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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the mineral. For the gemstone, see Diamond (gemstone). For other uses, including the shape ◊, see Diamond (disambiguation).
The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. General Category Chemical formula Strunz classification Molar mass Native Minerals C 01.CB.10a Identification 12.01 g·mol-1 Typically yellow, brown or gray to colorless. Less often blue, green, black, translucent white, pink, violet, orange, purple and red. Octahedral Isometric-Hexoctahedral (Cubic) 111 (perfect in four directions) Conchoidal (shell-like) 10
Crystal habit Crystal system Cleavage Fracture Mohs scale hardness
Luster Streak Diaphaneity
Adamantine Colorless Transparent to subtransparent to translucent 3.5–3.53 g/cm3 Adamantine Isotropic
Specific gravity 3.52±0.01 Density Polish luster Optical properties Birefringence Pleochroism Dispersion Melting point References
Refractive index 2.418 (at 500 nm) None None 0.044 Pressure dependent
In mineralogy, diamond (from the ancient Greek αδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is an allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at ambient conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools. Diamond has remarkable optical characteristics. Because of its extremely rigid lattice, it can be contaminated by very few types of impurities, such as boron and nitrogen. Combined with wide transparency, this results in the clear, colorless appearance of most natural diamonds. Small amounts of defects or impurities (about one per million of lattice atoms) color diamond blue (boron), yellow (nitrogen), brown (lattice defects), green (radiation exposure), purple, pink, orange or red. Diamond also has relatively high optical dispersion (ability to disperse light of different colors), which results in its characteristic luster. Excellent optical and mechanical properties, combined with efficient marketing, make diamond the most popular gemstone. Most natural diamonds are formed at high-pressure high-temperature conditions existing at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 120 mi) in the Earth mantle. Carbon-containing minerals provide the carbon source, and the growth occurs over periods from 1 billion to 3.3 billion years (25% to 75% of the age of the Earth). Diamonds are brought close to the Earth surface through deep volcanic eruptions by a magma, which cools into igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites. Diamonds can also be produced synthetically in a high-pressure high-temperature process which approximately simulates the conditions in the Earth mantle. An alternative, and
completely different growth technique is chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several nondiamond materials, which include cubic zirconia and silicon carbide and are often called diamond simulants, resemble diamond in appearance and many properties. Special gemological techniques have been specially developed to distinguish natural and synthetic diamonds and diamond simulants.
1 History 2 Material properties o 2.1 Hardness o 2.2 Electrical conductivity o 2.3 Surface property o 2.4 Chemical stability o 2.5 Color o 2.6 Identification 3 Natural history o 3.1 Formation in cratons o 3.2 Deposition in meteorite impact craters o 3.3 Transport from mantle 4 Production o 4.1 Controversial sources 5 Commercial markets o 5.1 Gemstones and their distribution 5.1.1 Marketing 5.1.2 Cutting o 5.2 Industrial uses 6 Synthetics, simulants, and enhancements o 6.1 Synthetics o 6.2 Simulants o 6.3 Enhancements o 6.4 Identification 7 See also 8 References 9 Books 10 External links
See also: Diamond (gemstone)
color. Their usage in engraving tools also dates to early human history.The name diamond is derived from the ancient Greek αδάμας (adámas). Smithson Tennant repeated and expanded that experiment. where significant alluvial deposits of the stone could be found many centuries ago along the rivers Penner. "I tame". flawless diamond is known as a paragon.(a-). The most familiar use of diamonds today is as gemstones used for adornment. Antoine Lavoisier used a lens to concentrate the rays of the sun on a diamond in an atmosphere of oxygen. Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India.000 years but most likely 6. The dispersion of white light into spectral colors is the primary gemological characteristic of gem diamonds. proving that diamond is composed of carbon. "I overpower". A large. By demonstrating that burning diamond and graphite releases the same amount of gas he established the chemical equivalence of these substances. are now commonly used as the basic descriptors of diamonds: these are carat. Material properties Main articles: Material properties of diamond and Crystallographic defects in diamond Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon . improved cutting and polishing techniques. from ἀ. growth in the world economy. "unbreakable". known informally as the four Cs. The popularity of diamonds has risen since the 19th century because of increased supply. In the 20th century. experts in gemology have developed methods of grading diamonds and other gemstones based on the characteristics most important to their value as a gem. "untamed". and clarity. Diamonds are thought to have been first recognized and mined in India.000 years. "unalterable". In 1772. Later in 1797. "un-" + δαμάω (damáō). and showed that the only product of the combustion was carbon dioxide. cut. Four characteristics. "proper". and innovative and successful advertising campaigns. Krishna and Godavari. Diamonds have been known in India for at least 3. a use which dates back into antiquity.
