I

¯ Ibn ˓Abbad
Z EINA M ATAR
Abū al-Qāsim Ismā˓īl Ibn ˓Abbād Ibn al-˓Abbās Ibn ˓Abbād Ibn Ahmad Ibn Idrīs, also known as Kāfi al-Kufāt, and al-Sāhib, was a famous vizier and man of . . letters of the Buwayhid period. There is disagreement about his place and date of birth, but he was probably born at Istakhr on 16 Dhū’l-qa˓da 326/14 September .. 938. His family included high dignitaries, and his own father had been a kātib (clerk) and then vizier, or minister of state, under the Buwayhid Prince Rukn al-Dawla (r. 35/946–366/976). Ibn ˓Abbād himself became the disciple and secretary of Abū’l-Fad l Ibn al-˓Amīd (d. 360/970), the father of . the Buwayhid vizier Abū’l-Fath Ibn al-˓Amīd (b. 337/ . 948–9). His close relationship to the Buwayhid amīrs (princes) is said to have begun in 347/958, when he accompanied Mu’ayyid al-Dawla (reigned 366/976– 373/983) to Baghdad as a clerk. He was later confirmed in this office when Mu’ayyid al-Dawla became governor of Isfahan. Ibn ˓Abbād’s career took a more significant turn when he was appointed vizier, replacing Abū’l-Fath Ibn al-˓Amīd. . Ibn ˓Abbād served two rulers: Mu’ayyid al-Dawla and Fakhr al-Dawla (reigned 373/983–387/997). The main source for the study of his vizierate remains the volume of the Rasā˒il (˓Azzam 1946), which is a collection of administrative pieces, appointment, and other official letters by Ibn ˓Abbād. According to the sources, the personality of Fakhr al-Dawla was not really compatible with that of Ibn ˓Abbād, although he recognized the latter’s administrative skills and talents. When Ibn ˓Abbād died on 24 Safar 385/30 March 995, Fakhr alDawla confiscated his property, and from that time onward, no other member of his family was to be appointed to a high official position. Ibn ˓Abbād was not only a statesman and a politician, but he was also a talented writer whose works cover a very wide spectrum. In their article in the Encyclopedia of Islam, Claude Cahen and Charles Pellat give a

classification of his works: dogmatic theology, history, grammar and lexicography, literary criticism, poetry, and belles-lettres. In Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī’s Mathālib al-Wazīrayn, . . a comprehensive list of Ibn ˓Abbād’s works is given. Some of the most important are: . Kitāb al-Muhīt bi-˓l-lugha (The Comprehensive . . Treatise About Language) in 10 vols . Kitāb Dīwān rasā’ilihi (Collection of Letters) in 10 vols . Kitāb al-Kāfī. Rasā˒il (The Book of al-Kafī [that which is sufficient]. Letters [or Correspondence]) . Kitāb al-A˓yād wa-fadā’il al-Nowrūz (The Book of . Feasts and the Excellent Qualities of New Year’s Day) . Kitāb al-Wuzarā˒ (The Book of Viziers) . Kitāb Dīwān Shi˓r(ihi) (Collection of Poetry) In the Yatīmat al-dahr (III, 204), al-Tha˓ālibī commented on a Risāla on medicine said to have been written by Ibn ˓Abbād: I found that it combined beauty of style, elegance of expression, and mastery of the subtleties and particularities of medicine, and it showed that he was thoroughly familiar with this science, and had a penetrating knowledge of its intricacies. Ibn ˓Abbād often inspired very contradictory opinions and feelings as is shown by Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī’s . . hostility on the one hand, and by al-Tha˓ālibī’s praise and admiration on the other. However, regardless of personal like or dislike, he certainly was a highly exceptional personality in Muslim history. Maybe one can refer to him as a “patron-vizier”, a talented individual who had the ability to mix politics and literature, and a poet whose court once counted as many as 23 poets.

References
Abū Hayyān al-Tawhīdī. Mathālib al-Wazīrayn. Ed. I. al. . Kaylānī. Damascus: Dār al-Fikr, 1961. Al-Tha˓ālibī. Yatīmat al-Dahr. Ed. M. Muhiyyaddīn ˓Abād . al-Hamīd. 4 vols. Misr: Dār al-Māmūn, 1956–1958. . . ˓Azzam, A. A. and S. Dayf, ed. Rasā˒il al-Sāhib Ibn ˓Abbād. . . . Cairo: Dār al-Fikr al˓Arabi, 1946.

