviation of a lamp indicates
features such as the type of light
generation, the bulb material or
gas fillings, the wattage and the
lampholder.
Lamp life
Rated life of the lamp. For incan-
descent lamps, the time before
50% of the lamps fail. For dis-
charge lamps and LEDs, the time
before the luminous flux from the
lighting installation is reduced to
50% by failed lamps and reduced
luminous flux.
Lamp life
For incandescent lamps, the
period prior to the failure of 50%
of the lamps; for →discharge
lamps, the period before which
the luminous flux of the lighting
installation is reduced to 50% by
failed lamps and reduced lumi-
nous flux.
Lamp lumen maintenance factor
Calculated value for the mainte-
nance plan of a lighting installa-
tion which takes into account the
reduction of luminous flux due to
the ageing of the lamp.
Lamp survival factor
Calculated value for the mainte-
nance plan of a lighting instal-
lation which takes into account
the variation of the life of indi-
vidual lamps from the mean life
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Glossary
of lamps, or early failure, subject
to a fixed maintenance frequency.
Lampholder
Holds the lamp in the luminaire
and provides contact for the
power supply. Typical lampholders
are screw, bayonet and pin base.
The type of lampholder is docu-
mented in the →lamp designa -
tion system.
LAN
Abbreviation of Local Area Net-
work. Local computer network as
a permanent installation which
covers a small area.
LCG
Abbreviation of low-loss
→control gear
LDC
→Luminous intensity distribution
curve
LDS
Abbreviation of Lamp Designa-
tion System. Standardised →lamp
designation system.
Leading edge technology
Method used for brightness con-
trol. The power consumption of
lamps is controlled by chopping
AC waves in the front portion of
each half cycle. In leading edge
technology, the power comes on
after a delay following the AC
voltage becoming positive and is
maintained until it next becomes
negative. Dimmers with leading
edge technology are not usually
suitable for fluorescent lamps
or compact fluorescent lamps.
Leading edge technology is used
for the control of conventional
control gear.
LED
Abbreviation of Light Emitting
Diode. Electroluminescence
emitter which generates light
through recombination of charge
carrier pairs in a semiconductor.
LEDs emit a narrow-spectrum
light. White light is produced
through RGB colour mixing or
→luminescence conversion.
Lens
Optical element used for light
control. Radius, curvature and
structure of the lens determine
the optical behaviour. The lens
systems of projection spotlights
produce precise →gobo images.
Flat →Fresnel lenses can be used
as accessories in spotlights to
spread the light either symmetri-
cally or asymmetrically.
Lens wallwasher
Luminaire with asymmetrical
light distribution for uniform wall
illumination. The light is spread
by a lens.
Life
→Lamp life
Light beam
Term used for a beam of light
usually from a rotationally sym-
metrical reflector. The optical sys-
tem of the luminaire determines
whether the beam edge is hard
or soft. The beam of spotlights
can be adjusted by rotating and
tilting.
Light beam diameter
Diameter of a light beam. The
light beam diameter is the result
of the →emission angle and the
distance from the luminaire.
Light colour
The colour of light emitted by
a lamp. Light colour can be
expressed using xy coordination
as chromacity coordinates in a
→standard colorimetric system,
or given as the →colour tempera-
ture TF for white light colours.
White light colours can also be
classified more generally as warm
white (ww), neutral white (nw)
and daylight white (dw). The same
light colours can have different
spectral distribution with simul-
taneous variance in →colour
rendition.
Light control (1)
Light control by means of
→reflectors or lenses is used in
luminaires with defined optical
characteristics to produce instru-
ments of lighting design. Light
control is a determining factor in
→visual comfort. It can be used
to reduce the →glare effect of
luminaires to an acceptable level.
Light control (2)
Light control allows room
lighting to be adjusted to suit
differ ent conditions of use and
environment. Each purpose for
use represents a lighting scene,
i.e. a specific pattern of switched
on and dimmed conditions of
individual circuits. These scenes
are stored electronically and can
be reactivated by a single touch
of a button.
Light fastness
Description of the degree by
which a material will be damaged
by exposure to light. Light fast-
ness applies primarily to changes
in the colour of the material (col-
our fastness), but may also apply
to the material itself.
Light loss factor
Reciprocal value of the mainte-
nance factor; when designing
an installation, this includes the
overall light loss effect of lamp
ageing, lamp failure and general
dirt accumulation. The new value
of the illuminance is higher by
the light loss factor than the
planning value.
Light output ratio
The light output ratio is the ratio
of luminous flux emitted by a
luminaire to the luminous flux of
the lamp. It is indicated by LOR
(light output ratio).
Light pollution
Term used for light emission
which, due to its brightness, its
direction or its spectrum causes
interference in any particular
situation. Outdoors, light pollu-
tion refers to light which is emit-
ted into the night sky. The con-
sequences include wasted energy
and a detrimental effect on flora
and fauna. The prevention of light
pollution in lighting design is
referred to as →Dark Sky.
Light protection
Restriction of illuminance,
→ultraviolet radiation and
→infrared radiation required
especially in exhibitions; effected
by the choice of suitable lamps
and types of luminaire, as well as
by →filtering the emitted light.
Light scene
Lighting situation or mood light-
ing using a specific combination
of brightness and colour condi-
tions. The light scenes can be
saved in a →lighting control
system and recalled either auto-
matically or at the touch of a
button.
Light sequence
A progression of successive light
scenes. The sequence of light
scenes is determined, and their
duration and transitions defined,
using a →lighting control system
to produce dynamic effect light-
ing.
Light simulation
Calculation of a lighting situation
using software. Quantitative light
simulation is used to verify design
requirements based on numerical
values. Qualitative simulation is
concerned with the atmosphere
and the aesthetic appearance of
the design.
Light source
→Lamp
Light structure
Arrangement of individual lumi-
naires to a primarily linear struc-
ture which may be of various
cross-sections, mostly suspended
from the ceiling or fixed to the
walls of a room.
Local Operating Network
Bus system used for communica-
tion between installations and
devices, e.g. for building control
applications.
LON
Abbreviation of →Local Operating
Network
Low-pressure discharge lamp
→Discharge lamp
Low-voltage halogen lamp
Powered by low-voltage (gener-
ally 6, 12, 24V), extremly compact
→tungsten halogen lamps. Often
having metal or coolbeam reflec-
tors.
Lumen, lm
Unit of →luminous flux
Luminaire
Object which contains a light
source and is used for artificial
illumination. The →lamp is
secured in the lampholder. The
light is controlled by →reflec-
tors. Luminaires can be securely
installed in buildings in differ-
ent versions, including recessed,
surface-mounted, pendant or
free-standing, or installed on
track systems to direct light
flexibly.
Luminaire classification
Technical lighting classification
by →luminous intensity distribu-
tion curve and light output ratio,
as well as by type of lamp and
power consumption; parameters
for technical safety classification
are mode of protection and class.
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Luminaire for linear light source
Common term used for linear
or rectangular luminaires, fitted
with →fluorescent lamps often
equipped with mirrors, prisms or
low-brightness louvres.
Luminaire maintenance factor
Calculated value for the mainte-
nance plan of a lighting instal-
lation which takes into account
the reduction of →luminous flux
through the accumulation of dirt
and the version of the luminaire.
Luminaires for pictograms
Often formally corresponding to
standard directive luminaires;
carriers for a range of pictograms.
Luminance
Unit: Candela/m
2
(cd/m
2
).
Luminance describes the bright-
ness of a surface that emits light,
either as a light source or by
→transmission or →reflection.
Luminance is defined as the rela-
tion of →luminous intensity to
the surface projected vertically
to the direction of observation.
Different coloured surfaces with
the same luminance are equally
bright.
Luminescence
Collective term for all forms
of light not caused by thermal
radiators (photo-, chemo-, bio-,
electro-, cathodo-, thermo- or
triboluminescence).
Luminescence conversion
Conversion of an existing spec-
trum into another spectrum
by using phosphors. This tech-
nology is used for →LEDs or
for →fluorescent lamps to turn
ultraviolet radiation into visible
light.
Luminous efficacy
Unit: Lumen/Watt (lm/W). Lumi-
nous efficacy is the relation of
→luminous flux radiated by a
lamp to the energy consumed.
Luminous flux
Unit: Lumen (lm). Luminous flux
describes the total light power
emitted by a light source. It is
calculated using the spectral
→radiant power and the spectral
sensitivity of the eye.
Luminous intensity
Unit: →Candela (cd) Luminous
intensity is luminous flux propor-
tionate to solid angle (lm/sr);
the spatial distribution of the
luminous flux is presented by the
luminous intensity distribution
curve.
Luminous intensity distribution
curve
The luminous intensity distri-
bution curve shown in the form
of a cross-section of the lumi-
nous intensity distribution body
which represents the →luminous
intensity of a light source for
all solid angles. In rotationally
symmetrical light sources, the
luminous intensity distribution
can be shown by a single curve,
whereas two or more curves are
required for axially symmetrical
light sources. The luminous inten-
sity distribution curve is generally
expressed in the form of a polar
coordinate diagram with a lumi-
nous flux standard of 1000lm. In
projectors it is often expressed in
Cartesian coordinates.
Luminous power
Another term for →luminous flux.
In radiation physics terms, it is
equivalent to →radiant power.
Lux, lx
Unit of →illuminance
M
Mains voltage
Voltage supplied in a power sup-
ply system. In most areas of the
world, the mains voltage is 230V
at 50Hz. Other mains voltages
require technical adaptation of
the electrical equipment.
Maintenance
Description of the steps taken
to ensure efficiency in running a
lighting installation; it includes
changing lamps, cleaning lumi-
naires as well as setting the direc-
tion of any spotlights.
Maintenance factor
→Light loss factor
Mercury vapour lamp
High pressure →discharge lamp
filled with mercury vapour. In
contrast to low-pressure discharge
which radiates almost exclusively
→ultraviolet light, mercury
vapour emits visible light under
high pressure, with a low red
content. The red content is often
supplemented by additional fluo-
rescent material and the overall
→colour rendition improved.
Mesopic vision
Transitional phase between
→photopic day-time vision with
the aid of cones to →scotopic
night-time vision with the aid
of rods. Colour perception and
→focus take on corresponding
temporary values. Mesopic vision
covers the field of luminance
between 3 cd/m
2
and 0.01 cd/m
2
.
Metal halide lamp
High-pressure →discharge lamp
filled with metal halides. The large
number of raw materials available
allow metallic vapour mixtures to
be created whose discharge gen-
erates high →luminous efficacy
and good →colour rendition.
Modelling
Accentuation of objects and
surface structures using directed
light from a point light source.
Also described under the term of
shadow quality.
Multi-mirror
→Coolbeam reflector
Multifunctional lighting
Typical lighting requirements in
→hotels and congress centres for
seminars, conferences, receptions
and entertainment. Multifunc-
tional lighting may use several
lighting systems separately or
cumulatively, often linked to a
programmable →lighting control.
Museum lighting
A particular branch of →exhibi-
tion lighting, requiring special
lighting for the architecture and
the exhibits as well as demanding
→light protection for sensitive
exhibits.
N
Narrow spot
Common term used for very
narrow beam →reflectors or
→reflector lamps.
Neutral white, nw
→Light colour
Night vision
→Scotopic vision
Nominal capacity
The power rating of an electrical
device.
O
Office lighting
Oriented specifically towards the
demands of workplaces with VDU
monitors; see VDU monitor task
lighting. There is a distinction
drawn between →general light-
ing, task-oriented general light-
ing and individual →workplace
lighting.
P
PAR lamp
→Incandescent lamp
Parabolic reflector
→Reflector
Perception psychology
A branch of the sciences con-
cerned with the biological aspect
of perception, in particular neu-
ronal recording and processing of
sensory stimuli.
Permanent Supplementary
Artificial Lighting (PSALI)
Additional artificial lighting,
especially in lower-storey rooms
lit only on one side by windows.
PSALI compensates for the fall in
illuminance as one moves away
from the window.
Photometer
Instrument for measuring light
(photometry). The unit primarily
measured is →illuminance, with
other measurements being sub -
sequently extrapolated. Photo-
meters are adjusted to the spectral
sensitivity of the eye. Goniophoto -
meters are required to determine
the →luminous intensity distri-
bution of lamps and luminaires.
Photon mapping
Algorithm used in light simula-
tion primarily as an extension of
ray tracing processes.
Photopic vision
Also: day-time vision, with
→adaptation to →luminances
of over 3 cd/m
2
. Photopic vision
is effected by the →cones and is
concentrated on the area of the
fovea. →Visual acuity is best and
colours are perceptible.
Planckian radiator
Black body. Ideal thermal radiator
whose radiation properties are
described by Planck's Law.
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433
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Play of brilliants
Play of brilliants is the decora-
tive application of light. Specular
effects produced by the light
source and illuminated materials
– from the candle flame and
chandelier to the light sculpture
– contribute towards creating a
prestigious, festive or exciting
atmosphere.
Point illuminance
In contrast to average →illu-
minance, point illuminance
describes the illuminance at a
specific point in the space.
Point light source
Term used to describe compact,
effectively point light sources
emitting direct light. Point light
sources allow optimum control
of the light, especially for projec-
tion, whereas linear or flat light
sources produce diffuse light,
which increases with size.
Projection
Optical representation of a two-
dimensional mask or a →gobo
on a surface. Luminaires used for
projection require a projecting
lens. The projections are focused
using a lens system.
Protection mode
Indication of the safety of a
luminaire against penetration of
foreign bodies or water by the use
of two indices.
R
Radiant flux
Indicates the radiant power per
square metre of surface; maxi-
mum value for daylight is around
1kW/m
2
.
Radiant power
In electric lamps, the converted
product of electrical power. Phys-
ical unit: Watt. In the 380nm to
780nm wavelength range, radiant
power (W) can be quantified as
→luminous flux (lm).
Radiosity
Calculation method used in light
simulation. In the radiosity proc-
ess, the rays are emitted by the
light source and are reflected
back by a surface.
Ray tracing
Calculation method used in
light simulation. The ray tracing
method is based on rays begin-
ning at the eye which are traced
backwards to the model and the
light sources.
Re-ignition
The restarting of a lamp after it
has been switched off or after a
current failure. A large number
of →discharge lamps can only
be re-ignited after cooling down.
Instant re-ignition is only pos-
sible with the aid of special high-
voltage →igniters.
Recessed ceiling luminaires
→Downlight
Recessed floor luminaire
A reinforced and protected
luminaire recessed into the floor;
serves as a guide as well as dra-
matic illumination of objects and
architectural details.
Reflection
The ability of surfaces to reflect
light; the ratio of reflected to
incident →luminous flux. Reflec-
tion can be specular or diffuse.
Reflector
Light-directing system based on
reflecting surfaces. The charac-
teristics of a reflector lie in the
degree of its reflection and
spread, and also, in mirror-finish
reflectors, specifically in its con-
tour. Parabolic reflectors align the
light of a point source parallel,
spherical reflectors reflect it back
into the point of focus, elliptical
reflectors concentrate it to a sec-
ond point of focus.
Reflector lamp
Light source with integral reflec-
tor. Reflector lamps are available
for different beam angles. A
special form is the →coolbeam
reflector.
Refraction
Change in the direction of light
by its entry into a medium with
differing densities. The refractory
properties of a medium are indi-
cated by a refractory index.
Relay
A switch operated by electrical
current. The relay is usually acti-
vated through a separate circuit
and can close or open one or
several circuits.
Restaurant lighting
Features: low-level →general
lighting, focal lights onto tables,
accentuation of areas of rooms
and decor. Use of lighting control
to adjust the lighting to the dif-
ferent demands of daylight and
night-time situations.
RGB
Abbreviation of red, green, blue.
RGB colour mixing in lighting
technology is based on the princi-
ple of additive colour synthesis to
generate different coloured light.
Room surface maintenance
factor
Calculated value for the mainte-
nance plan of a lighting installa-
tion which takes into account the
reduction of luminous flux due to
the room surfaces becoming dirty.
S
Scallop
Hyperbolic pattern produced
when a conical beam of light
intersects a flat surface. Scallops
can arise, for instance, when
grazing wall lighting is provided
by downlights.
Scenography
Term used for displaying rooms
with light. In lighting design,
scenography refers to the use of
light to transform the room and
to include the dimension of time.
Scotopic vision
Also: night vision. Vision adapted
to →luminance under 0.01 cd/m
2
.
Scotopic vision is effected by the
rods, so it specifically involves
the peripheral area of the retina.
→Visual acuity is poor and col-
ours cannot be distinguished;
however, there is heightened
awareness of the movement of
the objects perceived.
Sculpture lens
Lens with a parallel structure
which spreads the beam of light
in one axis, while leaving the light
distribution largely unchanged on
the other axis. In museum light-
ing, the sculpture lens is used for
its oval beam to ensure uniform
illumination of a long sculpture.
Sensor
A measuring device used to moni-
tor ambient conditions. The light-
ing is adjusted when the control
system registers an impulse either
above or below a predetermined
level.
Shielding angle
For →downlights, the angle
between the horizontal and the
line running from the inner edge
of the aperture of the luminaire
to the edge of the light source.
With the cut-off angle, one of
the factors in calculating the
→visual comfort of a luminaire.
Shop window lighting
In essence, closely linked to
→showroom lighting; primarily
involves the use of →accent
lighting, frequently with almost
theatrical staging, using col -
oured light, light projections
and dynamic →light control.
Showroom lighting
Designed on the components of
horizontal and vertical →general
lighting together with →accent
lighting; this is multi-component
lighting often using →discharge
lamps (general lighting) and
→tungsten halogen lamps
(accent lighting). Retail lighting
can be a basic element of a com-
pany's corporate identity.
Solar architecture
Architecture oriented towards
utilising solar energy and →day-
light as energy and light source.
Solar protection
Technical steps based on
→absorption, →reflection and
refraction taken to control direct
sunlight, with the aim of improv-
ing →visual comfort as well as
reducing excessive heat in a room.
Spectrum
Distribution of radiation intensity
of a light source over the wave-
length. Both →light colour and
→colour rendition result from the
spectral distribution. Depending
on the method of light genera-
tion, basic types of spectra can
be differentiated: the continuous
spectrum (daylight and →thermal
radiators), the linear spectrum
(low-pressure discharge) and also
the band spectrum (high-pressure
discharge).
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Spherolit reflector
Light reflecting system based
on the principle of spherical seg-
ments. The light distribution is
determined by the percentage of
reflection, the reflector contour,
the number of spherical seg-
ments, and the segment radii.
Spill light
Unwanted light distribution
outside the beam. Spill light can
cause glare, while outdoors, it is
a source of →light pollution.
Spot
Common term used for narrow
beam →reflectors or →reflector
lamps.
Spotlight
Luminaires whose light distri-
bution can be directed at any
desired point by turning and
swivelling; used mainly with
→track.
Starter
→Igniter for →fluorescent lamps.
Stroboscope effect
Flickering effects or apparent
changes in the speed of moving
objects due to pulsating light
(through the supply frequency)
up to apparent standstill or a
change of direction. Stroboscopic
effects can arise in →discharge
lamps, predominantly in dimmed
fluorescent lamps. They are
disturbing and dangerous in
spaces where people are operat-
ing machines. The effect can be
counteracted by operating lamps
out of phase (lead-lag circuit,
connection to three-phase mains)
or on high-frequency electronic
→ballasts.
Sun simulator
→Daylight simulator
Sunlight
→Daylight
T
Task lighting
Specifically, additional lighting
over and above the general illu-
minance level, tailored to the
individual visual demands of
specific workstations.
Task lights
Mostly fitted with energy-saving,
→compact fluorescent lamps or
→tungsten halogen lamps for
wide-beam workstation lighting;
freely adjustable luminaire heads
with good anti-glare features for
use in different locations.
Thermal radiator
A radiation source from which
light is emitted by heating a
material; generally tungsten,
as the filament material in an
→incandescent lamp.
Thermoluminescence
→Luminescence
THI daylight elements
THI is the term used for trans-
parent heat insulation. THI day-
light elements are plastic screens
inserted between clear glass
panes, with high light transmis-
sion properties and low diather-
mic characteristics; they are suit-
able for providing interior rooms
with daylight.
Track
Basic element in flexible light-
ing design tailored to meet
specific needs. Luminaires for
different purposes can be fitted
and removed at any time. Best
suited for use with →spotlights
and →floodlights, especially in
presentation and exhibition envi-
ronments.
Trailing edge technology
Method used for brightness con-
trol. The power consumption of
lamps is controlled by chopping
AC waves in each rear half cycle.
In trailing edge technology, the
power comes on instantly after
the AC voltage becomes posi-
tive and goes off before it next
becomes negative. Trailing edge
technology is used to control
electronic control gear.
Transadapter
An element used for the mechan-
ical and electrical connection of
a luminaire, especially a →spot-
light or →floodlight, to →track;
used together with an integral
electronic →transformer or elec-
tronic →control gear.
Transformer
Control device used in the opera-
tion of →low-voltage halogen
lamps; conventional wire-wound
and electronic transformers are
available.
Transmission
The ability of materials to trans-
mit light; the degree of transmis-
sion is the ratio of transmitted
luminous flux to incident lumi-
nous flux. Transmission can be
either directed or diffuse.
Tungsten halogen lamp
Compact →incandescent lamp
filled with halogen to prevent
the deposit of vaporised filament
material onto the inner glass wall.
Tungsten halogen lamps have a
higher →luminous efficacy and
→functional life than general
service lamps.
Twilight vision
→Mesopic vision
U
UGR
Unified Glare Rating; a new
method for assessing psycholog-
ical →glare, especially in the
workplace.
Ultraviolet radiation
Invisible radiation beyond short-
wave light (< 380nm wavelength).
Technical light sources only emit
a limited amount of ultraviolet
(UV) radiation. UV radiation can
have injurious effects: colours
fade, and materials become brit-
tle. UV →filters absorb these rays.
Uplight
Pendant luminaires, wall lumi-
naires, floor luminaires or free-
standing luminaires that gener-
ally emit their light upwards.
Utilisation factor
Utilance describes the influence
of solid geometry and degrees of
reflection of peripheral surfaces
on the →luminous flux striking a
defined working plane.
Utilisation factor method
A method of assessing the average
→illuminance in rooms using the
→light output ratio, →utilisation
factor and →luminous flux of the
lamps.
V
Varychrome
Attribute used to describe lumi-
naires that can produce variable
light colours, for example through
additive RGB →colour mixing.
VDU lighting
Lighting in administrative offices
strictly regulated by guidelines
and regulations; characterised
by demands in illuminance level,
light distribution and glare limi-
tation, particularly when avoiding
reflections on VDU monitors, work
surfaces and keyboards.
VDU workstation
Abbreviation of video display unit
workstation
Visual acuity
Ability of the eye to perceive
detail. The measure is the visus,
defined as the inverse value of
the size of the smallest percepti-
ble detail of a specified visual task
(mostly the opening of Landolt
rings) in minutes of an angle.
Visual angle
The angle which is subtended by
an object which is perceived; the
measurement of the size of an
object's image on the retina.
Visual comfort
Visual comfort designates the
lighting quality, e.g. regarding
→illuminance, eliminating glare
and →colour rendition.
Visual performance
Term used to describe the per-
ceptual performance of the
→eye on the visual properties of
the object being perceived. The
visual task becomes more difficult
where colour or luminance con-
trast diminish, similarly with any
reduction in size of detail.
Voltage
Physical quantity which sets
charge carriers in an electrical
conductor in motion to produce
an electric current.
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W
Wallwasher
Luminaires with a special
→reflector system or reflecting
lens system for uniform lighting
of walls; it is essential that they
are spaced equally and parallel to
the wall.
Warm white, ww
→Light colour
Washlights
Luminaires with a combination of
darklight and ellipsoid reflectors,
giving uniform wall illuminance
with the greatest possible visual
amenity; the prerequisite is that
wallwashers must be equally
spaced in a row parallel to the
wall.
Watt
Physical unit of power. The
product of voltage and current.
Wide flood
Common term used for very wide
beam →reflectors or →reflector
lamps.
Workplace lighting
In contrast to →general lighting,
this is illuminance oriented
towards specific tasks, e.g. →task
lights.
E Guide
Glossary

E

Guide
Basics

History

Seeing and perception

It is inadequate simply to portray the eye as an optical system when describing human perception. It also needs to be explained how the image is interpreted. Both the perceptual psychology and the objects of perception are important factors in understanding lighting design.

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Guide
Basics History

Quantitative lighting design

Qualitative lighting design

Right up until the 18th century people only had two light sources at their disposal: natural daylight and the flame – the latter being the only artificial light source since the Stone Age. These two types of lighting dictated the Perception-orientated patterns of life and architecture down through the ages, but a lighting design new epoch was ushered in with the invention of gas lighting and then electric lighting.

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E

Guide
Basics | History Quantitative lighting design
With the advent of electrical lighting, obtaining illuminance levels similar to those of daylight became a question of how much technical effort one was prepared to invest. At the end of the 19th century, one attempt at providing street lighting was to mount floodlights on lighting towers. However, the glare and harsh shadow produced caused more disadvantages than advantages and so this form of outdoor lighting was soon abandoned. Whereas inadequate light sources were the main problem initially, a prime concern later on was how to sensibly deal with the overabundance of light. Increasing industrialisation gave rise to intensive studies in the field of workplace lighting, investigating the influence of illuminance levels and lighting type on production efficiency. The studies resulted in extensive rules and regulations governing the minimum illuminance levels, the qualities of colour rendition and glare limitation. This catalogue of standards was to serve as a guideline for lighting far beyond the area of the workplace; in fact, it still determines the practice of lighting design right up to the present day. However, this approach left the psychology of perception totally unconsidered. The issues of how people perceive structures clearly and how lighting also conveys an aesthetic effect were beyond the scope of the quantitative lighting rules and regulations.

The American Electric Light Tower (San José 1885)

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Guide
Basics | History Qualitative lighting design

Restricting the view of human perception to a physiologically orientated level led to unsatisfactory lighting concepts. Approaches at a new lighting philosophy that no longer solely considered quantitative aspects arose in the USA after World War II. Expanding the physiology of the visual apparatus by adding the psychology of perception meant that all factors involved in the interaction between the perceiving observer, the object viewed and the facilitating medium of light now came under consideration. The perceptionorientated lighting design no longer primarily thought in the quantitative terms of illuminance levels or luminance distribution, but in terms of the qualitative factors.

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E

Guide
Basics | History Perception-orientated lighting design

Richard Kelly

William Lam

The perception-orientated lighting design of the 1960s no longer considered man and his needs as a mere recipient of his visual surroundings but as an active factor in the perception process. The designers analysed what was the significance of the individual areas and functions. Using the pattern of meaning thus established, it was then possible to plan the lighting as a third factor and to develop an appropriate lighting design. This required qualitative criteria and a corresponding vocabulary, which in turn allowed both the requirements placed on a lighting system and the functions of the light to be described.

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E
Introduction

Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design Richard Kelly
Richard Kelly (1919-1977) was a pioneer of qualitative lighting design who borrowed existing ideas from perception psychology and theatrical lighting and combined them into a uniform concept. Kelly broke away from the rigid constraints of using uniform illuminance as the central criterium of the lighting design. He replaced the question of lighting quantity with the question of individual qualities of light. These were designed according to a series of lighting functions, which were in turn geared towards the perceiving observer. In the 1950s Kelly made a distinction here between three basic functions: ambient luminescence, focal glow and play of brilliants.

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Guide
Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design Richard Kelly
Ambient luminescence Kelly called the first and foundational form of light ”ambient luminescence“. This is the element of light that provides general illumination of the surroundings; it ensures that the surrounding space, its objects and the people there are visible. This form of lighting facilitates general orientation and activity. Its universal and uniform orientation means that it largely follows along the same lines as quantitative lighting design, except that ambient luminescence is not the final objective but just the foundation for a more comprehensive lighting design. The aim is not to Focal glow To arrive at a differentiation, Kelly came up with a second form of light, which he referred to as ”focal glow“. This is where light is first given the express task of actively helping to convey information. The fact that brightly lit areas automatically draw our attention now comes into consideration. By using a suitable brightness distribution it is possible to order the wealth of information contained in an environment. Areas containing essential information can be emphasised by accented lighting, whereas secondary or distracting information can be toned down Play of brilliants The third form of light, ”play of brilliants“, results from the insight that light not only draws our attention to information, but can also represent information in and of itself. This applies above all to the specular effects that point light sources can produce on reflective or refractive materials. Furthermore, the light source itself can also be considered to be brilliant. This ”play of brilliants“ can add life and ambiance, especially to prestigious venues. What was traditionally produced by chandeliers and candlelight can now be achieved in a modern lighting design by the targeted use of light sculptures or by creating brilliant effects on illuminated materials. produce blanket illumination, or ”one size fits all“ lighting at the supposed optimum illuminance level, but to have differentiated lighting that builds on the base layer of the ambient light.

by applying a lower lighting level. This facilitates a fast and accurate flow of information, whereby the visual environment is easily recognised in terms of its structures and the significance of the objects it contains. This applies just as equally to orientation within the space (e.g. the ability to distinguish quickly between a main entrance and a side door) as for emphasising certain objects, such as when presenting goods for sale or when highlighting the most valuable sculpture in a collection.

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8

closed and half-open. Several lighting components in the outdoor area augment the view out of the living area and create spatial depth. Projectors on the roof illuminate the front lawn and the trees beside the house.E Guide Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design Richard Kelly Glass House Architect: Philip Johnson Location: New Canaan. For the night. New York. This was done using luminous ceilings in the office levels. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www.com 9 . Kelly used dimmed lighting on the interior walls. whereby a two-stage light switch for the fluorescent lamps enabled energy to be saved at night. Kelly achieved this aim by having the building shine from the inside out. Kelly avoided the use of blinds for the sunlight because he found they obscured the view and impaired the feeling of distant space. Photos courtesy of the Kelly Collection. 1948-1949 It was on this Glass House project that Kelly developed the basic principles of indoor and outdoor lighting which he was to later apply to countless residential and business properties. he designed a concept that works with the reflection of the glass facade and retains the spatial feeling. to reduce the harsh daytime brightness contrast between inside and outside. thereby making the landscape backdrop visible. Kelly recommended candles for the interior as this would give sparkle and add an exciting atmosphere. A carpet of light starts in the indoor area and continues onto the forecourt. in the middle ground and the background. the blinds on the windows only have three settings: open. The illumined area at the plinth of the building gave the impression that this multi-storey building is floating above the street. Additional projectors highlight the trees Seagram Building Architects: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson Location: New York. 1957 The vision behind the Seagram Building was to have a tower of light that would be recognisable from afar. An impressive view into the building at night is afforded thanks to uniform vertical illumination of the building’s core. To achieve a uniform pattern of solar protection on the facade during the daytime. produced by recessed ceiling luminaires. Instead. Working together with Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson. Connecticut.erco.

Kahn designed a series of NorthSouth orientated galleries whose vaulted ceilings featured a skylight running along their apexes. This results in brilliance effects comparable with the sparkle of precious stones. Kahn Location: Fort Worth. The light sources were shielded towards the front side of the balustrades.com 10 . Texas. In areas with no UV protection requirements. Kelly suggested putting plants in the inner courtyards in order to tone down the harsh daylight for the indoor areas. except the interior of the Metropolitan Opera House. such as the entrance or the restaurant. The underside of the daylight reflector system was fitted with tracks and spotlights. 1972 The clever use of natural light in the Kimbell Art Museum originates from the teamwork of Louis Kahn and Richard Kelly. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. thereby reducing the contrast between the underside of this reflector and the daylight-illuminated concrete vaulting. Kelly also conceived the lighting in all the other areas of the Lincoln Center. The chandelier in the auditorium had a diameter of about three meters and consisted of a number of smaller ”diamonds of light“. The central section of this dished aluminium is kept free of perforations so that direct daylight is shut out. 1965 For the New York State Theater Kelly explored the use of crystalline structures for the design of the chandelier in the auditorium and the lighting of the balcony balustrades in the foyer. Perforations allow daylight to penetrate through this plate. In addition.E Guide Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design Richard Kelly New York State Theater Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts Architect: Philip Johnson Location: New York. In the foyer. thereby underlining the grandeur of the room. Computer programs were used to calculate the reflector contour and the lighting properties that were to be expected. a completely perforated reflector is used.erco. New York. Kimbell Art Museum Architect: Louis I. but on the inside their multi-facetted structure produced impressive reflections. while Kelly was responsible for the daylight reflector system made of curved aluminium plate. the luminaires on the balustrade were designed to look like jewels in a crown.

1969-1974 Louis Kahn teamed up with Kelly to design a system of skylights for the illumination in the Yale Center for British Art. The design process utilised computer calculations and full-scale models. a mirror-finish light diffuser and a bi-laminar. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. allowing diffuse northern light into the building while avoiding directly incident light on walls or floors when the sun is high. Kahn Location: New Haven.erco. Connecticut. Artificial lighting was only to be mixed in when there was very low daylight. acrylic. prismatic lens underneath.E Guide Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design Richard Kelly Yale Center For British Art Architect: Louis I.com 11 . Tracks on the undersides of the domed skylights hold wallwashers and spotlights. The skylights are made of an upper Plexiglas dome with UV-protection and a sandwich construction consisting of: a translucent plastic plate for dust protection. The design brief from the museum was that on sunny and overcast days the pictures were to be exclusively illuminated by daylight. The domed skylights feature a permanently mounted louvre construction on the topside.

or rather a systematic. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. William M. which are the needs resulting from performing activities within a visual environment. and the ”biological needs“. which sum up the psychological demands placed on a visual environment and are applicable in every context.erco. Lam (1924-).com 12 . context-orientated vocabulary for describing the requirements placed on a lighting system. Lam distinguished between two main groups of criteria: the ”activity needs“.E Introduction Guide Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design William Lam In the 1970s. produced a list of criteria. C. one of the most committed advocates of qualitatively orientated lighting design.

a reception desk or the individual areas of a department store. The starting point for Lam’s definition is the fact that our attention is only dedicated to one specific visual task in moments of utmost concentration. it would then relate to how discernable destinations and routes are and to the spatial location of entrances. the weather or what is going on in that area. he proposes a differentiated analysis of all the visual tasks that arise. The emotional evaluation of a visual environment depends not least on whether that environment clearly presents the required information or whether it conceals it from the observer. Whereas activity needs result from a conscious involvement with the surroundings and are aimed at the functionality of a visual environment. It is only by leaving the building that we can catch up with the information deficit.com . as being more essential. then the environment is perceived as unnatural and even oppressive. The biological needs sum up the psychological demands that are placed on a visual environment and are applicable in every context. Lam objects to a uniform lighting that is simply designed to suit whatever is the most difficult visual task. Orientation can be initially understood in spatial terms here. Our visual attention almost always widens to observe our entire surroundings. But orientation also concerns information on further aspects of the surroundings. leisure activities or simply moving through the space. the ”biological needs“. in the environment to be perceived immediately and behaviour to be adapted to the altered situation without delay. In contrast to the proponents Biological needs Lam sees the second complex of his system. exits and other specific facilities within the environment. There is also considerable agreement for this area when it comes to the objectives of lighting design. Orientation Time of day Weather Surroundings Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. 13 of quantitative lighting design. The characteristics of the visual task at hand are the crucial factor for these needs.erco.e. an analysis conducted according to location. e. i. type and frequency. The analysis of the activity needs is therefore largely identical with the criteria for quantitative lighting. If this information is missing.g. Lam ranks the need for clear orientation as paramount. The aim is to arrive at a functional lighting that will provide the optimum visual conditions for the activity in question – be it work. This allows changes Orientation Of all the fundamental psychological demands placed on a visual environment. as may be the case in closed spaces in department stores or in the corridors of large buildings. They are concerned with the feeling of wellbeing in a visual environment. In which case. such as the time of day.E Guide Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design William Lam Activity needs The ”activity needs“ describe the needs resulting from performing activities within a visual environment. biological needs largely concern unconscious requirements which are fundamental for evaluating a situation emotionally. Instead.

This is the decisive factor for our feeling of security within a visual environment. Having a nice view or other points of visual interest.e. The first point to note here is that all areas of the spaces are sufficiently visible. yet at the same time it should also allow private areas to be defined. but also when the essential areas are clearly delineated from their background. One such private area could be defined by a patch of light that picks out a group of seats or a conference table from the overall surroundings within a larger room.erco. Security Structuring View Public life Communication Contemplation Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. the need for a clearly structured and ordered environment. a space presented in this way will feature a comprehensible number of properties that build into a clearly structured whole. Instead of constituting a confusing and possibly contradictory deluge of information. Both extremes here are perceived as negative. Dark corners in subways or in the corridors of large buildings may harbour danger. i. such as a work of art. in the same way as glaringly overlit areas. i. are also important for relaxation. A given space should facilitate contact with other people. complete isolation as well as ”life in a goldfish bowl“. Communication A third area covers the balance between man’s need for communication and his requirement for a defined private sphere. Comprehension of our surroundings does not simply mean that absolutely everything has to be visible however. We perceive situations as positive not only when the form and structure of the surrounding architecture are clearly discernable. it also includes an element of structuring.e.E Guide Basics | History | Perception-orientated lighting design William Lam Discernability A second group of psychological needs concerns how well the surrounding structures can be discerned and comprehended.com 14 .

erco. it is the medium by which we are able to see. Ultimately. it is the actual effect the lighting has on the user of a space and his subjective perception. light creates specific conditions which can influence our perception. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. Through its intensity. Lighting design is. that decides whether a lighting concept is successful or not. At the same time it enhances the environment in an aesthetic sense. the way it is distributed and through its properties.com 15 . Good lighting design aims to create perceptual conditions which allow us to work effectively and orient ourselves safely while promoting a feeling of well-being in a particular environment. in fact. the planning of our visual environment. Light is not only an essential prerequisite. The physical qualities of a lighting situation can be calculated and measured.E Guide Basics Seeing and perception Physiology of the eye Psychology of seeing Constancy Perception of gestalt Objects of perception The majority of the information that we receive about the world around us comes through our eyes.

