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Coordinator dr. Gandes Retno Rahayu, M.Med.Ed., Ph.D dr. Savitri Shitarukmi Learning Objectives: After completing this practice session, student is expected to be able to: 1. apply seven-jump method in a small group discussion / tutorial session. 2. act appropriately as a chair, scriber or active discussion participant.
Theoretical Background: In problem-based learning, the starting point is always a problem. A problem is a short description of an intriguing phenomenon in science, the community or a profession about which student need to acquire knowledge. Discussion of the problem take place in small groups of about 8-10 students. In this tutorial group student analyze a problem using a method called the seven-jump approach. This analyze leads to a number of learning issues. These are questions for which students try to find an answer by studying different information sources during a period of self-study. After this period, the students meet again to discuss what they have found. During this reporting phase, they try to integrate they knowledge they have found and unclarities in the literature are discussed.
1. Seven-jump Each problem is discussed at two tutorials. In the first tutorial, students cover steps 1 to 5 of the sevenjump. Independent study is performed in step 6. In the second tutorial, which is held a few days after the first, students cover step 7 of the process. Each step in seven jump is described below.
other group members may be able to provide definitions. Clarification of even half . Clarify unfamiliar terms Process Students identify any words whose meaning is unclear . enabling them to be honest about anything they do not understand. Students should be made to feel safe. Written output List of issues to be explained 2 . This is an open session when students are encouraged to contribute their view of the problem under discussion. have a different . STEP 2. Define the PROBLEM(s) Process The tutorial group defines the problem in a set of questions.perspective. The tutor may need to encourage them all to contribute to a fast-moving and wide ranging analysis. Written output Words or names on which the group cannot agree a meaning should be listed as learning objectives. Reason It Is quite possible for every member of tutorial group to. Comparing and pooling these views broadens the intellectual horizons of those involved and defines the task ahead. on a problem.STEP 1. Reason Unfamiliar terms act as an obstacle to understanding.stood terms may start the process of learning.
or explanations. The problem is scrutinized in fine detail and compared against the proposed hypotheses. hypothesis are generated. Brainstorm Possible Hypothesis or Explanation Process Pre-existing knowledge is activated and determined. Written output List of hypotheses or explanations STEP 4. that prompts the use of previous learning and memory and allows students to test or draw on another’s understanding. If well handled by the tutor and group. This is a continuation of the open session but students now try to formulate. Reason This is a crucial step. In this context: A hypothesis means a supposition made either as a basis for reasoning. Explanation means make known in detail and make intelligible. test and compare the relative merits of their hypotheses as explanations of the problem or case he tutor may need to keep the discussion at a hypothetical level and discourage going into too much detail too quickly. it pitches learning at the deeper level of 'understanding' rather than the superficial level of 'facts'. without assumption of its truth. Iinks can be formed between the items if incomplete knowledge that exist within the group. with a view to mutual understanding. or as a starting point for investigation.STEP 3. Reason 3 . Students will have thought of as many different explanations as possible of what is occurring. to see how the will match and if further exploration is needed. Arrange Explanations Into a tentative solution/Analyzing the problem Process Explanations and hypothesis are discussed in depth and are systematically analyzed and related to each other.
these are the main output of the initial group work in PBL The learning objectives should be preferably be in the form of issues that address specific questions or hypotheses. STEP 5. This not only defines the learning objectives but also pulls the group together and concludes the discussion. 4 . Written output Learning objectives . with existing knowledge and with different contexts. The group agrees a core set of learning objectives that all students will study. Reason The process of consensus uses the expertise of the entire tutorial group (and tutor) to synthesize the foregoing discussion into appropriate and attainable learning objectives. (Note that in memory.This stage actively processes and restructures existing knowledge and identifies gaps in understanding. trying to fink new ideas with each other. Written output This involves organizing explanations for problems. For example. 'the use of cantle charts to asses the growth of children' is better and more precise that the global topic of 'growth'. and learning issues are formulated in these topics. representing them schematically. This process provides a visual output of the relationships between different pieces of information and facilities storage of information in long-term memory. Define Learning Objectives/Formulating Learning Issues Process It is determined what knowledge the group lacks. The tutor encourages them to be focused. Some students may have objectives that are not shared by the whole group because of their own personal learning needs or interests. some elements of knowledge are organized schematically in frameworks or networks than semantically like a dictionary). not too broad or superficial and achievable within the time available.