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Cahen, C. Buwayhids. Encyclopaedia of Islam II. Vol. 1. Leiden: Brill, 1960. 1350–7. Cahen, C. and C. Pellat. Ibn ˓Abbād. Encyclopaedia of Islam II. Vol. 2. Leiden: Brill, 1971. 671–3. Kahl, O. and Z. Matar. The Horoscope of as-Sāhib Ibn . . ˓Abbād. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 140.1 (1990): 28–31. Matar, Z. and A. Vincent. A Little-Known Note (Ruq˒ā) Attributed to the Buyid Vizier al-Sāhib Ismā’īl Ibn ˓Abbād. . . Occasional Papers of the School of Abbasid Studies 2 (1988): 46–56. Yāqūt al-Rūmī. Mu˓jam al-Udabā˒. Ed. A. F. Rifā˓ī. 20 vols. Misr: Dār al-Māmūn, 1936–1938. .

¯ Ibn Al-˓Arabı
W ILLIAM C. C HITTICK
Muhyī al-Dīn ibn al-˓Arabī is one of the most . influential Muslim thinkers of the past seven hundred years. Born in Murcia in present-day Spain in 1165, he set out for the western lands of Islam in 1200, traveled in the Arab countries and Turkey, and, in 1223, settled in Damascus, where he lived until his death in 1240. He wrote voluminously and attracted the attention of scholars and kings during his own lifetime. His magnum opus, al-Futūhāt al-makkiyya (The Meccan . Openings) – inspired sciences that were “opened” up to his soul during his pilgrimage to Mecca – will fill some 15,000 pages in its new edition. His most widely studied work, Fusūs al-hikam (The Bezels of Wisdom), . . . is a short explication of the various modalities of wisdom embodied by 28 of God’s prophets, from Adam to Muhammad. Ibn al-˓Arabī’s writings investigate every dimension of Islamic learning, from the Qur˒ān and the hadīth . (the sayings of Muhammad) to grammar, law, philoso. phy, psychology, and metaphysics. His basic intellectual project was to illustrate the unity of all human endeavors and the underlying, interrelated functions of all human thinking. He cannot be classified as a philosopher, theologian, scientist, or jurist, though his works address most of the basic epistemological issues of these disciplines. He saw himself as an inheritor of the wisdom of the prophets, but one who was given the duty of explaining this wisdom in the subtlest intellectual discourse of the day – at a period that is looked back upon as the high point of Islamic learning. He provides no system, but rather a unified vision that is capable of spinning off innumerable systems, each of them appropriate to a given field of learning or level of understanding. He offers many ways of approaching the basic questions of human existence, such as the nature of reality itself, the role of God, the structure of the cosmos and the human psyche, the goal of human life, and

the relationship of minerals, plants, and animals to other creatures. In short, he provides basic patterns for establishing complex systems of metaphysics, theology, cosmology, psychology, and ethics. Ibn al-˓Arabī was followed by a number of major thinkers who systematized his “openings” in various ways, depending upon their own orientations and intellectual contexts. The diverse interpretations given to his works are especially obvious in a series of over 100 commentaries that have been written on his Bezels of Wisdom from the thirteenth century down to modern times. His stepson Sadr al-Dīn Qūnawī (d. 1274) had . probably the keenest philosophical mind among Ibn al-˓Arabī’s followers. Qūnawī in turn trained many disciples, several of whom wrote widely influential works. Sa˓īd al-Dīn Farghānī (d. 1296) provided systematic expositions of the teachings of both Qūnawī and Ibn al-˓Arabī in Arabic and Persian. Fakhr al-Dīn ˓Irāqī (d. 1289) was a poet who wrote a delightful summary of Qūnawī’s teachings in mixed Persian prose and poetry that helped popularize Ibn al-˓Arabī’s teachings. Mu˒ayyid al-Dīn Jandī (d. ca. 1300) wrote in Arabic the first detailed commentary on Ibn al-˓Arabī’s Bezels of Wisdom. The intellectual tradition established by Ibn al-˓Arabī and Qūnawī gradually merged with various branches of Islamic philosophy, yielding a wide range of intellectual perspectives that dominated the Islamic wisdom tradition down to the coming of Western colonialism. In order to grasp Ibn al-˓Arabī’s importance for the history of scientific thought in Islam, one needs to understand his basic accomplishment, which was to establish an honored place in the Islamic intellectual tradition for supra-rational knowledge. From their inception in the eighth and ninth centuries, the mainline schools of theology and philosophy in Islam had endeavored to understand the Quranic revelation on the basis of rational modes of investigation taken over from the Greek heritage. Parallel to this, there developed a more practical, existential approach that found the goal of human life in direct experience of the presence of God. This second approach, which came to be called by the umbrella term “Sufism,” laid stress upon suprarational modes of knowledge that are collectively known as kashf (unveiling), i.e., the lifting of the veils that separate the human soul from God. Unlike some Sufis, Ibn al-˓Arabī was not opposed to acknowledging the authority of reason. However, he maintained that unveiling was a higher form of knowledge, because it grows out of the unmediated perception of God’s actuality. In Ibn al-˓Arabī’s way of looking at things, reason tends innately to divide and discern. It eliminates connections between God and the cosmos and understands God as distant and transcendent. In contrast, unveiling works by seeing sameness and presence; hence God is perceived as near and immanent. Perfect