transformation starts at ~700 °C. Diamond hardness depends on its purity. Diamond has a hardness of 10 (hardest) on this scale. Unlike many other gems.800 °C in oxygen and 850 . where hardness is defined as resistance to scratching and is graded between 1 (softest) and 10 (hardest) using the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. pure crystals oriented to the <111> direction (along the longest diagonal of the cubic diamond lattice). with pure diamond close to 3. Because it can only be scratched by other diamonds. the hardest diamonds can only be scratched by other diamonds and nanocrystalline diamond aggregates.52 g/cm3. Above 1. crystalline perfection and orientation: hardness is higher for flawless. Therefore. it is well-suited to daily wear because of its resistance to scratching—perhaps contributing to its popularity as the preferred gem in engagement or wedding rings. In diamonds. in air.15–3. which can slide easily over one another. whereas it might be possible to scratch some diamonds with other materials. Diamond's hardness has been known since antiquity. . Hardness Diamond is the hardest natural material known.583 °F) in vacuum or oxygen-free atmosphere. Naturally occurring diamonds have a density ranging from 3. diamond converts to graphite.53 g/cm3. The hardness of diamond contributes to its suitability as a gemstone. such as boron nitride. it maintains its polish extremely well.320 W·m−1·K−1). Diamond's ignition point is 720 . Most notable are its extreme hardness and thermal conductivity (900–2. as well as wide bandgap and high optical dispersion. the bonds form an inflexible three-dimensional lattice. making the overall structure weaker. whereas in graphite.000 °C in air. Diamonds have been adapted for many uses because of the material's exceptional physical characteristics. and is the source of its name.Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. which are often worn every day. the atoms are tightly bonded into sheets.973 K / 3. A diamond is a transparent crystal of tetrahedrally bonded carbon atoms (sp3) that crystallizes into the diamond lattice which is a variation of the face centered cubic structure.1. The chemical bonds that hold the carbon atoms in diamonds together are weaker than those in graphite.700 °C (1.
flaws. This value is good compared to other gemstones. the macroscopic geometry of a diamond contributes to its resistance to breakage. and defect planes in the crystal lattice. This property can be utilized to extract diamonds using oil when making synthetic diamonds. Color Main article: Diamond color . Most other diamonds show more evidence of multiple growth stages. This conductivity is associated with hydrogen-related species adsorbed at the surface.000 °C). and it can be removed by annealing or other surface treatments. which means the diamonds' surface cannot be wet by water but can be easily wet and stuck by oil. Australia. all of which affect their hardness. in contrast to most diamonds. Diamonds' surface can only be oxidized a little by just a few oxidants under high temperature (below 1. which are excellent electrical insulators. perfect to semiperfect octahedra.5–10 MPa·m1/2. prior to faceting. Somewhat related to hardness is another mechanical property toughness.The hardest natural diamonds mostly originate from the Copeton and Bingara fields located in the New England area in New South Wales. including use as semiconductors: some blue diamonds are natural semiconductors. donating a hole into the valence band. Chemical stability Diamonds' chemical property is very stable. The conductivity and blue color originate from boron impurity. It is possible to treat regular diamonds under a combination of high pressure and high temperature to produce diamonds that are harder than the diamonds used in hardness gauges. and are used to polish other diamonds. The toughness of natural diamond has been measured as 7. Their hardness is associated with the crystal growth form. which is a material's ability to resist breakage from forceful impact. Substantial conductivity is commonly observed in nominally undoped diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. Under room temperature diamonds do not react with any chemical reagents including various kinds of acid and alkali. Surface property Diamonds are lipophilic and hydrophobic. Diamond cutters use this attribute to cleave some stones. Diamond has a cleavage plane and is therefore more fragile in some orientations than others. "Impact toughness" is one of the main indexes to measure the quality of synthetic industrial diamonds. As with any material. So acid and alkali can be used to refine synthetic diamonds. which produce inclusions. Electrical conductivity Other specialized applications also exist or are being developed. but poor compared to most engineering materials. which is single-stage crystal growth. These diamonds are generally small. Boron substitutes for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice.
orange. pink. .5 million Swiss francs (6. but rather contain numerous dark inclusions that give the gems their dark appearance. diamonds are not truly black.56-carat (7. the Wittelsbach Diamond. which are commonly used for growth of synthetic diamond by high-pressure high-temperature techniques. and plastic deformation of the diamond crystal lattice. The most common impurity. Nitrogen is by far the most common impurity found in gem diamonds and is responsible for the yellow and brown color in diamonds. have been detected in diamond as individual atoms. nitrogen.0 g) vivid pink diamond was sold for $10.03-carat (1. Diamonds of a different color. In May 2009. In 2008. "Black". green. The diamond crystal lattice is exceptionally strong and only atoms of nitrogen. yellow diamond is followed by brown. That record was however beaten the same year: a 5-carat (1. purple. a 7. or Carbonado. fetched over US$24 million at a Christie's auction. Colors in diamond originate from lattice defects and impurities. such as blue. In order of rarity. boron and hydrogen can be introduced into diamond during the growth at significant concentrations (up to atomic percents).8 million in Hong Kong on December 1.Brown diamonds at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington. Boron is responsible for the blue color. Color in diamond has two additional sources: irradiation (usually by alpha particles). Plastic deformation is the cause of color in some brown and perhaps pink and red diamonds. and fall under a different grading scale. while pure or nearly pure diamonds are transparent and colorless. a 35. and applies a grading scale from "D" (colorless) to "Z" (light yellow). Transition metals Ni and Co. D. colorless.97 million euro or US$9. the maximum concentration is 0. black. This means pure diamond should transmit visible light and appear as a clear colorless crystal.C Diamond has a wide bandgap of 5. Virtually any element can be introduced to diamond by ion implantation. then by blue. The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) classifies low saturation yellow and brown diamonds as diamonds in the normal color range.41 g) blue diamond fetched the highest price per carat ever paid for a diamond when it was sold at auction for 10. Colored diamonds contain impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration.5 million at the time). Most diamond impurities replace a carbon atom in the crystal lattice. and red. 2009. are called fancy colored diamonds. known as a carbon flaw.5 eV corresponding to the deep ultraviolet wavelength of 225 nanometers.11 g) blue diamond once belonging to the King of Spain. causes a slight to intense yellow coloration depending upon the type and concentration of nitrogen present.01% for Ni and even much less for Co. that causes the color in green diamonds.