E Guide Basics | Seeing and perception Physiology of the eye Optical system Receptors Adaptation When describing human perception.com 16 . but how the image is interpreted and how we differentiate between objects with constant properties in a changing environment. it is inadequate to portray the eye as an optical system. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. The process of perception is not a matter of how an image of our environment is transferred to the retina.erco.

for example. the light-sensitive retina the role of the film.E Eye and camera Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Physiology of the eye Optical system The process of perception is frequently explained by comparing the eye with a camera. This perception of a square shape remains consistent. an adjustable system of lenses projects the reversed image of an object onto a film. If we perceive objects that are arranged within a space. however. Images are blurred due to the various degrees of refraction of spectral colours. in the eye. Similarly. A square perceived at an angle.erco. also have been produced by a trapezoidal surface viewed front on. which produces coloured rings around the objects viewed. Spherical aberration. are eliminated when the image is being processed in the brain.com 17 . where it is adapted in the visual cortex and made available to the conscious mind. Projected images are distorted due to the curvature of the retina. These defects. The amount of light is controlled by a diaphragm. The image is spatially distorted through its projection onto the curved surface of the retina. After developing the film and reversing the image during the enlarging process. will produce a trapezoidal image on the retina. there are considerable differences between what is actually perceived and the image on the retina. This image may. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. although the shape of the image projected on the retina is constantly changing due to the changing perspective. In the case of the camera. a visible. twodimensional image of the object becomes apparent. Perspective Perceptual constancy: perception of a shape in spite of the fact that the image on the retina is changing with the changing perspective. however. Chromatic aberration. however. even if the viewer or object move. a reversed image is projected onto the retina of the eye via a deformable lens. the perspectives of the images produced on the retina are distorted. The only thing that is perceived is one single shape – the square that this image has actually produced. Through chromatic aberration – light of various wavelengths is refracted to varying degrees. The iris takes on the function of the diaphragm. The image is then transported via the optic nerve from the retina to the brain. In regard to the eye.

i. the so-called “blind spot”. is the one consisting of rods. Apart from noticing sudden movement. the main area of perception is in the central area. The special attributes of this system include high light-sensitivity and a great capacity for perceiving movement over the entire field of vision. The rod system is extremely sensitive and is activated when the illuminance level is less than 1 lux. we do not perceive the entire field of vision uniformly. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. the main reason for us to change our direction of view is the presence of high luminances – our eyes and attention are attracted by bright light.e. whose image falls in the fovea area. In contrast to rod vision. The cone system has lower light-sensitivity and is concentrated in the central area in and around the fovea.E Receptors Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Physiology of the eye Receptors There are two different types of receptor: the rods and the cones. Here we find the greatest concentration of rods.erco. In this area. in that case our attention is automati- cally drawn to these points. the concentration of the cones is greatest. Cones Spectral colour sensitivity of the cones in relation to the wavelength The cones form a system with very different properties. whereas the density of the cones reduces rapidly outwards to the periphery. contours are blurred and poorly lit items in our peripheral field of vision are more visible – can be explained by the properties of the rod system.e. to study items clearly even if they are in the centre of our field of vision. which do not exist in the fovea. This is a system which we require to see things under higher luminous intensities. i. At one point. as this is the point at which optic nerves enter the retina. On the other hand. which are not distributed evenly over the retina. there are no receptors at all. if interesting phenomena are perceived in that area. It allows us to see colours and sharper contours of the objects on which we focus. Our night vision features. under daylight or electric light. Receptor density An area of the retina called the fovea is the focal point of the lens. Number N of rods and cones on the retina in relation to the angle of sight Rods Relative spectral luminous efficiency of rods V and cones V’ in relation to the wavelength The older of these two systems. particularly the fact that colour is not evident. i. This is then received as an image on the fovea to be examined more closely. contours are not sharp and it is not possible to concentrate on objects. The peripheral field of vision is also significant.e. rods do not allow us to perceive colour. striking colours and patterns.com 18 . from an evolutionary point of view.

Adaptation time Adapting from dark to light situations occurs relatively rapidly. The eye adapts to cover one narrow range in which differentiated perception is possible. mesopic vision (2) and cone vision (3). although it only produces an illuminance of 10-12 lux on the eye. Although vision is therefore possible over an extremely wide area of luminances.) This ability to adapt to the illuminance is only influenced to a very small extent by the pupil. Luminance Luminance range L of rod vision (1).erco. The extent of tasks the eye is capable of performing is extremely wide – a faintly glowing star in the night sky can be perceived. there are clearly strict limits with regard to contrast perception in each individual lighting situation.000 in the illuminance. the purposeful planning of different luminance levels within a space or deciding on the adaptation of lighting levels in adjacent spaces. on the other hand. The rod system comes into effect in relation to night vision (scotopic vision). the cones allow us to see during the daytime (photopic vision) and both receptor systems are activated in the transition times of dawn and dusk (mesopic vision). A good example of this is how bright we find it outside having come out of a dark cinema auditorium during the daytime or the transitory period of night blindness we experience when entering a very dark room. Objects of low luminance. whereas adapting from light to darkness requires a considerably longer time.com 19 . We can perceive the world around us by moonlight or sunlight. Absolute threshold of vision (6) and threshold of absolute glare (7). Adaptation is performed to a large degree by the retina. or brightness. Typical illuminances E and luminances L under daylight and electric lighting. although there is a difference of a factor of 100. For that reason lighting design requires.E Day and night Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Physiology of the eye Adaptation One of the most remarkable properties of the eye is its ability to adapt to different lighting conditions. appear to be too dark. Objects that possess too high a luminance for a particular level of adaptation cause glare. The reason for this lies in the fact that the eye cannot cover the entire range of possible luminances at one and the same time. Both the fact that contrast in luminance can only be accommodated by the eye within a certain range and the fact that it takes time to adapt to a new level of lighting. they appear to be extremely bright. that is to say. The rod and cone system responds to different levels of light intensity. for instance. Luminances (4) and preferred luminances (5) in interior spaces. have an impact on lighting design. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www.

Another point to be considered is whether sensory impressions from outside alone are responsible for the perceived image or whether the brain translates these stimuli into a perceivable image through the application of its own principles of order. It is rather the process involved in the interpretation of this information. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. Perceptual psychology is divided on this point.E Guide Basics | Seeing and perception Psychology of seeing Contour Overall shape Colour To understand what visual perception is all about. it is not so much the transport of visual information that is of significance.erco. There is no clear answer to this question. the creation of visual impressions. The question that arises is whether our ability to perceive the world around us is innate or the result of a learning process.com 20 .

erco. and the expectations linked with it. Colour This picture illustrates how a colour is matched to the respective pattern perceived. The colour of the central grey point adjusts itself to the black or white colour in the perceived pattern.E Contour Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Psychology of seeing Experience. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. may be so strong that missing elements of a shape are perceived as complete or individual details amended to enable the object to meet our expectations. The perception of a shape with missing contours is simply based on shadow formation.com 21 . Overall shape Experience leads us to recognise an overall shape by being able to identify essential details.

this indicates that mechanisms must exist to identify these objects and their properties and to perceive them as being constant. distance or perspective. Optical illusions provide an opportunity to examine the performance and objectives of perception.erco. sizes and brightness. simple explanation for the way perception works. Wall structure Beam of Light Perception of colour Perspective Size Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. Due to changes in lighting.com 22 . There is no single.E Guide Basics | Seeing and perception Constancy Brightness Luminance gradient Three-dimensionality Fixed objects produce retinal images of varying shapes.

The perception of brightness of the grey field depends on the environment – in bright surroundings. The spatial form of an object can be recognised by the gradient of the shadows. This can be explained by the fact that the stimuli perceived are processed directly – brightness is perceived as a result of the lightness contrast between the grey area and the immediate surroundings. What we are considering here is a visual impression that is based exclusively on sensory input which is not influenced by any criteria of order linked with our intellectual processing of this information. The grey of the sharply framed picture is interpreted as a material property. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com 23 . The wall reflectance factor is assumed to be constant.E Brightness Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Constancy The fact that a medium grey area will appear light grey if it is bordered in black. Luminance gradient The continuous luminance gradient across the surface of the wall is interpreted as a property of the lighting. or dark grey if it is bordered in white. an identical grey appears darker than in dark surroundings. although the luminance is identical to the luminance in the corner of the room. the perception of elevation and depth is reversed. The spatial impression is determined by the assumption that light comes from above. examples of this are the formation of typical shadows on objects such as cubes. cylinders or spheres. By inverting the picture. Three-dimensionality Changing luminance levels may arise from the spatial form of the illuminated object.

The lighting distribution on an unstructured wall becomes a dominant feature. The observer’s attention is drawn to a luminous pattern that cannot be explained through the properties of the wall. Perception of colour The perception of colour. Light distribution that is not aligned with the architectural structure of the space is perceived as disturbing patterns that do not relate to the space. always be aligned with the architecture. This is evident. however. A colour is therefore perceived as being constant both when viewed in the bluish light of an overcast sky or in warmer direct sunlight – colour photographs taken under the same conditions. is dependent on neighbouring colours and the quality of the lighting. Light distribution that is not aligned with the shape of the picture is perceived as a disturbing pattern. similar to the perception of brightness.erco. show the distinct colour shifts that we must expect under the particular type of light. when luminous patterns created on the walls bear no relation to the architecture. The same lighting distribution on a structured wall is interpreted as background and not perceived. therefore. they should. If luminance patterns are irregular. The necessity for us to be able to interpret colours is based on the fact that colour appearances around us are constantly changing.E Wall structure Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Constancy Irregular or uneven luminances can result in confusing lighting situations. Beam of Light The visible pool of light determines whether it is perceived as background or as a disturbing shape.com 24 . for example. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. nor as an important feature of the lighting.

objects of known sizes are used to judge distances or to recognise the size of adjacent objects. a person seen a long way away is not perceived as a dwarf and a house on the horizon not as a small box.com 25 .g.E Perspective Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Constancy Our misinterpretation of lines of the same length shows that the perceived size of an object does not depend on the size of the retina image alone. the luminaires are all perceived as being the same size in spite of the variations in size of the retina images. rectangular or round objects by being aware of the angle at which the object is viewed. e.erco. From daily experience we know that this mechanism is sufficient to allow us to perceive objects and their size reliably. is much more difficult for us to handle. objects on the ground appear to be tiny. but that the distance of the observer from the object is significant. The vertical line to the rear appears to be longer than the line of identical length in the foreground. we have a mechanism that balances the perspective distortion of objects. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. In this case the perspective results in an optical illusion. Therefore. Size Constancy with regard to perception of size. Only in extreme situations does our perception deceive us: looking out of an aeroplane. Due to the perspective interpretation of this illustration. It guarantees that the changing trapezoidal and ellipsoidal forms in the retina image can be perceived spatially as being normal. the viewing of objects that are considerably farther away. the moon. To allow for the perception of size. Vice versa.

Every lighting installation comprises an arrangement of luminaires – on the ceiling.com 26 .erco. The architectural surroundings and the lighting effects produced by the luminaires produce further patterns. This process of interpretation has been used to formulate laws according to which certain arrangements are grouped together to form shapes. distinguished from its surroundings.E Guide Basics | Seeing and perception Perception of gestalt Closed form Proximity Inside Symmetry Shapes of equal width Continuous line Before a property can be attributed to an object. objects of perception. which influence in our perception of the space. on the walls or in the space. but in forms or groups in accordance with the laws of gestalt.e. These laws of gestalt are of practical interest to the lighting designer. the object itself must be recognised. Pure form Identity Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. This arrangement is not perceived in isolation. that is to say. i.

surrounding side of the line that encloses the shape. in the partly enclosed area.com 27 . the effect of the inner side can be significant. Inside An arc makes a pure shape visible on the inside of the line. From eight points on. Four points are grouped to form a square. The circles are arranged in such a strict order that the imaginary linking lines between them is not straight lines.erco. making a pure shape visible inside the line. This in turn leads to a formative effect even in the case of arcs or angles. that is to say. a circle is formed. If this leads to a plausible interpretation of the initial pattern. but forms a continuous circle. not a polygon. This inner side is usually identical to the concave.E Closed form Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Perception of gestalt An essential principle of the perception of gestalt is the tendency to interpret closed forms as pure shapes. The example on the left demonstrates that we first see a circle and then an arrangement of luminaires. Proximity Luminaires are grouped in pairs. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. Elements arranged close together are grouped according to the law of proximity and form a pure shape. A closed shape is always seen as being on the inside of the linking line – the formative effect therefore only works in one direction. Shapes that are not completely closed can also be perceived as a gestalt.

On the other hand more complex structures belonging to the same pattern disappear into an apparently continuous background. the perception of a form as a pure shape is based on simple. Even without strict symmetry. evident.erco. Shapes of equal width A similar result occurs in parallel shapes of equal width. Our preference to perceive continuous lines is so great that it can influence our overall interpretation of an image. however.com 28 . and to avoid bends and kinks. Two parallel lines show similarity. the arrangement is perceived according to the law of symmetry to form two groups of five. When two square luminaires are added to the pattern of circular downlights. This is not strictly a case of symmetry. The arrangement is interpreted as two lines crossing. allowing us to perceive a pure shape. logical structure. Continuous line A basic law of gestalt is to prefer to perceive lines as steady continuous curves or straight lines. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. Law of gestalt relating to continuous lines.E Symmetry Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Perception of gestalt In regard to symmetry. A principle of order and organisation is. it is possible to recognise a pure shape.

the structure of the shapes themselves is also responsible for their formation into groups. Besides spatial layout. The downlight arrangement is grouped into two lines according to the law of pure form. the law of the continuous line conforms with the law of pure form. The arrangement is interpreted as two superimposed rectangles.erco. This principle of identity also applies when the shapes in a group are not absolutely identical but only similar. shapes are organised to create figures that are as simple and clearly arranged as possible. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www. Identity Luminaires of the same type are grouped together. The shapes in the accompanying drawing are not organised according to proximity or axial symmetry. but in groups of identical shapes. In this case.E Pure form Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Perception of gestalt When it comes to twodimensional shapes.com 29 .

as the brain is not capable of processing all the visual information in the field of view. conscious of every object that comes within our field of vision.E Guide Basics | Seeing and perception Objects of perception Activity Information Social We are not however.com 30 . The way the fovea prefers to focus on small. It also makes sense because not all the information that exists in our environment is necessarily relevant to us. This selection is inevitable. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www.erco. changing scenes shows that the perception process purposefully selects specific things to look at.

we must be aware of the structure of the environment. the situation is often visual information that goes considered to be unnatural and beyond the specific information oppressive.E Activity Guide Basics | Seeing and perception | Objects of perception The value of any particular information relates to the current activity of the observer.com 31 . e. Edition: 20/09/2007 | Updated version at www.g. The information content of a given object is responsible for its being selected as an object of perception.erco.time of day and information relating to other activities occurring in the area. This activity may be work or movement-related or any other activity for which visual information is required. space are somewhat contradictory and require careful balance.are perceived first. It is possible to define ways of lighting which will be ideal for specific activities. Visual field (1). Preferred angle of view 25° Information There is another basic need for buildings. The focus on which visual information is required is determined by the activities and basic biological needs. it results from man’s biological need to understand the world especially man’s need to feel safe. Areas likely to provide significant information – on their own or by being highlighted . If this information is not available. Lighting conditions under which the visual task can be perceived to an optimum degree can be determined from the above-mentioned specific features. in large. This applies to orientation. weather . Importantly. required for a particular activity. windowless Social In regard to man’s social needs – the information content influthe need for contact with other ences the way in which an object people and the need for private is perceived and evaluated. To evaluate danger. They attract our attention. This is not related to any particular situation. preferred visual field (2) and optimum field of vision (3) of a person standing and sitting for vertical visual tasks Preferred field of vision for horizontal visual tasks.

The architecture. people and objects are all made visible by the lighting. the aesthetic effect and the mood of a room or area. Light influences our well-being. Visualising light Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.E Guide Designing with light Architectural lighting Planning process Practical planning Light plays a central role in the design of a visual environment.erco.com 32 .

our perception of architecture can also be influenced with light: it expands and accentuates rooms. Design with coloured light Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 33 .E Guide Designing with light Architectural lighting Lighting interior spaces Connecting spaces Illuminate objects It is light that first enables spatial perception. creates links and delineates one area from another. Above and beyond this.erco.

Light directs our view. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 34 .E Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting Lighting interior spaces Forming functional zones Defining spatial borders Emphasising architectural features Light can alter the appearance of a room or area without physically changing it. Light can be used to divide and interpret rooms in order to emphasise areas or establish continuity between the interior and exterior.erco. influences perception and draws our attention to specific details. Light distribution and illuminance have a decisive influence on how architecture is perceived.

e. Lighting control systems allow functional zones to be adapted to different uses. Distinct contrasts between individual zones and their surroundings remove them from their spatial context. Zonal lighting with delineated beams of light visually separates one area from another.com 35 . Areas of a space can be separated from each other using narrow beams of light and strong contrasts in brightness. Helsinki ERCO. Different illuminance levels establish a perceptual hierarchy and direct the viewer’s gaze. Low general lighting provides the basis for adding lighting accents. New South Wales Heart of Jesus Church. traffic areas. Large areas that on the whole are evenly illuminated can appear rather monotone if they are not divided up.g. and exhibition areas. waiting areas. Lüdenscheid Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Applications Projects: Private home. Munich Teattri Ravintola.erco. Conclusion Differentiated lighting of functional zones divide up an area and improve orientation.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Lighting interior spaces Forming functional zones Light can be used to emphasise individual functional zones in an area. The differentiation of light colours creates contrasts and emphasises individual zones.

Room surfaces can be differentiated using different levels of illuminance to indicate their importance. Frankfurt Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Heidelberg Ezeiza Airport. Uniform illumination of the surfaces emphasises them as an architectural feature.com 36 . A decreasing level of brightness across a wall is not as effective as uniform wallwashing at defining room surfaces. Lighting effects using grazing light emphasise the surface textures and become the dominant feature. Buenos Aires Light and Building.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Lighting interior spaces Defining spatial borders Floor illumination emphasises objects and pedestrian surfaces. Uniform light distribution emphasises the wall as a whole. Conclusion Wall bright Wall dark Vertical illumination is used to shape the visual environment. grazing light gives the wall structure by adding patterns of light. Vertical spatial borders are emphasised by illuminating wall surfaces. Indirect lighting of a ceiling creates diffuse light in the room with the lighting effect being influenced by the reflectance and colour of its surface. Bright walls create a high level of diffuse light in the room.erco. Singapore Lamy. whereas accentuating. Applications Projects: Conrad International Hotel.

com 37 . Grazing light can cause highly threedimensional features to cast strong shadows.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Lighting interior spaces Emphasising architectural features The illumination of architectural details draws attention away from the room as a whole towards individual components.erco. Narrowbeam downlights emphasise the form of the columns. By using different levels of illuminance. Grazing light accentuates individual elements or areas and brings out their form and surface texture. Conclusion Rooms can be given a visual structure by illuminating the architectural features. Columns appear as silhouettes in front of an illuminated wall. Las Palmas Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Applications Projects: Tokyo International Forum International Hotel. Singapore Palacio de la Aljaferia. Zaragoza Catedral de Santa Ana. different parts of a room can be placed in a visual hierarchy.

Outside – looking outside Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 38 .E Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting Connecting spaces Inside – looking inside Inside – looking outside Outside – looking inside Combining rooms can create complex architectural patterns. Targeted lighting enables the viewer to look into an area and creates spatial depth. The consideration of material qualities in combination with the correct illuminance.erco. colour of light and light distribution is an important aspect in the design stage. Light interprets these in terms of their structure and orientation.

com 39 . then the focus of attention will also shift from the background to the foreground. Berlin Guggenheim Museum.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces Inside – looking inside The bright rear wall gives the room depth and accentuates the spatial perspective. Illuminated objects in the background achieve a similar effect. Dark spatial zones cause spatial limits to disappear and recede into the background.erco. Conclusion Light makes surfaces or objects visible and allows them to become the focus of attention. Bilbao Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Schweinfurt Catedral de Santa Ana. Las Palmas DZ Bank. If the emphasis of the illuminance level is shifted from the back to the front area of the room. Differentiated spatial lighting can produce a hierarchy of how spaces are perceived. Illuminating vertical surfaces is of particular creative importance for the design since a better effect is achieved as the result of spatial perspective than when illuminating horizontal surfaces. Applications Projects: Museum Georg Schäfer.

erco. As the illuminance level in the interior decreases and the luminance in the exterior increases.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces Inside – looking outside A high illuminance level in the interior combined with a dark exterior creates a strong reflection on the facade plane. New South Wales ABN AMRO. Sydney Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Applications Projects: Miho Museum. When directing luminaries on the exterior. Objects in the outdoor area are not recognisable. Well shielded luminaires in front of the glass plane cause less reflection.com 40 . The interior visually appears to double in size from the exterior due to the reflection. Lower illuminance in the interior allows better perception of the exterior. Osaka Harvey Nichols Restaurant. direct glare into the indoor area should be avoided. Conclusion The reflection on the glass becomes less as the luminance in front of the glass decreases and the luminance behind the glass increases. the mirror effect is reduced and objects on the exterior become recognisable. London Private home.

Projects: Lamy. This allows illuminated objects or surfaces in the indoor area to become visible. Objects in the indoor area are not perceptable. A higher illuminance level during the day and a low level in the evening reduces the contrast. Hamburg Blue Lagoon Spa.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces Outside – looking inside The high illuminance level of daylight causes a strong reflection on the glass surface. Adjusting the indoor lighting to the changing daylight is recommendable. Singapore “Dat Backhus” bakery.com 41 . The glass is no longer perceptible. As the illuminance level in the outdoor area decreases. Heidelberg Ritz-Carlton. the reflection becomes less. The illumination of objects in indoor areas – such as shop windows – requires very high illuminance to make these objects visible during the day due to the high illuminance level outside.erco. Conclusion Applications The reflection on the glass becomes less as the luminance in front of the glass decreases and the luminance behind the glass increases. Luminaires in front of the glass that are well shielded and integrated into architecture cause less reflection of themselves. Reykjavik Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. A low illuminance level in the indoor area produces a deep spatial effect at night.

Conclusion Light makes surfaces or objects visible and brings them into the foreground. Osaka Federal Chancellery.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Connecting spaces Outside – looking outside A bright rear wall lends depth to the room and helps delineate the room limits. Berlin Private home. If the emphasis of the illuminance level is shifted from the back to the front area of the room. Dark zones of the room make the room limits disappear and the effect of areas recedes into the background. then the focus of attention will also shift from the background to the foreground. Applications Projects: Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Miho Museum. Milan Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Illuminated objects in the background achieve a similar effect.com 42 . Due to the low illuminance level at night. the required illuminances are less than for indoor lighting.erco.

E Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting Illuminate objects Light directs our view and focuses the attention on details.erco.com 43 . illuminance and the light distribution all determine the effect of an object in its surroundings. The direction of light. Direction of light Vary the light distribution Accentuate objects Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

erco. it gains a strong descriptive power. Very steep incident light is suitable for objects having a very shallow texture in order to make them more 3-dimensional. Light from above causes the object to cast strong shadows on itself. Conclusion If the light from the front is also coming slightly from one side.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects Direction of light Directed light from the front produces a strong modelling ability. The steeper the incident light. Light from behind creates a silhouette. Light that is solely head-on hardly causes any shadow in the direction of vision and the object loses some of its 3-dimensional appearance.com 44 . Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. the more pronounced the shadow effect.

Objects can be illuminated well when the direction of light is between 5° and 45° to the vertical. Petersburg Hermitage.spotlights . Rome Guggenheim Museum. Applications Highlighting is used for modelling objects in: .erco. Petersburg Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Bilbao Hermitage. This avoids strong reflected glare or undesirable shadows on people or objects.museums .E Arrangement Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects Direction of light The steeper the incident light. the more pronounced the shadow effect. St.salesrooms Preferred luminaire groups . St.com 45 .floodlights Projects: Pinacoteca Vaticana.exhibitions . The optimal direction of light for illuminating objects is at 30°.

Madrid Vigeland Museum. Spotlights Conclusion The narrower the beam of light cast on the object.exhibitions . With their wide light beam. the stronger the effect.salesrooms Preferred luminaire groups . flood lenses illuminate the surroundings stronger and represent the object in its spatial relationship. Flood lens Sculpture lens Applications Highlighting is used for modelling objects in: .erco.spotlights with accessories Projects: Bunkamura Museum of Art. Petersburg Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Sculpture lenses are particularly suitable for projecting light at objects over their entire height. Flood lenses spread out the narrow beam and create a soft brightness gradient. Tokyo Museo del Prado. St.museums .com 46 . The beam of light is stretched into an oval using a sculpture lens. Norway Hermitage.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects Vary the light distribution Narrow-beam spotlights accentuate the object and make it stand out against the surroundings.

a minimum brightness contrast is established between primary and secondary points of interest. a contrast can hardly be noticed. Beams from individual spotlights add emphasis to the objects. Frankfurt Guggenheim Museum.exhibitions .erco. A brightness contrast of 1:100 detaches the object very strongly from its ambient surroundings but an unintentional dissection of the wall can arise.museums . 1:1 Conclusion When the brightness contrast of the ambient surroundings to the object is 1:2. When the ratio is 1:5.trade-fair stands .com 47 .salesrooms Projects: Museo Ruiz de Luna Talavera. A contrast of 1:10 brings out the difference very well. Bilbao Museo Picasso. Barcelona Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Spain German Architectural Museum. A higher brightness contrast increases the level of accentuation. 1:5 1:10 Applications Highlighting of objects on walls is a practice used in: .E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Illuminate objects Accentuate objects The objects and the wall are given general lighting by wallwashers.

erco.E Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting Design with coloured light Colour Colour systems Colour of light Colour is a significant component of visual perception.com 48 . Colour mixing Colour rendition Colour effect Colour contrast Ambient colours Coloured highlighting Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. neutral white and daylight white are derived from the white colour of light. The term “colour of light” covers both white and coloured light. The combination of lamps and filters allows a multitude of design possibilities for emphasising or altering the lighting effect of rooms and objects with coloured light. It cannot be perceived without daylight or artificial lighting. The coloured light covers the entire visible spectrum. Warm white.

brightness and saturation. Using filters produces coloured light. In addition to hue. Therefore.com 49 . saturation and brightness.erco.E Light colour Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour The light colour refers to a colour which is emitted by a light source. This interplay is the basis of subtractive colour mixing. The chromatic effects can be intensified or altered. The type of light colour is defined by hue. This enables the colouration of rooms to be modified without changing the rooms physically. Body colour The body colour arises as a result of the incident light and the specific absorption properties of the surface. the reciprocal effect of light colour and body colour is paramount. The light colour is produced as a result of the emitted spectrum of light. Mixing several light colours is referred to as additive colour mixing. the tri-stimulus value of a body colour can only be determined in combination with the type of light with which it is illuminated. When illuminating coloured walls or objects with coloured light. the body colour of an object is also defined by the reflectance. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

from the pure colour down to the uncoloured greyscale. The spectral constitution of light colours results from the type of light. hue and saturation to produce a complete sample catalogue in the form of a three-dimensional matrix. Brightness here refers to the reflectance of a body colour. a three-dimensional system is required for body colours due to reflectance. The dimension of brightness is left unconsidered here. body colours and light colours are represented in a continuous. All levels of saturation of one colour can now be found on the straight lines between the uncoloured point and the chromaticity location in question. which is designated as a white or uncoloured point. while that of body colours results from the type of light and the spectral reflectance or transmittance. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. two-dimensional diagram.com 50 . all mixtures of two colours are likewise to be found on a straight line between the two chromaticity locations in question. The coloured area is enclosed by a curve on which the chromaticity locations of the completely saturated spectral colours lie.erco. At the centre of the area is the point of least saturation. Whereas a two-dimensional diagram is sufficient for colours of light. Complementary colours are located opposite each other in the CIE model and combine to form white. Similarly. body colours are arranged according to the criteria of brightness. this means that only the hue and saturation of all colours can be determined in the diagram. the hue refers to the actual colour.E CIE system Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour systems In the CIE standard colorimetric system. Munsell system In the Munsell system. while the term saturation expresses the degree of coloration.

neutral white and daylight white. The chromaticity location identifies the colour within the CIE diagram. colour rendition. The higher blue component in daylight white light creates a cooler atmosphere. whereas cold colours of light are accepted at high illuminances and diffuse illumination. chromaticity location and spectrum. making specific use of colours of light allows luminous colours to be achieved on the objects being illuminated. Projects: Sony Center.erco. Daylight white light is often used in office rooms to augment the daylight. Applications On presentation lighting. Berlin Glass pavilion. Lüdenscheid Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour of light: White light The higher red component in warm white light allows rooms to appear warmer than with neutral white light. Rheinbach Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank ERCO. The white colour temperature is divided into three main groups: warm white. Conclusion Warm colours of light are preferred above all at lower illuminances and with directed light. White light is described by specifying the colour temperature.com 51 . Glass technical college. A good colour rendition with the lighting will only produce a low colour deviation.

exhibitions .trade-fair stands . Yellow and red colours of light create a warm atmosphere in a room.com 52 . night blue (clear night sky) and sky blue (light of the sky by day).E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour of light: Coloured light Compared to the primary colours yellow. Helsinki Teattri Ravintola. The chromaticity location is specified by the co-ordinates in the CIE diagram. For coloured light. Applications Coloured light is used for . blue and red. Conclusion In architectural lighting. whereby a colour of light can be formed by different colour spectra. Blue colours of light allow a room to give a cooler impression. Helsinki Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. colours from the daylight spectrum are felt to be natural: magenta (conditions of light at sunset). the data concerning chromaticity location and spectrum are important. amber (atmospheric light at sunrise). Buenos Aires Teattri Ravintola.salesrooms . the colours amber and magenta appear weaker in their expressiveness.event lighting Projects: ERCO P3.erco. Lüdenscheid Zürich Insurance.

the spatial superimposition gives rise to interesting additive colour mixing effects. which may even include coloured shadows. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. green and blue results in magenta. cyan or yellow.com 53 . Conclusion When illuminating objects with differently coloured light sources.erco.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour mixing: Colours of light Super imposing several colours of light is an additive mixing process. white light is produced. Mixing two of the primary colours red. By mixing the three primary colours in equal amounts.

when the coloured lighting is dissimilar.erco. green or blue. Warm body colours are emphasised by a warm white colour of light. Paris Greater London Authority Teattri Ravintola. Projects: Shop Colette. when illuminating coloured surfaces. it is recommendable to perform lighting tests or calculations. Mixing two of the subtractive primary colours magenta. Helsinki ERCO Trade Fair. The same applies to the use of colour filters. especially daylight white.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour mixing: Light colour and body colour Subtractive colour mixing occurs when coloured surfaces are illuminated with coloured light. or darker. produces the additive primary colours red. Applications In practice. The actual appearance of the results of subtractive colour mixing depends on the spectral constitution of the components being mixed. Wall: Blue Light: Warm white Wall: Blue Light: Blue Conclusion Wall: Blue Light: Magenta Wall: Blue Light: Yellow The appearance of a body colour can seem more saturated and brighter when the lighting on it is of similar colour. Hanover Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. cyan and yellow.com 54 . Body colours appear less saturated. Cold body colours appear brighter and more saturated under cold neutral colours of white light.

When rendering yellow and red hues. this phenomenon of respective weakening and intensifying of the chromatic effect is reversed. Incandescent lamps or daylight have the colour rendition index Ra 100. Linear spectra have a very good colour rendition. However. these hues appear clear and bright under daylight white light from fluorescent lamps – despite poorer colour rendition.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour rendition The quality of the reproduction of colours is termed colour rendition. Incandescent lamps or daylight have the colour rendition index Ra 100.com 55 . Blue and green colours appear comparatively grey and matt under warm white incandescent light despite excellent colour rendition.erco. Daylight Continuous spectra lead to good colour rendition. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Incandescent lamp Continuous spectra lead to good colour rendition. Linear spectra only permit one single colour to be perceived well. Multiline spectra reproduce several colours of the relevant spectrum well. but in the intermediate areas the colour rendition is weaker.

exhibitions . while discharge lamps have a multiline spectrum.com 56 . Incandescent lamps feature a linear spectrum. the colour rendition must be determined dependent on the colour temperature. The more spectra can be bound to one linear progression. Physics Linear spectrum Continuous spectrum Multiline spectrum The same colours of light can produce a different rendition of a body colour due to different spectral constitution. Linear spectra only correctly render a very small colour range. Multiline spectra are compiled from different linear spectra and thus improve the colour rendition. Tungsten halogen lamps feature very good colour rendition. The colour rendition index is only used for white colours of light. the better the colour rendition. Applications Very good colour rendition is important for . The degree of colour distortion against a reference light source is indicated using the colour rendition index Ra or the colour rendition grading system.workstations Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.salesrooms .erco. Fluorescent lamp Discharge lamps such as fluorescent lamps or metal halide lamps feature a multiline spectrum. Their colour rendition is therefore lower than Ra 100.trade-fair stands . The rendition quality of fluorescent lamps and metal halide lamps ranges from good to average.offices . Continuous spectra lead to a unifrom colour rendition.E Conclusion Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour rendition Because the eye is able to adapt to light of the most different colour temperatures.

Dark navy blue has a rather melancholy effect. Applications Colour effects are particularly important for . warmth and energy.trade-fair stands .White is one of the non-colours and is the polar opposite of black.sales areas .erco. . The different hues belonging to a colour can.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour effect .Grey is one of the non-colours and appears indifferent.exhibitions . Conclusion The effect of colours is explained from the physiological point-ofview of actually seeing colour and the psychological aspects of sensory perception.Yellow is the lightest colour in the colour wheel. . Where pale red is concerned. . Helsinki Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 57 .Blue is the colour of the sky and is one of the cold colours which gives an effect of depth. The effect of individual colours can be increased by way of a colour contrast. also have other effects.Green is the colour of vitality. The lure of colours triggers associations and is interpreted in the context of the social and cultural environment. Vienna Teattri Ravintola. Its nuances range from calming to refreshing. the aspect of warmth decreases while its lightness increases. London Light and Building 2000.restaurants Projects: Saab City. White stands for purity. . The colour has a dominant effect. whereas blue-green emanates peace. in turn.Red is the colour of fire and the expression for power. . Frankfurt Restaurant Aioli.Black stands for darkness and appears sinister and negative. but used in the foreground it does not have the same energy as red. .

The primary colours yellow. A light colour next to a dark colour has a stronger effect than next to an equally light or lighter colour. This approach is not based on physical and chemical properties of colours.E Colours themselves Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour contrast The seven colour contrasts originated from the colour theory of Johannes Itten. red and blue produce the strongest contrast. Green and magenta form the neutral transitions. Cold Warm Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 58 . The effect of a predominant colour can be increased when combined with an accent from the opposite colour. The effect of hues can be intensified by greater differences in brightness. The colour contrast becomes weaker with secondary or tertiary colours or as the saturation decreases.erco. their effect is significant. Light-dark The “non-colours” black and white produce the strongest contrast. Even with the “proper” colours. the warm colours with red and yellow components are located opposite to the cold blue hues. but on their subjective effects. Cold-warm In the colour wheel.

Yellow-violet displays the largest light-dark contrast.com 59 . Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. After staring at a colour for a long time and then looking at a neutral grey. Complementary The pairs of colours lying opposite in the colour wheel form the complementary contrast from a primary colour and the secondary (mixed) colour made of the other two primary colours. orange-blue the largest cold-warm contrast.erco. Green causes a grey area with a red tinge to appear. The complementary contrast causes the brilliance of the colours to increase. Colours change their effect due to the influence of the surrounding colours. Red-green have the same light intensity. Red leads to a green tinged grey shade. the eye forms a simultaneous contrast colour.E Simultaneous Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour contrast The effect of the simultaneous contrast has its origin in how the eye processes perception.

A large coloured area with a small area in a contrast colour increases the chromatic effect of the main colour. Mixing pure colours with grey shades makes the former murky and dull. or intensity contrast. Quantity The quantity contrast refers to the relationship of the size of one coloured area with the next.com 60 . Pure colours have a dominating effect over murky colours. describes the distinction between pure colours and murky colours.E Quality Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Colour contrast The quality contrast. and the quality of colour purity is lost. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.

it is recommended that lighting tests or calculations be carried out. direct light increases the effect of the light when illuminating a coloured surface. when illuminating coloured surfaces.com 61 . The effect of a body colour can be intensified by using coloured light of a similar colour.E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Ambient colours White light that is reflected by a coloured surface takes on the colour of the surface and becomes the predominant colour of light for the whole room.sales areas Projects: Polygon Bar. Strong colour contrasts appear brighter for the same illuminance than a weaker colour contrast. Wall: Yellow White light: Warm white Wall: Red Coloured light: Magenta Wall: White Coloured light: Amber Conclusion The colour of light in a room is influenced by the decoration of the room.erco. Within closed rooms the effect is hardly perceptible due to the phenomenon of colour constancy. London Greater London Authority Tennispalatsi Cultural Museum. Lesser colour contrasts can be perceived better Wall: Yellow Coloured light: Sky blue under brighter lighting. reversed or inverted. Helsinki Apropos Cöln Concept Store. this effect can be increased. Coloured accent lighting is used for . Cologne Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. In comparison to diffuse light.trade-fair stands .exhibitions . Applications In practice. When lighting a coloured wall with coloured light.

Wall: White Stele: Night blue Wall: Magenta Stele: White Wall: Amber Stele: Magenta Conclusion Lighting effects can be intensified using coloured light.exhibitions . Bilbao Zürich Insurance.sales areas Projects: Museo de Bellas Artes. Strong colour contrasts increase the brightness contrasts. Frankfurt Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. while the chromatic effect makes magenta come to the fore. Helsinki Light and Building 2002. Wall: Sky blue Stele: Amber Applications Coloured accent lighting is used for .E Observation Guide Designing with light | Architectural lighting | Design with coloured light Coloured highlighting Coloured accent lighting and coloured background lighting changes the effect of objects in the room.com 62 . The colour saturation of the object increases in the foreground when the background brightness is decreased. Blue colours seem to recede into the background.erco. Buenos Aires Teattri Ravintola. Natural overall effects arise due to warm colours of light and filter colours such as “Skintone”.trade-fair stands . High brightness contrasts likewise increase the colour contrasts. or due to cold colours of light such as sky blue and night blue. magenta and amber.

E Guide Designing with light Planning process The planning process provides an overview of the sequence of the individual tasks in lighting design. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. maintenance schedules are a prerequisite for maintaining the quality of light on site.erco. In addition.com 63 . The findings of the analysis are firstly channelled into the concept planning and are then finalised for implementation in the design. This process is closely linked with the planning procedure for an architectural design.

com 64 . how often and how important they are. whether movement and spatial arrangement have to be recognized or whether reflected glare is likely to be a problem. the conditions and special features. Utilisation of space A central aspect of project analysis is the question of how the spaces that are to be illuminated are used. the luminous colour and colour rendering. Standards dictate the illuminance level. The position of the visual task within the space and the predominant direction of view may also become central issues. the characteristics of which must in turn also be analysed. there then follows the question of whether colour or surface structure of the visual task are significant. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.E Introduction Guide Designing with light | Design practice Project analysis The basis for every lighting design concept is an analysis of the project. A quantitative design concept can to a large extent follow the standards laid down for a specific task. Two criteria relating to a visual task are the size and contrast of the details that have to be recorded or handled. who will use it and the style of the architecture. the degree of glare limitation. the tasks the lighting is expected to fulfil. how it is used.erco. When it comes to qualitative planning. This comprehensive analysis of the task gives rise to a series of individual visual tasks. it is necessary to gain as much information as possible about the environment to be illuminated. it is important to establish what activity or activities take place in the environment.