Ibn Al-A˓lam

1087

knowledge of God and of reality as a whole depends upon a happy balance of reason and unveiling. Only through this balance can God be perceived in appropriate modes as both absent and present, near and far, transcendent and immanent, wrathful and merciful. Ibn al-˓Arabī’s works are devoted largely to explaining the vast range of these appropriate modes. The long term effect of the marriage between reason and unveiling effectuated by Ibn al-˓Arabī is symbolized by his meeting when still a boy – of perhaps 15 years – with the philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes d. 1198). Ibn al-˓Arabī had already experienced the opening of the unseen worlds, and Ibn Rushd, who was a friend of his father, had asked to meet him. In the brief exchange that took place, Ibn Rushd asked if unveiling and reason achieved the same goals. Ibn al-˓Arabī replied, “Yes and no.” Then, in cryptic language, he affirmed that reason was a valid route to achieve knowledge of the nature of things, but he denied that it exhausted the possibilities of human knowing. In the West, the teachings of Ibn Rushd were employed to help establish nature as an autonomous realm of intellectual endeavor. Under the discerning eye of reason, God was abstracted from perceived reality, eventually becoming a hypothesis that could be dispensed with. The world of nature was now the proper site for rational analysis and dissection, and the result has been the ever-increasing fragmentation of human knowledge, with a total divorce between science and ethics. In contrast, Ibn Rushd was forgotten in the Islamic world, but Ibn al-˓Arabī and his followers succeeded in establishing a harmony between reason and unveiling. Hence Muslim intellectuals were never able to conceive of nature as a realm cut off from God. If God is present in all things, then the ethical and moral strictures that he establishes through revelation need to be observed at every level. It becomes impossible to investigate the natural world without at the same time investigating its relationship with God and recognizing the moral and ethical demands that this relationship entails. Ibn al-˓Arabī’s career and teachings exemplify the dimensions of Islamic learning. The worldview to which he gave detailed expression provided a perspective from within which Muslim intellectuals were able to answer the deepest questions of the human mind. Ibn al-˓Arabī’s achievements contributed to an intellectual equilibrium that refused to subordinate the spiritual demands of human beings to corporeal demands and that gradually established a vast framework within the context of which the intellectual disciplines came to be ever more united and interrelated. This holistic perspective on knowledge in turn prevented the fragmentation of the Islamic worldview and allowed no room for “declarations of independence” by specific schools of science or philosophy. Given that ethics,

morality, and spiritual development lay at the heart of this perspective, it was impossible to divorce any branch of science or learning from these concerns.

References
Addas, Claude. Quest for the Red Sulphur: The Life of Ibn ˓Arabī. Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society, 1993. Bashier, Salman H. Ibn al-˓Arabī’s Barzakh: The Concept of the Limit and the Relationship Between God and the World. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2004. Chittick, William C. The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn al-˓Arabī’s Metaphysics of Imagination. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989. ---. The Self-Disclosure of God: Principles of Ibn al-˓Arabī’s Cosmology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998. ---. Science of the Cosmos, Science of the Soul: The Pertinence of Islamic Cosmology in the Modern World. Oxford: Oneworld, 2006. Chodkiewicz, Michel. An Ocean Without Shore: Ibn ˓Arabī, The Book, and the Law. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. Corbin, Henry. Creative Imagination in the Sūfism of Ibn ˓Arabī. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. Hirtenstein, S. and M. Tiernan eds. Muhyiddin Ibn ˓Arabī: A Commemorative Volume. Shaftesbury: Element, 1993. ▶www.ibnarabisociety.org.

I

Ibn Al-A˓lam
R AYMOND M ERCIER
Ibn al-A˓lam, Abū’l-Qasim ˓Alī ibn ˓Isa al-Husain, al-˓Alawī, al-Sharīf was a tenth century astronomer, apparently established in Baghdad. The year of his death is recorded by Ibn al-Qiftī as 375/985. The Zīj . (astronomical handbook with tables) which he wrote is lost, but substantial information about it may be gleaned from notices in the work of other astronomers. His work was patronized by the Būyid ruler ˓Ad ūd . al-Dawla but suffered from lack of support in the disturbed period which followed his death in 372/982. A near contemporary, the great astronomer Ibn Yūnus of Cairo, reports that Ibn al-A˓lam had fixed the length of the year as 365; 45, 40, 20 days, determined the position of Regulus (α Leonis) in the year 365/975–6 as 15; 6 Leo, and also fixed the rate of precession, one degree in 70 Persian years. He remarks that Ibn al-A˓lam was known everywhere for the exactitude of his observations and the extent of his geometrical knowledge. Al-Bīrūnī in his work Tamhīd al-mustaqarr li-tahqīq . ma˓nā al-mamarr (On Transits) gives the name of his Zīj as al-˓Adūdī, and incidentally provides values for the radius of the epicycles for each of the planets.