These conditions are met in two places on Earth. also lie above glass on the Mohs scale and can also cut it. in the lithospheric mantle below relatively stable continental plates. Diamonds cut glass. ranging approximately between 45 and 60 kilobars (4. but this does not positively identify a diamond because other materials. Diamonds also possess an extremely high refractive index and fairly high dispersion. showing trigons (of positive and negative relief) formed by natural chemical etching The conditions for diamond formation to happen in the lithospheric mantle occur at considerable depth corresponding to the requirements of temperature and pressure. The rate at which temperature changes with increasing depth into the Earth varies greatly in different parts of the Earth. In particular. These depths are estimated between 140 and 190 km though occasionally diamonds have crystallized at depths about 300 km as well. Formation in cratons One face of an uncut octahedral diamond. but this can result in damage to one or both stones. such as quartz. Natural history The formation of natural diamond requires very specific conditions—exposure of carbon-bearing materials to high pressure. but other materials have similar refractivity. these tend to result in extremely flat. highly polished facets with exceptionally sharp facet edges. The correct combination of temperature and pressure is only found in the thick. . these factors affect the overall appearance of a polished diamond and most diamantaires still rely upon skilled use of a loupe (magnifying glass) to identify diamonds 'by eye'. Their high refractive index is also indicative. but at a comparatively low temperature range between approximately 900–1300 °C. Taken together.5 and 6 GPa). Hardness tests are infrequently used in practical gemology because of their potentially destructive nature. beyond the range required for diamond formation at the depth required.Identification Diamonds can be identified by their high thermal conductivity. ancient. The extreme hardness and high value of diamond means that gems are typically polished slowly using painstaking traditional techniques and greater attention to detail than is the case with most other gemstones. and at the site of a meteorite strike. Diamonds can scratch other diamonds. under oceanic plates the temperature rises more quickly with depth.
A type of diamond called carbonado that is found in South America and Africa may have been deposited there via an asteroid impact (not formed from the impact) about 3 billion years ago. rhombicosidodecahedron. they have many facets that belong to a cube. Through studies of carbon isotope ratios (similar to the methodology used in carbon dating. are formed from inorganic carbon originally found deep in the Earth's mantle. there was no scientific consensus on how carbonado diamonds originated. known as harzburgitic. eclogitic diamonds contain organic carbon from organic detritus that has been pushed down from the surface of the Earth's crust through subduction (see plate tectonics) before transforming into diamond. known as microdiamonds or nanodiamonds respectively. but as of 2008. tetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron. Deposition in meteorite impact craters Not all diamonds found on Earth originated here. Diamonds occur most often as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known as macles.3 billion years old. Diamonds (especially those with rounded crystal faces) are commonly found coated in nyf. octahedron. Transport from mantle . have been found in meteorite impact craters. Very small diamonds of micrometer and nanometer sizes. ranging from under 1 billion to 3. Diamonds can also form under other naturally occurring high-pressure conditions. These different shapes and habits of some diamonds result from differing external circumstances. These two different source of carbon have measurably different 13 12 C: C ratios. Long residence in the cratonic lithosphere allows diamond crystals to grow larger. Impact-type microdiamonds can be used as an indicator of ancient impact craters.and stable parts of continental plates where regions of lithosphere known as cratons exist. Such impact events create shock zones of high pressure and temperature suitable for diamond formation. except with the stable isotopes C-12 and C-13). These diamonds may have formed in the intrastellar environment. Diamonds that have come to the Earth's surface are generally quite old. an opaque gum-like skin. As diamond's crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the atoms. This is 22% to 73% of the age of the Earth. Sometimes they are found grown together or form double "twinned" crystals at the surfaces of the octahedron. it has been shown that the carbon found in diamonds comes from both inorganic and organic sources. The crystals can have rounded off and unexpressive edges and can be elongated. Some diamonds. In contrast.