This also includes information on materials. An orderly and clearly structured environment contributes to the general feeling of wellbeing. the need for visual guidance can become a important issue. Where there are conversational zones within larger areas. modules and rhythmical patterns.com 65 . a building or space should be made visible. which can be identified and expressed by light and luminaires – constitutes the central issue. Architecture and ambience From the point of view of architecture and ambience. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.E Psychological requirements Guide Designing with light | Design practice Project analysis The psychological requirements include perception of the wider surroundings to establish the time of day. This requires detailed information on the architecture and on the overall architectural concept complete with the intended indoor and outdoor effect by day and night. reflectance and the colour scheme. The question of the building shape. In large buildings frequented by different users. but rather how to create the required aesthetic effect in a space. of spatial shape. In Architectural lighting it’s not primarily about the lighting which emphasises the building structures and characteristic features for a particular perspective. the weather and to facilitate spatial orientation. the use of daylight and the permissible energy consumption. it may make sense to create private areas by using suitable lighting. its characteristics accentuated and its ambience underlined.erco. Differentiated lighting can provide spatial delineation for areas with separate functions.

the arrangement and installation of the luminaires and any required control gear and control devices. Project analysis provides lighting quality guidelines giving information about the individual forms of lighting. The challenge of a qualitative lighting design is to develop a design concept that combines the technical and aesthetic requirements of complex guidelines. This also allows a reliable calculation of illuminance and costs. A practical design concept requires consultation with the other trades involved. They give no exact information about the choice of lamps or luminaires or about their arrangement. Design In the design phase.E Lighting concept Guide Designing with light | Design practice Lighting concepts list the properties that lighting should possess. No strict process can be set out. A concept that delivers the required performance with a commensurate level of technical expertise and the highest level of artistic clarity will produce the most convincing solution.erco. nor even one describing generally routine design stages. The decision regarding lamp type can be made at the beginning of a project or left until an advanced planning stage. Lighting design should be seen as a cyclical process in which developed solutions are repeatedly compared to the stated requirements. and also gives the degree of spatial and temporal differentiation. decisions are made regarding the lamps and luminaires to be used. It must meet the specifications of the relevant standards and take both investment costs and running costs into consideration. These relate to the quantity and various quality features of light. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. luminaire arrangement can be determined by the choice of a certain luminaire or could be the criteria for luminaire selection.com 66 .

erco. The range of downlights and louvered luminaires available is so vast and their designs differ substantially. surfaced mounting or pendant mounting. which means that numerous modes of installation are required. i.are exclusively designed to be installed as additive elements. In order to avoid a reduction in luminous flux all lamps must be replaced and luminaires cleaned at regular intervals.E Installation Guide Designing with light | Design practice A wide range of luminaire types – e. to limit the unavoidable reduction of luminous flux of a lighting installation. The Installation Instructions for the luminaires explain the installation and maintenance of the luminaires in detail. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. When one lamp in a geometrical arrangement of luminaires fails it may have a detrimental effect on the overall illuminance in the space. g. They may be mounted on track or lighting structures. The reasons for the reduction in luminous flux may be defective lamps and the gradual loss of luminous flux by the lamps or a decrease in light output due to soiling of the reflectors or attachments. and possibly also re-adjustment or realignment of spotlights and movable luminaires. The task of the lighting designer is to draw up a maintenance plan that meets the requirements of the given situation and includes the necessary informative literature. The main objective of maintenance is to ensure that the planned illuminance is maintained. e. suspended from the ceiling (pendant luminaires) or surface mounted onto the wall or ceiling. In the case of wall or floor mounting the luminaires may be surface-mounted or recessed into the fabric of the building. spotlights and light structures . Maintenance The maintenance of a lighting installation generally comprises lamp replacement and the cleaning of the luminaires. Ceiling mounting allows a variety of possibilities: recessed mounting.com 67 . Qualitative aspects may also be decisive for maintenance.

the arrangement and installation of the luminaires.erco.com 68 . the next phase entails practical planning: decisions regarding the lamps and luminaires to be used. Mounting Maintenance Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. A detailed design can be developed from a concept based primarily on lighting qualities.E Guide Designing with light Practical planning Choice of lamps Luminaire selection Luminaire arrangement Having completed the project analysis and developed a lighting concept.

com 69 . QPAR QT-NV T TC HIT-CE HST LED Economy 20 40 Radiant emission 60 80 100 (lm/W) Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.E Guide Designing with light | Practical planning Choice of lamps Modelling Colour rendition Light colour Selecting the right lamp for the luminaire depends on the actual lighting requirements. For the successful implementation of a lighting concept the physical aspects. Luminous flux A QT. such as colour rendition. and the functional criteria are decisive.

In practice. When illuminating sculptures. are accentuated under daylight white light.e. Colour rendition The colour rendition of the light source is determined by the actual lamp spectrum. A very good colour rendition quality is produced by incandescent lamps including tungsten halogen lamps.com 70 . the light colours are categorised into warm white. Linear or band spectra generally worsen the colour rendition. A continuous spectrum ensures the optimal colour rendition. whereas blue and green. the modelling ability and brilliance are of central importance. Ranges of the colour rendition index Ra for different lamp types Light colour Ranges of colour temperature TF for different lamp types The light colour of a lamp depends on the spectral distribution of the emitted light. cool colours.erco. neutral white and daylight white. presenting merchandise or lighting interestingly textured surfaces.E Modelling Guide Designing with light | Practical planning Choice of lamps Modelling and brilliance are effects produced by directed light. i. Warm white lamps emphasise the red and yellow spectral range. Compact light sources such as low-voltage halogen lamps or metal halide lamps are a prerequisite for this. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

fluorescent lamps and high-pressure discharge lamps all feature particularly high luminous flux values. followed by conventional incandescent lamps and compact fluorescent lamps. With conventional and compact fluorescent lamps the infrared radiation is noticeably lower. tungsten halogen lamps for mains voltage. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com Aspects of radiation are important in the field of exhibition and display. the highest values are attained by metal halide lamps. the lamp life and the cost of the lamp. 71 . The damaging infrared and ultraviolet components can be reduced considerably by using filters. IR (780nm-10000 nm). QPAR QT-NV T TC HIT-CE HST LED 20 40 60 80 100 (lm/W) Ranges of luminous efficacy η for different lamp types The economy of a lamp depends on the luminous efficacy. Example: φe = UV · lm / 1000 An A60 lamp with 100W and 1380 lm results in a UV radiated power of 0. Clearly larger values are attained by fluorescent lamps. subdivided into the wavelength ranges: UV (280 nm-380 nm). The life of fluorescent lamps and high-pressure lamps is considerably higher. high pressure mercury vapour lamps and metal halide lamps. Incandescent lamps and tungsten halogen lamps have the lowest luminous efficacies. Infrared and ultraviolet radiation can cause damage on paintings. High proportions of infrared radiation and convection heat are emitted above all by light sources with low luminous efficacy. Ranges of power P for different lamp types Economy A QT.069-0.138 W. Conversely.E Luminous flux Guide Designing with light | Practical planning Choice of lamps Particularly small luminous flux values are primarily found with LEDs and low-voltage halogen lamps. with respect to a luminous flux of 1000 lm. such as incandescent lamps or tungsten halogen lamps.erco. Incandescent lamps and tungsten halogen lamps have the lowest lamp life. Ranges of service life t for different lamp types Radiant emission Relative radiated power φe of different lamp types. visible light (380 nm-780 nm).

Opting for a particular light source will reduce the choice of luminaire. The lighting effects that can be obtained within this range depend on the Methods of mounting choice of luminaires in which the lamps are to be used.E Guide Designing with light | Practical planning Luminaire selection Light distribution Luminous colour The choice of light sources outlines the technical qualities of the lighting design concept and the limits to the lighting qualities that can be achieved. Luminance Illuminance Safety requirements Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 72 .erco. the choice of luminaire will restrict the choice of lamp. and vice versa. The choice of lamp and luminaire is therefore closely related.

Uniform general lighting using wide-beamed illumination Differentiated lighting using narrow-beam light from spotlights Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.E general – differentiated Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Light distribution Uniform general lighting is a standard lighting concept. narrow beam can be used for accent lighting. Spill light from the accentuated areas is frequently sufficient to provide adequate ambient lighting. Uniform lighting can also be achieved by indirect illumination. accent lighting will contain general lighting components to allow the viewer to perceive the spatial arrangement of the illuminated objects. a lighting concept that aims solely to create isolated lighting accents is the exception.erco. Luminaires that emit a directed. Adjustable spotlights and directional luminaires are ideal. For general lighting.com 73 . Often. wide-beam luminaires such as downlights and light structures are suitable. However.

erco. This greatly enhances the threedimensionality of illuminated objects as the result of high contrasts. A lighting plan can be used with direct lighting that allows differentiated distribution of light. Indirect lighting produces a highly uniform. Direct lighting with oriented light Indirect lighting creates an open spatial impression Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 74 . Problems caused by direct and reflected glare are avoided. With indirect lighting. lighting is designed to give diffuse general lighting. and both general lighting and accent lighting. soft light and creates an open appearance due to the bright room surfaces. Indirect lighting alone can give a flat and monotonous environment.E direct – indirect Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Light distribution Direct lighting allows diffuse and oriented light.

E wide – narrow Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Light distribution The decision for narrow or wide light distribution is closely connected with the concept of general or differentiated lighting.erco. Wide light distribution creates a higher proportion of vertical illuminance. Luminaires with a beam angle of less than 20° are known as spotlights and above 20° as floodlights. With downlights.com 75 . the cut-off angle also gives an indication of the width of the light distribution. Wide light distribution for indirect lighting Narrow-beam light for highlighting Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

two light intensity distribution curves are given. Luminaires with asymmetric light distribution are designed to give uniform light distribution for surfaces located to one side. the light distribution is narrow beamed to provide highlighting. The light distribution can be wide for downlights used for the general lighting of horizontal surfaces.E symmetrical – asymmetrical Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Light distribution Symmetrical light distribution is used for providing even lighting. Symmetrical light distribution for general lighting Asymmetrical light distribution of wallwashers for uniform wall illumination Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.com 76 .erco. Typical luminaires with this characteristic are wallwashers and ceiling washlights. For luminaires with axially symmetrical beam emission. such as light structures. With spotlights.

where the lighting design is primarily aimed at giving uniform lighting for horizontal visual tasks. horizontal surfaces. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. However. Vertical lighting is intended to emphasise the characteristic features and dominant elements in the visual environment. This allows the aesthetic arrangement of luminaires in architecture or in a characteristically designed interior and the solution of specific lighting tasks to be effected in closer relation to the project than if only standard products are chosen. In such cases.erco. This applies to the case of lighting for workplaces for instance. userorientated light. vertical lighting components are predominantly produced by the diffuse light that is reflected by the illuminated. because they can be supplied at reasonably short notice.g. such as lighting installations that are integrated into the architecture (e. Standard luminaires can also be used in special constructions.g. have clearly defined performance characteristics and have been tested for safety. In the case of large-scale. whose structures can be clearly portrayed by illuminating the walls. prestigious projects consideration may also be given to developing a custom designed solution or even a new luminaire. for shelves. but also to the accentuation and modelling of the objects in the space.E horizontal – vertical Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Light distribution Focusing on horizontal lighting is frequently in line with the decision to plan functional. This applies not only to the architecture itself. Horizontal lighting for workplaces Vertical lighting accentuates the texture using facade lighting Custom design In most cases the choice of luminaires will be confined to the standard products available. cove lighting or luminous ceilings). Additional costs for development and time considerations must be included in the calculation of overall costs for the project. vertical lighting frequently aims to create a visual environment. blackboards or paintings.com 77 . The decision to plan vertical lighting may also be related to the task of fulfilling functional requirements when illuminating vertical visual tasks. e.

com 78 . With luminaires having RGB technology. blue and green primary colour light sources can be mixed to give a multitude of colours. Coloured light can be produced from these lamps by using colour filters.erco. An electronic control allows the light colour to be changed dynamically. red. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. neutral white and daylight white.E Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Luminous colour The colour of light from a luminaire depends on the lamp. The range of white light colours is divided into warm white. The use of a coloured light source such as an LED or fluorescent lamp creates coloured light directly and avoids the reduced transmission of colour filters.

Planning focuses on the lighting effects produced by the luminaires. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. These two concepts should not be regarded as two completely separate ideas.erco. the luminaires are concealed within the architecture. The decision to opt for a stationary or variable lighting installation overlaps the decision to go for an integral or additive solution. the idea of adding the luminaires to the existing architecture as an element in their own right. there is the attempt to integrate the luminaires into the architecture as far as possible. however. They are the two extremes at either end of a scale of design and technical possibilities. and on the other hand. it is determined by the lighting requirements the installation has to meet rather than by design criteria. The luminaires are only visible through the pattern of their apertures. which also allows mixed concepts and solutions.com 79 . On the one hand. Typical luminaires here are recessed wall or ceiling luminaires. which can allocate different aesthetic functions to the lighting installation and provide a range of lighting possibilities. Integral lighting generally presents a comparatively static solution. Integral lighting In the case of integral lighting. The lighting can only be changed by using a lighting control system or by applying adjustable luminaires. Integral lighting can therefore be easily applied in a variety of environments and makes it possible to co-ordinate luminaires entirely with the design of the space.E Methods of mounting Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Methods of mounting There are two basic contrasting concepts for the arrangement of luminaires in an architectural space.

erco. Typical luminaires here are spotlights and light structures. the lighting designer also has to specify the luminaire design and plan a lighting layout in tune with the architectural design.E Additive lighting Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Methods of mounting In the case of additive lighting. adjustable luminaires such as directional luminaires. The luminaire layout should be thoroughly checked in the design phase because any subsequent alterations to recessed luminaires are very costly. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Besides planning the lighting effects which are to be produced by these luminaires. Stationary lighting With stationary.g. the luminaires appear as elements in their own right. mounted luminaires. What is gained in flexibility is offset by the task of harmonising the visual appearance of the lighting installation with its surroundings and of avoiding the visual unrest through the mixing of different luminaire types or by a confusing arrangement of light structures. The range extends from harmonising luminaires with available structural systems to selecting luminaires that will have an active influence on the overall visual appearance. different light distributions are available. as well as pendant luminaires.com 80 . e.

or even rearranged or replaced.E Movable lighting Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Methods of mounting There are different ways of making a lighting installation flexible. These allow the luminaires to be realigned. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com 81 . is provided by movable spotlights mounted on track systems or support structures. as required for lighting temporary exhibitions and for display lighting. The highest degree of flexibility.

The greater the cut-off angle in downlights. The UGR value is influenced by the light source’s luminance. reflected glare in the case of horizontal visual tasks (2) and reflected glare in the case of vertical visual tasks. the less the glare. It is usually between 10 and 30. Standards exist for the lighting of workplaces. In the case of luminaires with mirror reflectors direct glare control improves the greater the cut-off angle. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. The standard cut-off angles are 30° and 40°. such as spotlights or directional luminaires. its visible size (solid angle) and its position (position index).g. For workstations with VDTs there are specific requirements. such as downlights or light structures it is necessary to distinguish between the elimination of direct glare and reflected glare. the greater the visual comfort provided by the luminaire due to improved glare control. The critical area can be defined as that portion of the ceiling which is seen by the user in a mirror covering the working area. Glare primarily occurs if the luminaire is not correctly adjusted. Standards By projecting the field of vision onto the ceiling surface it is possible to define the area in which the luminaires may have a negative influence on contrast rendering. In the case of stationary luminaires. The UGR (Unified Glare Rating) process is used to evaluate and limit the direct discomfort glare in indoor areas.E Glare Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Luminance In the case of adjustable luminaires. Glare limitation at VDT workstations: for areas with VDT workstations a cut-off angle α of at least 30° is recommended. With regard to glare a distinction is made between direct glare.com 82 . e. caused primarily by luminaires (1). the quality of glare limitation depends on the light distribution of the luminaire. which stipulate minimum cut-off angles or highest permissible luminances in the cut-off range. as well as the luminance of the background. The smaller the UGR value. at VDT workstations (3). glare also depends on the light distribution of the luminaire. In the case of direct glare.erco.

However. but the light that is emitted. in the combination of light and object.E Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Illuminance Visual performance generally improves sharply as the illuminance level is increased.erco. it increases more slowly. transmitted or reflected by the surfaces. following a set of fixed rules for illuminance levels gives little consideration to actual perception. It is not the luminous flux falling on a given surface – illuminance – that produces an image in the eye.com 83 . and at extremely high illuminance levels it even starts to decrease due to glare effects. Recommended illuminance level E according to CIE for various activities Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Above 1000 lux. The image on the retina is created entirely by the luminance pattern of the perceived objects. however.

Identification of protection mode (IP): code X. Luminaires are classified according to their mode of protection and protection class. In some cases there are other requirements that have to be met and the luminaires marked accordingly. and the mode of protection its degree of protection against contact. foreign body protection Identification of protection mode (IP): code Y. Special requirements have to be fulfilled by luminaires that are to be operated in damp or dusty atmospheres. dust and moisture. water protection Protection classes Special requirements to fire safety have to be fulfilled when luminaires are installed in or on furniture or other inflammable materials.com 84 .erco. whereby the protection class indicates the type of protection provided against electric shock. or in rooms where there is a danger of explosion. Protection classes for the electrical safety of luminaires Identification of special luminaire properties and safety requirements Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.E Protection mode Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire selection Safety requirements Luminaires are required to meet the safety requirements in all cases. in Germany this is usually guaranteed by the presence of a test symbol.

erco. it has become preferred practice to plan the lighting layout of ceiling-mounted luminaires to produce a completely uniform grid. producing ceiling designs that combine functional lighting with an aesthetic lighting layout that relates to the architecture.com 85 . The lighting design should make use of this scope. there is no direct link between lighting layout and lighting effect. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Consequently.E Guide Designing with light | Practical planning Luminaire arrangement Floor Wall Ceiling Object Point source patterns Linear elements Designing the lighting layout should not be seen as a solely technical or functional process. by exploiting the wide range of luminaires available it is possible to achieve a designed pattern of lighting effects using a variety of lighting layouts. with the aim of providing uniformly distributed lighting. In quantitative lighting design.

Cut-off angle The greater the cut-off angle. the greater the visual comfort provided by the luminaire due to improved glare control. the maximum luminous flux is emitted at a high lateral angle. A cut-off angle of 40° gives the best possible compromise between the necessary horizontal illuminance on the floor and vertical illuminance. Due to their narrow light distribution.erco.com 50° cut-off angle 86 . On downlights with a 30° cut-off angle. The luminaire spacing (d) between two adjacent structures should correspond to the height (h) above the floor or work surface. The same lighting layout of downlights produces different distributions on the wall. downlights with a 50° cut-off angle achieve very a high visual comfort for high rooms. 30° cut-off angle 40° cut-off angle Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. No light is emitted beyond the cut-off angle.E Floor Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement Floor The recommended offset from the wall (a) is half the luminaire spacing (d). Vertical illuminance is important in places such as salesrooms where products should be well illuminated.

com 87 .E Wall Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement Wall The distance from the wall for wallwashers should be at least one third of the room height. in high rooms this spacing must be reduced to compensate for the illuminance which is generally reduced. A wallwasher in a room corner should be positioned on the 45° line. Wallwashers do not Room corner give optimum uniformity until at least three luminaires are used. Whereas for normal room heights the luminaire spacing is the same as the wall offset. the lighting layout should be chosen such that the pattern continues uniformly in the reflection. The recommended distance of downlights to the wall is generally half the distance between the downlights.erco. the wall offset is given by a 20 degree line extending from the base of the wall up to the ceiling. Corner-mounted luminaires should be mounted on the 45° line to produce identical scallops on both walls. Mirrored walls For mirrored walls. Alternatively. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

The ceiling offset depends on the degree of evenness required and should generally be 0.g. If the angle of incidence of the light is approximately 30°. the more pronounced the three-dimensionality of the illuminated object.com behind glass. e. 88 . the so-called “museum angle”. Ceiling washlights should be mounted above eyelevel to avoid direct glare. Ceiling Ceiling lighting requires sufficient room height to achieve even light distribution. The steeper the incident light.erco.8m. oil paintings or pictures framed Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. the lighting layout should harmonise with the architectural elements. In the case of reflecting surfaces. attention must be paid to the angle of incidence of the light to avoid disturbing reflections that may arise in the observer’s field of vision.E Wall element Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement In spaces with dominant architectural features. e. This will also avoid any heavy shadow.g. picture frame shadows on the picture. Object Objects can be illuminated with light directed from between 30° to 45° to the vertical. this produces maximum vertical lighting and avoids reflected glare that may disturb the observer.

Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. Indirect illumination with diffuse light reduces the secondary glare.com 89 . Vertical surfaces If a reflective surface is arranged transversely. they can be mounted next to the excluded ceiling zone.E Horizontal surfaces Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement High luminance values reflected by surfaces or objects cause secondary glare.erco. If a reflective surface is arranged vertically. luminaires can be mounted in front of the excluded ceiling zone. The luminaires should not be positioned in critical areas. The beam should be aimed such that shadows on the work surface are avoided.

E Point source Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement Point source patterns The simplest layout of these points is a regular grid. in a parallel or staggered arrangement. A regular pattern of identical luminaires can easily result in a monotonous ceiling appearance. The point sources may be luminaires of different shapes and sizes.erco. or compact groups of luminaires. in this case luminaires of the same or different types can then be purposefully combined. plus the fact that differentiated lighting is practically out of the question. Point sources: regular and staggered layouts Point source combinations An alternating grid of different individual luminaires or luminaire combinations can produce more interesting arrangements.com 90 . Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

Luminaire arrangements can follow existing architectural structures or create patterns of their own. The ceiling is designed along the lines dictated by the architectural form of the space. the ceiling design in this case relates more closely to the architecture of the space.erco. In contrast to simple lighting layouts in grid patterns. The crucial criteria are the equidistance and proximity of luminaires to each other. Point sources: linear arrangements Forms Since the linear arrangement of the luminaires does not necessarily relate to an actual line such as the course of a wall.E Line Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement Point source patterns A further step towards more complex design forms is the linear arrangement of point sources. ceiling projections or joists. These laws of gestalt must receive special attention during the planning phase. This may involve following existing lines or purposefully arranging the luminaires in contrast to the existing formal language. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. the luminaire arrangement can only be created on the basis of the perception of gestalt.com 91 .

These linear elements can be particular types of luminaires.erco. As the visual forms produced when linear luminaires are used are real and not just implied. The formal language of linear arrangements is identical to that of rows of points. Light structures and track arrangements or other trunking systems belong to this design category. Linear and point sources Creative design allows both the alternating application of different luminaire forms and the use of spotlights on lighting structures or trunking systems. or even trunking systems. more complex arrangements can be planned with no danger of distortion through perception.com 92 . Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.E Line Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement Linear elements Whereas linear arrangements consisting of a series of points are only produced indirectly by our perception of the gestalt. they can also be directly formed of linear elements. This allows differentiated lighting without the individual luminaires disturbing the intrinsic appearance of the structure.

E Decorative solutions Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Luminaire arrangement Linear elements The combination of different elements gives rise to a broad range of design possibilities.erco. This allows flexible lighting of all wall surfaces and accentuating of objects in the space. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. including decorative solutions. Linear structures The rectangular arrangement of tracks corresponds to the shape of the room.com 93 .

com 94 . If the arrangement of the luminaires is already fixed. then the focus shifts to the mounting detail.g. Various mounting versions are available for downlights. e.erco. recessedmounting or pendant suspension. surface-mounting.E Guide Designing with light | Practical planning Mounting Ceiling Wall Floor Both technical and design aspects are important when mounting. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

E Suspended ceilings Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Mounting Ceiling In the case of flat suspended ceilings. plaster rings are required for the luminaire apertures.com 95 . The luminaires are fixed firmly in the ceiling apertures provided.erco. if necessary. the luminaires can almost always be arranged irrespective of the suspended ceiling grid.g. If the ceiling is to be plastered. plasterboard ceilings. The cassettes are dimensioned to suit the respective ceiling grids. the weight of the luminaire must be carried by additional suspensions fixed onto or in close proximity to the luminaire. Panel ceilings For open grid ceilings and honeycomb-grid ceilings there are recessed cassettes available complete with suitable apertures for the recessed mounting of downlights. Ceiling channel Light sources can be mounted in a track ceiling channel in order to integrate them invisibly into the ceiling. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. They can replace a ceiling panel or allow the installation of luminaires between ceiling panels which would otherwise not be suitable to take the static load. e.

which are also attached onto the concrete shuttering and remain in the ceiling. Concrete ceilings For recessed mounting into concrete ceilings the luminaire apertures are created when the ceiling is cast.com 96 . Another possibility is to install prefabricated housings.erco.E Pendant luminaires Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Mounting Ceiling Pendant mounting can be effected in a variety of ways. This may take the form of a stranded wire cable or a pendant tube. whether specific installation locations must be avoided. Light-weight luminaires are usually suspended by the connecting cable. It is essential to check that the planned lighting layout is compatible with the structure of the ceiling. which generally contains the connecting cable. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www. for example. Heavier luminaires require a separate suspension device. due to concealed joists or whether the reinforcement of the ceiling should be co-ordinated with the lighting layout.

the luminaire cover must be robust and provide protection against the ingress of moisture. When recess-mounted in the floor or ground. Bollard luminaires and mast luminaires may also be used outdoors. Luminaires can be mounted on wall brackets or cantilever arms for indoor partitions or outdoor facades.com 97 .erco. Floor Luminaires for floor or ground installation can be surfacemounted or recessed-mounted. The latter can be in either concrete or hollow walls.E Wall Guide Designing with light | Practical planning | Mounting Luminaires can be mounted onto wall surfaces or recessed into the wall. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

erco. the intervals at which maintenance is to be carried out can be controlled.com 98 . luminaires have to be realigned to accommodate the layout of a new arrangement. In the area of display lighting in particular. The adjustment of luminaires is also classified as maintenance in the interest of the qualitative aspects of the lighting installation. Using a suitable maintenance factor. lamp replacement and the cleaning of luminaires can be timed to take place simultaneously.E Guide Designing with light | Practical planning Maintenance By stipulating a light loss factor when planning the lighting. the lighting level will initially be higher and the period during which luminous flux is gradually reduced to below the critical value will be extended. By keeping light loss factors low. A maintenance plan should enable the operator to service the installation at regular intervals. checking whether the technical requirements are being met and the lighting is performing as planned. Edition: 26/06/2006 | Updated version at www.

Others in the planning process with less expertise have to rely on visual representations and technical specifications. Skilled lighting designers use ceiling plans and diagrams to derive a realistic idea of the lighting effects achieved. Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com 99 . The range of representations includes the whole gamut from technically oriented ceiling plans to graphic illustrations of varying complexity to computer-calculated room representations and three-dimensional models of architecture or lighting installations.E Guide Designing with light Visualising light Drawing Simulation Model Representing lighting installations and their lighting effects in architecture plays a key role in lighting design.

Perspective room representations include the positioning of the lighting equipment in the room. the more accurate is the representation of the illuminated environment and the lighting effects.E Guide Designing with light | Visualising light Drawing Sketch Story board Mood board The graphic methods employed extend from simple sketches to detailed and elaborate processes.erco. The more elaborate the method used. Technical drawing Diagram Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 100 .

E Guide Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing Sketch In the simplest case. When visualising an overall concept. coloured pencils or chalk on a dark background achieve an intense luminosity and are particularly useful for representing outdoor lighting at night. a deliberately simplified sketch can demonstrate the lighting effects produced more effectively than an allegedly realistic representation with artificially scaled brightness ratios. Drawings that show light beams using light. as coloured surfaces or in grey tones contrasting with the background. Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www. lighting effects can be shown in a graphic format by light beams designed either as contours.com 101 .erco.

the story board acts as a creative script detailing the spatial and temporal progression of the lighting effects. but also from the time dimension experienced in a room throughout the course of a day. variant 1 Room.erco. variant 3 Detail Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www. It is an effective tool in scenographic lighting design to look at the dynamic processes in the building. These processes result from aspects such as the spatial progression encountered as you walk through the building. Facade Entrance Foyer Reception Room. variant 2 Room.com 102 .E Guide Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing Story board Using rough sketches for visualisation.

materials.com 103 . While the mood board initially focuses on a broad collection of pictures. parallel collages with diverse themes can be used to underline the statements on contrasts and colours for the different light scenes. Mood board with diffuse.E Guide Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing Mood board The mood board is a collection of pictures. and terms to describe emotions. sketches. cool light Mood board with warm.erco. Where different moods are required as special effects in a room. the process of evaluation and concentration is more analytical. colours. directional light Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

In the Isolux diagrams. a table can be used to list all the luminaires with their symbols and features.erco.E Technical drawing Guide Designing with light | Visualising light | Drawing Technical drawings provide exact information on the type and positioning of the luminaires used in the ceiling plan and the sectional drawing. For spotlights. push-buttons and protection modes.com 104 . Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www. the drawing can also specify the alignment of the luminaires. The electrical designers also require details on circuits. Diagram Diagrams can be used to document aspects such as the illuminance or luminance distribution in a room. switches. contours indicate the same illuminances. for example. while the contours in Iso-candela diagrams specify the luminances. For a better overview.

the computer graphic furnishes objective information. Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 105 .erco.E Guide Designing with light | Visualising light Simulation Qualitative simulation Quantitative simulation Animation While the spatial representations of simulation programs reproduce the illuminance levels in a room by way of diagrams. as it is based on precise calculations. they also provide a visual impression of the lighting concept. In contrast to the drawing.

com 106 . such as uniformity of illuminance. It determines the physically correct numerical values for specific visual tasks. The spatial perspective provides an accurate impression useful for the presentation of the lighting design. The simulation also helps to check compliance with requirements specified in standards.erco. Animations where either the camera angle remains the same but the lighting changes or the lighting stays the same but the camera is moved are comparatively simple. Animation Animation combines individual images generated through simulation to produce a film. It is ideal to demonstrate dynamic lighting effects. A further effective visualisation method is falsecolour diagrams which allow levels to be represented through a colour scale. Quantitative simulation The quantitative simulation is used for the analysis of a lighting design. Animations where both the lighting and the camera position change are far more complex since each individual image of the film has to be recalculated. The alternative is to use special video post-editing processes.E Qualitative simulation Guide Designing with light | Visualising light | Simulation The light simulation for qualitative representations focuses on portraying atmosphere. The degree of detailing can include photorealistic illustrations. Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

A further advantage of models is the aspect of interaction in that the observer can accurately check every angle. A distinction has to be made here between a working model and a presentation model.erco.com 107 . Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www.E Guide Designing with light | Visualising light Model Model making Mock-up Daylight simulation One of the significant advantages resulting from the use of models is that light is not just represented but becomes effective. Lighting effects are visualised in all their complexity. not merely schematised.

To limit the effort involved. Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www. Variations in the light intensity distribution are clearly reflected in the result.com 108 . is usually the size of the luminaires themselves. The scale ranges from 1:100 or 1:200 for the daylight effect of whole buildings to scales of 1:20 to 1:10 for differentiated lighting effects in individual areas. specifically when using very small-scale models. The accuracy of luminaire reproductions is limited on account of the dimensions of the light sources available.erco. The result is that designers often use light guide systems from an external light source to simulate the output from several luminaires. A mock-up of the luminaire or the architectural space concerned is ideal as a basis for decisions specifically when assessing customised luminaires or luminaires which are to be integrated into the architecture.E Model making Guide Designing with light | Visualising light | Model Size and accuracy limit the informative value of the simulation and should be determined accordingly. Mock-up A mock-up is a reproduction of a room situation at a scale of 1:1. a mock-up is based on an architectural section for maximum benefit. The most critical factor.

erco. When simulating sunlight outdoors.E Daylight simulation Guide Designing with light | Visualising light | Model In the simplest case. this is performed by a movable. a sundial-type display instrument is used to position the model at precisely the angle of incidence of the light that corresponds to a specific season and time of day. artificial sun. Edition: 19/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 109 . both the sun and the daylight can be used directly in outdoor scenes or else be reproduced exactly using a solar simulator or an artificial sky. The artificial sky is used to simulate the lighting conditions on a cloudy day and to take measurements of the daylight ratio. Both methods allow reliable studies of the lighting effects in and around a building and of engineering designs for daylight control or sun protection even for small-scale models. In the solar simulator. Cameras are used to capture these observations and to document the lighting changes throughout the day or year.

erco.E Guide Indoor lighting Light determines the mood of a room.com 110 . Lighting applications and the corresponding lighting effects of different luminaires are rehearsed using simulations and architectural examples. Types of lighting Luminaire groups Lighting applications Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

com 111 . This ranges from uniform washlighting through to highlighting and the projection of gobo images.erco. areas and objects greatly depends on the type of lighting. General Washlighting Accentuation Projection Orientation Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.E Guide Indoor lighting Types of lighting The effect of rooms.

com 112 . Quantitative aspects are often a primary consideration at the work place or in pedestrian traffic zones. on the other hand.erco. aimed direct. Indirect lighting. soft light.E Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting General direct. direct and indirect Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. usually related to a horizontal working plane. diffuse indirect General lighting refers to an even illumination. Direct lighting permits both diffuse and directed light. produces a very even.

com 113 . Paris Congress Palace.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General direct. The visual comfort increases as the cut-off angle increases.erco. At the work place. The architecture is visible and it is possible to orientate oneself and work in the room. Valencia ERCO. Conclusion The directed light produces good modelling and brilliance. Lüdenscheid Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. aimed A direct and aimed general lighting produces an even illumination on the horizontal working plane. Directed light enables good appreciation of form and surface texture. The uniformity on the working plane increases as the room height increases or as the beam angle widens. Applications Projects: Dubai International Airport Centre Pompidou. A feature of direct illu -mination is its highly efficient use of energy. secondary glare must be taken into consideration.

diffuse Wall-mounted downlights. diffuse general lighting designates an even illumination with respect to a horizontal working plane.com 114 .erco. The architecture is visible and it is possible to orientate oneself and work in the room. diffuse A direct.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General direct. Light structures Downlights. diffuse Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

erco.downlights .light structures .E Luminous ceiling Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General direct. The limited formation of shadow results in weak modelling capabilities.wall-mounted downlights .com 115 . One feature of using fluorescent lamps for general lighting is an efficient use of energy. Valencia Prada. Frankfurt Fondation Beyeler.museums . Milan German Architectural Museum.multifunctional rooms .pedestrian traffic areas Preferred luminaire groups: .luminous ceilings Projects: Congress Centre. Applications Direct. Shapes and surface textures are only slightly emphasised. diffuse general lighting for .exhibitions . diffuse Conclusion Direct diffuse light produces a soft illumination with little shadow and reflection.working areas . Basel Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

erco.com 116 . Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Direct and secondary glare are extensively avoided. Using indirect illumination alone gives a lower spatial differentiation. The brightening of these surfaces that delineate the room or area gives an open spatial impression. The secondary reflector should boast a high reflectance. wall or other surface as a secondary reflector. Light structures Uplights Conclusion The diffuse light produces limited shadows and a weak modelling.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General indirect An indirect general lighting uses a ceiling. Compared to direct illumination. a considerably higher luminous flux is necessary for achieving the same illuminance on the working plane.

E Applications Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General indirect The prerequisite for an even distribution of light is a sufficiently high room. St. Petersburg Villa.com 117 . The distance from the ceiling depends on the level of evenness required and should be at least 0.working areas .light structures .erco.uplights Projects: British Museum. London Ezeiza Airport.8m.multifunctional rooms . Indirect general lighting for: . Indirect illumination should be mounted above eyelevel.pedestrian traffic areas Preferred luminaire groups . Buenos Aires Eremitage. Salzburg Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

com 118 . A feature of general lighting with fluorescent lamps is its highly efficient use of energy. Light structures Pendant downlights Conclusion The uniformity on the working plane increases as the room height increases. Directed light enables a good appreciation of form and surface texture. The secondary reflector should boast a high reflectance.erco. The ceiling or walls serve here as reflection surfaces.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General direct and indirect Direct/indirect general lighting refers to a combination of direct and indirect illumination with respect to the horizontal working plane. The brightening of these surfaces that delineate the room or area gives an open spatial impression. Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. The uniformity on the ceiling increases the further away the luminaire is from the ceiling.

Berlin Palacio de la Aljaferia. Berlin Reichstag.pendant downlights Projects: Civic Cleaning Adult-Education Centre.light structures .com 119 .pedestrian traffic areas Preferred luminaire groups: . Barcelona Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.working areas .E Applications Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | General direct and indirect Direct/indirect general lighting for . Zaragoza Fibanc.multifunctional rooms .

E Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting Washlighting symmetrical asymmetrical Washlighting illumination refers to an architecture-related and object-orientated illumination. Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. Symmetrical floodlights are used for washlighting of horizontal surfaces or for general lighting in the area of presentation. The primary purpose is to make visible the room proportions and room limits.com 120 . A feature of asymmetrical floodlights is the uniform light intensity distribution on surfaces.

E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting symmetrical Symmetrical washlighting produces an even illumination on objects or surfaces. Leeds Museo ‚Fournier‘ del Naipe. Applications Mounting floodlights on tracks allows a flexible positioning of the luminaires. Las Palmas Passeig de Gràcia.museums . Vitoria Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. The illuminated areas of the room are emphasised by washlighting.exhibitions . Washlighting illumination for: . Barcelona Royal Armouries Museum. Conclusion The directed light produces good modelling abilities and enables good appreciation of form and surface structure.sales and presentation areas .multifunctional rooms Preferred luminaire groups .erco.com 121 . Washlighting illumination can serve as a background for accent lighting. Washlight illumination is characterised by high uniformity and a soft gradient of light intensity distribution.floodlights Projects: Catedral de Santa Ana.