A well-organized PBL course will include a course or block book providing advice on how to obtain or contact specific learning resources that might otherwise be difficult to find or access.STEP 6. After this. This take place a few days after the first session (steps 1-5). Reason Clearly an essential part of the learning process is gathering and acquisition of new information. or anything else that will help provide the information the student is seeking. consolidates learning and Identifies areas of uncertainty. carrying out a computerized literature search using the Internet looking at pathological specimens. Written output Students' individual notes STEP 7. they attempt to undertake and produce a complete analysis of the problem. Reporting / Share the Results of information Gathering and Private Study Process Findings from self-study are reported and answer to the learning issues are discussed. possibly for further study. Learning is inevitably incomplete and open-ended. talking to an expert. Information Gathering and Private Study Process This could include finding material in textbooks. pool their information from private study and help each other understand and identify areas of continuing difficulty for further study (or expert help). Students begin by returning to their list of learning objectives. Reason This synthesizes the work of the group. which students do on their own. but this is quite deliberate because students should return to the topics when appropriate 'triggers' occur in the future. 5 . They first Identify their individual sources of information.
a tutor The following table explains what the chair and scribe should do in each step of seven-jump. Preliminary discussion step 1 description clarifying unfamiliar terms unfamiliar terms in the problem text are clarified chair Invites group members to read the problem Checks if everyone has read the problem Checks if there are unfamiliar terms in the problem Concludes and proceeds to the next phase Asks the group for possible problem definitions Paraphrases contributions of group members Checks if everyone is satisfied with the problem definitions Concludes and proceeds to the next phase Allows all group members to contribute one by one Summarizes contributions of group members scribe Divides the blackboard into three parts Notes down the unfamiliar terms 2 problem definition the tutorial group defines the problem in a set of questions Notes down the problem definitions 3 brainstorm preexisting knowledge is activated and Makes brief and clear summaries of contributions Distinguishes 6 . a scribe (at Gadjah Mada University Faculty of Medicine two scribes are chosen. Written output Students' individual notes 2. Participant Roles A problem-based learning tutorial group consists of: 1. the other is to write in the reporting book) 3. a group chairperson 2. other students/learner 4. one is to write in the board.
hypotheses are generated Stimulates all group members to contribute Summarizes at the end of the brainstorm Makes sure that a critical analysis of all contributions is postponed until step four Makes sure that all points from the brainstorm are discussed Summarizes contributions of group members Asks questions. promotes depth in the discussion Makes sure the group does not stray from the subject Stimulates group members to find relations between topics Stimulates all group members to contribute Asks for possible learning issues Paraphrases contributions of group members Checks if everyone is satisfied with the learning issues Checks if all obscurities and contradictions from the problem analysis have been converted into learning issues between main points and side issues 4 analyzing the problem explanations and hypotheses are discussed in depth and are systematically analyzed and related to each other Makes brief and clear summaries of contributions Indicates relations between topics. makes schemata 5 formulating learning issues it is determined what knowledge the group lacks. makes schemata Distinguishes between main points and side issues 7 . and learning issues are formulated on these topics Notes down the learning issues Reporting phase step 7 description reporting finding from the literature are reported and answers to the learning issues are discussed chair Prepares the structure of the reporting phase Makes an inventory of what sources have been used Repeats every learning issue and asks what has been found Summarizes contributions of group members Asks questions.determined. promotes depth in the discussion Stimulates group members to find scribe Makes brief and clear summaries of contributions Indicates relations between topics.
The feedback should be focused on: a. End of practice session Note: Scenario and reading materials will be distributed on the day of practice session. Feedback of the practice with step 1 to step 3.relations between topics Stimulates all group members to contribute Concludes the discussion of each learning issue with a summary Activities in Practice Session 1. How did the scribe do? d. Questions and answers regarding step 1 to step 3 4. How did the group perform the first three steps? b. Practice with step 4 to step 5 9. The feedback should be focused on: a. Feedback of the practice with step 7. Questions and answers regarding step 4 to step 5 8. How did the chair do? c. Video simulation of step 1 to step 3 3. 2. Video simulation of step 7 13. How did the group perform the first three steps? b. How did the rest of the students participate? 6. How did the scribe do? d. Video simulation of step 6 11. How did the rest of the students participate? 16. Practice with step 6 12. Practice with step 7 15. How did the chair do? c. Practice with step 1 to step 3 5. The feedback should be focused on: a. Video simulation of step 4 to step 5 7. 8 . How did the chair do? c. How did the scribe do? d. Explanation of the objectives and methods of practice session (5’ / instructors). Feedback of the practice with step 4 to step 5. How did the rest of the students participate? 10. How did the group perform the first three steps? b.
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