dark chromite. The pipes contain material that was transported toward the surface by volcanic action. they may erode out and be distributed over a large area. The magma for such a volcano must originate at a depth where diamonds can be formed—150 km (93 mi) or more (three times or more the depth of source magma for most volcanoes). instead. elements which impart bright colors to the minerals. many xenoliths of surface rock and even wood and fossils are found in volcanic pipes. coolest regions of continental crust (cratons). glassy green olivine. Diamondbearing volcanic pipes are closely related to the oldest. orange titanium-pyrope. These minerals are rich in chromium (Cr) or titanium (Ti). During eruption these pipes are open to the surface. The magma in volcanic pipes is usually one of two characteristic types. Kimberlite deposits are known as blue ground for the deeper serpentinized part of the deposits. pyroxene. black picroilmenite. and their lithospheric mantle extends to great enough depth that diamonds are stable. minerals (xenocrysts). A volcanic pipe containing diamonds is known as . Certain indicator minerals typically occur within diamantiferous kimberlites and are used as mineralogical tracers by prospectors. which cool into igneous rock known as either kimberlite or lamproite. bright green chromium-diopside. and occasionally green ugrandite-series garnets). it acts as an elevator that carries deep-formed rocks (xenoliths). The most common indicator minerals are chromium garnets (usually bright red chromium-pyrope. This is because cratons are very thick.Schematic diagram of a volcanic pipe Diamond-bearing rock is carried from the mantle to the Earth's surface by deep-origin volcanic eruptions. These typically small surface volcanic craters extend downward in formations known as volcanic pipes. and amphibole minerals which are often altered to serpentine by heat and fluids during and after eruption. but was not ejected before the volcanic activity ceased. These rocks are characteristically rich in magnesium-bearing olivine. eclogitic garnets. resulting in open circulation. and fluids upward. or as yellow ground for the near surface smectite clay and carbonate weathered and oxidized portion. Not all pipes contain diamonds. The magma itself does not contain diamond. and magnetite. red high-chromium spinels. and even fewer contain enough diamonds to make mining economically viable. This is a relatively rare occurrence. Once diamonds have been transported to the surface by magma in a volcanic pipe. who follow the indicator trail back to the volcanic pipe which may contain diamonds.
 They are mined from kimberlite and lamproite volcanic pipes. and about 100. Angola.000. Diamond extraction from primary deposits (kimberlites and lamproites) started in the 1870s after the discovery of the Diamond Fields in South Africa. India led the world in diamond production from the time of their discovery in approximately the 9th century BC to the mid-18th century AD. Most of these mines are located in Canada. originating from deep within the Earth where high pressures and temperatures enable them to form.000 kg) have been mined since that date. The ore is crushed. nine new mines have started production. and is also highly concentrated in a small number of locations around the world. These include alluvial deposits and deposits along existing and ancient shorelines. although significant sources of the mineral have been discovered in Canada. Today. where loose diamonds tend to accumulate because of their size and density. Production See also: List of diamond mines Approximately 130. with a total value of nearly US$9 billion. four more are waiting to be opened soon. The diamond supply chain is controlled by a limited number of powerful businesses. Twenty percent of that amount has been mined in the last five years.000 carats (26.000 lb) are synthesized annually. Zimbabwe. Secondary sources of diamonds include all areas where a significant number of diamonds have been eroded out of their kimberlite or lamproite matrix. Roughly 49% of diamonds originate from central and southern Africa. The mining and distribution of natural diamonds are subjects of frequent controversy such as concerns over the sale of blood diamonds or conflict diamonds by African paramilitary groups. but the commercial potential of these sources had been exhausted by the late 18th century and at that time India was eclipsed by Brazil where the first non-Indian diamonds were found in 1725. and Australia. Historically. diamonds are located in the diamond-rich density fraction with the help of X-ray fluorescence. in contrast to alluvial deposits. to the surface. after which the final sorting steps are done by hand.000 kg) of diamonds are mined annually. and accumulated because of water or wind action. and one in Russia.500.000. one of the most prominent Indian mines is located at Panna. glacial deposits are minor and are therefore not viable commercial sources of diamond. Before the use of X-rays became commonplace.000 carats (900.000 kg (220. . and then sorted by density. Production has increased over time and now an accumulated total of 4. during which care is required not to destroy larger diamonds. Diamonds have also rarely been found in deposits left behind by glaciers (notably in Wisconsin and Indiana).a primary source of diamonds. Only a very small fraction of the diamond ore consists of actual diamonds. diamonds have a stronger tendency to stick to grease than the other minerals in the ore. diamonds were found only in alluvial deposits in Guntur and Krishna district of the Krishna River delta in Southern India. Currently. and during the last 10 years. which can bring diamond crystals. Brazil. Russia. India. the separation was done with grease belts.