Vertical illumination emphasises the walls – or other room limits – in terms of their physical makeup.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting asymmetrical Asymmetrical washlighting illumination is used for illuminating surfaces evenly. Wallwasher spotlight Washlights Wallwasher Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Wallwashing is a highly valued tool in architectural lighting. Brightening the wall surfaces makes the room look bigger.com 122 .erco.

erco.E Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting asymmetrical Perimeter luminaire Uplights Floor washlights Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.com 123 .

uplights .wallwasher spotlights .multifunctional rooms Preferred luminaire groups . whereas with linear luminaires a higher uniformity is achieved. It can also serve as a background for accent lighting or form the ambient brightness for the work place.museums .sales and presentation areas .exhibitions .washlights .erco. Berlin Palacio de la Aljaferia.E Conclusion Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting asymmetrical Point-form luminaires lend the wall surface a higher brilliance.com 124 . London Reichstag. With asymmetrical washlighting.wallwashers . Applications Washlighting for . To obtain a uniform light intensity distribution the correct positioning of the luminaires is of great importance. areas of a room can be defined and thus have attention attracted to them.perimeter luminaires Projects: British Museum. Frankfurt Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Saragoza Modern art museum.

erco. This makes it possible to establish a hierarchy of how noticeable each item is and to attract attention.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting Accentuation Highlighting emphasises individual objects or architectural elements.com 125 . Spotlights Contour spotlights Directional luminaires Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

exhibitions . at the work place. cafés. Rome Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.sales and presentation areas .museums .directional recessed floor luminaires . Paris Pinacoteca Vaticana.contour spotlights .E Task light Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting Accentuation Conclusion Accent lighting enables good appreciation of form and surface structure. Accent lighting for: .spotlights . Berlin Iglesia del Sagrado Corazón. as well as brilliance.erco. Structures and textures of objects are clearly emphasised by the directed light. Bilbao Issey Miyake. A narrow beam and a high brightness contrast to the surroundings give the object particular emphasis. e.com 126 . wine bars .directional downlights .task lights Projects: Neue Wache. Applications Accent lighting creates points of interest and improves the local visual performance.restaurants.working areas Preferred luminaire groups: . The focused light produces pronounced shadows and good modelling ability.g.

sales and presentation areas .restaurants.exhibitions . wine bars . Applications Projection Application . patterns and images. Lüdenscheid Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. This enables an additional level of information and awareness to be built up. cafés.museums .hotels Projections can be made with .spotlight projectors Projects: Aragon Pavillon.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting Projection Projectors are used for projecting signs.com 127 . Conclusion Interesting effects can be created using gobos and filters. Finland ERCO. Sevilla Hannover Messe Teattri Ravintola.

instead.com 128 . Floor washlights Wall-mounted downlights Recessed floor luminaires Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www. This can be achieved by luminaires that function as sources of illumination or as signals. a row of these luminaires is typically arranged to form an orientation line.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting Orientation Orientation lighting is defined first and foremost by the task of providing orientation.erco. Illuminating the room is of secondary importance here.

architectural lines . Orientation lighting improves orientation in complex buildings and makes it easier to find fire exits in emergencies.floor washlight .emergency exit routes Preferred luminaire group . Small luminaires with high luminance clearly set themselves apart form their surroundings.com 129 .wall-mounted downlights . Applications Orientation lighting for the identification of .orientation luminaires Projects: Light and Building.E Orientation luminaires Guide Indoor lighting | Types of lighting Orientation Conclusion Low illumination levels are sufficient for orientation purposes.steps and exclusion zones . Bergamo Hilton Hotel Dubai Hilton Hotel Dubai Edition: 25/07/2006 | Updated version at www.routes .recessed floor luminaires .entrances .erco. Frankfurt Palazzo della Ragione.

The same light distributions can be achieved with different luminaires. Compared to luminaires that are permanently mounted. or whether an integrative design approach is being followed.E Guide Indoor lighting Luminaire groups Track Spotlights Floodlights Luminaires are available in a wide variety of types.com 130 . each intended to fulfil different lighting requirements.erco. track-mounted luminaires offer a higher degree of flexibility. Wallwasher Light structures Downlights Task lights Wall-mounted luminaires Perimeter luminaires Recessed floor luminaires Orientation luminaires Directive luminaires Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. The choice depends on whether the luminaires are to be a design feature in their own right.

Projects: Teattri Ravintola.erco. New York Caras Gourmet Coffee Kranzlereck. Applications Tracks provide a flexible form of voltage supply for spotlights. Neuenrade Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. The tracks can also be suspended via pendant tubes or wire rope. Recessed tracks are inconspicuous architectural details. for accent lighting and washlighting of all professional lighting situations. floodlights and wallwashers. Using multiphase tracks makes it possible to operate different circuits simultaneously. Helsinki Christie's Showroom.E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Track Tracks form the basis for a variable and flexible lighting design that can orientate itself around the changing interior design and usage of a room. Berlin Kayser private home. Mating adapters on the luminaires perform both the electrical and mechanical connection. They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form.com 131 .

spotlights with image contouring or projecting systems (contour spotlights) enable different beam contours or projected images by projecting through apertures or stencils (gobos).cut-off angle limits glare and increases visual comfort .filters: . Some types of spotlight are equipped with convex lenses or Fresnel lenses for a variable beam angle.emission angle determines the beam of light and is defined by the reflector . ultraviolet or infrared filters .E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Spotlights The mounting location and the orientation are variable. functional life.rotatable and tiltable . dazzle cylinders. multigroove baffles or honeycomb anti-dazzle screens Contour spotlights Contour spotlights with lenses for projection for various beam emission angles. The use of accessories is also typical for spotlights: . Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.filters: colour filters. light intensity . glare control Spotlights Spotlights have a narrow-beam (spot approx.choice of lamp determines light colour.accessories: lenses. 30°) light distribution with a rotationally symmetrical beam. Criteria for spotlights .barn doors. brilliance. In addition.erco. Spotlights are offered with different beam emission angles and light distributions.lenses: spread or sculpture lenses . 10°) to wide-beam (flood approx. filters.com 132 .

erco. even from a larger distance. New York Gmurzynska Gallery.sales rooms . spotlights can be adapted to suit changing tasks.exhibitions. Cologne Bunkamura Museum of Art. Applications For highlighting or projection in: . In addition. Spain Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.com 133 . the light should be incident at an angle of less than 30°. the wide light distribution of projector floodlights enables a larger area to be illuminated with a single luminaire.museums . art galleries . Gobos and structured lenses are used to project lighting effects.E Arrangement Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Spotlights On pictures on walls or objects in a room. Tokyo Expo Seville.presentation and display areas Since they enable variable mounting locations and orientation. Conversely. filter foils can also be used. Projects: Christie´s Auctioneers. A narrow light distribution enables smaller areas to be illuminated.

Projects: Catedral de Santa Ana. Leeds Museo ‚Fournier‘ del Naipe.museums . Barcelona Royal Armouries Museum. They are offered with a predominantly symmetrical light distribution.uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas .choice of lamp determines light colour. Vitoria Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Floodlights Applications Floodlights provide even illumination of areas or objects for: .erco. functional life. Criteria for floodlights .E Light Flooldights feature a wide-beam characteristic. light intensity .gradient: soft edge to the beam of light .sales areas .presentational areas The luminaires should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form. efficiency.exhibitions .com 134 .trade-fair stands . Las Palmas Passeig de Gràcia. brilliance.

In addition. Criteria for wallwashers .erco. Wallwashers.choice of lamp determines light colour. they also feature a downlight component for evenly illuminating the floor. Trackmounted wallwashers allow the luminaire spacing to be flexibly adjusted as required.uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas .E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Wallwasher Wallwashers have a wide-beam characteristic. Washlights Wallwashers have an asymmetric light distribution for evenly illuminating wall faces. Track-mounted wallwashers allow the luminaire spacing to be flexibly adjusted as required. They are offered with an asymmetric light distribution. Wallwashers with kick-reflector have an asymmetric light distribution for evenly illuminating wall faces. light intensity .com 135 . tiltable (spotlight) Spotlights with wallwasher attachment feature a asymmetric light distribution for evenly illuminating wall surfaces. functional life. Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. brilliance.light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Wallwashers (spotlights) Wallwashers have an asymmetric light distribution for evenly illuminating wall faces.gradient: soft edges to the beam .

Wallwashers Wallwashers have an asymmetric light distribution for illuminating wall faces.erco. they produce an even illumination of wall surfaces.E Double-focus wallwashers Double-focus wallwashers have an asymmetric light distribution for evenly illuminating wall faces. The shielding of the lamp provides high visual comfort and prevents the emission of spill light. Perimeter luminaires Perimeter luminaires with reflectors have an asymmetric light distribution for illuminating vertical surfaces. Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.com 136 . Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Wallwasher Lens wallwashers Lens wallwashers have an asymmetric light distribution for evenly illuminating wall faces. The homogeneity of the wallwashing is particularly high. The lens serves to spread out the beam. As a linear light source.

Wiltshire Mediathek. Projects: British Museum.trade-fair stands .erco. This corresponds to an angle of at least 20°. Applications Wallwashing is an important component of architectural lighting for adding emphasis to room areas and for illuminating higher. London Crescent House. Sendai Weimar College of Music Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.E Arrangement Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Wallwasher The offset from the wall for wallwashers should not be less than one third of the wall height.auditoriums . Independent of the actual room height and offset from the wall.com 137 .halls in public buildings and shopping malls . They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form. The optimal ratio of wall offset to luminaire spacing for avoiding evenly illumination is 1:1.exhibitions .sales areas . vertical faces or wall areas for: . tiltable luminaires must be aligned on the lower part of the wall.presentational areas Surface-mounted luminaires act as a feature in the room.museums .

Luminaires Direct/Indirect Light structures with direct/indirect light distribution have an axially symmetric light distribution emitted upwards and downwards for illuminating the usable surfaces and the ceiling.E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Light structures Light structures are luminaires that additionally allow the possibility for attaching mobile luminaires. Luminaires Direct Light structures with direct light have an axially symmetric light distribution emitted downwards for illuminating the usable surfaces. Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Light structures consist of a tubular or panel elements and are usually suspended from the ceiling.erco. First and foremost. Elements with integrated downlights or directional luminaires provide accent lighting. Luminaires Wallwashing Light structures for wallwashing have an asymmetric light distribution for evenly illuminating wall faces. light structures use elements with integrated luminaires for linear light sources that can be used both for direct general lighting and for indirect lighting with light reflected by the ceiling. often using integrated tracks or singlets.com 138 . Luminaires Indirect Light structures with indirect light distribution have an axially symmetric light distribution emitted upwards for illuminating the ceiling.

Berlin Shanghai Museum Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.8 m for indirect lighting so that an even illumination is ensured.E Arrangement Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Light structures The offset from the wall (a) is recommended as being half the luminaire spacing (d).com 139 . The distance to the ceiling should measure at least 0.additional accent lighting and washlighting with the help of spotlights. Berlin Xaverian Brothers High School.erco. medical practices . The luminaire spacing (d) between two neighbouring structures should correspond to the height (h) above the floor or work surface. Westwood MA Regional Govt. floodlights and wallwashers Projects: Reichstag. Applications General lighting in . The distance to the ceiling depends on the level of evenness required on the ceiling.pedestrian traffic areas .offices..

symmetrical or asymmetric light distribution. wide-beam. They are offered with narrow-beam. the lamp's cut-off angle is identical to that of the luminaire. efficiency. Special forms are double washlights for illuminating two opposite wall sections and corner washlights for illuminating corners of rooms. Washlights Washlights have an asymmetric beam that is directed vertically downwards and onto vertical surfaces.choice of lamp determines light colour. Downlights Downlights have a rotationally symmetric beam that is directed vertically downwards. functional life. Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. On downlights with Darklight reflector. a special reflector shape enables a high luminous flux even for smaller ceiling apertures. This gives a luminaire with the widest beam possible while simultaneously having an optimised light output ratio.E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Downlights Downlights emit a beam that is directed downwards at either a perfectly vertical or an adjustable angle. Criteria for downlights .erco.emission angle determines the beam of light and is defined by the reflector . The use of a diffuser reduces the luminance in the luminaire and thereby improves the visual comfort.com 140 . light intensity . On double-focus downlights.cut-off angle limits glare and increases visual comfort . Double-focus downlights Double-focus downlights have a rotationally symmetric beam that is directed vertically downwards. They provide an even illumination for wall and floor surfaces.light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology The cut-off angle of narrow-beam downlights makes them a highly free of glare.

The Darklight reflectors of the lens wallwashers are visible from below and are glare-free. They are used for illuminating wall surfaces evenly. The light is spread out by lenses and directed onto the wall by wallwasher reflectors. internal wallwasher segments. With this special kind of reflector technology the lamp is hidden from the direct view of the observer at all times.erco. They are used for illuminating wall surfaces evenly. They are used for illuminating wall surfaces evenly. Above the rotational symmetric darklight reflectors. Because the Darklight reflector ensures that a cone of light is formed from directional luminaires. Wallwashers Wallwashers have an asymmetric light distribution. which is aimed at vertical surfaces. On lens wallwashers special lens reflection systems ensure even wall illumination. the reflector lamps emit their beam of light perpendicularly downwards. yet they can be rotated by 360° and tilted up to 20°.E Double-focus wallwashers Double-focus washlights have an asymmetric light distribution that is directed at vertical surfaces. the cut-off angle is consistent on all directions. They combine the advantages of a downlight with the flexibility of directional spotlights. which is aimed at vertical surfaces. Directional downlights Directional downlights are used for highlighting individual areas or objects with a medium to narrow light distribution. Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Downlights Lens wallwashers Lens wallwashers have an asymmetric light distribution. Doublefocus wallwashers are fitted with special. Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.com 141 .

E Directional luminaires Directional downlights are used for highlighting individual areas or objects with a medium to narrow light distribution. Wallwashers only develop their optimal evenness as of a minimum number of three luminaires. the offset from the wall is where a 20 degree line projected upwards from the base of the wall intersects the ceiling. one downlight must be positioned on the 45° diagonal. To attain an even illumination on a reference plane. To obtain symmetrical scallops in a corner. Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Arrangement Wallwashers The offset from the wall should measure at least one third of the room height. The position of a wallwasher in a corner of a room should lie on the 45° line. An optimal evenness is achieved when d = h. An optimum evenness is obtained when the luminaire spacing is the same as the offset from the wall.5:1. the luminaire spacing should not exceed the mounting height h by more than 1. Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Downlights Arrangement Downlights The offset from wall should measure approximately half of the luminaire spacing in order to achieve sufficient brightness on the wall and well proportioned scallops of light. or at least does not exceed it by more than 1.com 142 .5 times. Alternatively.erco.

They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form. architectonic and accentuating lighting. London Centre Pompidou.E Applications Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Downlights Downlights are a universal instrument for functional.erco. Projects: Maritime Museum Osaka British Museum. Barcelona Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.com 143 . Paris Armand Basi Shop. Recessed downlights are inconspicuous architectural details. whereas surface-mounted downlights and pendant downlights act as features in the room.

They are offered with narrow-beam or wide-beam light distribution.rotatable and tiltable Applications Task lights are designed for individual lighting for the workstation. Berlin Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. functional life. Projects: Architectural office.glare-free light . efficiency and light intensity ..com 144 . Criteria for task lights .E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Task lights Task lights emit their light downwards onto a work surface.erco.The choice of lamp determines light colour. Stockholm Khalil Al-Sayegh. Dubai Success advertising agency Nordwalde.Gradient: soft edges to the beam of light . Regional Govt.

cut-off angle limits glare and increases visual comfort . the section of the ceiling to be illuminated can be partly clipped along the luminaire's main axis with the help of infinitely adjustable cut-off shields. light intensity .light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Ceiling washlights Ceiling washlights have an asymmetric light distribution and emit light upwards onto horizontal surfaces. wide-beamed. functional life. Uplights differentiate themselves from ceiling washlights by their different reflector geometry.E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Wall-mounted luminaires Wall-mounted downlights are defined first and foremost by their type of mounting and not by their light characteristics. Criteria for wall-mounted downlights .choice of lamp determines light colour. The ceiling surface is illuminated evenly and over a large area. symmetrical or asymmetrical in various directions. Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. On ceiling washlights. efficiency.emission angle determines the beam of light and is defined by the reflector . and higher light output ratio.erco. Floor washlights Floor washlights have an asymmetric light distribution and emit light downwards onto horizontal surfaces. altered light distribution. Different light distributions are possible such as narrow-beamed.com 145 .

Arrangement Floor washlights The mounting height (h) of floor washlights near to seats or seating should be less than eye-level (1.churches .com 146 .E Arrangement Ceiling washlights Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Wall-mounted luminaires Ceiling washlights should be mounted above eye-level.pedestrian traffic areas Recessed wall-mounted downlights are inconspicuous architectural details.8 m above the floor level.2 m). Paris Museo de Historia.museums . normally 0.8 m for indirect lighting so that an even illumination is ensured. Projects: Citibank. The distance to the ceiling should measure at least 0. Barcelona Hilton Hotel Dubai Creek Light and Building. Applications For illumination of ceilings or floors in: . Frankfurt Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.theatres . whereas surfacemounted downlights act as a feature in the room They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form.erco. The distance to the ceiling depends on the level of evenness required on the ceiling.

exhibitions . These luminaires are available with or without reflector.E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Perimeter luminaires Perimeter luminaires are linear luminaires with a wide-beamed characteristic for evenly illuminating vertical surfaces. Applications For illuminating vertical surfaces in: .museums . Perimeter lighting refers to a lighting concept whereby fluorescent lamps are sunk directly into a joint to the wall. Linear grazing light Perimeter luminaires for grazing light are positioned directly on the wall. uniform wall illumination from the ceiling to the floor.presentational areas Perimeter lighting out of haunches emphasises architectonic features. As linear light sources they provide an even illumination of wall faces. Criteria for perimeter luminaires . The illuminance on the wall decreases greatly as the distance from the lamp increases. Due to the recessed ceiling mounting. Hong Kong Polygon Bar and Grill.com 147 .erco. even quality of lighting is obtained however by luminaires with reflectors and set a distance from the wall. Berlin The Tricycle. London Pacific Rim Restaurant. perimeter luminaires are generally inconspicuous architectural details. The low luminance and linear format of fluorescent lamps result in a low briliance. Luminaires with a surface-mounted section and reflector that protrude down from the ceiling give a transitionless. Projects: Reichstag. A higher.uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas Perimeter luminaires Perimeter luminaires with reflectors have an asymmetric light distribution for illuminating vertical surfaces. London Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.

Uplight. wide-beamed. service life.range of tilt for directional luminaires with high glare protection . diffuse Recessed floor luminaires with diffuse light intensity distribution are used for marking paths or emphasising architectural lines.erco.choice of lamp determines light colour.uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas .light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Uplights Uplights feature an upwards directed beam with symmetrical light distribution.E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Recessed floor luminaires Recessed floor luminaires emit their beam upwards. Criteria for recessed floor luminaires: . Directional luminaires Directional luminaires are used for highlighting individual areas or objects with a medium to narrow light distribution. efficiency and light intensity . Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. symmetrical or asymmetrical light distribution. They are offered with narrow-beamed. The narrow. The beam can be tilted.com 148 . rotationally symmetrical beams are used for highlighting objects.

Dubai Burj Al Arab. Tokyo Burj Al Arab. Dubai Maritim Museum.com 149 .reception and entrance areas .theatres . They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form.presentational areas . Projects: Deutsche Bank.architectural features Recessed floor luminaires are inconspicuous architectural details.erco. Osaka Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www.E Applications Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Recessed floor luminaires Accent lighting or floodlighting for .sales areas .

E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Orientation luminaires The defining feature of orientation luminaires is that they are designed first and foremost to provide orientation. Applications For identifying: . Such luminaires may also function as sources of illumination or as signals.com 150 . Criteria for orientation luminaires .routes . Dubai Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Dubai Instituto Frances.luminance: noticeability of the luminaires in their surroundings Orientation luminaires.steps or restricted areas . Floor washlights Floor washlights form points of light on the wall and serves as an orientation light on the floor surface. Barcelona Hilton Hotel.erco.emergency exit routes Projects: Sevens department store. local Orientation luminaires with point-form front lens act as a local orientation light. Düsseldorf Hilton Hotel.architectural lines .entrances .

Safety and rescue sign luminaires must comply with the regional guidelines.com 151 .luminaire position: to describe correctly the escape route .E Light Guide Indoor lighting | Luminaire groups Directive luminaires Directive luminaires provide information or give directions by way of pictograms or texts. Criteria for emergency lighting and directive luminaires .emergency exits.erco. Projects: Palazzo della Ragione.directive lighting: pictograms or texts providing information . fire exits . Radevormwald Edition: 05/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Bodo GIRA. Bergamo Potsdamer Platz.emergency power supply .escape and rescue routes Directive luminaires are often secondary lighting features and should match with the architecture. Berlin Norwegian Aviation Museum. anti-panic lighting and emergency lighting for work places with special hazards .effectiveness: to continue lighting signs upon mains power failure Luminaires Emergency lighting and directive luminaires can be subdivided into three groups: . Emergency lighting refers to luminaires that indicate the escape route to improve orientation in emergency situations.form and colour: to comply with the standards .luminance: noticeability of the luminaire in its surroundings .backup lighting: takes over the function of providing artificial lighting for maintaining operations over a limited period Applications For identifying: .exits .emergency lighting: lighting for escape routes. Luminaires that change colour allow controllable dynamic route markings.

com 152 .E Guide Indoor lighting Lighting applications Working plane Wall Ceiling Light plays a central and multifaceted role in the design of a visual environment. the architectonic concept also stipulates a framework for the design of the illumination. In addition to the requirements and demands made by the user on lighting design.erco. Floor Object Orientation lighting Directive lighting Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

large Illuminating a horizontal surface is one of the most common lighting tasks.com 153 . Most of the lighting tasks governed by work place standards and standards for pedestrian traffic routes come under this category. Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. whether these be the illumination of work surfaces or the actual floor.E Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Working plane Work station Area. small Area.erco.

Task light Light structure Directional luminaire Conclusion To provide an energy efficient lighting. Indirect light with uplights lends the room general background lighting.the choice of lamp determines the light colour and colour rendition Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.illuminance distribution for avoiding direct. Combined lighting with direct and indirect components provides good visual comfort both in the room and on the work surface.cut-off angle and position of the luminaire restrict glare and increase visual comfort . Lighting criteria for task lighting . the general lighting can be lower than the illumination of the working area.com 154 .Directional luminaires emit an accentuating light onto the workstation.and secondary glare .illuminance level dependent on activity .erco.With task lights the light can be directed to the task in hand.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane Work station Demanding visual tasks not only require general lighting but also additional lighting for the workstation. Light structures with fluorescent lamps emit diffuse light.

light structures . Barcelona Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.com 155 . Indirect illumination with diffuse light reduces the secondary glare.E Arrangement Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane Work station High luminances reflected from surfaces or objects cause secondary glare. Zaragoza Fibanc. The luminaires should not be positioned in the critical areas. Energy can be saved by reducing the general lighting in favour of local task lighting and daylight dependent control.directional luminaires Projects: Shanghai Museum Success advertising agency Palacio de la Aljaferia. care should be taken to avoid shadows on the work surface. Preferred luminaire group . When aiming the beam of light. Applications The quantitative lighting criteria are primary considerations for task lighting.erco.task lights .

Light structures have a diffuse light distribution.com 156 . Light structures Downlights Pendant downlights Uplights Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. uniform light.erco. small Usable areas can be illuminated directly and indirectly: downlights and pendant downlights emit direct illumination into the room.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane Area. Uplights illuminate the room indirectly with a diffuse.

light structures . Berlin Fibanc.office workstations .E Conclusion Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane Area.luminance distribution to avoid direct and secondary glare .com 157 .the choice of lamp determines the light colour and colour rendition Applications The quantitative lighting criteria are paramount considerations for lighting usable areas. the direct aimed light results in better modelling capability. Basel Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Copenhagen DZ Bank.erco.illuminance level dependent on activity .conference rooms . Lighting criteria for usable areas: . Barcelona Fondation Beyeler. Combined lighting with direct and indirect components ensures good visual comfort both in the room and on the work surface. small Compared to indirect lighting with diffuse light.downlights .reception and entrance areas Preferred luminaire groups .uplights Projects: Dansk Design Center.cut-off angle and position of the luminaire restrict glare and increase visual comfort . Applications .workshops and shopfloors .

Lighting criteria for usable areas: . Downlights Pendant downlights Spotlights Conclusion Whereas downlights represent fixed-location general lighting.cut-off angle and position of the luminaire restrict glare and increase visual comfort . spotlights can be used flexibly in the area of exhibitions and presentations. depending on the activity .erco.com 158 . large Under consideration of the energy aspects.luminance distribution to avoid direct and secondary glare .illuminance level. Due to their narrowbeam light distribution.the choice of lamp determines the light colour and colour rendition Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Directed light results in good modelling capabilities.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane Area. spotlights have high glare control. direct lighting with permanently mounted downlights are the most suitable for large rooms.

E Applications Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Working plane Area.exhibitions .downlights Projects: Reichstag. Lüdenscheid Ständehaus art gallery.com 159 . Direct illumination here is considerably more economical than indirect illumination.museums .erco. Berlin Bank of China. large The quantitative lighting criteria are paramount considerations for lighting usable areas.sales and representational areas Preferred luminaire groups . Düsseldorf Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Beijing ERCO. General lighting for .workshops and shopfloors .

however. Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. 3m Wall. whether this be informative material such as notice boards.com 160 . 5m Wall with texture Wall lighting can fulfil a number of tasks. presentational objects such as paintings or merchandise. also be aimed solely at presenting the wall in its capacity as the surface delineating the room.erco. architectonic structures or the surface of the wall itself. it can be aimed at fulfilling vertical visual tasks on the walls.E Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Wall Wall. Firstly. Wall lighting can. wall illumination can be a means of indirect general lighting for a room. finally.

while maintaining the downlight effect on the room. Point-form light sources Wallwasher spotlights Point-form light sources Washlights Point-form light sources Lens wallwashers Linear light sources Wallwashers Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. 3m Walls can be lit using point-form or linear luminaires. It produces a grazing light effect emphasising the surface texture. Perimeter illumination out of a haunch is positioned directly on the wall. Using a Softec lens achieves an extremely even illumination of the whole wall even in the higher area right up to the ceiling.com 161 . Washlights project the light evenly onto the wall surface. Wallwashers are characterised by the even progression of brightness along the wall. Lens wallwashers have special lens reflector systems. Wallwasher spotlights offer flexible adjustment for different wall heights. Linear light sources for wallwashing with fluorescent lamps brighten the wall with perfect uniformity.erco. The evenness of the wallwashing is only secondary here.

Lighting criteria for walls: . 3m Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Softec lens Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Cove Conclusion Vertical illumination emphasises the wall faces in terms of their physical make-up.E Linear light sources Light structure Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. whereas with linear luminaires a higher uniformity is achieved.uniformity of the lighting .com 162 .the choice of lamp determines the light colour and colour rendition Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Point light sources make the wall surface much more vivid.erco. The room is made to look bigger by brightening its walls and ceiling etc.

perimeter luminaires Projects: British Museum. London Crescent House. Wallwashers only develop their optimal evenness as of a minimum number of three luminaires. Wiltshire Mediathek.lens wallwashers .double washlights . An optimum evenness is obtained when the luminaire spacing is the same as the offset from the wall. 3m The offset from the wall should be at least one third of the room height.wallwashers .E Arrangement Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. Alternatively. the offset from the wall is where a 20 degree line projected from the base of the wall intersects the ceiling.washlights .erco.museums .com 163 .trade-fair stands .sales and representational areas Preferred luminaire groups . Sendai Weimar College of Music Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.exhibitions . Applications Washlighting illumination for vertical surfaces of: . The position of a wallwasher in a room corner should lie on the 45° line.

Lens wallwashers have special lens reflector systems. It produces a grazing light effect and emphasises the surface texture. The perimeter illumination out of a haunch is positioned directly on the wall. Using a Softec lens. if the lighting remains constant. Wallwashers are characterised by the even progression of brightness along the wall. As the room height increases the brightness of the wall decreases. 5m In high rooms the luminaires are beyond the direct field of vision. The evenness of the wallwashing is secondary.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. an extremely even illumination of the whole wall can be achieved even in the higher area right up to the ceiling. Linear light sources for wallwashing with fluorescent lamps provides a perfectly uniform brightening of the room.erco. Point-form light sources Wallwasher spotlights Point-form light sources Lens wallwashers Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.com 164 .

uniformity of the lighting . Wallwashing only produces an even brightness on matt surfaces. 5m Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Cove Conclusion Vertical illumination emphasises the walls – or other room limits – in terms of their physical makeup.E Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Softec lens Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. The room is made to look bigger by brightening the wall faces. Point-form light sources make the wall surface much more vivid while with linear luminaires a higher uniformity is achieved. The reduction of the mean illuminance in higher rooms can be compensated for by having a higher lamp power and by increasing the number of luminaires. As the room height increases the distance of the luminaire to the wall must be increased.erco. Lighting criteria for high walls .com 165 .the choice of lamp determines the light colour and colour rendition Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

Applications Washlighting illumination for vertical surfaces in: . Munich Bank of China.exhibitions . Beijing BMW factory. Leipzig Martin-Gropius building.E Arrangement Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall.lens wallwashers . Berlin Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. in higher rooms it must be reduced to compensate for the otherwise sinking illuminance.washlights .perimeter luminaires Projects: Heart of Jesus Church.com 166 . The offset from the wall is where a 20 degree line projected from the base of the wall intersects the ceiling.museums .wallwasher .erco. 5m Whereas for normal room heights the luminaire spacing is the same as the offset from the wall.trade-fair stands .sales and representational areas Preferred luminaire groups . The position of a wallwasher at the end of the wall should lie on the 45 degree line.

Point-form light sources Downlights Point-form light sources Lens wallwashers Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Linear light sources Perimeter luminaire Cove Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.com 167 .E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall with texture Point-form wallwashers make surface textures clearly visible.erco. there is no evenness and great vividness is created. When using linear light sources the wall face appears even and the surface texture is only emphasised to a limited extent. When using perimeter luminaires mounted directly on the wall.

Dubai Conrad International Hotel. Grazing light on walls can accentuate any surface irregularities.perimeter luminaires Projects: Burj Al Arab.erco. Munich Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. point-form light sources at a short offset from the wall produce their own light pattern that. Preferred luminaire groups . Singapore ABN AMRO. Conversely. When using grazing light. Applications The smaller the offset from the wall.com 168 . but does not permit an even wallwashing. does accentuate the texture.wallwashers . the evenness of the wall illumination is greatly reduced. admittedly.lens wallwashers .E Conclusion Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall with texture Linear light sources at a short offset from the wall most vividly enhance the surface texture.washlights . Sydney Heart of Jesus Church. the clearer the surface texture is enhanced.

when it has an intrinsic communicative value. either light is shone to illuminate the ceiling in its own right or the ceiling is merely used as a reflector for general lighting. Illuminating the ceiling to provide indirect general lighting requires it has a high reflectance. due to architectonic structures. plan Structural elements With ceiling illumination. The ceiling is primarily emphasised.erco. It should be noted the ceiling will then be the brightest surface in the room and will therefore be emphasised.g.E Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Ceiling Ceiling. e.com 169 . Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

Ceiling washlights require a large distance from the ceiling due to their asymmetric light distribution. In low rooms with large floor areas an even illumination of the ceiling using light structures presents itself as the best option.8m. light structures act as independent architectural elements. Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. The distance from the ceiling depends on the level of evenness required and should be at least 0. Light structures emit diffuse light with low brilliance. whereas ceiling washlights are more secondary to the architecture. plan The luminaires for washlighting the ceiling can be mounted on the walls or in the ground. As linear luminaires.com 170 .erco. Light structures Ceiling washlights Conclusion The choice of luminaire type is dependent on the ratio of room area to room height. Ceiling washlights should be mounted above eye-level.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Ceiling. Arrangement The prerequisite for ceiling illumination is a sufficiently high room in order to achieve an even distribution of light.

churches .erco. plan Washlighting ceiling illumination for .E Applications Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Ceiling.com 171 .theatres .uplights . Buenos Aires Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.light structures Projects: Weimar College of Music Shanghai Museum Ezeiza Airport.ceiling washlights .offices .passages Preferred luminaire groups .historical buildings .

Narrow-beamed luminaires accentuate the support structure in particular.com 172 .erco.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Structural elements Luminaires for lighting support structures can be mounted on the structure itself. Light structures Light structures with ceiling washlights Ceiling washlights Spotlights Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. A washlighting illumination adds emphasis to the whole ceiling surface. on the walls or in the floor.

churches . Indirect ceiling lighting for .E Conclusion Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Structural elements The selection of the type of luminaire is dependent on the scale and the proportion of the support structure. Zaragoza Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.light structures .spotlights . due to their asymmetric light distribution.historical buildings . The arrangement of the luminaires should be oriented around the design of the support structure. Spotlights can also be attached directly to components of the support structure. Ceiling washlights.erco. require a larger offset from the ceiling.theatres .ceiling washlights Applications Project: Palacio de la Aljaferia.passages Preferred luminaire groups .com 173 .

Floor washlights particularly highlight the floor surface and its physical make-up.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Floor For floor lighting. They ensure a high degree of visual comfort thanks to their low mounting height.erco. floor washlights provide grazing light illumination of the floor. The evenness of the downlight lighting is higher. Downlights Floor washlights Conclusion Due to their asymmetric light distribution. Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. either washlighting is applied to the floor surface alone or the room as a whole is illuminated with downlights with direct light from above.com 174 . The elimination of glare from downlights is determined by the cut-off angle.

com 175 .downlights .hallways . Heidelberg Konrad Adenauer Fund. theatres.walkways and foyers in hotels. cinemas and concert halls .E Applications Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Floor Floor washlighting for .floodlights Projects: Lamy Innovation Workshop. Berlin Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.steps and stairs Preferred luminaire groups: .

E Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Object Object in the space Object on the wall Objects can be accentuated with great effect to turn them into real eye-catchers. Visual impressions can be given an unusual appearance by selecting a crisp edged illumination. large area lighting solution.com 176 .erco. The opposite of such dramatic lighting is a uniform. Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.

side elevation Spotlight. Two spotlights. When illuminating an object with one spotlight in the direction of vision. The brightness contrasts are milder compared to when using just one spotlight. front elevation Spotlight.com 177 . shining from different directions create a balanced.erco. Illuminating from below produces interesting effects since the light is coming from an angle which is unusual for the observer. with sculpture accessories.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Object in the space Objects in the room or area can be illuminated flexibly using track-mounted spotlights or floodlights. the modelling effect is weak. isometric Spotlight. Spotlight. underside Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. three-dimensional effect.

The possibility of dazzle must be prevented here in particular.spotlights . This reduces the modelling effect.erco.trade-fair stands . Bilbao Hermitage. Helsinki Guggenheim Museum.floodlights Projects: Passeig de Gràcia. strong reflection or undesirable shadows on people and objects are avoided.museums .sales and representational areas Preferred luminaire groups . When the angle of incidence is 30°. Applications Accent lighting for . Arrangement Objects in the room can be illuminated with an angle of incidence of 30° to 45° to the vertical. The steeper the incident light. Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art. Lighting from below can have the effect of making things look very strange.com 178 .exhibitions . Saint Petersburg Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. the stronger the shadows.E Floodlights Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Object in the space Conclusion Narrow beam spotlights accentuate the object while floodlights show the object in the context of its surroundings.

Several wallwashers illuminate the wall evenly. Floodlights provide a homogenous illumination of the entire wall surface.com 179 . Spotmounted picture. A contour Spotlights Wallwasher spotlights Floodlights Contour spotlights Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Object on the wall Objects on the wall can be flexibly spotlight ensures very strong. Individual wallwashers accentuate the picture more discretely than spotlights. lights highlight the wall-mounted picture and create a decorative effect. illuminated with track-mounted effective emphasis of the wallspotlights or floodlights. The object is not emphasised.

Barcelona Museo Deu. care must be taken that the angle of incidence does not cause secondary glare in the observer‘s line of vision.g. This can result in an effect that makes the object look strange because the object itself seems to emit light.spotlights .wallwashers . e. The steeper the incident light.E Conclusion Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Object on the wall Narrow beam spotlights accentuate the object while floodlights show the object in the context of its surroundings. Arrangement Objects on the wall can be illuminated with an angle of incidence of 30° to 45° to the vertical. e.floodlights Projects: Museum of Contemporary Art. In addition. the more vivid the object appears. El Vendrell Palacio Real de Madrid Reichstag. cast by the picture frame onto the picture surface. On reflective surfaces. unwanted shadow. Applications Accent lighting for .com 180 . should also be avoided.trade-fair stands . artworks behind glass or oil paintings.sales and representational areas Preferred luminaire groups .exhibitions .erco. Contour spotlights can illuminate the object with a crisp focused beam and thus highlight particularly well.museums . Berlin Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.g.

Floor washlights and wall-mounted downlights provide orientation by illuminating either the floor surface or the room.erco. Floor washlights Wall-mounted downlights Recessed floor luminaires Orientation luminaires Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www.com 181 .E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Orientation lighting Orientation lighting is defined first and foremost by the task of providing orientation. This can be done using luminaires that provide visibility or ones that act as a sign. Orientation luminaires and recessed floor luminaires typically provide orientation by being arranged into lines or by marking out areas.

steps and exclusion zones .wall-mounted downlights .com 182 . Düsseldorf Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Applications Orientation lighting for the identification of .floor washlights .entrances .emergency exit routes Preferred luminaire groups . Bergamo Deutsche Bank.orientation luminaires Projects: Light and Building.routes . Small luminaires with high luminance clearly set themselves apart form their surroundings.erco. Frankfurt Palazzo della Ragione.recessed floor luminaires .architectural lines .E Conclusion Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Orientation lighting Low illumination levels are sufficient for orientation purposes. Tokyo Sevens.

Preferred luminaire groups . Safety and rescue sign luminaires must comply with the regional guidelines.luminaires for pictograms Projects: Palazzo della Ragione.com 183 .directive luminaires .emergency exits.exits . fire exits .escape and rescue routes Directive luminaires are often secondary lighting features and should match with the architecture. Dubai Norwegian Aviation Museum. Safety and rescue sign luminaires inform on the direction of an escape route or emergency exit. Dresden Edition: 07/07/2006 | Updated version at www. Luminaires that change colour allow controllable dynamic route markings. Bergamo Burj Al Arab. Applications Application: for identification of: . Bodo Taschenberg-Palais.safety sign luminaires .E Observation Guide Indoor lighting | Lighting applications Directive lighting Directive luminaires provide information or give directions by way of pictograms and inscriptions.erco.

Design examples Lighting design Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. cityscapes and vegetation by night. Luminaires built to high protection mode form the basis for adding dramatic lighting to architecture.erco.E Guide Outdoor lighting Types of lighting Luminaire groups Lighting applications Outdoor lighting concepts can form a continuous whole with the indoor lighting designs.com 184 .

facades.erco. In terms of orientation lighting. points of light or rows of lights are used to provide orientation in the outdoor area. objects and vegetation greatly depends on the type of lighting. This ranges from general lighting through to specific highlighting. Orientation Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.com 185 . Washlighting forms the background for accent lighting for emphasising objects.E Guide Outdoor lighting Types of lighting General Washlighting Accentuation The effect of rooms.

erco. Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Quantitative aspects are often a primary consideration. Direct lighting permits both diffuse and directed light.E Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting General direct. aimed direct. diffuse General lighting designates an even illumination related to a horizontal working plane or pedestrian traffic zones.com 186 .