This is a stringent tracking system of diamonds and helps protect the "conflict free" label of Canadian diamonds. and (2) the violent nature of diamond mining in nations that are not in a technical state of war and whose diamonds are therefore considered "clean". Blood diamond.. Diamond prospectors continue to search the globe for diamond-bearing kimberlite and lamproite pipes. led to the January 2008 bulk-sampling of kimberlite pipes in a remote part of Montana. some still find their way in. There are also commercial deposits being actively mined in the Northwest Territories of Canada and Brazil. the discovery of a microscopic diamond in the U. The Kimberley Process aims to ensure that conflict diamonds do not become intermixed with the diamonds not controlled by such rebel groups. In 2004. Diamonds sold through this process are known as conflict diamonds or blood diamonds.In the U. for example Mir pipe and Udachnaya pipe).S. This is done by requiring diamond-producing countries to provide proof that the money they make from selling the diamonds is not used to fund criminal or revolutionary activities. Commercial markets See also: Diamonds as an investment . and Montana. In response to public concerns that their diamond purchases were contributing to war and human rights abuses in central and western Africa. diamonds have been found in Arkansas. Conflict diamonds constitute 2–3% of all diamonds traded. The Canadian Government has set up a body known as Canadian Diamond Code of Conduct to help authenticate Canadian diamonds. Colorado. In 2005. Botswana. revolutionary groups have taken control of diamond mines. Major diamond trading corporations continue to fund and fuel these conflicts by doing business with armed groups. Australia boasts the richest diamantiferous pipe. Although the Kimberley Process has been moderately successful in limiting the number of conflict diamonds entering the market. the United Nations. Controversial sources Main articles: Kimberley Process. using proceeds from diamond sales to finance their operations. the diamond industry and diamond-trading nations introduced the Kimberley Process in 2002. most commercially viable diamond deposits are in Russia (mostly in Sakha Republic. Australia (Northern and Western Australia) and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two major flaws still hinder the effectiveness of the Kimberley Process: (1) the relative ease of smuggling diamonds across African borders. reports the British Geological Survey. Russia produced almost one-fifth of the global diamond output. Today. and Child labour in the diamond industry In some of the more politically unstable central African and west African countries. with production from the Argyle diamond mine reaching peak levels of 42 metric tons per year in the 1990s.S.
One contributory factor is the geological nature of diamond deposits: several large primary kimberlite-pipe mines each account for significant portions of market share (such as the Jwaneng mine in Botswana. diamantaires. where almost 80% of the world's diamonds are sold.) whereas secondary alluvial diamond deposits tend to be fragmented amongst many different operators because they can be dispersed over many hundreds of square kilometers (e. pawnbroking. 92% of the world's diamonds were cut and polished in Surat. One hallmark of the trade in gem-quality diamonds is its remarkable concentration: wholesale trade and diamond cutting is limited to just a few locations. Gemstones and their distribution Main article: Diamond (gemstone) A large trade in gem-grade diamonds exists.000 kg) of diamonds per year.g. The DeBeers company.. While a large trade in both types of diamonds exists. the two markets act in dramatically different ways.500 kg) to 15. De Beers owns or . They are based in Johannesburg. England.). and Amsterdam. including auction sales. where the International Gemological Institute is based.g. the most important being Antwerp. cut and industrial diamonds combined are handled. Another important diamond center is New York City. alluvial deposits in Brazil). A single company—De Beers—controls a significant proportion of the trade in diamonds.000.000 carats (3. there is a substantial mark-up in the retail sale of gem diamonds. Tel Aviv.A round brilliant cut diamond set in a ring The diamond industry can be separated into two distinct categories: one dealing with gem-grade diamonds and another for industrial-grade diamonds. bourses. There is a wellestablished market for resale of polished diamonds (e. India. second-hand jewelry stores. as the world's largest diamond miner holds a dominant position in the industry. London. 50% of all cut diamonds and more than 50% of all rough. and has done so since soon after its founding in 1888 by the British imperialist Cecil Rhodes. Unlike other commodities. where 80% of all rough diamonds. The production and distribution of diamonds is largely consolidated in the hands of a few key players. such as most precious metals. and concentrated in traditional diamond trading centers.000 carats (2. South Africa and London. which is a single large pit operated by De Beers that can produce between 12. In 2003. New York City. auctions.500. etc. This makes Antwerp a de facto "world diamond capital". Other important centers of diamond cutting and trading are Antwerp.
The Diamond Trading Company (DTC) is a subsidiary of De Beers and markets rough diamonds from De Beers-operated mines. they are used for abrasives). other important diamond mining companies include BHP Billiton. Recently. has allowed smaller diamonds to be prepared as gems in greater quantities than was previously economically feasible. trading both polished and rough diamonds. which is the world's largest mining company. Europe and Asia. The recent expansion of this industry in India. The cutting and polishing of rough diamonds is a specialized skill that is concentrated in a limited number of locations worldwide. De Beers and its subsidiaries own mines that produce some 40% of annual world diamond production. but in the period 2001–2009 the figure has decreased to around 45%. at the end of 2008. The WFDB consists of independent diamond bourses in major cutting centers such as Tel Aviv. the owner of several major diamond mines in Africa. Diamonds which have been prepared as gemstones are sold on diamond exchanges called bourses. diamond cutting centers have been established in China. New York City. Amsterdam. Antwerp. Alrosa had to suspend their sales in October 2008 due to the global energy crisis. De Beers states that it only sells diamonds from the following four countries: Botswana. India. but the company reported that it had resumed selling rough diamonds on the open market by October 2009. Apart from Alrosa. members of The World Federation of Diamond Bourses (WFDB) act as a medium for wholesale diamond exchange. notably Surat in Gujarat.controls a significant portion of the world's rough diamond production facilities (mines) and distribution channels for gem-quality diamonds. De Beers withdrew from purchasing diamonds on the open market in 1999 and ceased. Diavik (60%). and Murowa (78%) diamond mines. For most of the 20th century over 80% of the world's rough diamonds passed through De Beers. Bourses are the final tightly . As a part of reducing its influence. the WFDB and The International Diamond Manufacturers Association established the World Diamond Council to prevent the trading of diamonds used to fund war and inhumane acts. As at January 2011. Traditional diamond cutting centers are Antwerp. Thailand. and Tel Aviv. while smaller quantities of larger or more valuable diamonds are more likely to be handled in Europe or North America. Namibia. There are 26 registered diamond bourses in the world. the owner of Argyle (100%). Namibia and Botswana. Rio Tinto Group. Johannesburg and other cities across the USA. employing low cost labor. India. WFDB's additional activities include sponsoring the World Diamond Congress every two years. diamonds are cut and polished in preparation for sale as gemstones ('industrial' stones are regarded as a by-product of the gemstone market. purchasing Russian diamonds mined by the largest Russian diamond company Alrosa. handle a larger number of smaller carat diamonds. Once purchased by Sightholders (which is a trademark term referring to the companies that have a three-year supply contract with DTC). Cutting centers with lower cost of labor. Further down the supply chain. De Beers sold off the vast majority of its diamond stockpile in the late 1990s – early 2000s and the remainder largely represents working stock (diamonds that are being sorted before sale). as well as the establishment of the International Diamond Council (IDC) to oversee diamond grading. This was well documented in the press but remains little known to the general public. and Petra Diamonds. Johannesburg. In 2000. South Africa and Canada.
controlled step in the diamond supply chain. Browncolored diamonds have always constituted a significant part of the diamond production. W. and were predominantly used for industrial purposes. Cutting Main articles: Diamond cutting and Diamond cut . In particular. 80% of Argyle diamonds are brown. succeeded in reviving the American diamond market and opened up new markets. or licensed product lines. as De Beers' market share declined. rather than specific brands. Ayer's multifaceted marketing campaign included product placement. Marketing The image of diamond as a valuable commodity has been preserved through clever marketing campaigns (as. This slogan is now being used by De Beers Diamond Jewelers. the De Beers diamond advertising campaign is acknowledged as one of the most successful and innovative campaigns in history. N. down to less than 29% in terms of carats mined. and building associations with celebrities and royalty.000 kg) of diamonds per year. makes about one-third of global production of natural diamonds. Diamonds can be sold already set in jewelry. rather than sold). As a result of an aggressive marketing campaign. This meant that. a jewelry firm which is a 50%/50% joint venture between the De Beers mining company and LVMH. It was a "generic" advertising campaign that tended to focus upon promoting diamonds in general. the luxury goods conglomerate. brown diamonds have become acceptable gems. or sold unset ("loose"). Another example of successful diamond marketing is brown Australian diamonds. they were not even assessed on the diamond color scale. rather than completely "generic" diamond products. The campaign lasted for decades but was effectively discontinued by early 2011. but the advertising now mostly promotes its own brands. with its 35. US$28 billion in wholesale diamond jewelry. or particular types of diamond jewellery. and US$57 billion in retail sales. the advertising firm retained by De Beers in the mid20th century. N. but were considered worthless for jewelry. is the case with many other luxury products). advertising the diamond itself rather than the De Beers brand. indeed. De Beers still advertises diamonds. The campaign was perhaps best captured by the slogan "a diamond is forever". in 2002 the diamonds produced and released to the market were valued at US$9 billion as rough diamonds.000 carats (7. W. it was increasingly advertising its competitors' products as well as its own (De Beers' market share dipped temporarily to 2nd place in the global market below Alrosa in the aftermath of the global economic crisis of 2008. The attitude has changed drastically after the development of Argyle diamond mine in Australia in 1986. wholesalers and even retailers are able to buy relatively small lots of diamonds at the bourses. The change was mostly due to the numbers: the Argyle mine. According to the Rio Tinto Group. even in countries where no diamond tradition had existed before. US$14 billion after being cut and polished. Ayer & Son. after which they are prepared for final sale to the consumer.000.