They have an inconspicuous design and can be integrated well into the architecture. A feature of direct illumination is its highly efficient use of energy. The uniformity on the working plane increases as the mounting height increases or as the beam angle widens. directed general lighting for: . Spain Congress Palace.passages .E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | General direct. Applications Downlights cater for an even light distribution on the horizontal plane. London Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Valencia Federal Chancellery. The architecture is visible and it is possible to orientate oneself in the room. aimed A direct and aimed general lighting produces an even illumination on the horizontal working plane. Conclusion The directed light produces good modelling and brilliance.entrance areas .erco. Direct. Directed light enables good appreciation of form and surface texture.com 187 .atria Preferred luminaire group .arcades . The visual comfort increases as the cut-off angle increases.downlights Projects: Repsol petrol station. Berlin City Hall.

One feature of using fluorescent lamps for the general lighting is an efficient use of energy.overhanging or cantilevered roofs . Valladolid Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. diffuse general lighting designates an even illumination with respect to a horizontal working plane. Shapes and surface textures are only slightly emphasised. diffuse general lighting for .downlights .E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | General direct.floor lighting on access driveways. Ravensburg Bodegas Vega Sicilia Wine Cellar. Applications Direct.wall-mounted downlights Projects: Private residence. The limited formation of shadow results in weak modelling capabilities.com 188 . Conclusion Direct. diffuse A direct. paths and public squares Preferred luminaire groups . The architecture is visible and it is possible to orientate oneself in the room. diffuse light produces a soft illumination with little shadow and reflection.entrance areas . Ravensburg Private residence.

The primary purpose is to make visible the room proportions and room limits. Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.E Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting Washlighting symmetrical asymmetrical Washlighting illumination refers to an architecture-related and object-orientated illumination. Symmetrical floodlights are used for washlighting of horizontal surfaces or for general lighting in the area of presentation. A feature of asymmetrical floodlights is the uniform light intensity distribution on surfaces.erco.com 189 .

The illuminated areas of the room are emphasised by washlighting. Lüdenscheid Church. Washlighting illumination can serve as a background for accent lighting. Paulinzella Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.cantilever roofs . Conclusion The directed light produces good modelling abilities and enables good appreciation of form and surface structure.entrance areas . Applications Washlighting illumination for: .floodlights Projects: Private residence.trees . Australia ERCO Lightpark.erco. Southern Highlands. Washlight illumination is characterised by high uniformity and a soft gradient of light intensity distribution.com 190 .E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting symmetrical Symmetrical washlighting produces an even illumination on objects or surfaces.objects Preferred luminaire group .facades . Rörvik Monastery ruins.wall lighting .sculptures .park and garden complexes .

E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting asymmetrical Asymmetrical washlighting illumination is used for illuminating surfaces evenly.com 191 . Vertical illumination emphasises the walls – or other room limits – in terms of their physical make up. Brightening the wall surfaces makes the room look bigger. Wallwashers Recessed luminaires Floor washlights Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Wallwashing is a highly valued tool in architectural lighting.erco.

E Recessed floor luminaires Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting | Washlighting asymmetrical Conclusion Point-form luminaires lend the wall surface a higher brillance. Zaragoza Porches de la Boquería. With asymmetrical washlighting.cantilever roofs . whereas with linear luminaires a higher uniformity is achieved.passages . Applications Washlighting illumination for . It can also serve as a background for accent lighting or form the ambient brightness for the work place. Barcelona Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.facades .erco.recessed floor luminaires Projects: Regional government of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein in Berlin Kaufhof media facade.entrance areas . areas of a room can be defined and thus have attention attracted to them. Hamburg Museo del Teatro de Caesaraugusta.atria .park and garden complexes Preferred luminaire groups .floodlights . To obtain a uniform light intensity distribution the correct positioning of the luminaires is of great importance.com 192 .wallwashers .washlights .

erco. This makes it possible to establish a hierarchy of how noticeable each item is and to attract attention. as well as brilliance. Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. A narrow beam and a high brightness contrast to the surroundings give the object particular emphasis. The focused light produces pronounced shadows and good modelling ability. Projectors Directional luminaires Conclusion Accent lighting enables good appreciation of form and surface structure.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting Accentuation Highlighting emphasises individual objects or architectural elements.com 193 .

Singapore Tommy Hilfiger. Lüdenscheid ERCO.com 194 .projectors .entrance areas .directional luminaires Projects: ERCO Lightpark. Accent lighting for: . Lüdenscheid Sri Senpaga Vinayagar Temple. Structures and textures of objects are clearly emphasised by the directed light.park and garden complexes . Düsseldorf Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting Accentuation Accent lighting creates points of interest.arcades .objects Preferred luminaire groups .facades .

Illuminating the room is of secondary importance here.com 195 . instead.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting Orientation Orientation lighting is defined first and foremost by the task of providing orientation. a row of these luminaires is typically arranged to form an orientation line.erco. This can be achieved by luminaires that function as sources of illumination or as signals. Floor washlights Wall-mounted downlights Recessed floor luminaires Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.

Palamos Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.floor washlights .steps and exclusion zones . Copenhagen Private residence.orientation luminaires Projects: Sevens department store.E Orientation luminaires Guide Outdoor lighting | Types of lighting Orientation Conclusion Low illumination levels are sufficient for orientation purposes. Applications Orientation lighting for the identification of . Small luminaires with high luminance clearly set themselves apart form their surroundings.recessed floor luminaires .architectural lines . Düsseldorf Hilton Hotel.routes . Dubai Bathing platform Kastrup Sobad.erco.com 196 .entrances .emergency exit routes Preferred luminaire groups .wall-mounted downlights .

Projectors Floodlights Wallwasher Luminaires for open area and pathway lighting Downlights Ceiling and wallmounted downlights Recessed floor luminaires Orientation luminaires Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.com 197 . For external applications it is primarily permanently mounted luminaires that are used.E Guide Outdoor lighting Luminaire groups Luminaires are available in a wide variety of types.erco. each intended to fulfil different lighting requirements.

The use of accessories is also typical for projectors: . Lüdenscheid Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Criteria for projectors . light intensity .objects Projects: Norwegian Aviation Museum.rotatable and tiltable Projectors have narrow-beam light distribution with a rotationally symmetrical beam. Projectors are offered with different beam emission angles and light distributions.E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Projectors Projectors illuminate a narrowly constrained area.park and garden complexes .erco. brilliance.glare control: anti-dazzle screen Applications Accent lighting for: .arcades .com 198 .filter: colour filter. functional life. UV or IR filter . The type of mounting and the orientation are variable.entrance areas .lenses: spread lenses or sculpture lenses .cut-off angle limits glare and increases visual comfort .choice of lamp determines light colour.facades . Lüdenscheid ERCO. Bodo ERCO Lightpark. Lüdenscheid ERCO Lightpark.emission angle determines the beam of light and is defined by the reflector and the lamp .

efficiency. Their arrangement should match their surroundings.overhanging or cantilevered roofs . asymmetrical Floodlights with asymmetrical light distribution provide even illumination of areas.light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Floodlights. functional life. Criteria for floodlights .entrance areas .E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Floodlights Floodlights have a wide-beam characteristic.com 199 .choice of lamp determines light colour. Singapore Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. Floodlights.gradient: soft edge to the beam of light . They are offered with a axially symmetrical or asymmetrical light distribution. light intensity . Lüdenscheid Centenary Hall. Southern Highlands. Projects: Private residence.facades . Bochum Sri Senpaga Vinyagar Temple.wall lighting .park and garden complexes .objects Surface-mounted luminaires act as features themselves.sculptures . The luminaires can be mounted on walls. Australia ERCO Lightpark. axially symmetrical Floodlights with axially symmetrical light distribution provide even illumination of objects or areas.uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas . Applications Washlighting provides an even illumination for: . Light distribution with focal emphasis. ceilings or floors and in addition can also be tilted.

Belzec Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.overhanging or cantilevered roofs . Surface-mounted downlights can be mounted on walls.atria . light intensity .park and garden complexes As recessed luminaires.entrance areas . functional life.com 200 . They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form.passages .light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Wallwashers Recessed-mounted wallwashers with asymmetric light distribution provide an even illumination of areas.E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Wallwasher Wallwashers have a wide-beam characteristic. They are offered with an asymmetric light distribution.uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas . Wallwasher. ceilings or floors and in addition can also be tilted. efficiency. Projects: Regional government of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. Surface-mounted downlights act as a room feature. Criteria for wallwashers: . wallwashers are inconspicuous architectural details.choice of lamp determines light colour. tiltable Recessed-mounted wallwashers with asymmetric light distribution provide an even illumination of areas. Hamburg ERCO P1.erco. Further applications are: . Berlin Kaufhof Media Facade.gradient: soft edges to the beam of light . Lüdenscheid Concentration Camp memorial. Applications Wallwashing is an important component of architectural lighting for adding emphasis to facades.

Facade washlights Floor washlights with asymmetric light distribution provide an even illumination of buildings. efficiency. Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Luminaires for open area lighting Light for illuminating open spaces is generated by an asymmetric reflector-flood system. A sculpture lens acting as safety glass directs the light deep into the outdoor area. The light is spread in its width so that pathways can be evenly illuminated.erco. They are offered with an asymmetric light distribution.gradient: soft edges to beam of light . Criteria for luminaires for open area and pathway lighting . Their small design makes these luminaires suitable for lighting steps.cut-off angle increases visual comfort and limits glare and light pollution .E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Luminaires for open area and pathway lighting Luminaires for open area and pathway lighting have a widebeam characteristic.light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Luminaires for pathway lighting Pathway lighting luminaires with asymmetric light distribution provide uniform illumination on pathways. functional life. light intensity .choice of lamp determines light colour.com 201 .uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas .

Their arrangement should correspond to the surroundings. Projects: Panticosa resort.passages . these are inconspicuous architectural details. Panticosa Private residence. entrances and steps .floor lighting on access driveways.facades . Berlin ERCO.com 202 .E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Luminaires for open area and pathway lighting Luminaires for open area and pathway lighting are mainly used for illuminating the following: . Emden Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. paths and public squares .orientation lighting on pathways.entrance areas .park and garden complexes As recessed luminaires.erco. drives.arcades . Lüdenscheid Art hall. Free-standing luminaires act as features in the room.

com 203 . They are usually mounted on the ceiling and illuminate the floor or walls.emission angle determines the beam of light and is defined by the reflector and the lamp .light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Downlights Downlights have a rotationally symmetric beam that is directed vertically downwards.E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Downlights Downlights emit a beam that is directed downwards at either a perfectly vertical or an adjustable angle.cut-off angle limits glare and increases visual comfort . Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. symmetric or asymmetric light distribution. On downlights with Darklight reflector. This gives a luminaire with the widest beam possible while simultaneously having an optimised light output ratio. They are offered with narrow-beam. light intensity . Criteria for downlights .choice of lamp determines light colour. Directional luminaires Directional luminaires provide highlighting for individual areas or objects with a medium to narrow light distribution.erco. functional life. efficiency. wide-beam. The use of a diffuser reduces the luminance in the luminaire and thereby improves the visual comfort and the evenness. The cut-off angle of narrow-beam downlights means they are largely free of glare. the lamp‘s cut-off angle is identical to that of the luminaire.

arcades .atria Recessed downlights are inconspicuous architectural details. London Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. whereas surface-mounted downlights and pendant luminaires act as room features. They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and design.erco.com 204 . An optimal evenness is achieved when a=h.passages . Berlin City Hall.entrance areas . Valencia Federal Chancellery.5:1. To attain an even illumination on a reference plane. the luminaire spacing should not exceed the mounting height h by more than 1. Spain Congress Palace.E Arrangement Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Downlights The offset from wall should measure approximately half of the luminaire spacing in order to achieve sufficient brightness on the wall and well proportioned scallops of light. Applications Downlights provide general lighting for . Projects: Repsol petrol station.

with their diffuse beam in the room. shielded Wall-mounted downlights with half-shielded face offer good visual comfort and illuminate the floor area in particular. functional life.erco. Wall-mounted downlights. The light can be distributed either via a single-sided or double-sided light aperture. Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Criteria for ceiling and wallmounted downlights . wide-beam. They can also be mounted on the ceiling. Wall-mounted downlights Wall-mounted downlights.cut-off angle increases visual comfort and limits glare and light pollution Facade luminaires Facade luminaires are offered with narrow-beam. provide good visual comfort. symmetrical or asymmetric light distribution. efficiency. Some luminaires can be positioned either on the wall or on the ceiling. light intensity .uniformity: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas .E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Ceiling and wall-mounted downlights Ceiling and wall-mounted downlights are defined first and foremost by their type of mounting and not by their light characteristics.com 205 . wide-beam. They are available with narrow-beam.choice of lamp determines light colour. symmetrical or asymmetric light distribution.

Facade luminaires should be arranged such that the elements to be illuminated are optimally lit and no light shines past the objects. Ravensburg Private residence. paths and public squares The position and design of the ceiling and wall-mounted downlights should be chosen to match the with the architecture.entrance areas . Rörvik Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.com 206 . Projects: Private residence.erco.floor lighting on access driveways.E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Ceiling and wall-mounted downlights For illumination of: . Ravensburg Zara.overhanging or cantilevered roofs .facades . Munich Cultural Centre and Coastal Museum NORVEG.

rotationally symmetrical beam is used for highlighting objects.com 207 . Uplight. The narrow. wide-beamed. The beam can be titled. They provide an even illumination of walls. diffuse Recessed floor luminaires with diffuse light intensity distribution are used for marking paths or emphasising architectural lines. They are offered with narrow-beamed.range of tilt for directional luminaires with high glare protection . functional life.choice of lamp determines light colour. light intensity . symmetric or asymmetric light distribution. Directional uplights Directional luminaires provide highlighting for individual areas or objects with a medium to narrow light distribution.light output ratio is increased by optimised reflector technology Uplights Uplights feature an upwards directed beam with symmetrical light distribution.erco. Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Recessed floor luminaires Recessed floor luminaires emit their beam upwards. Criteria for recessed floor luminaires: . efficiency.uniformity with wallwashers: optimised reflector for even illumination of areas . Lens wallwashers Lens wallwashers feature an upwards directed beam with asymmetrical light distribution.

They should correspond to the architecture in their arrangement and form. Dubai Benrath Castle.com 208 .park and garden complexes Recessed floor luminaires are inconspicuous architectural details.facades .E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Recessed floor luminaires Accent lighting or floodlighting for .passages .entrance areas . Projects: Glass pavilion.overhanging or cantilevered roofs .atria . Berlin Khalil Al-Sayegh. Glass technical college. Rheinbach Brandenburg Gate.arcades .erco. Düsseldorf Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.

Criteria for orientation luminaires . Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. Floor washlights Floor washlights form points of light on the wall and serves as an orientation light on the floor surface. This can be achieved by luminaires that function as sources of illumination or as signals.com 209 .luminance: noticability of the luminaires in their surroundings Orientation luminaires Orientation luminaires with point-form front lens act as a local orientation light.E Light Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Orientation luminaires Orientation luminaires are defined first and foremost by the task of providing orientation.

architectural lines .emergency exit routes Projects: Sevens department store. Palamos Edition: 29/09/2006 | Updated version at www. Dubai Bathing platform Kastrup Sobad.entrances . Düsseldorf Hilton Hotel.com 210 . Copenhagen Private residence.E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Luminaire groups Orientation luminaires For identifying: .erco.routes .steps or restricted areas .

com 211 .E Guide Outdoor lighting Lighting applications Wall Ceiling Floor Illuminating facades by night changes the atmosphere of a city.erco. points of interest can be created to enable orientation and to establish spatial reference points. Light in the outdoors also extends one‘s perception when looking outside from with a building. Object Facade Vegetation Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. In urban areas or civic parks.

or to gently illuminate a building against the nocturnal environment. The objective may be to obtain a uniform wallwashing comparable to that in the indoor area.erco. regardless of whether they are facades or walls covered with climbing plants. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. 3m Wall. a low brightness is often sufficient for making objects visible and for making contrasts.com 212 . The arrangement of the luminaires is dependent on the desired uniformity and illuminance. Vertical illumination is significant in the visual surroundings for identifying areas in terms of their form.E Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications Wall Wall. In the outdoor area at night. 5m Wall with texture Wall and facade lighting at night extends one‘s perception and defines spatial limits.

the choice of lamp determines the light colour and colour rendition Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. Wallwashing only achieves a uniform brightness on matt surfaces.com 213 . Point-form light sources make the wall surface much more vivid. Lighting criteria for walls: . 3m Wallwashers are noted for giving an even progression of brightness on the wall.uniformity of the lighting . underside Recessed-mounted washlight Conclusion Vertical illumination emphasises the surfaces delineating the room in terms of their physical makeup.erco. The room is made to look bigger by brightening the wall faces. plan view Wallwasher. Wallwashers.

5 times. Düsseldorf Berliner Tor Center. Belzec Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Arrangement Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. Wallwashers only develop their optimal evenness as of a minimum number of three luminaires.entrance areas Preferred luminaire groups . 3m The offset from the wall should be at least one third of the wall height. the light‘s angle of incident should be 20° to the vertical. Alternatively. Applications Washlighting illumination for vertical surfaces of: .wallwashers Projects: ERCO. Lüdenscheid Benrath Castle. Hamburg Concentration Camp memorial.facades . or at least does not exceed it by more than 1.erco.com 214 .wall lighting . An optimum evenness is obtained when the luminaire spacing is the same as the offset from the wall.

Wallwashers Lens wallwashers Conclusion Vertical illumination emphasises the wall faces in terms of their physical makeup. Lens wallwashers have special lens reflector systems. 5m Given the same lighting.com 215 . The reduction of the mean illuminance on the wall can be compensated for by having a higher lamp power and by increasing the number of luminaires.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall. Directed light makes the wall surface much more vivid. Wallwashers are characterised by the even progression of brightness along the wall.uniformity of lighting .the choice of lamp determines the light colour and colour rendition Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. The room is made to look bigger by brightening its walls and ceiling. Lighting criteria for high walls: . as the wall height increases the brightness of the wall decreases.erco. As the wall height increases the distance of the luminaire to the wall must be increased.

E Arrangement Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall.facades .erco. Berlin Sacred Heart church. 5m Whereas for normal wall heights the luminaire spacing is the same as the offset from the wall. The offset from the wall is given where a 20° line projected down from the top of the wall meets the ground.wallwashers .lens wallwashers Projects: Regional government of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein in Berlin Georg Schäfer Museum.wall lighting . for higher walls it must be reduced to compensate for the otherwise sinking illuminance. Applications Washlighting illumination for vertical surfaces of: . Munich Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.com 216 . Schweinfurt Brandenburg Gate.entrance areas Preferred luminaire groups .

Downlights Wallwashers Lens wallwashers Directional luminaires Conclusion Directed grazing light makes surface textures clearly visible. but does not permit an even wallwashing. Grazing light on walls can emphasise any surface irregularities.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall with texture Point-form light sources at a short offset from the wall produce their own light pattern that. does accentuate the texture.com 217 .erco. admittedly. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Wall Wall with texture The smaller the offset from the wall. the clearer the surface texture is enhanced.downlights.wallwasher . lens wallwashers.recessed floor luminaires (uplights. directional luminaires) Projects: Rohrmeisterei restaurant.erco. the evenness of the wall illumination is greatly reduced. Schwerte Sri Senpaga Vinayagar Temple Private residence. When using grazing light. Germany Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. narrow-beamed . Preferred luminaire groups .com 218 .

plan Structural elements With ceiling illumination. e. The ceiling is primarily emphasised.E Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications Ceiling Ceiling. due to architectonic structures. when it has an intrinsic communicative value.com 219 .erco. either light is shone to illuminate the ceiling in its own right or the ceiling is merely used as a reflector for general lighting. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.g.

com 220 .E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Ceiling. Ceiling washlights should be mounted above eye-level.erco. The distance from the ceiling depends on the level of evenness required and should be at least 0. For ceiling washlights.8m. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. To avoid glare. Uplights Recessed floor luminaires Conclusion Selecting the luminaire type is dependent on the room and its use. a minimum distance to the ceiling is required. plan The luminaires for washlighting the ceiling can be mounted on the walls or in the ground. Arrangement The prerequisite for ceiling illumination is a sufficiently high room in order to achieve an even distribution of light. recessed floor spotlights for illuminating ceilings should not be installed in heavily trafficked areas.

com 221 . Rheinbach Jahrhunderthalle. London Glass pavilion. Glass technical college.ceiling washlights .atria . Tokyo Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Ceiling.arcades .overhanging or cantilevered roofs Preferred luminaire groups .erco. plan Washlighting ceiling illumination for .passages .recessed floor spotlights Projects: Stansted Airport. Bochum Cosmo petrol station.entrance areas .

erco. Spotlights Floodlights Recessed floor luminaires.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Structural elements Luminaires for lighting support structures can be mounted on the structure itself. Narrowbeamed luminaires accentuate the support structure in particular. directional luminaires Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. A washlighting illumination adds emphasis to the whole ceiling surface.com 222 . on the walls or in the floor.

recessed floor spotlights for lighting the support structure should not be installed in heavily trafficked areas.overhanging or cantilevered roofs Preferred luminaire groups . Applications Ceiling lighting for: .passages . Kuala Lumpur Museo del Teatro de Caesaraugusta.ceiling washlights .recessed floor luminaires Projects: Burj Al Arab. Dubai Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias. Spotlights can also be attached directly to components of the support structure.E Recessed floor luminaires. Valencia Petronas Twin Towers.atria .com 223 . To avoid glare.entrance areas .spotlights . The arrangement of the luminaires should be oriented around the design of the support structure.erco.arcades . Zaragoza Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. uplights Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Ceiling Structural elements Conclusion The selection of the type of luminaire is dependent on the scale and the proportion of the support structure. The complete support structure can be illuminated with floodlights.

com 224 . narrow-beamed Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. Floor washlights particularly emphasise the floor surface and its physical make-up. the floor surface can be illuminated with direct light from downlights or from floodlights positioned on the sides.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications Floor When floor lighting. Pathway luminaires Luminaires for open-area lighting Downlights Downlights.

The elimination of glare from downlights is determined by the cut-off angle.downlights . Berlin Private residence.com 225 . Applications Floor washlighting for: .erco.mast luminaires Projects: ERCO.bollard luminaires .public squares Preferred luminaire groups: . Palamos Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.floor washlights .E Floor washlights Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications Floor Conclusion Due to their asymmetric light distribution. Lüdenscheid Greater London Authority Private residence. They ensure a high degree of visual comfort thanks to their low mounting height. floor washlights provide grazing light illumination of the floor. A soft beam gradient reduces the contrast with the surroundings.driveways .pathways .

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications Object

Object, free-standing

Objects on the wall

Objects can be accentuated with great effect to turn them into real eye-catchers. The appearance of objects can be made to look unusual by selecting a strong grazing light. The opposite of such dramatic lighting is a uniform, large area lighting solution.

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Object, free-standing
Objects in the room or area can be illuminated with spotlights or floodlights. When illuminating an object head-on with one spotlight in the direction of vision, the modelling effect is weak. Two spotlights, with sculpture accessories, shining from different directions create a balanced, three-dimensional effect. The brightness contrasts are milder compared to when using just one spotlight. Illuminating from below produces an interesting but mysterious effect since the light is coming from an angle which is unusual for the observer.

Spotlights

Floodlights

Directional luminaires

Directional uplights

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Object, free-standing
Narrow-beam spotlights place emphasis on the object alone, whereas floodlights show the object in the context of its surroundings. This reduces the modelling effect. Lighting from below can have the effect of making things look very strange.

Arrangement

Objects in the room can be illuminated with an angle of incidence of 30° to 45° to the vertical. The steeper the incident light, the stronger the shadows.

Applications

Accent lighting for - park and garden complexes - sculptures Preferred luminaire groups - spotlight - floodlights

Projects: Norwegian Aviation Museum, Bodo ERCO, Lüdenscheid Rhenish State Museum, Bonn Let The Dance Begin, Strabane

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Objects on the wall
Objects on the wall can be illumi- floodlights accentuate the object nated with spotlights or floodless than spotlights. lights. Spotlights highlight the object and create a decorative effect. Due to their even illumination of the complete wall surface,

Spotlights

Floodlight from above

Floodlight from below

Recessed floor and directional luminaire

Lens wallwashers

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Object Objects on the wall
Narrow-beam spotlights accentuate the object while floodlights show the object in the context of its surroundings.

Arrangement

Objects on the wall can be illuminated with an angle of incidence of 30° to 45° to the vertical. The steeper the incident light, the more three-dimensional the object appears.

Applications

Accent lighting for - facades - entrance areas - park and garden complexes - sculptures Preferred luminaire groups - spotlight - wallwashers - uplights

Projects: ERCO, Lüdenscheid Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington DC Sinnet Tennis Club, Warsaw

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Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications Facade

Solid facade

Facade, vertically divided

Horizontally divided facade

Facade with projecting Perforated facade or recessed sections

Banded facade

The form of facades is determined not only by their material and shape but also by the light and its direction and colour. The appearance of a facade alters during the course of the day due to the changing direction of light and the varying components of diffuse and direct light. Different light distributions and the use of lighting control systems give facades an appearance of their own at night. Varying illuminances differentiate components or areas of a facade. Grazing light emphasises facade details. Washlighting facades allows them to appear in their entirety. Shining any light beyond the facade surfaces, either to the sides or over the top, should be avoided.

Transparent facade

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Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Solid facade
Washlighting creates a very uniform light distribution on the facade. A line of light marks out the edge of the building against the night sky. Uplights rhythmically divide up the facade. Under the light of up-downlights, graphic patterns are produced by the definite beams.

Floodlight, below

Line of light, above

Uplights

Facade luminaires downlights

Facade luminaires uplights and downlights

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Solid facade
Washlighting facades can make them appear flat. Reducing the illuminance as the facade height increases gives a low-contrast transition to the dark night sky. Grazing light emphasises the surface textures of materials. Progressions of light on untextured walls become the dominating feature and are seen as independent patterns in their own right. Large, uniform surfaces can be given structure with patterns The facade lighting can be positioned on the ground, on a mast or on the building. Wallwashers offset from the facade at one third to half the facade height avoid long shadows. Luminaires positioned close to the facade produce grazing light with a strong emphasis on the surface textures and structures. Recessed floor luminaires are architecturally discrete. Overgrown vegetation must be prevented. Mast of light. Beams of light that do not match or correspond with the architecture are perceived as disturbing.

Arrangement

luminaires will appear as additive features in front of the facade. Cantilever arms allow direct mounting to the building. Shining any light beyond the facade surfaces, either to the sides or over the top, should be avoided.

Recessed floor luminaires

Surface-mounted floor luminaires

Upright supporting tube

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Solid facade

Cantilever arm

Facade luminaires

Applications

Projects: Georg Schäfer Museum, Schweinfurt ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid ERCO Lightpark, Lüdenscheid Cultural Centre and Coastal Museum NORVEG, Rörvik

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Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Facade, vertically divided
Floodlights produce a uniform ments the vertical facade division illumination on the facade. by lighting from above and below. Washlighting with point-shaped light sources makes the surface texture and structure clearly visible. Accentuating the columns detaches these from the surrounding facade. Uplights positioned on two sides emphasise the volume of the column. Downlights accentuate the column and illuminate the floor area. The combination of uplights and downlights aug-

Floodlights

Uplights

Uplights, double-sided layout

Downlights

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Facade, vertically divided

Conclusion

Narrow beams of light intensify the effect of the vertical division. To avoid shadows at the side, the luminaires should be positioned at right angles, parallel to the facade. Strong contrasts and heavy shadow can be compensated for by washlighting the facade as a form of general lighting. The luminaires should be positioned in a rhythm corresponding to that of the facade divisions.

Applications

Projects: Brandenburg Gate, Berlin Municipal works, Lüdenscheid Ruhr Festival Theatre Congress Centre, Recklinghausen Faena Hotel, Buenos Aires

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Horizontally divided facade
Floodlights illuminate the entire facade and emphasise the horizontal divisions by casting heavy shadows. Lines of light echo the horizontal structure on the darker facade surface.

Floodlights

Lines of light

Conclusion

Luminaires positioned close to the facade highly emphasise its three-dimensional nature. Long heavy shadows cast by facade divisions can be reduced by increasing the offset of the

luminaire from the facade. The steeper angle of incidence for the light in the upper region of the facade casts longer shadows than in the lower area.

Applications

Projects: Millennium Grandstand, Dubai Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, Hong Kong Palazzo della Borsa, Triest Kaufhof department store, Mönchengladbach

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Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Facade with projecting or recessed sections
Wide-beam floodlights set far from the building illuminate the facade evenly. Facades with large protruding sections or insets will feature heavy shadows. Different illuminances or light colours augment the differentiation of the facade. Uplights mark out the internal corners with grazing light.

Floodlights

Spotlights with different illuminances

Spotlights with different light colours

Uplights

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Facade with projecting or recessed sections
Differentiated illuminances, light distributions and light colours add rhythm to the appearance of the facade. Harsh contrasts between accentuated and unlit areas can be compensated for by using washlighting to perform the general lighting. Increasing the luminaire offset from the facade reduces the formation of heavy shadow. The luminaire arrangement should correspond to the pattern of facade division.

Applications

Projects: Museum of Arts and Crafts, Hamburg Palacio de la Aljaferia, Zaragoza

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Guide
Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Perforated facade
Under daylight conditions the window surfaces appear dark. At night, illuminated interiors provide a strong contrast between the dark facade surface and bright windows. Floodlights produce uniform light distribution over the facade. Illuminating the window embrasure accentuates the frame of the facade opening, whereas narrow-beam uplights emphasise the facade‘s grid pattern.

Daylight

Downlights, indoor

Floodlights

Lines of light

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com 241 . Berlin Pentacon Tower. Berlin Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Uplights Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Perforated facade Conclusion Indoor users should not be dazzled. Ehrenhof. Lighting control systems can be used to control the light in individual rooms and to create patches of light on the facade. Applications Projects: Humboldt-University. Luminaires shining into the interior impair the view out of the building. Hannover DZ Bank. Dresden Ernst-August-Carree.erco.

The lighting on the balustrades augments their horizontal structure.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Banded facade Under daylight conditions the strip of windows appears dark. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. Daylight Uplights. indoor Band of light Conclusion The strong contrast between bright indoor lighting and the dark outer surface at night can only be compensated for to a small extent with facade washlighting.erco.com 242 . Illuminating the indoor areas at night forms a strong contrast between dark facade surfaces and a bright strip of windows.

Berlin Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.com 243 .E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Banded facade Projects: Greater London Authority. London Municipal works. Lüdenscheid E-Werk event halls/SAP SI offices.

Ceiling washlights in the indoor area emphasise the ceiling surfaces and increase the overall impression of interior brightness at night.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Transparent facade Under daylight conditions.com 244 .erco. Daylight Downlights. The facade construction is silhouetted. the transparent facade appears dark and reflects its surroundings. Lines of light in the ceiling area of the individual floors underline the horizontal building structure. Uplights emphasise the vertical elements of the facade. indoor Uplights. indoor Lines of light Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. Indoor lighting allows the observer to see into the building.

com 245 .erco. Applications Projects: Mediathek. Sendai Ruhr Festival Theatre Congress Centre. Luminaires shining into the indoor area will impair the view out of the building. outdoor Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Facade Transparent facade Conclusion The visual perspective from the ground makes the lighting effect of the indoor area appear larger with uplights than with downlights. Buenos Aires Maritime Museum. Dazzling the users of the indoor area should be avoided. Recklinghausen Zürich Insurance.E Uplights. Osaka Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

In addition to the shape. The shape and size of the trunk and tree crown vary depending on the type of tree. columnar. spreading and flat-crowned (e. trees are the most important elements for forming areas. the appearance of trees is also characterised by blossom and foliage in the course of the seasons.g.E Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications Vegetation Trees Types of trees Clusters of trees In the field of landscaping.erco. The most well-known tree forms are rounded.com 246 . while in the summer the leaves of the crown thicken to form a voluminous mass. The winter scene is characterised by filigree branches. a palm). Rows of trees Tree-lined avenue Spacing of trees Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

erco. Floodlights arranged around three sides illuminate the crown evenly from all sides and reduce the three-dimensionality of the tree form.E Observation Types of illumination Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Trees Floodlights aimed upwards make the tree crown appear threedimensional. Two floodlights from the front. yet to the side. Depending on the season. while floodlights mounted at the side add greater emphasis to the three-dimensionality. Floodlight in front Floodlight on the right Floodlights right and left Floodlights on three sides Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. Floodlights in the background create back-lighting and make the tree crown into a silhouette Uplights at the trunk accentuate the trunk as a linear feature and visually connect the crown to the ground. light from above will either emphasise the contour of the crown or accentuate the shadows of the branch structure on the ground.com 247 . illuminate the crown evenly as a voluminous mass.

Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. while one or two luminaires create a greater threedimensional effect.E Floodlight behind Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Trees Uplight Spotlight from above Conclusion Luminaires arranged on several sides give an even illumination of the tree. The texture of the bark is brought out stronger when lighting from the front. Narrowbeamed uplights are suitable for highlighting any striking. Positioning the luminaires to the side gives rise to a narrow line of light on the trunk. tall tree trunks.erco. When illuminating a wall behind a tree. Spotlights mounted in atria or on facades can cast the contour of the tree and/or branches as a shadow on the ground. the silhouette of the crown and trunk becomes apparent.com 248 .

E Observation Tree growth Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Trees One or two luminaires accentuate trees of small dimensions. Flexible. considered when arranging and aiming the luminaires.com 249 . Luminaires recessed into the ground blend into the area Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. fully grown trees. Several floodlights produce an even illumination of large. several luminaires may be necessary to achieve an even illumination and to avoid a distorted perception of light and dark parts. On large trees. directable luminaires with ground spikes can be repositioned and re-aimed as the tree grows.erco. Small tree Large tree Conclusion Tree growth and avoiding glare of landscape better but require are two points that must be more work to reposition however.

Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. In the summer. Coloured leaves are characteristic for the autumn. In the winter. Spring Summer Autumn Winter Conclusion Lamp selection is a factor that influences the colour of light and the colour rendition of the leaves and blossom.E Observation Season Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Trees Floodlit illumination of the tree crown particularly brings out the beauty of the outermost blossom in the springtime.erco. Daylight white colours of light emphasise blue-green foliage colours. whereas warm white colours of light accentuate brownish-red leaves. the lighting effect is reduced to the filigree branch work. the dense foliage makes the crown appear as a solid mass.com 250 .

Lüdenscheid Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.floodlights .entrance areas . Lüdenscheid ERCO.park and garden complexes . Hannover ERCO.com 251 .atria Preferred luminaire groups .spotlights .uplights Projects: Ernst-August-Carree.erco. Lüdenscheid ERCO.E Applications Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Trees Lighting for .

com 252 . Tree form: rounded Floodlight.erco. The illumination from below brings out the three-dimensionality of the crown when the foliage is quite open. front Floodlight on the right Floodlights on three sides Floodlight behind Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Types of trees Floodlit illumination emphasises the shape of the tree crown as a solid volume. Positioning the luminaires close to the tree underlines with grazing light the texture of the crown and of the trunk.

com 253 .E Uplight Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Types of trees Spotlight from above Tree form: Weeping Floodlight in front Floodlight on the right Floodlights on three sides Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.

com 254 .erco.E Floodlight behind Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Types of trees Uplight Spotlight from above Tree form: columnar Spotlight in front Spotlight on the right Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

com 255 .erco.E Spotlights on three sides Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Types of trees Spotlight behind Uplight Tree form: conical Floodlight at front Floodlight on the right Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

erco.E Floodlights on three sides Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Types of trees Floodlight behind Tree form: palm Spotlight in front Spotlight on the right Spotlights on three sides Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.com 256 .

com 257 . Illuminating a tree with grazing light requires a flat incident beam at approximately 15 degrees. weeping trees with The desired illuminance must be dense. illuminating from within the area under the tree. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. Spherical trees require a greater distance between luminaire and crown than columnar trees do here. Narrow-beamed uplights are particularly suitable for lighting high palms. On spreading trees with thin. using uplights allows the whole tree crown to appear aglitter. lend of the leaves.E Spotlight behind Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Types of trees Uplight Conclusion Rounded. themselves to floodlit illumination and the luminaires are best positioned outside the area under the tree. low hanging foliage that selected to suit the reflectance cannot be seen through. see-through foliage.

Uplights at the trunk emphasise the trunk as a vertical linear feature.com 258 . Floodlight at front Floodlights at sides Uplights Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Observation Luminaires Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Clusters of trees Floodlights located in front illuminate the tree crowns evenly. Floodlights positioned at the sides produce a hard contrast of light and shadow. Luminaires on two sides avoid hard shadows.erco.

Beijing Bank of China. Spotlights are suitable for additional highlights.atria Preferred luminaire groups .E Observation Light distribution Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Clusters of trees The cluster of trees can be visually differentiated by using different luminaires and differently aimed. while broad-beamed floodlights take on the task of general lighting.spotlights .entrance areas . Applications Lighting for . The decentralised illumination of trees allows a differentiated lighting of a cluster of trees. Beijing Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. Stronger brightness contrasts support this effect.erco. Tree growth and the avoidance of glare are to be considered when positioning and aiming the luminaires. Narrow-beamed luminaires provide highlighting.com 259 . Conclusion Having several luminaires with high cut-off angles reduces the glare compared to a few broadbeamed luminaires. Lüdenscheid Bank of China. Narrowbeamed and well-aimed luminaires reduce the superfluous emission of light into the surroundings. Spatial depth is created by adding lighting emphasis in the foreground. Lüdenscheid ERCO.floodlights .uplights Projects: ERCO.park and garden complexes . middle ground and background.

Narrowbeamed uplights highlight the tree trunk as a vertical.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Rows of trees Upwardly directed spotlights emphasise the tree canopy. Floodlights with asymmetric light distribution give homogenous light from base to canopy even on tall and broad rows of trees. linear feature.com 260 .erco. Tree form: rounded Floodlight Tree form: rounded Uplights Tree form: columnar Spotlights Tree form: columnar Uplights Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

The tree growth must be considered when positioning and aiming the luminaires.pathways Preferred luminaire groups .E Tree form: palm Spotlights Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Rows of trees Tree form: palm Uplights Conclusion The effectiveness of rows of trees to delineate space depends to a very large extent on the type of tree.entrance areas . Thus. Narrow-beamed and well-aimed luminaires reduce the glare and the spill light into the surroundings. Lüdenscheid Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.park and garden complexes .uplights Applications Projects: ERCO. depending on the type of tree. Lüdenscheid Loher Wäldchen park. a closely planted row of trees can appear as a ‚wall‘ or a ‚colonnade‘.spotlights .floodlights . Lighting for .erco.com 261 .

erco.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Tree-lined avenue Upwardly directed spotlights emphasise the tree crowns. Narrow-beamed uplights highlight the tree trunk as a vertical. Floodlights with asymmetric light distribution give homogenous lighting from base to canopy even on extensive avenues of tall trees. Tree form: rounded Floodlights Tree form: rounded Uplights Tree form: columnar Spotlight Tree form: columnar Uplights Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. linear feature.com 262 .