For example the diamond might be intended for display or for wear. which is a more reliable but tedious procedure. It needs to address a large number of issues. Therefore. it can be cut with a diamond saw.The Darya-I-Nur Diamond—an example of unusual diamond cut and jewelry arrangement The mined rough diamonds are converted into gems through a multi-step process called "cutting". but the final decision is often determined not only by scientific. the diamond is shaped in numerous stages of polishing. The cutter has to decide which flaws are to be removed by the cutting and which could be kept. Diamonds are extremely hard. Therefore. Its final goal is to produce a faceted jewel where the specific angles between the facets would optimize the diamond luster. that is dispersion of white light. which is a responsible but quick operation. tools and experience. but also practical considerations. but also brittle and can be split up by a single blow. whereas the number and area of facets would determine the weight of the final product. well calculated blow of a hammer to a pointed tool. bears much responsibility. but risky. After initial cutting. in a ring or a necklace. The most time-consuming part of the cutting is the preliminary analysis of the rough stone. scientific knowledge. Alternatively. The weight reduction upon cutting is significant and can be of the order of 50%. diamond cutting is traditionally considered as a delicate procedure requiring skills. Unlike cutting. Most diamonds contain visible non-diamond inclusions and crystal flaws. and therefore can last years in case of unique diamonds. which is quick. singled or surrounded by other gems of certain color and shape. Several possible shapes are considered. polishing removes material by gradual erosion and is . the crystallographic structure of the diamond to be cut is analyzed using X-ray diffraction to choose the optimal cutting directions. The diamond can be split by a single. The following issues are considered: The hardness of diamond and its ability to cleave strongly depend on the crystal orientation.
either remaining or induced by the process. After polishing. the diamond is reexamined for possible flaws. or clever arrangement of the stone in the jewelry. such as repolishing. synthetic diamonds found industrial applications almost immediately after their invention in the 1950s.000 carats (27.000 kg) annually). Remaining non-diamond inclusions are removed through laser drilling and filling of the voids produced. it is considered as a routine and can be performed by technicians. The associated technique is well developed. unsuitable for use as gemstones. In addition to mined diamonds.000.000.000 kg) of synthetic diamond is produced annually for industrial use. Industrial uses A scalpel with synthetic diamond blade Close-up photograph of an angle grinder blade with tiny diamonds shown embedded in the metal The market for industrial-grade diamonds operates much differently from its gem-grade counterpart.extremely time consuming. such as clarity and color. Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and thermal conductivity. Those flaws are concealed through various diamond enhancement techniques. This helps explain why 80% of mined diamonds (equal to about 135. irrelevant for most applications. crack filling. are destined for industrial use. another 570. .000 carats (110. Approximately 90% of diamond grinding grit is currently of synthetic origin. making many of the gemological characteristics of diamonds.
Within the category of industrial diamonds. known as bort. as carbon is soluble in iron at the high temperatures created by high-speed machining. with more flaws and poorer color than gems. leading to greatly increased wear on diamond tools compared to alternatives. as opposed to diamonds mined from the Earth. and limited use in specialized windows. Less expensive industrial-grade diamonds. Common industrial adaptations of this ability include diamond-tipped drill bits and saws. if demand for polished diamonds is high. This demand has been satisfied in large part by synthetic diamonds. and the use of diamond powder as an abrasive. including other diamonds. The gemological and industrial uses of diamond have created a large demand for rough stones. As the hardest known naturally occurring material. The majority of commercially available synthetic diamonds are yellow and are produced by so called High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT) processes. mostly opaque stones. or wear away any material. and enhancements Synthetics Main article: Synthetic diamond Synthetic diamonds of various colors grown by the high-pressure high-temperature technique Synthetic diamonds are diamonds manufactured in a laboratory. future applications are becoming feasible. Garnering much excitement is the possible use of diamond as a semiconductor suitable to build microchips. are used for such purposes. Specialized applications include use in laboratories as containment for high pressure experiments (see diamond anvil cell). some suitable stones will be polished into low-quality or small gemstones rather than being sold for industrial use). which are known as bort. simulants. in recent years it has become possible to produce gem-quality synthetic diamonds of significant size. However. Industrial use of diamonds has historically been associated with their hardness. high-performance bearings. diamond can be used to polish.The boundary between gem-quality diamonds and industrial diamonds is poorly defined and partly depends on market conditions (for example. cut. or the use of diamond as a heat sink in electronics. this property makes diamond the ideal material for cutting and grinding tools. Diamond is not suitable for machining ferrous alloys at high speeds. there is a sub-category comprising the lowest-quality. The yellow color is caused by . which have been manufactured by various processes for more than half a century. With the continuing advances being made in the production of synthetic diamonds. Synthetics.