E Tree form: palm Spotlights Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Tree-lined avenue Tree form: palm Uplights Conclusion The spatial profile of tree-lined avenues depends to a very large extent on the type of tree. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www. Narrow-beamed and well-aimed luminaires reduce the glare and spill light into the surroundings.com 263 . The tree growth must be considered when positioning and aiming the luminaires. Thus.erco. depending on the type of trees. an avenue of narrowly spaced trees can act as a wall and segregate a definite area or can appear as a colonnade.

Tree form: weeping Uplights. linear feature.E Observation Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Spacing of trees Broad.com 264 .erco. Narrowbeamed uplights highlight the tree trunk as a vertical. upwardly directed beams of light emphasise the underside of the tree canopy. narrow-beam Tree form: weeping Uplights. wide-beam Tree form: columnar Spotlights Tree form: columnar Uplights Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

E Tree form: palm Spotlights Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting applications | Vegetation Spacing of trees Tree form: palm Uplights Conclusion The tree crowns of narrowly spaced trees combine to take on the effect of a canopy. Having several narrow-beamed luminaires reduces the glare compared to a few broad-beamed luminaires. On pathways and traffic routes. Edition: 24/10/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. it must be ensured that the luminaires are well shielded to prevent glare.com 265 .

Entrance area. Design variations are presented using simulations.erco. large Historical facade Pathway Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www. application possibilities for outdoor luminaires are shown using design examples. small Entrance area.E Guide Outdoor lighting Design examples In this subchapter.com 266 .

Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www.com 267 . The material texture on the back wall is brought out by the light. small The entrance area is formed by a negative volume. uniform beams of become apparent and become the formative element. which is set apart from the outdoor area by a few steps. it is sufficient to illuminate the ground.erco. Planning Design 1 The wallwashers integrated in the ceiling provide a very homogenous illumination of the wall.E Situation Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Entrance area. On the wall. Design 2 The light intensity distribution of the downlights determines the overall impression of the scene. The luminaires are integrated into the architecture. Design 3 To meet the functional criteria of an entrance. The overall volume of the entrance recedes into the background.

The luminaire spacing is equal to the offset from the wall.erco. Design 2 To achieve a decorative lighting effect. the downlights are positioned near to the wall.com 268 . small Design 1 The offset of the wallwashers from the wall measures half the wall height. Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Arrangement Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Entrance area. Design 3 The floor washlights are located at a height of 60cm in order to avoid glare.

Additional illumination of the wall can be dispensed with since the wall is also given sufficient light by the reflection from the roof. Planning Design 1 Downlights follow the form of the cantilever roof along the struts. large The design draft shows a representational entrance area with a canopy roof projecting out a long way.erco. Design 2 Light is projected onto the cantilever roof via ceiling washlights. Design 3 Each strut is highlighted by four surface-mounted downlights. The physical makeup of the struts is emphasised. The wall adjoining onto the glass facade is delicately brightened by recessed ceiling wallwashers. The luminaires appear as independent architectural elements. The circles of light made by the beams on the floor emphasise the dynamics of the circular facade.E Situation Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Entrance area. The roof reflects the light onto the floor.com 269 . This is supported by evenly arranged struts. The indirect lighting casts evenly diffused light onto the ground. Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www. The main task is to reinforce the representational character using the lighting.

E Arrangement Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Entrance area.com 270 . the offset of recessed ceiling wallwashers from the wall measures only a quarter of the wall height. To achieve a relation between wall and luminaires. large The arrangement of the narrowbeam recessed downlights follows the circular course of the roof edge. Design 3 The offset of the recessed ceiling wallwashers from the wall measures a quarter of the wall height. The surface-mounted downlights are placed in a circular arrangement around the struts at a short distance away. Design 2 The ceiling washlights are mounted at two thirds of the strut height.erco. Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

this differentiated lighting concept lends the historical facade a most magnificent character. The tympanum is illuminated separately.friezes . which is illuminated by surface-mounted downlights.erco. The columns were illuminated as in design 2. The three-dimensional impression of the portico is greatly reduced by the columns that now appear almost flat. Overall. Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www.E Situation Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Historical facade Historical facades require lighting concepts that are in harmony with the architectural features. The view is attracted to the central section of the building. Design 2 The columns are illuminated with narrow-beam uplights. For classical facades.columns .com 271 . but with reduced light intensity so as not to overly emphasise the entrance. The lighting should not be incident too steeply. The fact that the entrance area is set forward from the facade becomes much more pronounced.porticoes . Design 3 The facade is clearly given a horizontal division by illuminating the frieze. Planning Design 1 The columns are silhouetted against the entrance area.facade division into three areas: portal and two side wings In all the examples listed a faint general lighting of the facade is ensured via lens wallwashers. The front elevation of the building is clearly divided into three because of the emphasis given to the facade‘s central section. the following features are to be given consideration in the lighting concept: . since otherwise irritating heavy shadows could be cast in the area of the friezes. The overall breadth of the facade becomes more significant.

The spacing between the directional luminaires themselves is relatively small so that an even illumination of the frieze is obtained. Design 1 One surface-mounted downlight with a wide light intensity distribution is positioned behind each and every column.E Arrangement Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Historical facade The starting point of all three design examples is the homogenous general lighting of the facade with lens wallwashers mounted as recessed floor luminaires. These are arranged in a line at a distance of one third of the building height in front of the right and left sections of the facade. Design 2 The columns are emphasised by narrow-beam uplights arranged circularly around the columns.erco.com 272 . Design 3 Directional luminaires for highlighting the frieze are located at a distance of one tenth of the wall height in front of the two side sections of the facade. Narrowbeam uplights in the semicircle around the four columns add brightness. Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www.

The adjacent trees are silhouetted against the evenly illuminated wall behind them. Planning Design 1 Orientation is provided here on the one hand by linearly arranged points of light from floor washlights and on the other by marking points of interest. a low illumination of the pathway by floor washlights is sufficient because illuminating the row of trees provides orientation.com 273 . The spatial limits are emphasised and this gives the viewer an indication about the volume of the area. Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www. In this example.E Situation Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Pathway Orientation along pathways can be provided either by primary lighting of the path surface or by emphasising certain reference points in the area. The evenly arranged floor washlights guide one‘s view. Design 2 The path surface is well lit with wide-beam floor washlights.erco.

E Arrangement Guide Outdoor lighting | Design examples Pathway Design 1 The uplights are arranged to the right and left of the trees. Edition: 26/10/2006 | Updated version at www.com 274 .erco. A row of floor washlights runs parallel to this. Design 2 The lens wallwashers for illuminating the wall are recessed in the floor at an offset from the wall of a third of the wall height.

com 275 .erco.E Guide Outdoor lighting Lighting design Dark Sky The development in architecture towards transparency transforms buildings at night into effigies shining from the inside out. Light has advanced to become a marketing topic for a number of cities. Edition: 25/10/2006 | Updated version at www. A sensitive treatment of light in the outdoor area is crucial for acheiving a clear view of the night sky.

architects. Boulder). Cinzano. electrical fitters and luminaire manufacturers forms the basis for a successful implementation of the Dark Sky concept. The cooperative teamwork of lighting designers. causes interference in the context in question. This approach combines a lasting design concept with a luminaire technology tailored to suit. landscape gardeners. Reproduced from the Monthly Notices of the RAS by permission of Blackwell Science. due to its illuminance.E Introduction Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting design Dark Sky Dark Sky stands for a lighting design in the outdoor area whereby the lighting concentrates on what is actually essential. Light pollution The term ”light pollution” refers to that spill light which. www.lightpollution. Graphic: Artificial Night Sky Brightness in Europe Credit: P. Spill light and glare reduce the visual comfort and the desired content of information cannot be conveyed.erco. Copyright Royal Astronomical Society. D. Elvidge (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. building sponsors. C.it/d msp/ Edition: 25/10/2006 | Updated version at www. The ecological consequences include the waste of energy and the negative effects on flora and fauna. its direction or its spectrum. Any kind of light pollution is avoided and observation of the night sky is enabled. Falchi (University of Padova). F.com 276 .

Having no emission of light above the horizontal plane is a decisive criterium for open area and pathway luminaires. Edition: 25/10/2006 | Updated version at www. Planning Arrangement The first design task for a Dark Sky concept is to ascertain for what purpose and with what quality the particular areas are to be illuminated.reduce or switch off the lighting when no longer needed The luminaires should be arranged such that the elements to be illuminated are optimally lit and no light shines past the objects. The lighting control allows switching and dimming for individual areas.E Luminaires Guide Outdoor lighting | Lighting design Dark Sky Luminaires suitable for Dark Sky applications feature precise light control and a defined cut-off for optimum visual comfort. This avoids dazzling the observers.adequate illuminance . A low luminance at the light aperture avoids excessive contrasts in luminance levels in the outdoor area. thus regulating the overall light emission. evening and night can be controlled dependent on sensors. Function-dependent lighting scenes for the twilight. Predefined light scenes can be recalled dependent on the time of day and season via time sensors and motion sensors. Planning Control With the Dark Sky concept the lighting control takes on special significance for regulating the intensity and duration of the lighting for individual zones.erco.com 277 .avoidance of spill light above the horizontal plane .correct alignment of luminaires . The following is decisive for a lasting lighting concept: .

erco. Lighting control systems with sensors or time programs also help adjust the power consumption in a room to its usage and thus optimise the economic efficiency of a lighting system. Light scenes are easily set up using the appropriate software and can be recalled via an interface.E Guide Lighting control Controlling the light Control systems Devices Lighting control not only enables the lighting to be adjusted to suit the visual requirements but also allows it to shape and interpret the architecture.com 278 . The inclusion of light colours and the time dimension opens up a room for scenographic lighting with dynamic effects. Design examples Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

erco.E Guide Lighting control Controlling the light Functions The atmosphere in a room can be changed by controlling a number of variables. Programming the light scenes means that the settings are saved but can be redefined and adjusted to suit changing requirements.com 279 . These include basic functions such as switching circuits on and off through to automatically timed colour progressions. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

Features such as cross-fading and dynamic colour progression are crucial for dynamic lighting designs. Luminaires with variable light colours also include a colour setting mode.com 280 . Scene Cross-Fading Dynamic colour progression Sequence Timer Sensor Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. Lighting changes can be initiated and regulated automatically via time and sensor control.erco.E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light Functions Switching Dimming Light colour Switching and dimming are two basic functions of a lighting control system that can be used to produce different lighting situations.

Suitably positioned switches result in easier usage.erco. however. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. For a variety of light scenes different circuits with separate switches are required.E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Switching The easiest situation is to turn the light on and off with a switch or a push-button. Most lamps produce full light output immediately. usually have a run-up time of several minutes and an even longer cooling-down period before re-ignition. High-pressure discharge lamps.com 281 .

Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. It enables the creation of different light scenes. increases the visual comfort and optimises the power consumption.erco.E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Dimming Dimming is the infinitely variable adjustment of the light output of a light source.com 282 . Thermal radiators such as tungsten halogen lamps are easily dimmed. Fluorescent lamps and LEDs require special dimmable control gear. Dimming also prolongs the life of incandescent lamps.

Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Light colour The light colour of luminaires with variable colours of light can be defined by hue. RGB colour mixing technology controls the individual primary colours red. green and blue to produce the required light colour. The possible colours depend on the lamp and the lighting technology used.com 283 . Coloured light can change the atmosphere of a room and highlight individual objects.erco. saturation and brightness.

Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Scene A scene is a static lighting situation.com 284 .erco. light ceilings and light objects with their different switch and dimmer settings. It defines the state of all lighting components such as luminaires. The scenes can be saved in lighting control systems. The user can preset complex luminaire settings and conveniently recall them either manually or automatically.

Subtle transitions with lengthy crossfading times. on the other hand. The cross-fading time is the period required for the scene change. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. The scene change can be initiated by the user. High-contrast scenes with a short cross-fading time generate considerable attention. are hardly noticeable. crossfading refers to the transition from one light scene to another. a sensor.com 285 .E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Cross-Fading In regard to lighting.erco. or a timer. It varies between instant change and a transition of several hours.

Within a defined total running time.E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Dynamic colour progression Dynamic colour progression refers to the chronology of colour changes. There are different options available to repeat this progression. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.com 286 . including infinite loop and “forward and back“. specific colours are triggered at specified times.

com 287 .erco. A sequence can automatically be repeated once completed or. end. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. alternatively. The definition of a sequence requires both individual scenes and information on their transition.E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Sequence A sequence refers to a progression of successive light scenes.

Specified start and end times. set the lighting to specific shop-opening times or licensing hours. for example.com 288 .E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Timer A timer allows light scenes to be recalled at predefined times. Time and calendar functions provide great flexibility for the automation of scenographic lighting.erco. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

Motion sensors register movement in the room and control the light depending on activity to reduce power consumption. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. A brightness sensor can be used for daylightdependent lighting control.erco.com 289 .E Guide Lighting control | Controlling the light | Functions Sensor Sensors monitor properties such as brightness or motion and allow an automatic adjustment of the lighting to changing ambient conditions.

Special lighting control systems have the advantage that they can be designed to suit the requirements of a lighting design and are less complex than more extensive building control systems. air-conditioning and security systems are others. The lighting is only one component.erco.E Guide Lighting control Control systems Lighting control systems General control systems Programming the lighting Buildings increasingly use automatic control systems. operation of solar screen equipment. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 290 .

erco. user-friendliness and economic considerations. set up light scenes and manage them in space and time. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. Lighting control systems can be integrated as a subsystem into a building management system.com 291 . Digital systems that allow luminaires to be addressed individually provide great flexibility. The decision to select a specific system depends on the size of the lighting system. the requirements in regard to controllability.E Guide Lighting control | Control systems Lighting control systems 1V-10V DMX DALI Lighting control systems switch and dim luminaires. Their user-friendly features include easy programming and operation along with a simple installation process.

In architectural lighting. When using multi-channel devices with colour control and other adjustable features.erco. The DALI protocol limits the number of devices to 64. The standard version stores the settings for a maximum of 16 luminaire groups and 16 light scenes within the control gear. The two-wire control line with a transfer rate of 1. The DMX 512-A version now allows for bidirectional communication. For a long time. The grouping of the luminaires is determined by the circuits in the electrical installation. light scenes and fading times along with the coding of the control gear memory for other features.com 292 . each function requires a separate address. tocol that makes it possible to control luminaires which have DALI control gear individually. The system is compatible with other DALI devices. Any change of use requires a new arrangement of the connection and control lines. the control circuit for the control line must be carefully planned. It did not lamp failure. because its allocation cannot be changed. The control gear regulates the output of light from the luminaire. This technology is widely used in low-complexity lighting systems.org The ERCO Light System DALI. DALI provide both economical light Digital Addressable Lighting management and scenographic Interface (DALI) is a control prolighting.. Light System DALI can Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. saves settings in a central controller with a greater storage capacity. General information on DALI: www. provide feedback on aspects such as lamp failure. The dimmer setting is transmitted via a separate control line. the data transfer was unidirectional and only enabled the control of devices. The data is transmitted via a dedicated 5-core cable at a transfer rate of 250 Kbits/s which can control up to 512 channels. The bidirectional system allows feedback from the luminaires on different aspects such as lamp failure. Each luminaire must have a bus address. Since this type of ECG cannot be addressed. The system allows user-friendly light management in architecture and can be integrated as a subsystem into modern building control systems.E Guide Lighting control | Control systems | Lighting control systems 1V-10V Electronic Control Gear (ECG) is controlled by analogue 1V-10V signals.dali-ag. This allows more luminaire groups. this protocol is used for features such as media facades or stage-like room lighting effects. etc.2 Kbits/s can be run together with the mains supply cable in a 5-core cable. is not possible with the 1V-10V technology. Feedback on DMX The DMX (Digital Multiplexed) digital control protocol is predominantly used for stage lighting.

An established protocol ensures communication between the systems over a flexible network. solar screening equipment. to simplify and automate the different functions in a building. They are more complex than systems that solely control the lighting and thus are more involved in terms of planning. the automation level for data exchange. The control systems form the basis for building automation.E Guide Lighting control | Control systems General control systems KNX LON Building management systems are used to control different building systems such as the heating. There are no integrated receiving devices in the luminaires (interfaces) for decoding control signals. installation and operation. and the local level with sensors and actuators. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. lighting control is achieved by wiring individual circuits.com 293 .erco. and the lighting. The building automation is divided into three levels: the management level for user-friendly visualisation.

Remote monitoring and control make it easy to use.erco. The data transfer for up to 32. KNX is suitable as a network of electronic installations for building automation. The decentralised communication is bidirectional so that the receiver can also provide feedback. The data is transmitted over a separate 24V control line-twisted pair wire at a rate of 9. called a ”neuron”.000 nodes is over a twisted pair wire. at a rate of up to 1. LON networks can be combined to form cross-region networks and be remote-controlled. Via TCP/ IP.25 Mbit/s.E Guide Lighting control | Control systems | General control systems KNX Konnex (KNX). is a standardised digital control system which controls not only the lighting but also other systems such as heating.6 Kbits/s. known through the European Installation Bus (EIB). The microprocessor of each LON node.com 294 . as a separate control line. Due to the individual addresses of the sensors and actuators. KNX is used in domestic buildings and in large installations such as offices or airports. ently. ventilation and solar screening equipment. An allocation of priorities ensures proper communication and prevents data collisions. can be programmed and configured. this allocation is flexible and can easily be changed. LON is based on intelligent sensors and actuators. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. Each bus device can transmit independLON Local Operating Network (LON) is a standardised digital control protocol which controls building systems and is also used in industrial and process automation.

Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. rapid familiarisation and easy to use software aid setup and operation. flexibility. its integration with AV technology or building control systems. standardised lighting systems that allow certain parameters to be changed are easier to operate and enable lighting designers or users to make the necessary changes. and the complexity of the installation. A simple installation process.com 295 . This results in complex lighting systems with sensors and interfaces that often require professional installation and maintenance.E Guide Lighting control | Control systems Programming the lighting Lighting systems can be programmed with software to provide great flexibility and allow an adjustment of the lighting to individual requirements. Users require simple day-to-day operation that allows them to make changes themselves. may require the support of a professional programmer. Further criteria for the user to consider are ergonomics. and maintenance.erco. however. Problems or changes. Non-standard systems can include a great deal of complexity to cater for special building requirements. So. The decision on the type of lighting control system and software depends on technical aspects such as the size of the lighting system.

com 296 . control panels enable light scenes to be recalled or new lighting parameters to be programmed.erco. The output devices translate the control circuit signals into actions. The connection to the computer allows for easy operation of the lighting control system through software. Interfaces Software Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. while gateways facilitate the combination of different control systems.E Guide Lighting control Devices Sensors Control panels Output devices Lighting control systems are composed of different components: sensors register changes in the surroundings.

com 297 . The lighting is adjusted when the lighting control system receives an impulse or a value above or below a predetermined level. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.E Guide Lighting control | Devices Sensors Light sensor Motion sensor Sensors are measuring devices that register ambient conditions such as brightness or motion.erco.

Using a lighting system in combination with changing daylight levels in rooms ensures a controlled illuminance. If the light sensor is in the room (internal sensor). light scenes can be controlled depending on the daylight. which is useful. for example. the sensor control can be used to operate solar screening equipment. motion sensors can reduce power consumption at night as lighting is switched on only when and where required. A daylight sensor on the roof (external sensor) measures the illuminance of the daylight and controls the lighting inside. Installed outdoors.com 298 . for example. it measures the total illuminance of the incident daylight and the lighting in the room in order to Motion sensors register movement in the room and can be used. in order to maintain minimum values for workplaces or to reduce the radiation exposure on exhibits in museums. The switching thresholds must be set to suit the situation.E Light sensor Guide Lighting control | Devices | Sensors A light sensor monitors light levels and enables the automatic control of light scenes depending on available daylight. The first process is referred to as open loop control. Motion sensor Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. the lighting on sensitive exhibits can be reduced when there are no visitors. the second as closed loop control. In the same manner. control the light level depending on the daylight.erco. In combination with scene control. in vacant offices to dim or switch off the light automatically in order to save power. for example. by using a twilight switch. In museums.

E Guide Lighting control | Devices Control panels Push-button Switch Remote control Simple applications only require a push-button to operate the lighting control system.erco.com 299 . A remote control device allows light scenes to be recalled from anywhere in the room. GUI Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. Control panels with displays are recommended for sophisticated applications and can also be used to program the lighting system.

An infrared remote control requires an IR receiver to recall any functions. It locks into position and does not require continuous pressing as does a push-button. a remote control is a convenient device to recall different light scenes from anywhere in the room. The functions are determined when the lighting control system is installed.E Push-button Guide Lighting control | Devices | Control panels A push-button closes or opens a circuit to switch a luminaire group or light scene on or off. To use different functions. In conference rooms. A light switch controls the lighting by switching it on or off.erco. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 300 . Simple user interfaces prevent users having to learn complex command languages and simplify the operation. a system requires several push-buttons. Remote control A remote control is used to control the light separately from wall-mounted control panels. A GUI can be combined with a touch screen so that interaction takes place directly on the screen. GUI Graphical User Interface (GUI) is the familiar way of interaction with software on computers or control panels based on graphical images. Switch A switch opens and closes a circuit.

com 301 . Actuators (e. Controllers have their own processors and send signals to the control gear.g.E Guide Lighting control | Devices Output devices Relay Dimmer Controller Output devices are actuators or controllers that translate the signals in a control circuit into an action. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. relays) or dimmers operate or control the light output through voltage changes.erco.

Conventional compact fluorescent lamps cannot be dimmed. In a LON system. A control line establishes a connection to the luminaires and transmits the signals to the control gear.E Relay Guide Lighting control | Devices | Output devices A relay is a switch that is activated by electric current. When operating metal halide lamps. The control lines are permanently connected to luminaires or groups of luminaires. In analogue 1V-10V technology. on the other hand. Low-voltage halogen lamps with electronic transformer are dimmed using trailing edge technology. while compact fluorescent lamps require special electronic control gear units.com 302 . The amount of data which can be used to store the settings is limited by the storage capacity of the controller. Fluorescent lamps require special control gear. The digital control protocol. Dimmer The dimmer is used for the infinitely variable regulation of the output from a light source. D/A modules are used to save and recall light scenes. The dimmers are often installed in switch cabinets. LEDs can easily be dimmed with the appropriate control gear.erco. A lighting control system such as the Light System DALI saves light scenes and controls the luminaires. The user operates the controller via software or a control panel. Leading edge control is applied to incandescent lamps. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. As output devices. dimming is possible by using a special ECG with input for the 1V-10V control voltage and a potentiometer or a control system supplying analogue 1V10V control voltage. Controller Controllers are electronic units for process control. they allow the connection of external dimmers or direct control of dimmable ECGs or transformers. such as the ERCO Area Net or KNX actuators. Thermal radiators such as tungsten halogen lamps are easy to dim. a run-up time of several minutes and a longer cooling-down phase before re-ignition must be taken into account. DALI. allows for the individual control of the dimmable ECGs for all the connected luminaires.

the data needs to be transferred between these systems. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. A timer program ensures lighting control according to predefined sequences or calendar settings. such as spatial and timed control. Lighting control systems can be integrated as subsystems into a building management system by means of a gateway.com 303 .erco. for example. for DALI lighting control systems to activate 1V-10V controllers for the sun screening equipment. The light scenes are programmed using the software and recalled via control panels.E Interfaces Guide Lighting control | Devices Interfaces or ‚Gateways‘ enable the exchange of signals and data between different data networks or bus systems. The calendar function recalls the light scenes according to predetermined times or days. The PC can be connected to the lighting control system using interfacing standards such as USB. Software Lighting control software turns any PC connected to a lighting control system into a control panel and programming device for the lighting system. the light scenes are repeated in cycles. The software can provide many additional functions. In the same manner. The DALI system with individually addressable luminaires allows flexible allocations and regrouping. The PC software is used to operate the lighting control system on the computer and is saved on the hard drive. The brightness and light colour settings are combined in light scenes. The firmware is the software required for the operation of devices and is saved in a flash memory. With sequential control. gateways can be used. Where several control systems are used in a building.

erco.com 304 . Restaurant Multifunctional room Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. exhibition and presentation.E Guide Lighting control Design examples Museum Office Showroom The application area for a lighting control consists of the functional adaptation of the individual lighting requirement. the optimisation of the use of energy and the differentiated design of architecture.

erco. Requirements: The illuminance level is kept low as long as no visitors are in the room.com 305 . When someone enters the room the optimum exhibition lighting is switched on. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.E Observation Guide Lighting control | Design examples Museum Room of museum for presentation of paintings and sculptures.

erco.com 306 .E Planning Guide Lighting control | Design examples Museum Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

It is operated via push-buttons on the door.E Observation Guide Lighting control | Design examples Office Requirements: Several illuminance levels can be set.erco. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. A maximum of four different lighting levels can be selected via the push-buttons.com 307 . The actual regulation to the set value within the light scene is performed via the daylight regulation. they are controlled dependent on the daylight. The light scenes are defined for different uses according to the illuminances.

erco.E Observation Guide Lighting control | Design examples Office Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 308 .

com 309 .erco.E Planning Guide Lighting control | Design examples Office Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

erco. It is operated via a Preset at the reception.E Observation Guide Lighting control | Design examples Showroom Requirements: The lighting program is made up of differentiated light scenes. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www. A daylight control optimises the power consumption.com 310 .

erco.com 311 .E Observation Guide Lighting control | Design examples Showroom Planning Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

erco. Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 312 .E Observation Guide Lighting control | Design examples Restaurant Requirement: different light scenes can be recalled at breakfast. lunch and dinner times.

E Observation Guide Lighting control | Design examples Restaurant Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.com 313 .erco.

com 314 .E Planning Guide Lighting control | Design examples Restaurant Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.erco.

com 315 . small room Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.meeting. large room .E Observation Large room Guide Lighting control | Design examples Multifunctional room Requirement: Various light scenes for different purposes with different room allocation: . large room .training.training/seminar.erco.

erco.com 316 .E Observation Large room Guide Lighting control | Design examples Multifunctional room Planning Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

com 317 .erco.E Observation Small room Guide Lighting control | Design examples Multifunctional room Edition: 03/07/2007 | Updated version at www.

These contents aid orientation so that an appropriate technical solution can be found for the lighting task in question.erco.com 318 .E Guide Lighting technology Dimensions. light sources and luminaire technology. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. units Lamps Luminaire technology The spectrum of lighting technology covers information on photometric values.

erco.com 319 . Illuminance Exposure Luminance Colour of light Colour rendition Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. the aesthetic effect and the mood of a room or area. units A QT.E Guide Lighting technology Dimensions. people and objects are all made visible by the lighting. The architecture. Light influences our well-being. QPAR QT-NV T TC HIT-CE HST LED 20 40 60 80 100 (lm/W) Luminous flux Luminous efficacy Light intensity Light plays a central role in the design of a visual environment.

Conversely. However. The luminous flux F is a measure for the amount of light of a light source. The inclusion of the spectral sensitivity of the eye results in the quantity termed lumen. It is expressed as the ratio of the emitted luminous flux in lumen and the power used in watts. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. The luminous efficacies that can actually be attained vary depending on the lamp. the same radiant flux emitted at frequency ranges of lower sensitivity as per the V (l) results in correspondingly smaller luminous fluxes. but always remain far below this ideal value. since the emitted radiation is recorded without discrimination over the entire frequency range and the different spectral sensitivity of the eye is not considered.erco. The theoretically attainable maximum value assuming complete conversion of energy at 555 nm would be 683 lm/W.com 320 . this method is inadequate for describing the optical effect of a light source. units Luminous flux. As a rule. this radiant power could be expressed as emitted energy in the unit of watts. A radiant flux of 1W emitted at the maximum extent of spectral optical sensitivity (photopic. 555 nm) gives a luminous flux of 683 lm.E Luminous flux Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions. F = lumen (lm) Luminous efficacy A QT. luminous efficacy Luminous flux describes the total light power emitted by a light source. QPAR QT-NV T TC HIT-CE HST LED 20 40 60 80 100 (lm/W) h=F/P h = lm / W The luminous efficacy describes the efficacy of a lamp.

although.erco.com 321 . point light source radiates its luminous flux evenly in all directions in the room. A section through this light intensity distribution form in the C-plane gives the light intensity distribution curve. these can usually be represented on one diagram. partly due to the lamp design and partly due to the manner in which the luminaire is formed. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. The Candela. as the unit of light intensity. Axially symmetrical luminaires need two curves. the values are expressed in relation to 1000lm luminous flux. a single light intensity distribution curve is sufficient to describe the luminaire. Light intensity distribution of a rotationally symmetrically emitting light source. In practice. units Light intensity Definition An ideal. is the basic unit of lighting engineering from which all other lighting engineering values are derived. however. usually displayed in a polar co-ordinate system as a function of the emission angle. which describes the light intensity distribution in one plane. with its light intensity being equal in all directions. With rotationally symmetrical luminaires. The light intensity I is a measure for the luminous flux F emitted per solid angle O I=F/O [I]=lm / sr lm / sr = Candela [cd] Rotationally symmetrical light sources Representation The spatial distribution of the light intensity of a light source results in a three-dimensional body of light intensity distribution. To enable direct comparison of the light intensity distribution of different light sources. A section through this light intensity body will give the light intensity distribution curve. there is always an uneven spatial distribution of luminous flux.E Light intensity Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions. The light intensity is.

shown in polar coordinates. The cut-off angle α brings the limit emission angle YG to 90°.com 322 .E Axially symmetrical luminaire Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. units Light intensity Light intensity distribution form and light intensity distribution curves (planes C 0/180° and C 90/270°) of an axially symmetrically luminaire.erco. Emission angle A light intensity distribution curve scaled to 1000 lm. The angular range within which the maximum light intensity l‘ decreases to l‘/2 denotes the emission angle β.

Em = F A Illuminance at a point The illuminance at a given point Ep is calculated from the light intensity l and the distance a between the light source and the said point. Illuminance E as dimension for the luminous flux per surface area unit A Horizontal illuminance Horizontal illuminance Eh and vertical illuminance Ev in indoor areas. units Illuminance The illuminance is a measure for the luminous flux density on a surface. Average horizontal illuminance The average horizontal illuminance Em is calculated from the F luminous flux. It is defined as the ratio of the luminous flux incident on a surface to the size of that surface. Whereby. The illuminance can be derived from the light intensity. it can be determined anywhere in the room.com 323 . the illuminance reduces by the square of the distance from the light source (inverse square law). The illuminance is not tied to a real surface.erco. incident on the surface in question A. E p = I2 a [Ep] = lx [I] = cd [a] = m Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www.E Illuminance Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions.

the luminance describes the light given off by this surface. For diffuse reflecting (matt) and diffuse transmitting (murky) materials. Luminance The luminance L of a luminous surface is given by the ratio of light intensity I and its projected area Ap. regarding the calculation of light exposure on exhibits in museums. Exposure is an important issue. This light can be given off by the surface itself (e. R1 / p L2 = Ev .E Exposure Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions.com 324 . R2 / p [L] = cd / qm [E] = lx Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. L = I / Ap [L] = cd / qm Whereas illuminance expresses the luminous power incident on a surface. luminance Exposure is described as the product of the illuminance and the exposure time through which a surface is illuminated. for example. L1 = Eh . the luminance can be calculated from the illuminance and the reflectance or transmittance . although.g. the actual impression of brightness is still influenced by how well the eyes have adapted.erco. by the surrounding contrast levels and by the information content of the viewed surface. when considering luminance of lamps and luminaires). The luminance of a diffusely reflecting illuminated surface is proportional to the illuminance and the reflectance of the surface. Luminance is defined as the ratio of light intensity and the area projected perpendicularly to the emission direction. Brightness correlates with luminance. The light can also be reflected or transmitted by the surface however. units Exposure.

With their help. tungsten halogen lamp (3). incandescent lamp (2). for white light colours. All levels of saturation of one colour can now be found on the straight lines between the uncoloured point and the chromaticity location in question. fluorescent lamps ww (4). the closest colour temperature is stated.E CIE-system Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions. Since the chromaticity location of a light source often lies near to the curve. even those light colours that are not on this line can be identified by the closest colour temperature. Closest colour temperature Planck‘s curve contains the chromaticity locations of Planck‘s radiation of all temperatures. all mixtures of two colours are likewise to be found on a straight line between the two chromaticity locations in question. Planck‘s curve with the host of lines Section from the coloured area with Planck‘s curve and the host of lines of chromaticity locations of the same (closest) colour temperature between 1600 and 10000K.com 325 . In the CIE standard colorimetric system. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. Light colour can be expressed using x.y coordinates as chromaticity coordinates in a standard colorimetric system. The ranges of the light colours warm white (ww). At the centre of the area is the point of least saturation. units Colour of light Light colour is the colour of the light emitted by a lamp. the colour of light is calculated from the spectral constitution and represented in a continuous. The hue is defined via the chromaticity coordinates of the spectral colour and via the saturation level. the closest colour temperature corresponds to something approaching the actual temperature of the lamp filament. On discharge lamps. The coloured area is encompassed by a curve on which the chromaticity locations of the completely saturated spectral colours lie. which is designated as a white or uncoloured point. nw (5) and dw (6). Planck‘s curve with typical light sources Section from the coloured area with Planck‘s curve and the chromaticity locations of the standard types of light A (incandescent lamp light) and D 65 (daylight) as well as the chromaticity locations of typical light sources: candle flame (1). On temperature radiators. or. starting from the curve of Planck‘s radiator.erco. The design of the diagram features a coloured area that contains every possible real colour. a host of straight lines of the closest colour temperatures is added. twodimensional diagram. Similarly. it can also be given as the colour temperature TF. neutral white (nw) and daylight white (dw) are shown.

E Main groups colour temperatures Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions. The same colours of light may have different spectral distributions and a correspondingly different colour rendition.erco. Neutral white Daylight white Closest colour temperature T typical light sources Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www. units Colour of light Warm white In addition.com 326 . white colours of light are divided into three main groups: the warm white range (ww) with the closest colour temperatures below 3300K. the neutral white range (nw) between 3300 and 5000K and the daylight white range (dw) with the closest colour temperatures over 5000K.

Colour rendition index Ranges of the colour rendition index Ra for different lamp types To enable the colour rendition of a light source to be determined. the chromatic effects of a scale of eight body colours viewed under the type of illumination being scrutinised and also under the reference illumination are calculated and related to each other. The resulting quality of colour rendition is expressed in colour rendition indices. A comparative light source with continuous spectrum serves as a reference light source. Edition: 20/03/2007 | Updated version at www.com 327 . whether this be a temperature radiator of comparable colour temperature or the daylight. units Colour rendition Colour rendition refers to the quality of the reproduction of colours under a given illumination. Linear spectra in general lead to a worse rendition. The degree of colour distortion is indicated using the colour rendition index Ra and/or the colour rendition grading system. Lower values refer to a correspondingly worse colour rendition.E Colour rendition Guide Lighting technology | Dimensions.erco. Multiline spectra are composed of several different linear spectra and improve the colour rendition. these can relate both to the general colour rendition (Ra) as an average value or to the rendition of individual colours. The maximum index of 100 signifies ideal colour rendition as experienced with incandescent lamp light or daylight. Linear spectra of light lead to good colour rendition.

colour rendition. modelling ability and energy efficiency. general Thermal radiators Discharge lamps Having technical knowledge about lamps will help to make the right selection with regards to brilliance.com 328 . Electroluminescent luminaires Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. The spectrum ranges from thermal radiators through to semiconductor spotlights.E Guide Lighting technology Lamps Lamps.erco.

One group is that of the thermal radiators. this consists of a large spectrum of light sources. Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.erco. general Lamp overview Lamp designation The electric light sources can be divided into three main groups. The third group consists of the semiconductors with the LEDs. this contains incandescent lamps and tungsten halogen lamps. all forms of fluorescent lamps.com 329 . sodium vapour lamps and metal halide lamps. divided according to how they convert electrical energy into light. e. g.E Guide Lighting technology | Lamps Lamps. The second group is made up of the discharge lamps.

E Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Lamps.com 330 .erco. general Lamp overview Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.

E Abbreviations Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Lamps. The 2nd letter identifies the bulb material on incandescent lamps or the gas fillings on discharge lamps.com 331 . this results in the abbreviations given on the right. The letters in brackets are not used in practice. Letter code Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. The 1st letter refers to the method of light generation. Abbreviations for identifying special versions are separated from the code by a dash. general Lamp designation Usual codes for lamps in the Guide. The 3rd letter or combination of letters refers to the bulb shape.erco.

erco. Characteristic features are low colour temperature.com 332 . As the temperature increases the spectrum of light shifts from the red heat of the filament to warm white light.E Guide Lighting technology | Lamps Thermal radiators General service lamps R and PAR lamps Tungsten halogen lamps Thermal radiators generate light by using an incandescent metal filament. excellent colour rendition and brilliance as a point light source. Halogen reflector lamps Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.

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Properties

Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators General service lamps
A low colour temperature is characteristic for the general service lamp. It is perceived as being warm. The continuous spectrum of the incandescent lamp results in an excellent colour rendition. As a point light source with high luminance it produces brilliance. Incandescent lamps can be dimmed without problem. They do not require any additional equipment for their operation. The disadvantages of incandescent lamps are low luminous efficacy and a relatively brief nominal service life.

Physics

Relative spectral distribution The general service lamp is a thermal radiator. Electrical current causes a metal filament to glow. Part of the radiated energy is visible as light. When dimming, the reducing temperature causes the light spectrum to shift towards the range of longer wavelengths – the warm white light of the incandescent lamp changes to the red heat of the filament. The maximum radiation is in the infrared range. A lot of thermal radiation is generated in comparison to the visible component; conversely there is very little UV radiation. The continuous spectrum of the incandescent lamp results in an excellent colour rendition.

Colour temperature

Dimming behaviour of incandescent lamps. Relative luminous flux F and colour temperature in dependence on the relative voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction causes an over-proportional drop in luminous flux.

Models

Incandescent lamps are available as A-lamps (All-purpose lamps) in many forms. Their bulbs can be clear, matt or white. The light is emitted in all directions.