 This method is mostly used for coatings. It involves feeding a mixture of gases (typically 1 to 99 methane to hydrogen) into a chamber and splitting them to chemically active radicals in a plasma ignited by microwaves. its main disadvantage as a diamond simulant is that cubic . arc discharge. although it is a gemstone in its own right. green or pink.nitrogen impurities. hot filament. Diamond-simulant gems are often referred to as diamante. a purchaser is more likely to encounter a synthetic when looking for a fancy-colored diamond because nearly all synthetic diamonds are fancy-colored. welding torch or laser.000 kg). while only 0. Simulants Main article: Diamond simulant Gem-cut synthetic silicon carbide set in a ring A diamond simulant is defined as a non-diamond material that is used to simulate the appearance of a diamond.000. At present. whereas the total production of natural diamonds is around 120. The growth occurs under low pressure (below atmospheric pressure). The most familiar diamond simulant to most consumers is cubic zirconia. the annual production of gem quality synthetic diamonds is only a few thousand carats. The popular gemstone moissanite (silicon carbide) is often treated as a diamond simulant. Other colors may also be reproduced such as blue. While moissanite looks similar to diamond. Despite this fact. Colorless gem cut from diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition Another popular method of growing synthetic diamond is chemical vapor deposition (CVD). but can also produce single crystals several millimeters in size (see picture).000 carats (24.01% of natural diamonds are. which are a result of the addition of boron or from irradiation after synthesis.
irradiated or non-irradiated. Whereas the thermal probe can separate diamonds from most of their simulants.zirconia is far cheaper and arguably equally convincing. and is rarely used nowadays. Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy should easily identify such a treatment. etc. hence enhancing the diamond simulant. Instead. Both cubic zirconia and moissanite are produced synthetically. requires more advanced. Identification Early diamond identification tests included a scratch test relying on the superior hardness of diamond. These probes consist of a pair of battery-powered thermistors mounted in a fine copper tip. They also use specially made instruments to aid them in the identification process. One thermistor functions as a heating device while the other measures the temperature of the copper tip: if the stone being tested is a diamond. Electronic thermal probes are widely used in the gemological centers to separate diamonds from their imitations. microscopy and luminescence under shortwave ultraviolet light to determine a diamond's origin. so both natural and synthetic diamonds always possess characteristic imperfections. arising from the circumstances of their crystal growth. Those techniques are also used for some diamonds simulants. which pass the thermal conductivity test. such as silicon carbide. as a diamond can scratch diamond. This test is destructive. that allow them to be distinguished from each other. optical techniques. application of sealants to fill cracks. These include laser drilling to remove inclusions. "Perfect" crystals (at the atomic lattice level) have never been found. They can also identify the vast majority of treated natural diamonds.. it will conduct the tip's thermal energy rapidly enough to produce a measurable temperature drop. and treatments to give fancy color to a white diamond. One such substance is diamond-like carbon—an amorphous carbonaceous material that has some physical properties similar to those of the diamond. Two screening instruments are the DiamondSure and the DiamondView. for example synthetic or natural. Advertising suggests that such a coating would transfer some of these diamond-like properties to the coated stone. Enhancements Main article: Diamond enhancement Diamond enhancements are specific treatments performed on natural or synthetic diamonds (usually those already cut and polished into a gem). . Optical techniques can distinguish between natural diamonds and synthetic diamonds. which are designed to better the gemological characteristics of the stone in one or more ways. diamond identification relies on its superior thermal conductivity. treatments to improve a white diamond's color grade. Coatings are increasingly used to give a diamond simulant such as cubic zirconia a more "diamond-like" appearance. both produced by the DTC and marketed by the GIA. This test takes about 2–3 seconds. Laboratories use techniques such as spectroscopy. distinguishing between various types of diamond.
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Peter (November 2000).wikipedia. Retrieved March 10. Edward Jay (1982). vacuum) · Enameling · Engraving · Filigree · Metal Processes clay · Plating · Polishing · Repoussé and chasing · Soldering · Stonesetting · Wire wrapping Tools Precious metals Draw plate · File · Hammer · Mandrel · Pliers Gold · Palladium · Platinum · Rhodium · Silver Precious Britannia silver · Colored gold · Crown gold · Electrum · Platinum sterling · metal alloys Shakudo · Shibuichi · Sterling silver · Tumbaga Base Brass · Bronze · Copper · Mokume-gane · Pewter · Stainless steel · Titanium metals/alloys Mineral gemstones Organic gemstones Aventurine · Agate · Alexandrite · Amethyst · Aquamarine · Carnelian · Citrine · Diamond · Diopside · Emerald · Garnet · Jade · Jasper · Lapis lazuli · Malachite · Marcasite · Moonstone · Obsidian · Onyx · Opal · Peridot · Quartz · Ruby · Sapphire · Sodalite · Sunstone · Tanzanite · Tiger's eye · Topaz · Tourmaline Amber · Copal · Coral · Jet · Pearl · Abalone Retrieved from "http://en. 2005. includes "Chapter 20: Have you ever tried to sell a diamond?") "A Contribution to the Understanding of Blue Fluorescence on the Appearance of Diamonds". [show]v · d · eAllotropes of carbon [show]v · d · eJewellery People Bench jeweler · Goldsmith · Jewellery designer · Lapidary · Watchmaker Casting (centrifugal. (2007) Gemological Institute of America (GIA) Tyson. "Diamonds in the Sky". Epstein. lost-wax.org/wiki/Diamond" Categories: Diamond | Abrasives | Carbon | Cubic minerals | Economic geology | Impact event minerals | Native element minerals | Semiconductor materials | Superhard materials | Transparent materials Hidden categories: Wikipedia semi-protected pages | Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages | Featured articles . The diamond invention (Complete book.
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