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Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators R and PAR lamps
A low colour temperature is characteristic for the reflector and parabolic aluminised reflector lamps. The continuous spectrum of the incandescent lamp results in an excellent colour rendition. As a point light source with high luminance it produces brilliance. They do not require any additional equipment for their operation. The disadvantages of incandescent lamps are low luminous efficacy and a relatively brief nominal service life.

Physics

Relative spectral distribution The incandescent lamp is a thermal radiator. Electrical current causes a metal filament to glow. Part of the radiated energy is visible as light. When dimming, the reducing temperature causes the light spectrum to shift towards the range of longer wavelengths – the warm white light of the incandescent lamp changes to the red heat of the filament. The maximum radiation is in the infrared range. A lot of thermal radiation is generated in comparison to the visible component; conversely there is very little UV radiation. The continuous spectrum of the incandescent lamp results in an excellent colour rendition.

Colour temperature

Dimming behaviour of incandescent lamps. Relative luminous flux F and colour temperature in dependence on the relative voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction causes an over-proportional drop in luminous flux.

Models

The R (Reflector) lamps are blown from soft glass and direct the light due to their shape and a partial mirror coating on the inside. The PAR lamps are manufactured from pressed glass in order to achieve high resistance to temperature change and high accuracy of shape. The parabolic reflector is available with different half peak spreads and produces a defined beam emission angle. On coolbeam lamps, a subgroup of the PAR lamps, a dichroic mirror coating is used. Dichroic reflectors focus the visible light but allow a large part of the thermal radiation to pass through unaffected. This allows the thermal

load on the illuminated objects to be reduced by approximately half.

Left: reflector lamp with soft glass bulb and ellipsoid reflector with moderate focusing power. Right: reflector lamp with pressed glass bulb and powerful parabolic reflector

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Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators Tungsten halogen lamps
The tungsten halogen lamp emits a whiter light than conventional incandescent lamps. Its light colour is in the range of warm white. Due to the continuous spectrum, the colour rendition is excellent. Its compact form makes the tungsten halogen lamp an ideal point light source. The particularly good directability of the light produces brilliance. The luminous efficacy and life of tungsten halogen lamps is above that of ordinary incandescent lamps. Tungsten halogen lamps can be dimmed and do not require any additional control gear; low-voltage halogen lamps, however, must be powered via transformers.

Physics

Relative spectral distribution Halogens in the gas filling reduce the material loses of the filament caused by evaporation and increase the performance of the lamp. The evaporated tungsten combines with the halogen to form a metal halide, and is channelled back to the filament. The lamp‘s compact shape not only enables the temperature to increase but also allows an increase in the gas pressure, which reduces the tungsten‘s rate of evaporation. As the temperature increases the light spectrum shifts towards the short wavelength range – the red heat of the filament becomes the warm white light of the incandescent lamp. A lot of thermal radiation is generated in comparison to the visible component; conversely there is very little UV radiation. The tungsten halogen reflector lamp emits a continuous spectrum and thus produces an excellent colour rendition.

Colour temperature

Dimming behaviour of incandescent lamps. Relative luminous flux F and colour temperature in dependence on the relative voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction causes an over-proportional drop in luminous flux.

Models

From left to right: tungsten halogen lamp for nominal voltage with E27 fixing and enveloping capsule, with bayonet fixing, with double-ended fixing. Low-voltage halogen lamp with axial filament

Tungsten halogen lamps are available for operation on mains voltage. They usually have a special fixing. Some feature a screw fixing and an additional external glass capsule and can be used just like conventional incandescent lamps. The advantages of the low-voltage halogen lamp primarily concern the high luminous power for its small dimensions. The lamp enables compact luminaire designs and a very narrow focussing of the light. Low-voltage halogen lamps are available for different voltages and in various shapes and must be powered via transformers. The lamps emit light in all directions. Halogen lamps with low-pressure technology are permitted for all

corresponding luminaires. Halogen lamps without low-pressure technology are only permitted in luminaires with protective cover. The advantages of the low-pressure version are improved luminous flux throughout the entire service life.

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Properties

Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Thermal radiators Halogen reflector lamps
The tungsten halogen reflector lamp emits a whiter light than conventional incandescent lamps. Its light colour is in the range of warm white. Due to the continuous spectrum, the colour rendition is excellent. Its compact form makes the tungsten halogen reflector lamp an ideal point light source. The particularly good directability of the light produces brilliance. The luminous efficacy and life of tungsten halogen reflector lamps is above that of ordinary incandescent lamps. Tungsten halogen reflector lamps can be dimmed and do not require any additional control gear; low-voltage halogen reflector lamps, however, must be powered via transformers. Narrow or wide beam reflectors are available. Lamps with coolbeam reflector place less thermal loading on the illuminated objects. Lamps with an integrated cover glass permit operation in open luminaires.

Physics

Relative spectral distribution Halogens in the gas filling reduces the material loses of the filament caused by evaporation and increase the performance of the lamp. The evaporated tungsten combines with the halogen to form a metal halide, and is channelled back to the filament. The lamp‘s compact shape not only enables the temperature to increase but also allows an increase in the gas pressure, which reduces the tungsten‘s rate of evaporation. As the temperature increases the light spectrum shifts towards the short wavelength range the red heat of the filament becomes the warm white light of the incandescent lamp. A lot of thermal radiation is generated in comparison to the visible component; conversely there is very little UV radiation. The tungsten halogen reflector lamp emits a continuous spectrum and thus produces an excellent colour rendition.

Colour temperature

Dimming behaviour of incandescent lamps. Relative luminous flux F and colour temperature in dependence on the relative voltage U/Un. Voltage reduction causes an over-proportional drop in luminous flux.

Models

Low-voltage halogen lamp with pin base and coolbeam reflector made of glass, with aluminium reflector for higher performance.

Tungsten halogen reflector lamps are available for operation on mains voltage. They usually have a special fixing. Some feature a screw fixing and an additional external glass capsule and can be used just like conventional incandescent lamps. The advantages of the low-voltage halogen lamp primarily concern the high luminous power for its small dimensions. The lamp enables compact luminaire designs and a very narrow focussing of the light. Low-voltage halogen reflector lamps are available for different voltages and in various shapes and must be powered via transformers. They are available with different half peak spreads. The versions with coolbeam reflectors

radiate the heat away to the sides and reduce the thermal loading in the focused beam. The halogen parabolic reflector lamp combines the advantages of halogen technology with the technology of the PAR lamps.

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Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps Discharge lamps

Fluorescent lamps

Compact fluorescent lamps

Metal vapour lamps

Discharge lamps comprise those light sources whereby the generation of light does not rely, or does not solely rely, on the temperature of the materials. Depending on the type, a differentiation is made between photo luminescence and electroluminescence. The light is generated principally using chemical or electrical processes. The discharge lamp group is subdivided into low-pressure and high-pressure lamps.

High-pressure sodium vapour lamps

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Properties

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Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps Fluorescent lamps
With fluorescent lamps, the light is emitted from a large surface and is mainly diffuse light with little brilliance. The light colours of fluorescent lamps are warm white, neutral white and daylight white. Fluorescent lamps feature a high luminous efficacy and long life. Both starters and control gear (chokes) are necessary for operating fluorescent lamps. They ignite immediately and attain their full luminous power after a brief moment. An immediate reignition is possible if the current is interrupted. Fluorescent lamps can be dimmed depending on the control gear.

Technology

The electrode (1) releases electrons (2) that then collide into mercury atoms (3). This causes the electrons of the mercury atom (4) to become excited, causing them to emit UV radiation (5). In the fluorescent coating (6), the UV radiation is converted into visible light (7).

Physics

Relative spectral distribution

Colour temperature warm white

The fluorescent lamp is a lowpressure discharge lamp that works using mercury. The gas filling consists of an inert gas that makes the ignition easier and controls the discharge. The mercury vapour emits ultraviolet radiation upon excitation. Fluorescent substances on the inside surface of the discharge tube convert the ultraviolet radiation into visible light using fluorescence. A voltage surge is used to ignite the lamp. The discontinuous spectrum of fluorescent lamps has a poorer colour rendition property than that of incandescent lamps with a continuous spectrum. The colour rendition of fluorescent lamps can be improved at the cost of luminous efficacy. Conversely, increasing the luminous efficacy causes a worsening of the colour rendition. The light colour can be in the warm white, neutral white or daylight white range, depending on the proportion of the individual fluorescent substances.

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Physics

Guide
Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps Fluorescent lamps

Relative spectral distribution

Colour temperature neutral white

Relative spectral distribution

Colour temperature daylight white

Models

Fluorescent lamps are usually shaped as a straight tube, whereby the luminous power depends on the length of the lamp. Special forms such as U-shape or ringshape fluorescent lamps are available.

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Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps Compact fluorescent lamps
By bending or coiling the discharge tubes, compact fluorescent lamps are made shorter than ordinary fluorescent lamps. They have fundamentally the same properties as the conventional fluorescent lamps, above all these are high luminous efficacy and long life. The relatively small volume of the discharge tubes can produce a focused light using the luminaire‘s reflector. Compact fluorescent lamps with integrated starters cannot be dimmed. However, there are types with external starter available, which can be operated on electronic control gear and allow dimming.

Physics

Relative spectral distribution

Colour temperature warm white

The fluorescent lamp is a lowpressure discharge lamp that works using mercury. The gas filling consists of an inert gas that makes the ignition easier and controls the discharge. The mercury vapour emits ultraviolet radiation upon excitation. Fluorescent substances on the inside surface of the discharge tube convert the ultraviolet radiation into visible light using fluorescence. A voltage surge is used to ignite the lamp. The discontinuous spectrum of fluorescent lamps has a poorer colour rendition property than that of incandescent lamps with continuous spectrums. The colour rendition of fluorescent lamps can be improved at the cost of luminous efficacy. Conversely, increasing the luminous efficacy causes a worsening of the colour rendition. The light colour can be in the warm white, neutral white or daylight white range, depending on the proportion of the individual fluorescent substances.

Relative spectral distribution

Colour temperature neutral white

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In addition to these standard forms.E Physics Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps Compact fluorescent lamps Relative spectral distribution Colour temperature daylight white Models Compact fluorescent lamps are primarily available as a straight tube. These feature a screw-in fixing and can be used just like incandescent lamps. Starters and fluorescent lamp chokes are necessary for their operation. however. there are also compact fluorescent lamps with integrated starter and control gear.erco. the starters are already integrated into the end cap.com 341 . Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. on two pin lamps.

In addition to increasing the luminous efficacy.erco. improved colour rendition is also attained. Physics Relative spectral distribution Metal halide lamps are comparable with high-pressure mercury vapour lamps in design and function. Compared to quartz technology. The colour rendition is not constant. They additionally contain a mixture of metal halides. The light can be optically well directed. Due to combinations of metals. their nominal service life is high. Metal halide lamps are available in the light colours warm white. Colour temperature warm white Relative spectral distribution Colour temperature neutral white Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. They represent a compact light source. They require an ignition time of several minutes and a longer coolingdown phase before re-igniting. an almost continuous multiline spectrum is produced. Metal halide lamps are available in the light colours warm white. the lamps with ceramic discharge tube feature higher luminous efficacy and better colour rendition due to the increased operating temperature. neutral white and daylight white. On some forms an immediate reignition is possible using special starters or the electronic control gear.E Properties Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps Metal vapour lamps Metal halide lamps feature excellent luminous efficacy while simultaneously having good colour rendition. neutral white and daylight white and are not dimmed. Metal halide lamps require both starters and chokes for their operation.com 342 .

Metal halide reflector lamps combine the technology of the metal halide lamps with that of the PAR lamps.com 343 . Metal halide lamps with singleended cap (HIT). double-ended cap (HIT-DE) and metal halide reflector lamp (HIPAR) Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www.E Physics Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps Metal vapour lamps Relative spectral distribution Colour temperature daylight white Models Metal halide lamps are available as single-ended or doubled-ended tubular lamps.erco. as elliptical lamps and as reflector lamps.

whereby the inert gas and mercury component serves the ignition and stabilisation of the discharge.erco.com 344 . High-pressure sodium vapour lamps are operated with a control gear and a starter. Colour temperature Models High-pressure sodium vapour lamps are available as clear lamps in tubular form and as coated lamps in ellipsoid form. it does not contain any fluorescent substances. This coating serves only to reduce the lamp luminance and to give a more diffuse light emission. They require an ignition time of several minutes and a cooling-down phase before being re-ignited. a virtually continuous spectrum is produced with a yellowish to warm white light while giving moderate to good colour rendition. which allow immediate re-ignition and represent a particularly compact light source. Their colour rendition is moderate to good. One part of the highpressure sodium vapour lamps has a coated outer capsule. Physics Relative spectral distribution High-pressure sodium vapour lamps are comparable with the high-pressure mercury vapour lamps in design and function. On some forms an immediate re-ignition is possible using special starters or the electronic control gear.E Properties Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Discharge lamps High-pressure sodium vapour lamps High-pressure sodium vapour lamps have excellent luminous efficacy and a high nominal service life. Furthermore. Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. there are also double-ended compact straight tube lamps. The mixture inside the lamps consists of inert gases and a mercurysodium amalgam. When the pressure is sufficiently high.

E Guide Lighting technology | Lamps Electroluminescent luminaires LED In electroluminescent luminaires. high colour density. and low power consumption.com 345 . while their advantages include a compact form. Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. the electrical energy produces visible radiation. One of the characteristic aspects of light emitting diodes. a long life. LEDs. is their narrow banded spectrum.erco.

The development of LEDs currently focuses on more compact designs.000 hours. Physics When voltage is applied to the cathode and the anode. The output of the LED decreases with increasing temperature. impact resistance and low energy consumption. A further goal is the reduction of productionrelated colour deviations. General LEDs are semiconductor diodes that belong to the group of electroluminescent sources. This sorting of LEDs is called binning. The light is generated by recombining charge-carrier pairs in a semiconductor with an appropriate energy band gap. LEDs have a higher colour density. they are ideal for quick. Manufacturers sort LEDs by luminous flux and dominant wavelength and give them a bin code and a rating. The composition of the semiconductor material determines the light spectrum emitted. Differently coloured LEDs of the same connected load produce different levels of luminous flux. The point light source provides for precise light control while the plastic encapsulation of the diode acts as protection and lens. LEDs. dynamic light scenes. The wavelength of the light produced depends on the semiconductor materials. As they start instantly and react directly to control. When dimmed.E Properties Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Electroluminescent luminaires LED Light emitting diodes. With an average rated life of 50. Direct solar radiation should be avoided so too installation near other sources of heat. Compared to coloured fluorescent lamps. LEDs are suitable for long operating times. green and blue LEDs Relative spectral distribution: red. Electrons change their energy level and through recombination release photons at the pn-junction. When connected to the mains.com 346 . they require control gear to ensure the correct operating current.erco. The colour temperature remains constant as the light intensity decreases. LEDs used for lighting do not produce UV or IR radiation. good heat dissipation is important for smooth operation. Consequently. LEDs produce narrowband radiation. the LED emits light from the barrier layer. Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. CIE colour triangle with colour loci of red. a higher luminous flux. The dominant wavelength determines the colour locus of the LED. and better luminous efficacy as well as a more economical production process. have extremely long life. the light colour remains constant. green and blue LEDs Coloured LEDs LEDs produce a narrow banded spectral range.

Pro- Models T-type LED SMD LED T-type LED The standard T-type LED has a plastic housing measuring 3-5mm for the wired LED. green and blue LEDs can be controlled to adjust their different light intensities. High-power LEDs are usually used on metal core circuit boards requiring special thermal management in the luminaire. neutral white. COB LED SMD LED With the “Surface Mounted Device“ (SMD) type. Edition: 20/05/2007 | Updated version at www. The shape of the lens determines the light emission angle. green and blue (RGB). The light colours available include warm white. COB LED The “Chip on Board“ (COB) technology places the chip directly on a circuit board without its own housing. RGB LED By combining three light diodes with the light colours red. The chip is sealed to protect it.E Guide Lighting technology | Lamps | Electroluminescent luminaires LED White LED White light cannot be produced with semiconductor materials. Relative spectral distribution: RGB LED Relative spectral distribution: LED with luminescence conversion Luminescence conversion The spectrum of coloured LEDs can be converted by using phosphors as a luminous layer. Consequently. The anode and cathode contact can be made using thin wires. including white. The key factor is their special construction that ensures very low thermal resistance between the chip and the circuit board. High-power LED High-power LEDs are LEDs with a power consumption of over 1W. white light is currently generated using two methods: RGB mixing or luminescence conversion. ducing blue LEDs with yellow phosphors is easier than UV LEDs with RGB phosphors. The colour rendition of white LEDs currently approximates a colour rendition index Ra of 90. the component is glued directly to the circuit board and the contacts are soldered.erco. As a light source with a low luminous flux it is used as an orientation or a signal luminaire. and daylight white LEDs of 2500K to 8000K. This includes both SMD and COB LEDs. the light colours can be mixed to produce a wide range of colours. The red.com 347 .

com 348 . those aspects relating to installation and safety are also relevant. In addition to design-related aspects of luminaires as a constituent part of a building‘s architecture.erco. The objective here is to distribute light in a way that best suits the particular tasks of the luminaire while making the best possible use of the energy expended. The most important task of a luminaire is to direct the lamp‘s luminous flux. Filters Prismatic systems Lighting technology accessories Colour mixing Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.E Guide Lighting technology Luminaire technology Principles of controlling light Reflectors Lens systems Luminaires perform a range of functions.

The demand for more differentiated lighting control.erco. whereby. for enhanced luminaire efficiency and improved glare limitation led to the reflector being taken from the lamp and integrated into the luminaire. This means that it is possible to construct luminaires that are designed to meet the specific requirements of the light source and the task.com 349 .E Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Principles of controlling light Reflectance Transmission Absorption Refraction Interference The most essential task of a luminaire is to direct the lamp lumens. The light is focused by reflectors integrated into the lamp and can be directed in the desired direction with defined beam emission angles. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. A step towards a targeted and specific light control was realised by the introduction of the reflector lamps and PAR lamps. a light distribution is striven for that corresponds to the particular job of the luminaire for the best possible utilisation of the energy used.

In the case of specular surfaces there is no diffusion. it enables a targeted control of light and is also responsible for the magnitude of the light output ratio. Besides reflectance the degree of diffusion of the reflected light is also significant.E Diffusion Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light Reflectance In the case of reflection. It is the same from all angles of vision. by using suitable reflector contours and surfaces.com 350 . the smaller the specular component of the reflected light.erco. depending on the reflection factor of the surface. up to the point of completely diffused reflection where only diffuse light is reflected. The greater the diffusing power of the reflecting surface. Specular reflection of parallel beams of light falling onto a flat surface (parallel optical path) Concave surface (converging beam) Convex surface (diverging beam) Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. the light incident on a surface is fully or partially reflected. Luminous intensity distribution in the case of mixed reflection Luminous intensity distribution in the case of specular reflection Surface forms Specular reflection is a key factor in the construction of luminaires. Luminous intensity distribution I in the case of diffuse reflection Luminous distribution L in the case of diffuse reflection.

erco.E Reflectances Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light Reflectance Reflectances of common metals. paints and building materials .com 351 . 0 0 Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.

diffuse light is produced. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. absorption is not desirable since it does not direct but rather wastes light. The degree of diffusion of the transmitted light must also be taken into account. Occasionally diffusing materials.E Transmission Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light Transmission describes how the light incident on a body is totally or partially transmitted depending on the transmission factor of the given body. This applies to simple front glass panels or filters that absorb certain spectral regions but transmit others. thereby reducing the light output ratio of the luminaire. however. are used for front covers in order to reduce lamp luminance and to help control glare.g. In principle. In the construction of luminaires absorption is primarily used for shielding light sources. It is light. in this regard it is essential for visual comfort. The greater the diffusing power.erco. thereby producing coloured light or a reduction in the UV or IR range. In the case of completely transparent materials there is no diffusion. Typical absorbing elements on a luminaire are black multigroove baffles. anti-dazzle cylinders.com 352 . Transmitting materials in luminaires can be transparent. opal glass or opal plastics. the smaller the directed Luminous intensity distribution I Luminous distribution L in the component of the transmitted in the case of diffuse transmission case of diffuse transmission. e. up to the point where only the same from all angles of vision. barn doors or louvres of various shapes and sizes. Luminous intensity distribution in the case of mixed transmission Luminous intensity distribution in the case of mixed transmission through transparent material Absorption Absorption describes how the light incident on a surface is totally or partially absorbed depending on the absorption factor of the given material.

the direction of their path is changed. If this critical angle is exceeded the ray of light is reflected into the denser medium (total internal reflection). When transmitted through a medium of a different density.com 353 . Prisms and lenses Typical ray tracing of parallel incident light through an asymmetrical prism structure (top left).erco. e. In the construction of luminaires refracting elements such as prisms or lenses are frequently used in combination with reflectors to control the light. εG = 42°.g.E Introduction Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light Refraction When beams of light enter a clear transmitting medium of differing density. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. When transmitted from one medium with a refractive index of n1 into a denser medium with a refractive index of n2. For the transition from air to glass the refractive index is approx. they are refracted.e. i. the rays of light are diffracted towards the axis of incidence (ε1>ε2). rays are displaced in parallel. whereas prisms and lenses give rise to optical effects ranging from change of radiation angle to the concentration or diffusion of light to the creation of optical images. Fibre-optic conductors function according to the principle of total internal reflection (right). symmetrical ribbed prism structure (top right). Refractive index There is an angular limit εG for the transmission of a ray of light from a medium with a refractive index of n2 into a medium of less density with a refractive index of n1. n2/n1=1. from air into glass and vice versa from glass into the air.5. In the case of objects with parallel surfaces there is only a parallel light shift. Fresnel lens (bottom left) and collecting lens (bottom right). For the transition from glass to air the angular limit is approx.

com 354 . Mirror-finish reflectors with good material quality are free of interference. for example – as is the case with cool-beam lamps.erco. selective reflectance can be produced for specific frequency ranges. Interference filters. have a high transmission factor and produce particularly distinct separation of reflected and transmitted spectral ranges. interference effects are exploited when light falls on extremely thin layers that lead to specific frequency ranges being reflected and others being transmitted. By arranging the sequence of thin layers of metal vapour according to defined thicknesses and densities. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. The result can be that visible light is reflected and infrared radiation transmitted. Reflectors and filters designed to produce coloured light can be manufactured using this technique.E Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Principles of controlling light Interference Interference is described as the intensification or attenuation of light when waves are superimposed. From the lighting point of view. so-called dichroic filters.

E Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Reflectors Reflectors – general Parabolic reflectors Darklight reflectors Reflectors are probably the most important elements in the construction of luminaires for controlling light. Diffusely reflective surfaces – usually white or with a matt finish are also used.com 355 .erco. Reflectors with mirrored surfaces are mainly used. Spherical reflectors Involute reflectors Elliptical reflectors Double reflector systems Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.

whose highly resistant anodized coating provides mechanical protection and can be subjected to high temperatures.erco. the reflector surfaces may have a facetted or textured finish. Surface Reflector surfaces: specular Matt The surfaces of the reflectors can have a specular or matt finish.com 356 . If the reflected light beam is to be slightly diffuse. be it to attain softer light or to balance out irregularities in the light distribution. Metal reflectors may receive a dichroic coating. Textured Facetted Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.E Material Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors Reflectors – general Anodized aluminium or chromeplated or aluminium-coated plastic are generally used for reflectors. which can control light luminous colour or the UV or IR component. but can only take a limited thermal load and are therefore not so robust as aluminium reflectors. Plastic reflectors are reasonably low-priced. The matt finish produces greater and more uniform reflector luminance.

The lower specular quality of specular reflectors reduces the disadvantages associated with highly specular reflectors. The high reflectance and the highest specular quality make the luminaire appear as a “dark hole” in the ceiling. specular and satin matt. Reflectance of reflectors: mirror-finish Specular Satin matt Geometry Light distribution is determined to a large extent by the form of the reflector.com 357 . There is usually no disturbance on VDU screens. Reflections of items such as bright room furnishings are possible in the reflector. This means that disturbing reflections from room furnishings are prevented and it also produces a calm room ambiance. Path of beam from point light sources when reflected by: Circle Ellipse Parabola Hyperbola Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. The high reflectance and the low specular quality lead to low contrast within the reflector. the circle or the ellipse. Satin-matt reflectors are also interference free if the anodising thickness is sufficient. Mirror-finish reflectors with good material quality are free of interference.E Reflectance Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors Reflectors – general Reflectors can be divided into different reflectance groups: mirrorfinish. Almost all reflector shapes can be attributed to the parabola.erco. A further characteristic is high luminance contrasts in the reflector. Diffuse surface reflection can cause luminances of >200cd/m2 in the area beyond the cut-off angle.

the light emitted by a light source located at the focal point of the parabola is radiated parallel to the parabolic axis. However. narrow-beam. and provide for specific glare limitation characteristics. which allows luminaires to be constructed to meet a wide range of light distribution and glare limitation requirements. If the reflector contour is constructed by rotating a parabola or parabolic segment around its own axis. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. widebeam or asymmetrical distribution. the result is a reflector with widebeam to batwing light distribution characteristics.g. Reflector contours for parallel beam/parabola Converging beam/ellipse Diverging beam/hyperbola Converging-diverging beam In the case of parabolic reflectors.erco. the reflector will act as a shield to direct rays. If this distance is large. Beam angles and cut-off angles can therefore basically be defined as required. If there is a short distance between a parabolic reflector’s focal point and its apex. They allow light to be controlled in a variety of ways. e.E Reflector contour Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors Parabolic reflectors The most widely used reflectors are parabolic reflectors. which is at an angle to the parabolic axis. Focal point Wide-beam light distribution If the reflector contour is constructed by rotating a parabolic segment around an axis. then the direct rays will not be shielded.com 358 . the result is a reflector with narrowbeam light distribution. In the case of linear light sources a similar effect is produced when rectangular reflectors with a parabolic cross section are used. these can be shielded using a spherical reflector.

e. parabolic louvres. in skylights. the aim is not so much to produce parallel directional light but optimum glare limitation. In this type of construction. the focal point of the parabola lies at the nadir of the opposite parabolic segments.com 359 . Such constructions are not only possible in luminaires. PAR lamps or fluorescent lamps. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.g.E Linear light sources Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors Parabolic reflectors Parabolic reflectors can also be applied with linear or flat light sources. with the result that no light from the light source located above the reflector can be emitted above the given cut-off angle. although these lamps are not located at the focal point of the parabola. In these cases. but can also be applied to daylight control systems. direct the sunlight so that glare cannot arise above the cut-off angle.erco.g. e.

Involute reflectors are mainly used with discharge lamps to avoid the lamps over-heating due to the retro-reflected light. i.g. They direct the luminous flux forwards onto the parabolic reflector. Spherical reflectors In the case of spherical refleclight. Spherical reflectors are used predominantly as an aid in conjunction with parabolic reflectors or lens systems. although the lamp itself is shielded. glare will occur above the cut-off angle. or to utilize the light raditors the light emitted by a lamp ated backwards by means of retro located at the focal point of the reflection back towards the lamp. brightness will then only occur in the reflector of larger radiating sources below the cut-off angle. as is the case with spherical reflectors.erco.e. so that it also functions in controlling the Involute reflectors With involute reflectors the light that is emitted by the lamp is not reflected back to the light source. When using larger radiating sources. sphere is reflected to this focal point. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. which would result in a decrease in performance. point light sources. glare is visible in the reflector.E Darklight reflectors Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors In the case of the conventional parabolic reflectors clearly defined light radiation – and effective glare limitation – is only possible for exact.com 360 . e. compact fluorescent lamps. but reflected past the lamp. when the light source is visible. By using reflectors with a variable parabolic focal point (so-called darklight reflectors) this effect can be avoided.

Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. however. Elliptical reflectors are also ideal when the smallest possible ceiling opening is required for downlights. secondary light source. The actual light distribution is created by the secondary reflector.E Elliptical reflectors Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Reflectors In the case of elliptical reflectors the light radiated by a lamp located at the first focal point of the ellipse is reflected to the second focal point. The second focal point of the ellipse can be used as an imaginary. Double-focus downlight Double-focus wallwashers Spotlight Double reflector systems Double reflector systems consist of a primary and secondary reflector.erco. The primary reflector aligns the light in a parallel or narrowly focused beam and directs it to the secondary reflector.com 361 . Elliptical reflectors are used in recessed ceiling washlights to produce a light effect from the ceiling downwards. The precise alignment of the reflectors determines the efficiency of the system. The second focal point will be an imaginary light source positioned at ceiling level. The direct view of upon the high luminance of the lamp is prevented with double reflector systems. also possible to control the light distribution and glare limitation by using an additional parabolic reflector. it is. resulting in improved visual comfort.

Collecting lenses Fresnel lenses Sculpture lens Spread lens Flood lens Softec lens Projecting systems Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. As a rule the optical system comprises a combination of one reflector with one or more lenses.erco.com 362 .E Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Lens systems Lenses are used almost exclusively for luminaires for point light sources.

considerably flatter. lighter and less expensive. Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. Sculpture lens Spread lens The spread lens is used with wallwashers. which is why they are frequently used in luminaire construction in place of converging lenses. while leaving the light distribution unchanged for the other axis.com 363 . while leaving the light distribution unchanged on the other axis. The distance between the collecting lens and the light source is usually variable. however. as a rule the rear side of the lenses is structured to mask visible irregularities in the light distribution and to ensure that the beam contours are soft. Fresnel lenses are. Luminaires equipped with Fresnel lenses were originally mainly used for stage lighting but are now also used in architectural lighting schemes to allow individual adjustment of beam angles when the distance between luminaires and objects varies. It spreads the beam of light in one axis. The sculpture lens produces asymmetrical light distribution.E Collecting lenses Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lens systems Collecting lenses direct the light emitted by a light source located in its focal point to a parallel beam of light.erco. The parallel ribbed lens produces a vertical oval when the ribs are orientated horizontally. The reflector directs the overall luminous flux in beam direction. This produces very even wallwashing. so that the beam angles can be adjusted as required. The optical performance of Fresnel lenses is confined by aberration in the regions between the segments. It produces asymmetrical light distribution. Collecting lenses are usually used in luminaire constructions together with a reflector. The parallel ribbed lens produces a vertical oval when the ribs are orientated horizontally. The optical effect of these lenses is comparable to the effect produced by conventional lenses of corresponding shape or curvature. It spreads the beam of light in one axis. Fresnel lenses Fresnel lenses consist of concentrically aligned ring-shaped lens segments. the lens is there to concentrate the light.

Softec lens The ability of the Softec lens results in a soft beam. The light is then projected on the surface to be illuminated by the main lens in the luminaire. With the aid of templates (gobos) it is possible to project logos or images. The ellipsoidal projector (left) with high light output. This can be produced via a textured or frosted glass. In addition. this textured lens gives softer transition at the beam edge. Softec lenses are used to smooth out visible striations from reflector lamps. As a lamp cover. In addition. Image size and beam angle can be defined at carrier plane. In contrast to luminaires for Fresnel lenses it is possible to produce light beams with sharp contours.com 364 . different beam angles or image dimensions can be selected depending on the focal length of the lenses. Projecting systems comprise an elliptical reflector or a combination of spherical reflector and condenser to direct light at a carrier.E Flood lens Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lens systems The flood lens spreads the beam symmetrically. Simple aperture plates or iris diaphragms can produce variously sized light beams. which can be fitted with optical accessories. and contour masks can be used to create different contours on the light beam. and the condenser projector (right) for high quality definition.erco. soft contours can be obtained by setting the projector out of focus. it prevents dazzle by reducing the lamp luminance. Projecting systems Projector with optical system: a uniformly illuminated carrier (1) is focused via a lens system (2). Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.

Filter effects can be attained using selective absorption or using interference.erco. Protective filters Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. consequently.com 365 . infrared) are filtered out.E Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Filters 100 80 60 40 20 0 T(%) 100 80 60 Standard light type A T = 65% T(%) 40 20 800 nm 0 400 Standard light type A T = 47% 400 500 600 700 500 600 700 800 nm Types of filters Colour filters Corrective filters Filters are optically effective elements which allow selective transmission. The filters‘ permeability to light is known as transmittance. Only part of the incident beam is transmitted. either coloured light is produced or invisible beam components (ultraviolet.

The colourfiltering property of interference colour filters is not immediately apparent – they do not look coloured. Consequently. and not absorption. They have great longevity however. visible spectrum. Conversely.erco. The separation of transmitted and reflected spectral components is not as exact as with interference filters and leads to a reduced edge steepness of the transmittance. heat is not so critical for glass filters and. Absorption filter Reflection filter Colour filters Properties 100 80 60 40 20 0 T(%) 100 80 Standard light type A T = 38% T(%) 60 40 20 0 Standard light type A T = 6% 400 500 600 700 800 nm 400 500 600 700 800 nm Magenta Night Blue 100 80 60 40 20 0 T(%) 100 80 60 Standard light type A T = 65% T(%) Colour filters only transmit a certain part of the coloured. The reflection spectrum is dependent on the angle of observation. takes place. whereby the remaining components of the radiation are filtered out. Interference filters (edge filters) are classed as reflection filters and give a high transmittance and an exact separation of transmitted and reflected spectral components. coloured glass filters create rather unsaturated colours. Glass filters coated with an interference coating can produce saturated colours. Due to the vaporised coating. Standard light type A T = 8% 40 20 800 nm 400 500 600 700 0 400 500 600 700 800 nm Amber Sky Blue Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. they are resistant to temperature change.E Types of filters Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Filters Absorption filters absorb certain spectral ranges and transmit the remaining radiation. The absorption process causes the filters to become hot. Colour filters made of plastic film are not heat resistant.com 366 . An accumulation of heat is avoided since reflection. to an extent. their scuff resistance is less than that of absorption filters. Absorption filters made of coloured glass attain lower colour saturation compared to interference filters.

e. by using daylight-conversion filters in warm white illuminated areas. Daylight-conversion filters transform the warm white colour temperature in the range of the neutral white colour of light. such as those of restaurants or cafés. Corrective filters Applications Skintone filters are colour filters which improve the effect of natural warm colours.com 367 . it is recommendable to perform lighting tests. Amber (atmospheric light at sunrise). Corrective filters Properties 100 80 60 40 20 0 T(%) 100 80 60 Standard light type A T = 65% T(%) 40 20 0 400 Standard light type A T = 47% 400 500 600 700 800 nm 500 600 700 800 nm Skintone Daylight Corrective filters designed as conversion filters will increase or reduce the colour temperature of the light source due to the spectral progression of the transmission. In scenic lighting. Skintone filters only correct the lamp‘s light spectrum in the green and yellow spectral range and thereby produce a very natural and pleasant effect on skin tones. all colours of light come into play for highlighting and forming contrasts.erco. i. colours from the daylight spectrum are felt to be natural: Magenta (conditions of light at sunset). Conversion filters are used to adapt the warm white [light colour=1961] from halogen lamps to daylight lighting. Night Blue (clear night sky) and Sky Blue (light of the sky by day). Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. It is beneficial to use Skintone filters in communication areas. In practice. Furthermore. when illuminating coloured surfaces.E Colour filters Applications Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Filters In architectural lighting too. from 3000K to 4000K. especially the colours of the skin. it is also possible to create zones with neutral white light atmosphere.

Materials sensitive to heat and humidity can thus be protected from drying out or distorting.erco. This particularly applies to the bleaching of colours and to yellowing. the transmission is directional. such as thermal radiators. the less the will be the colour distortion in the visible spectrum.E Properties Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Filters Protective filters UV filters are suitable for completely blocking ultraviolet radiation while allowing optimal transmission of visible light. artworks and other exhibits that are sensitive to light.art museums .antiquarian bookshops The use of infrared filters significantly reduces the thermal load and thus decreases the heat on an object or its surface. The steeper the edge of the transmission curve.art museums . IR filters are transparent (clear).com 368 . IR filters are suitable for use in: .natural-science museums .natural-science museums . historic documents. The thermal load on objects is reduced to a minimum. watercolours. UV filters are suitable for use in: . Adequate seperation between lamp and filter avoids a build-up of heat within the luminaire. Infrared filters absorb or reflect the thermal radiation above 800nm while allowing optimal transmission of visible light spectrum. the highest ultraviolet loading is found from non-capsulated tungsten halogen lamps. High proportions of infrared radiation are emitted predominantly from light sources with low luminous efficacy.art galleries . The separation between reflexion and transmission takes place at 400nm.antiquarian bookshops . 100 80 60 40 20 0 T(%) Standard light type A T = 92% 300 400 500 600 700 800 nm UV filter IR filter Applications UV filter Filtering out virtually all the ultraviolet radiation effectively delays the photochemical process of decay in textiles.food shops IR filter Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. the transmission is directional. In practice. UV filters are transparent (clear). since the UV component of high-pressure discharge lamps is already reduced by prescribed safety glasses.art galleries .

in so doing.erco. If the light falls onto the side of the prism above a specific angle. to cut out the light. it is not longer refracted but reflected. The deflection angle of the light can therefore be determined by the shape of the prism. Prismatic systems are primarily used in luminaires that take fluorescent lamps to control the beam angle and to ensure adequate glare limitation. It is known that the deflection of a ray of light when it penetrates a prism is dependent on the angle of the prism.com 369 . This principle is also frequently applied in prismatic systems to deflect light in angles beyond the widest angle of refraction and. using a prism.E Properties Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Prismatic systems Another means of controlling shield which in turn forms the light optically is to deflect it outer cover of the luminaire. This means that the prisms have to be calculated for the respective angle of incidence and combined to form a lengthwise oriented louvre or Typical light distribution of a fluorescent lamp with prismatic systems Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.

erco.E Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Lighting technology accessories Anti-dazzle attachments Honeycomb antidazzle screen Cross baffle Many luminaires can be equipped with accessories to change or modify their photometric qualities. Framing attachment Gobo Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.com 370 . Additional glare shields or honeycomb anti-dazzle screens can be used to improve glare limitation.

Honeycomb anti-dazzle screens are used where there are high demands for visual comfort in exhibition areas. anti-dazzle attachments. The black painted finish absorbs light and reduces the luminance contrasts.erco. The cross baffle is used to reduce glare.E Anti-dazzle attachments Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lighting technology accessories Barn doors allow the emitted beam to be separately restrained in each of the four directions and provide improved glare control. A cylindrical anti-dazzle attachment also restricts the view into the luminaire and reduces glare. Glare limitation increases with the size of the The honeycomb anti-dazzle screen is used to control the beam and reduce glare. The black painted finish absorbs light and reduces the luminance contrasts. The black painted finish absorbs light and reduces the luminance contrasts.com 371 . Its limited depth means that the honeycomb anti-dazzle screen can be integrated within the luminaire. The anti-dazzle attachments are usually externally mounted on the light head. but without the flexibility of barn doors. Honeycomb anti-dazzle screen Cross baffle Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. Cross baffles are used where there are high demands for visual comfort in exhibition areas.

com 372 . El Vendrell Museo Ruiz de Luna Talavera. Finland Aragon Pavilion. for example be used to create rectangles on walls in order to highlight objects crisply around their contours. Gobos make it possible to project lettering or images.E Framing attachment Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Lighting technology accessories Applications: Museo Deu. a blurred projection results in a soft-edged beam. Seville ERCO. However. Gobo The term “gobo“ refers to an aperture plate or image template through which light is projected by an imaging projector.erco. The separately adjustable sliding components can. Lüdenscheid Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. Reflector-lens imaging systems can be used to create crisp images or even soft-edged transitions using blurred projections. Reflector-lens imaging systems make it possible to produce a sharp-edged beam. Madrid A framing attachment allows various contours of the beam to be adjusted. Applications: Teattri Ravintola. Toledo Goya exhibition.

Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www.com 373 .E Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology Colour mixing Varychrome The incorporation of coloured light opens up interesting possibilities for influencing the atmosphere of rooms. Under electronic control.erco. a large number of colours can be generated and a smooth colour changes produced in the luminaire.

The term ‚varychrome‘ refers to the mixing of colours. A multitude of colours can be mixed from the coloured fluorescent lamps in red.com 374 . These luminaires are electronically controlled to generate variable light colours by additive colour mixing of the primary colours red.erco. They enable an infinitely variable adjustment of different light colours. the colours of the fluorescent lamps can be chosen at will. compact dimensions and long service life. LED Edition: 10/01/2008 | Updated version at www. neutral white and daylight white can create various different white light colours. The luminaires with LEDs feature a high colour density. The fluorescent lamps primarily produce diffuse light with low brilliance. It is derived from the Latin adjective ‚varius‘ meaning different and the Greek word ‚chroma‘ for colour. The advantages of colour mixing using coloured lamps are that complex mechanical components are not needed and colour filters with low transmission are avoided. green and blue. Technology Fluorescent lamps In principle. green and blue (RGB technology).E Introduction Guide Lighting technology | Luminaire technology | Colour mixing Varychrome The addition of the name ‚varychrome‘ to ERCO luminaires identifies those luminairs whose colour can be changed dynamically. The lamps in warm white. which therefore results in a large colour triangles. Characteristic for LEDs are low luminous flux. The saturation and the chromaticity location of the lamps determine the size and shape of the resulting colour triangle.

to ensure efficient use of this technology.erco. knowledge of the underlying technical principles is necessary. They enable the creative design of lighting solutions on the computer and range from the evaluation of experimental concepts to photorealistic presentations.com 375 . The calculation methods are used for quantitative analyses to verify the required illuminances. However.E Guide Simulation and calculation Introduction Simulation Light simulation Calculations Light simulation and light calculation have become essential components of lighting design. Planning data Planning examples Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www.

com 376 . Since the 80s the established methods of sketching.E Guide Simulation and calculation Introduction Simulation Evaluation and presentation Simulation and image processing Architects and lighting designers use different methods to convey ideas and technical details and communicate these to those involved in the planning process. Concepts can be visually compared during the design phase in order for decisions to be made prior to Quantitative and qualitative simulation construction.erco. model making. sampling and drawings have been extended by techniques of digital simulation. Simulation and reality Interaction Design process Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www.

simulation includes two aspects.erco. While the working model simplifies the design process in that it provides rough. Simulation and image processing Simulation is generally associated with 3D models and an accurate representation of the lighting effect. numerical values to verify the illuminances and lamp luminances specified.com 377 . focuses on atmosphere and is used by lighting designers to communicate their aesthetic idea of the lighting design. The quantitative simulation provides physically correct.E Evaluation and presentation Guide Simulation and calculation Introduction Simulation Comparable to model making. In lighting design. on the other hand. In a subsequent step. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. for schematic visualisations. the simulation also differentiates between the working model and the presentation model. omitting exact details of materials or luminaires. If the space to be illuminaited is complex then this method does not allow detailed planning due to limitations associated with scaling and complicated geometry. sketched variants. However. digital drawings and photo realistic representations are quick visualisation methods. Quantitative and qualitative simulation In lighting design. the presentation model includes elaborate details. the simulation is improved by including realistic surfaces and specific luminaires with accurate photometrics for detailed planning and presentation purposes. The qualitative simulation. designers often use digital image processing in a 2D or 3D representation. sketches. The advantage lies in the speed of abstraction and realisation. For further examination this is followed by general light simulation.

such as the progression of light and shadow or reflections off surfaces. designers prefer an interactive simulation.E Simulation and reality Guide Simulation and calculation Introduction Simulation Often. Interaction To visualise changes instantly during the processing stage. Currently changes to reflections. The criterion of physically correct data refers to the numerical values provided by the quantitative simulation. Screen displays or colour printouts can never give the same impression as the actual environment. None of the following can correctly reproduce the luminance contrast which will be seen in reality: colour printout. screen display or the projected image of a beamer. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. complex shadows and indirect light are excluded. the interaction is limited by the available programs and significantly depends on the hardware. the quality of a simulation is judged by its proximity to reality and the question is asked as to whether the rendering is correct or no more than a photorealistic representation. A further limitation is the range of contrasts on the output media. Interactive aspects in the programs usually include changes to the geometry.com 378 . A photorealistic impression of a qualitative simulation can provide a far more authentic representation of the anticipated lighting effect. however. camera position. Based on the current state of the art.erco. A photographer controls the incident light by opening or closing the aperture and the same creative approach is taken in the production of a rendering. texture and simple modifications of the light sources and material properties.

Time and cost can be controlled by limiting the scope of the presentation. the illumination of the model.erco.com 379 . The sequence of a light simulation can be divided into four steps: the modelling of the geometry. and the actual rendering process. on the other hand.E Design process Guide Simulation and calculation Introduction Simulation A crucial factor in ensuring an efficient light simulation during the design process is a reasonable degree of detailing and the assistance of an expert. the definition of materials. can produce quicker results and this can lead to reducing the cost for the design. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. using an external service provider involve considerable information exchange. Simulations. If handled internally. This is compensated for by the fact that the service provider has greater experience. a rendering can be prepared in conjunction with the design process. The implementation of the light simulation can either be handled by the design office itself or outsourced to a specialist provider.

a number of steps are required for the preliminary planning of the rendering: the concept idea and the sketch. the designer uses specialised software such as 3ds VIZ/Max or DIALux. Initially. Rendering Evaluation Hardware Software Developments Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. For professional light simulations. the 3D CAD model and the specification of the light sources and surface properties.com 380 .E Guide Simulation and calculation Light simulation 3D model Surface Light The light simulation has proven to be a useful tool in the visualisation and verification of the lighting design. Most CAD programs are not able to simulate light with physically accuracy.erco.

they can be imported into the light simulation software.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation 3D model Export and import Topology Geometry A simulation is based on the 3D data of a room which is used to produce images. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. but also of course the more timeconsuming. The more sophisticated the 3D model. This 3D data can be imported from simple CAD programs or specialised applications. If the design office already works with 3D data. the more realistic the light simulation will be.com 381 .erco.

DXF. the designer is confronted with the basic 3D elements without component details.E Export and import Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation 3D model Where a 3D model exists in a program other than the one used for light simulation. an edge is defined by two vertices and a surface by three. face/ polygon and surface normal: the vertex with the X. these can be vertex. edge. the data can be transferred using the export and import functions. though. Since 3D models contain complex data. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. These 3D CAD exchange formats include DWG. Often. and 3DS. it remains unclear as to whether the elements are made up of surfaces or volumes. In the simulation programs. After exporting from a component-orientated CAD program. Topology CAD programs increasingly work with component-orientated functions such as the generation of pillars or ceilings. Y and Z coordinates. the designer must consider sources of error and allow for manual corrections. however. It is advisable to export the data simultaneously in several established exchange formats.com 382 . The normal is positioned vertically on the surface and reveals its front face.erco. the designer needs to be prepared eventually for a different structure where modifications of the geometry are made in the simulation program.

Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. the geometry model frequently causes problems in the simulation. Similarly.com 383 . The designer must take this into account as early as possible in the preparation of the 3D model in order to review the export settings. Since simulations require extensive calculations and will continue to do so. an optimised geometry considerably reduces the work and time involved in producing light simulations. it is advisable to use a materialbased layer structure for quick provisional calculations.E Geometry Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation 3D model Since CAD models can be used for other requirements than light simulation. inactive layer can reduce the calculation time. While the wire cables of a banister can easily be designed as high-resolution cylinders in a CAD program. Small. highly detailed geometries on a separate. the calculation of the cylinder surface is complicated to render.erco.

erco. the simulation programs allow for anything between simple and complex settings.com 384 .E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Surface Shading Texture Materials are recognised solely through definition of the surface properties. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. Depending on the complexity required.

Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. A highly realistic impression results if by photos are assigned as textures to polygons. It must also be without distortions due to the lens. These determine how the light will appear on an object and affect the surroundings.erco. microstructures can be modified so as to give the impression of threedimensional surfaces. the reflectance and the transparency. The designer uses a shader to define the lighting properties through the colour. be taken head-on and contain no light or other reflections. shiny spots on reflecting surfaces appear only when the light from the light sources shines directly onto these surfaces. places abstract.E Shading Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Surface The term ”shading” refers to the representation of shades.com 385 . Texture To show objects which don‘t have a uniform surface colour. known as "mapping“. the surface can be given a texture. To ensure acceptable quality. graphical patterns or photos on the model. This method. Using special mapping methods (bump mapping). Simulation programs provide extensive material collections in libraries to enable designers to show textures such as wood or exposed concrete. the photo should be high resolution. The lighting effect of the material properties always depends on the type and position of the light sources and is visible only in the combination of shading factors and lighting: hence.

Simulating light using a rendering in a 3D model is a time-consuming process. To do so. Daylight Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Light Direct light Indirect light Light sources Where the atmosphere of a room is to be shown realistically. the designer can resort to standardised light sources or work with digital data records to reproduce specific luminaires.com 386 . It is essential in the perception of the environment and determines how rooms and objects are interpreted. light is one of the key factors in the visualisation.

designers need to calculate as many interreflections as possible to achieve a representational light distribution in the room.E Direct light Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Light Direct light refers to rays of light shining directly onto the surface. determines the calculated. except for the areas where the ceiling is illuminated by the direct light. It was not until the 1990s that progress in hardware allowed such a complex calculation. The reflectance of the surface and the degree of diffusion which is often assumed. The calculation of indirect light is also known as ”global illumination”. Indirect light Indirect light is produced as a result of light reflecting off a surface. a room illuminated using only ceiling washlights would be completely dark.erco. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. The calculation of direct light requires minimum time and has been possible from the early days of computer graphics. To create an accurate impression of the room. If there is no obstruction then a point on the surface is illuminated. reflected indirect light. This has one significant limitation in that indirect light is not included: hence.com 387 .

requires an interface that can import the light distribution data from the luminaires. Daylight The combination of daylight with direct sunlight and the diffuse sky light. the movable parts of the luminaires automatically follow. gives simulations the impression of reality. Accurate information on glare control at workplaces and on heat transmission for different types of sun protection glazing can only be obtained using special software with appropriate analysis tools. if the designer also wants to demonstrate the effect of luminaires in the room. however. The IES format is a common international data format. Light sources 3D model Rather than being limited to a quantitative light simulation. the surface properties. Luminaires with an asymmetric light distribution. for example. the functional rotation axis and the light intensity distribution.erco.com 388 . quantitative representation is difficult. point. The representation of special luminaires. To do this some luminaire manufacturers provide what are called virtual luminaires. area and sunlight. the luminaires must be available as 3D models. While the calculation of daylight for presentations and shading studies is easy. cannot be calculated correctly in any other way. Using inverse kinematics. spotlights can be set up quickly and realistically: if the designer adjusts the light distribution in the room. The use of accessories such as a sculpture lens affects the light distribution and requires a separate data record. which include the 3D geometry of the luminaire.E Light sources Light distribution Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Light Simulation programs include general light sources such as spot. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. These data records are available from most luminaire manufacturers and describe the specific light intensity distribution of each luminaire.

Experience has shown that every three or four years. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www.erco. each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Despite the improvements in simulation programs. the quality of the renderings still ultimately depends on the skill of the designer. the progress made in hardware performance allows new methods of calculation. Every simulation program has special rendering procedures.com 389 .E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Rendering Radiosity Photon mapping Ray tracing A render engine is an application that allows photorealistic images to be generated from a 3D model.

they are reflected back and the luminance values are summated. The camera position can be modified without the need to revise the calculation – this process. on the other hand. photon mapping is based on rays emitted from the light source. Photon mapping is used as for further calculations. While ray tracing is based on rays from the observers/camera position. the photon map has the required precision. the more accurate the transitions will be in the rendering and the more complex the calculation. If it is only the camera angle that changes in the animation of an architectural model.erco. and not the light. the different perspectives require no more than a single calculation. In this way. The disadvantage of radiosity is the effect on the calculation time of details. This process continues with a defined number of iterations and consequently also takes into consideration the light reflecting off other surfaces. The photon outputs are stored in a photon map. is not interactive. If the calculation is based exclusively on ray tracing it is too complex for very small models and very bright light sources.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Rendering Radiosity In calculations of light distribution using the radiosity process the rays are emitted by the light source and are reflected back by a surface. The more photons a model has. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. To show details more accurately. After a certain number of reflections/iterations. the process is combined with ray tracing. In a further process. Due to the possibility of calculating indirect. Radiosity was one of the first processes used for the calculation of light distribution. diffuse light. A key advantage of radiosity is the storage of light properties in a grid on the model geometry. this process is now widely used. When they hit a surface. can lead to errors in the light intensity distribution. spheres or complex scenes with a very large number of polygons. This map is not bound to the geometry and can be used for simulations with distributed calculations in the network. Photon mapping uses virtual ”photons” radiating light into the room.com 390 . though. the points can be merged through gathering. A relatively coarse grid of values for quicker calculation. Photon mapping Photon mapping is similar to the ray tracing process. the camera angle can subsequently be changed without requiring a revised calculation.

as the incidental rays of light for calculation start from the observer/camera position and light apertures such as small windows in a large wall can initially be disregarded. The result is shown as pixels on a focal plane.erco. Ray tracing has the advantage of producing exact representations of details and the smallest shadows. the more rays of light are required for the simulation and the more complex the calculation becomes. Scenes with very high contrast ratios are difficult to represent. also called Monte Carlo ray tracing. Unlike radiosity and photon mapping. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. Since this method depends on the focal plane. is the second of the two most popular processes used for the calculation of light distribution. however. the rays start from the eye and are followed backwards to the model and the light sources.com 391 . Instead. a change of angle and the line of vision requires a new calculation.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Rendering Ray tracing (Backward) ray tracing. it does not trace a ray of light from the light source. The higher the resolution required on the focal plane and the more reflecting surfaces there are. If the rays from the eye hit a surface. other rays of light are used to see whether this point reflects light or contains shadows.

Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. designers need to find a reasonable compromise between precision and speed for the simulation.com 392 . The desire for maximum precision in a visualisation has to be balanced with the complexity of detailed modelling and the time-consuming calculation. Where the first impression often determines the general aesthetic appearance and the similarity of the lighting effect to the natural environment. there are various criteria for a critical technical evaluation.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Evaluation Image design Artefacts In the same manner as photos can be evaluated based on technical quality criteria. designers can check renderings for errors.erco. So.

E Image design Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Evaluation The image design is assessed. Carefully defined surfaces create a realistic impression. contrast and colour density contribute to a realistic representation.whether with isometry or a central or twopoint perspective – determines the geometric or natural impression. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. focussing on aesthetic aspects. The perspective .com 393 . In the same manner. the overall brightness.erco.

Often. This aspect is relevant where details have high luminance contrasts. resulting. While this shortcut is not visible on smooth surfaces. complex forms. If the grid is too coarse and the components are not accurately connected. the light distribution can be wrong. in light apparently shining through a wall or a ceiling. This is similar to the luminance progression on component edges or the weak shadow of an object due to excessive interpolation of the shadow-effect in the room.erco. for example. the calculation times can be reduced many times over if only a few sample points are smoothed and gathered.E Lighting Objects Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Evaluation Correct settings for the calculation of illuminance of objects can be seen by the details of the objects. Room with few sample points Room with numerous sample points Shadow with strong interpolation Detail shadow with strong interpolation Shadow with good interpolation Surfaces with few sample points Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. the error will be visible on small. Curved edges that show aliasing effects such as sharp edges or hard transitions require less computing power.com 394 .

E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Hardware Processor Main memory Graphics card The effects of faster hardware on the computing power are more obvious in light simulation than in other areas of application. To ensure an efficient simulation process. including communication or word processing.erco.com 395 . it is crucial to establish a harmonic balance between the processor. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. the memory and the graphics card.

specifically in case of textured objects. Today the use of dual processors is recommended.E Processor Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Hardware The processor (CPU. it determines how big the edited scene can be. Some developments. In the first instance. before the computer writes data onto the hard drive. Some workstations have several CPUs instead. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. show that the graphics card will. it is advisable to increase the main memory. also be used for simulations. the designer can include other computers in the network for distributed calculations.com 396 . Since the dependence here is not linear. Random Access Memory) does not directly affect the computing speed. If the calculation frequently coincides with hard drive activity. however. For complex tasks. Graphics card The graphics card determines the degree of possible interactivity with the 3D model. The actual computing speed is hardly affected by the graphics card. in future. the performance drops significantly once a certain threshold is reached. A processor working twice as fast as others reduces the calculation time for a rendering by half. Main memory The main memory (RAM.erco. This writing process is tedious and slows down the rendering process. Central Processing Unit) is responsible for the computing power.

Whether a software package can produce accurate light simulations is indicated in the manual. If it does then the designer can combine the photometric data with the respective 3D DXF data. which must specify support of global illumination or radiosity and the IES or Eulumdat format. The software spectrum covers everything from fast.erco.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Software DIALux Autodesk Radiance There is a wide range of programs available for light simulation. quantitative analyses to sophisticated visualisation methods. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www.com 397 .

a program for sophisticated visualisations. The ULD data format for the luminaires comprises the 3D geometry of the luminaire. A light simulation requires additional photometric data. A physically correct light simulation is possible with IES luminaire data.com 398 .erco.E DIALux Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Software DIALux is a free of charge lighting design software application for calculation and visualisation. it is mostly used in research institutes and by highly specialised companies. Its wide range of calculation and analysis tools requires extensive knowledge of operating systems and shell commands and consequently. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. Inverse kinematics allows directional luminaires to be aligned through a few simple adjustments. The plugin packages of luminaire manufacturers contain additional planning data such as maintenance factors or UGR values. the light intensity distribution. the program is not suitable for quick representations of qualitative lighting designs. The luminaire data for Autodesk VIZ and also for 3ds Max include a 3D model of the luminaire. The program is provided by the Deutsches Institut für Angewandte Lichttechnik (DIAL – German Institute of Applied Lighting Technology). This includes surface properties. For further information on the DIALux software visit www. Due to its complexity. The DIALux software gives a quick and easy quantitative analysis of a design and includes simple 3D and rendering functions. textures and the possible motion of components (inverse kinematics).dialux. Radiance Radiance is a professional light simulation program from Berkeley Lab. Autodesk One of the products available from Autodesk is the VIZ software.com. Autodesk VIZ and 3ds Max enable radiosity calculations to produce numerically accurate light simulations. and an article description.

A number of developments in light simulation are expected in the near future. Edition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www.com 399 . the 3D visualisation method is far from being fully developed. innovations can significantly change the processes. Within a few years.erco.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Developments HDR Light spectrum Real-time rendering Compared with other technologies such as digital photography or desktop publishing.

E Guide Simulation and calculation | Light simulation Developments HDR The acronym HDR stands for “High Dynamic Range“ and describes a technical format that stores and displays a higher luminance contrast. green and blue. some areas can be 100. however. the technical progress also involves higher representation requirements. the result is different colour renditions that are not covered by the simulation programs. the software currently only calculates certain segments: red. and result. Where this is common practice already. the quality of the colour rendition cannot yet be reproduced because the appropriate data and programs are not available. Light spectrum In most simulation modules. Because the full range of contrast levels is maintained in HDR format images (32bit). Many functions can already be performed in real time. new possibilities arise for a subsequent exposure or for renderings.000 times brighter than shaded areas.com 400 . where interaction directly modifies the image sequence. Appropriate future functions would additionally require the definition of the spectral characteristics of both the light sources and the surfaces. the development of HDR-compatible monitors will raise this technology to even higher levels. Incandescent lamp relative spectral distribution High-pressure discharge lamp relative spectral distribution Real-time rendering grams depend on the hardware Simulations always result in functions of powerful graphics some time delay between input cards. Often. for example. Rather than calculating the entire visible spectrum of light. Consequently real time calculations would be ideal. Since the various types of lamp do not have a uniform spectrum. The sun and a white vase can both be white in an image and thus fail to reproduce the luminance contrast correctly. as may be caused by the sun. Today’s graphical output devices largely work with a “Low Dynamic Range” with 255 tones per colour channel for RGB (8bit). are not possible with the current state of the art. the HDR format will replace the current image formats. specifics on the colour rendition of illuminated textiles in a shop. In a scene with a very high luminance contrast. Computer game users benefit from elaborate preliminary calculations that are uncommon in architectural simulations. which results in speed reduction. Consequently.. The solutions developed by the manufacturers of rendering proEdition: 05/12/2006 | Updated version at www. The RAW photo format is already a step in this direction. for example. If the image is saved as a TIFF or jpg file. the contrast range is compressed such that the sun is only 255 times brighter than the shadow.erco. In the medium term. The real-time technology is inspired by computer games.

it may be useful to determine the luminance levels in specific areas of the room. In addition.erco. the quality features of the lighting such as shadow effects and contrast rendition or the cost of a lighting installation including maintenance cost. these relate to the average lighting level or the exact illuminance at individual points in the room.com 401 .E Guide Simulation and calculation Calculations Connected load Point illuminances Maintenance Factor The planning and design of lighting installations involves a number of technical and economical calculations. Usually. UGR method Utilisation factor method Lighting costs Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www.

required to achieve the specified illuminance.erco. To estimate the approximate lighting levels. the specified connected load and light source can be used to calculate the average illuminance.com 402 .E Guide Simulation and calculation | Calculations Connected load Number of luminaires Illuminance When planning the connected load. the specific luminaire and light source used is taken into consideration to determine the load. luminaire manufacturers provide tables indicating the illuminances of specified numbers of luminaires. The connected load is used in the planning of regular luminaire grids. Alternatively. Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www. or the number of luminaires.

93 MF Maintenance factor. Illuminance Specifications 22227.81 W/m2 Em Maintained value of illuminance DIN EN 12464 f Correction factor from separate correction table 0.80 Example with P* n= n= E m · a · b · P* P · f · MF 500lx · 12m · 14m · 2.81W/m 2 E m =499 In order to calculate the illuminance of a specified number of luminaires. the calculation for other conditions requires a correction factor. Since these values only apply to a standard room.000 Connected load of one luminaire P: 66.000 Connected load of one luminaire P: 66. the designer requires information on the connected load per luminaire per 100lx. The maintained level of illuminance is determined using the maintenance factor. reference value 0.93 · 0.0 W Connected load per 100lx P*: 2.0 W Connected load per 100lx P*: 2.com 403 .81 W/m2 Em Maintained value of illuminance DIN EN 12464 f Correction factor from separate correction table 0. The maintained value is the minimum illuminance level that must be maintained during the operation of the lighting installation.E Number of luminaires Guide Simulation and calculation | Calculations Connected load Specifications 22227. A further parameter to be included is the maintenance factor to ensure the required illuminance over the entire period of operation. Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www. reference value 0.erco.93 · 0.80 Example with P* Em = Em = n · P · f · MF a · b · P* 48 · 66W · 0.81 · 100lx n = 48 The required number of luminaires for a specific illuminance can be calculated on the basis of the connected load values given for a luminaire and 100lx.93 MF Maintenance factor. Since the values only apply to a standard room.80 · 100lx 12m · 14m · 2.81W/m2 66W · 0. the calculation for other conditions requires a correction factor.

manual calculations can be appropriate. Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated version at www. designers use lighting design programs that then include the indirect lighting components. Point illuminances can be calculated for a single luminaire or several luminaires. The programs can determine the illuminance for all room surfaces and working planes. The results are displayed in graphic representations of Isolux charts or false colour diagrams.erco. Where there are a number of luminaires and functional areas in a room. This is based on the fact that the illuminance reduces with the square of the distance from the light source. Indirect lighting components are not included in this calculation.com 404 . For confined areas with individual luminaires.E Guide Simulation and calculation | Calculations Point illuminances The illuminance distribution at certain points in the room can be calculated using the inverse square law.

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Guide
Simulation and calculation | Calculations Maintenance Factor

Luminaire Maintenance Factor

Room Surface Maintenance Factor

Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor

To ensure that the required illuminance is provided over a period of time, the lighting design includes a maintenance factor MF that takes into account the reduction of luminous flux. The new value for the illuminance of an installation is calculated from the maintained value of illuminance, and the maintenance factor. The maintenance plan specifies the cleaning frequency of the luminaires and the room and the lamp replacement. The maintained value of illuminance thus depends on the luminaires, the lamps and the room conditions.

Lamp Survival Factor

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Luminaire Maintenance Factor

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Cleaning frequency (a) Environmental conditions A Open luminaires B Open-top reflectors C Closed-top reflectors D Closed reflectors E Dustproof luminaires F Luminaires with indirect emission 1 P 0.96 0.96 0.94 0.94 0.98 0.91 C 0.93 0.90 0.89 0.88 0.94 0.86 N 0.89 0.86 0.81 0.82 0.90 0.81 D 0.83 0.83 0.72 0.77 0.86 0.74 2 P 0.93 0.89 0.88 0.89 0.95 0.86 C 0.89 0.84 0.80 0.83 0.91 0.77 N 0.84 0.80 0.69 0.77 0.86 0.66 D 0.78 0.75 0.59 0.71 0.81 0.57 3 P 0.91 0.84 0.84 0.85 0.94 0.80 C 0.85 0.79 0.74 0.79 0.90 0.70 N 0.79 0.74 0.61 0.73 0.84 0.55 The luminaire maintenance factor LMF takes into account the reduction of luminous flux due to the soiling of the luminaire. It signifies the ratio of a luminaire’s light output ratios before and after cleaning. The LMF depends on the version of the luminaire and the related possibility of soiling. The LMF classification is indicated D next to the product. At this point, 0.73 the optimal cleaning frequency 0.68 must be defined for the mainte0.52 nance plan. 0.65 0.79 0.45

Room Surface Maintenance Factor

Cleaning frequency (a) Environmental conditions Direct emission Direct/indirect emission Indirect emission Classification of Environmental Conditions P (very clean room) pure C (clean room) clean N (average conditions) normal D (dirty room) dirty 1 P 0.99 0.96 0.94 C 0.98 0.92 0.88 N 0.96 0.88 0.82 D 0.95 0.85 0.77 2 P 0.97 0.93 0.91 C 0.96 0.89 0.84 N 0.95 0.85 0.77 D 0.94 0.81 0.70 3 P 0.97 0.90 0.84 C 0.96 0.86 0.78 N 0.95 0.82 0.72 D 0.94 0.78 0.64

The room surface maintenance factor RSMF takes into account the reduction of luminous flux due to the soiling of the room surfaces. It signifies the ratio of the room surface reflectances before and after cleaning. The RSMF depends on the degree of soiling of the room or the ambient conditions of a room and the specified cleaning frequency. Further influencing factors are the size of the room and the type of lighting (direct to indirect emission). The room surface maintenance factor consists of four classifications for room surface deterioration: P pure (very clean room), C clean (clean room), N normal (average conditions) and D dirty (dirty room).

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Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor

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Simulation and calculation | Calculations Maintenance Factor
Hours of operation (h) Tungsten halogen lamps/ low-voltage Metal halide lamps High-pressure sodium vapour lamps Compact fluorescent lamps Fluorescent lamps 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 0.95 ---------0.86 0.82 0.75 0.69 0.66 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97 0.92 0.88 0.85 0.83 0.83 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.93 0.92 -0.96 -0.91 -0.96 -0.90 -0.95 -0.89 -0.95 -0.88 -0.94 -0.88 The lamp lumen maintenance factor LLMF takes into account the reduction of luminous flux due to the ageing of the lamp. It signifies the ratio of the lamp lumens at a specific time and the new value. The current data provided by the lamp manufacturers must be taken into account here.

Lamp Survival Factor

The lamp survival factor LSF takes into account the variation of the life of individual lamps from the mean life of the lamps. The LSF depends on the service life of the lamp. The latest data provided by the lamp manufacturers must be taken into account here. If defective lamps are replaced immediately, the lamp survival factor applied is LSF = 1. The maintenance plan for a lighting installation must also specify the optimal lamp replacement frequency. This depends on the degree of use of the lamp and is determined by analysing the period of illumination and the mean service life of the specific lamps.

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UGR method

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Simulation and calculation | Calculations
The UGR method (Unified Glare Rating) is an international index presented by CIE in publication 117 and is used to evaluate and limit the psychological direct glare from luminaires. Contrary to previous methods where the glare was rated using the lumi3.3 Practical planning nance values of a single lumi3.3.6 Calculations naire, this method calculates the glare of the entire lighting installation at a defined observer position. According to DIN EN 12464, the UGR reference value is provided for a standard room. An exact calculation of the UGR 3.3 Practical planning value at a defined observer position in a room is possible with 3.3.6 Calculations modern lighting design programs. The lower the UGR value, the lower the glare. Where the luminance is < 1000 cd/m2, additional data is provided on the elevation angle, either 65°, 75° or 85°. This is the critical angle above which the luminaire has an all-round luminance of 1000 cd/m2.

n of luminous flux emitted by ources, which falls on the ane after interaction with lumiroom surfaces. The deciding his calculation is the utilance, erived from the geometry of the reflectance of the room surthe efficiency and the distrie portion of luminous flux emitted by aracteristics of the luminaires e light sources, which falls on the rking calculate the appropriate able toplane after interaction with lumires and room surfaces. The deciding each individual case, there tor in this which contain the utilance, available, calculation is the fichstandardised space with a is derived from the geometry of e space, the reflectance of the room surroom geometry, changing rees and the efficiency and a ctors and luminaires with the distrition characteristics of the luminaires distribution characteristics. The ed. space is presumed to be lised Utilisation factor To be able shape and proporof regular to calculate the appropriate EN = V . n . Ï . æR . æLB method: formula for lance in each individual case, there ectangular and having the ratio a.b calculating the nominal otables available, which contain the width approx. 1.6 to 1. The .a.b illuminance EN for a n = 1 . En . lance of a standardised space with are presumed to be arranged given number of lumiV Ï . æR æLB naires or the number anging room the ceiling, either ar pattern on geometry, changing reof luminaires n for ction factors and luminaires with directly onto the ceiling or sus- a a given illuminance. iety of distribution standarom the ceiling. Thesecharacteristics. The sic, have a decisive is presumed to be es idealised space influence on . . . pty and of regular shape and proporUtilisation the cy of the calculations forfactor method Nominal illuminance EN (lx) Utilisation factor EN = V . n Ï .æR æLB method: formula for ns, the conditions inherent in a b n. Ifi.e. rectangular and having the ratio n Number of luminaires calculating the nominal length to width approx.those in The oncept are in line with 1.6 to 1. a (m) illuminance ofNspace Length E for a .a.b n = 1 . En . minairesthe results will be reaspace, are presumed to be arranged b (m) given numberspace Width of of lumiV Ï . æR æLB a regular pattern the the ceiling, either curate. The more on basic conÏ (m) naires or the number luminaire Luminous flux per of luminaires n for unted directly onto the ceiling or susviate from the standardised hR Utilance a given illuminance. nded from the ceiling. These standare. g. if the lighting layout is hLB Light output ratio ed values havemust be accepted symmetrical, it a decisive influence on V Light loss factor e accuracy of the of errors will for the Nominal illuminance EN (lx) creasing number calculations plication. If the n Number of luminaires he calculation. conditions inherent in eusing the utilisation factor basic concept are in line with those in a (m) Utilisation factor method: formula The utilisation factorLength of space tion factor method is still used method is e appropriate the results will be b estimated calculaWidth of space as the basis for the relevant Euron model space,utilance table has reafor calculating the nominal illumi- used for an(m) nably accurate. The more the basic conÏ (m) Luminous flux luminaire for each type of luminaire. The nance EN for a given number of tion of lighting installations. It is perpean standard and for planning programs, to calculate the averions deviate from the standardised luminaires or the number of lumi- used to calculate theUtilance of number hR ding standard luminaire classifinaires n for a given illuminance luminaires LB nditions, usedif the lighting layout is h required for the target age illuminance for rooms on Light output ratio e can be e. g. for this purpose. illuminance on the working plane regular luminaire grids.. tinctly asymmetrical, it must be accepted V Light loss factor classification in accordance or the illuminance achieved by a Light output ratio h LB : at an increasing number of errors will æLB = ÏLe 5040 and the German Lighting specified number of luminaires. ratio of the luminous cur in the is made up of one g Society calculation. ÏLa The utilisation factor method is flux emitted by a lumiWhen using the utilisation factor two digits, a combination indibased on the fact that the avernair ÏLe under operathod an appropriate utilance mber of luminaire qualities. table has ting conditions to the age horizontal illuminance for a luminous flux of the be used for each type of luminaire. The defines the luminaire class and room of a specific size can be callamp ÏLa . responding standard luminaire classificulated using the total luminous whether a luminaire emits flux of the installed luminaires ion in the upper or for this purpose. arilytable can be usedlower part and the light output ratio along minaire classification in lighce, i.e. direct or indirect accordance ÏLa Light output ratio with the utilisation factor. h LB : h digit refers to German Lighting ÏLe rstDIN 5040 and the proportion æLB = The ratio of the luminous utilisation factor method is gineering Society the working ÏLa us flux falling ontois made up of one rarely flux emitted by a lumi- relevant Le routine planÏ to ter and two digits, a space. The he lower part of the combination indinair ÏLe under opera- any more since it is based ning es a number of luminaire qualities. it indicates the corresponding ting conditions to on standardised rooms. Today, the Typical light output luminous flux of theis much easier and quicker to hLB e letter definesof the space. It class and he upper part the luminaire is Lamp type itLuminaire for ÏLa . ratios hLBlampdirect icates whether a luminaire necessary to use the standard emits calculate individual rooms using luminaires with various computer programs. The utilisa- 0.65–0.75 ht primarily in the upper or lower part minaire classification, as exact Louvred luminaire 30° T26 cut-off angles and the space, i.e. direct or manu- lighindirect upplied by the lighting lamp types. Louvred luminaire 40° T26 0.55–0.65 ÏLa g. The first digit refers to the proportion version at www.erco.com Louvred lumin. square TC 0.50–0.70 Edition: 06/12/2006 | Updated 408 uminous flux falling onto the working Downlight 30° TC 0.60–0.70 ÏLe ne in the lower part of the space. The Downlight 40° TC 0.50–0.60 ond digit indicates the corresponding Downlight 30° A/QT 0.70–0.75 Typical light outputDownlight 40° ue for the upper part of the space. It is Luminaire Lamp type hLB A/QT 0.60–0.70
ratios hLB for direct

they comprise the amotised costs for the luminaires, for their installation and cleaning. The variable costs are dependent on the operating time. They comprise costs for energy, material and wages for staff carrying out lamp replacement. On the basis of these values it is possible to calculate the different qualities of a lighting installation. The annual costs ofFormula for calculating a lighting installation are of particular the costs ofIta is often interest. lighting Formula calculating installation a lighting advisable to Lighting costscostsfor K from the compare the economic effithe of fixed costs K from the ciency of different lamp types inK' andplaninstallation the the annual fixed costs K' and costs ning phase. This data can be operating the calculated K". either as annual costs annualcosts for costs or as operating the K". production of a specific quantity of light. The pay-back time is important in both completely new projects and refurbishment projects, that is to say the period of time Formula for calculating within which the operatingpay-back time t the costs that have Formula for calculating of new installation. off against the been saved can be set theapay-back time t investment costs for the a new installation. of new installation.

nance L from one half of the space.

E

Guide

L from one half of the installation K from the space.costs K' and the fixed annual operating costs K".

K' = n (p . K1 + R) K'' = n . tB (a . P + K2 ) tLa K = n [p . K1 + R + tB (a . P + K2 )] tLa t= Kl (new) K'' (old) – K'' (new)

Simulation and calculation | Calculations K = K' + K'' K = K' + K''K1 + R) K' = n (p . K' = n (p . K1 + R) ) K'' = n . tB (a . P + K2 Comparison of tthe two t 2 pay-back time of ) K'' = n . tB (a . P + KLanew installations, K = n [p . K1 + R + tLa (a . higherK2 )] tB whereby installation B P + investment has t2 K = n [p . K1 + R + tB (a . Pand KLa )] operacosts + lower ting costs.tLa Kl (new) t= Kl – K'' t = K'' (old)(new)(new) K'' (old) – K'' (new) t = Kl (B) – Kl (A) K'' (B) – Kl (A) Kl (A) K'' (B) t a=(EU/kWh) –Energy costs K'' (A) – Annual costs for a K'' (B) K (EU/a)
K' (EU/a) K" (EU/a) K1 (EU) K2 (EU) K l (EU) Formula for calculating the pay-back time t of a new installation.

Comparison of the pay-back time the Comparison of t of two new installations, pay-back time t of two whereby installation B new installations, has higher investment whereby installation B costs and investment has higherlower operating and costscosts.lower operating costs.

lighting installation Fixed annual costs Annual operating costs Costs per luminaire incl. mounting Costs per lamp incl. lamp replacement Investment costs (n · K1)

a (EU/kWh) K (EU/a) a (EU/kWh) K (EU/a) K' (EU/a) K" (EU/a) K' (EU/a) K (EU) K"1(EU/a) K (EU) K12(EU) K2 (EU) K l (EU) K l (EU)

Energy costs Annual costs Energy costs for a lighting installation Annual costs for a Fixed annual costs lighting installation Annual operating Fixed annual costscosts Costs per luminaire incl. Annual operating costs mounting per lamp Costs per luminaire incl. mounting incl. per replacement Costs lamplamp Investment costs (n · K incl. lamp replacement1) Investment costs (n · K1)

n p n (1/a) p (1/a) P (kW) R (EU/a) P