Among his disciples were al-Lajā˒ī. in which Ibn al-A˓lam is referred to as Alim (‘Aλημ). and Taqbīl ˓alā risālat al-safīha al-zarqāliyya (Epistle on al-Zarqālī’s . However. Calvo. 753–4. Abū-i-˓abbās Ahmad ibn . The two . an algebra text. George. . II. III. Mercier. Ibn al-Bannā˒. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Beirut: American University of Beirut. Brill. which makes it easy to memorize. more extensive and complete. and an anonymous Arabic collection known as the Dastūr al-Munajjimīn. Introduction to the History of Science. šakkāziyya de Ibn al-Bannā˒ de Marrākuš. . a treatise on areas. but his fame is due to his knowledge of mathematics. two abridgements of treatises Al-Fāsī. Ibn al-Bannā˒ al-Marrākushī. He studied the Arabic language. Risālat al-safīha al-mushtaraka ˓alā al-shakkāziyya (Epistle on . an almanac. a Kitāb al-anwā˒ (about asterisms and stars used in meteorology and navigation). Al-Bīrūnī on Transits. Renaud. Abū ˓Abd Allah ibn Makhlūf al-Sijilmāsī. the Shakkāziyya Plate). J. He also studied medicine with al-Mirrīkh. has been edited recently by Saidan (1984) under the title Al-maqālāt fī ˓ilm al-hisāb li-Ibn al-Bannā˒ (The Treatises on the . See also: ▶Ibn al-Zarqāllu. Tetuán: Editoria Marroquí. These include scholia to the Almagest datable to AD 1032 which refer to tables composed for the Greek calendar from the work of Ibn al-A˓lam. kesh. . ▶Ibn Qunfūdh References ¯ Ibn al-Banna˒ E MILIA C ALVO Ibn al-Bannā˒ al-Marrākushī. the Persian Zīj-i Ashrafī. A different version of this work. . Al-Qalasādī.2 (Sept. Puig. El Taqbīl valà risālat al-safīha alzarqāliyya . The Greek manuscripts are of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. . Way of Him Who Seeks the Equation of the Planets) is a very practical book for calculating astronomical ephemerides. La Risālat al-safīha al-mušraka ˓alà al. Raymond. His teachers in this field were Muh. 1931. Ibn al-Bannā˒. Al-Qant ara 10 . Translation by Muhammad Souissi. and Ibn al-Najjār al-Tilimsānī. astronomy. Science of Computation by Ibn al-Bannā˒). and also mathematics. important commentary on it. The Talkhīs a˓māl al-hisāb (Summary of Arithmeti. of them are highly dependent on Ibn al-Zarqāllu’s astronomical theories. He is credited with having written more than 80 works. zarqāliyya and shakkāziyya entitled. Among them are an introduction to Euclid. 437–8. 1959. as well as two horoscopes for the years AD 1153 and AD 1162 which have been calculated from such tables.C. Edition and French . Morocco on 29 December 1256 and died. ▶Ibn Yūnus References Kennedy. Al-Qant ara 8 (1987): . 1970. Samsó. grammar. among others. more detailed way. mathématicien (XIII–XIVs. by Ibn al-Zarqāllu on the use of the safīhas (astrolabes) . Suter. (1989): 21–50. and M. A. 998–1000. cal Operations) was widely diffused in the Arabic world because of its conciseness. Barakāt al-Balāfiqī. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. probably in Marrakesh. and medicine. H. Plate). Ben Cheneb. Abū Bakr al-Qallūsī. 1984. Hespéris 25 (1938): 13–42. Encyclopédie de I’Islam. . Tunis: Université de Tunis. Vol. apparently for the Emperor Manuel Comnenus. Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 39 (1989): 3–21. J. wrote an . . 2nd ed. Julio and Eduardo Millás. Notes critiques d’histoire des sciences chez les musulmans. de Ibn al-Bannā˒de Marrākuš. 1964. M. the Qu˒rān. The Parameters the Zīj of Ibn al-A˓lam. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Abūlī.). in 1321. Anne. in 23 chapters.1088 Ibn al-Bannā˒ In spite of the loss of the Zīj full information about its parameters may be obtained from two sources compiled in the fourteenth century. Sur l’identité de l’astronome Alim. . ammad ibn Yahyā al-Sharīf. and . The Kitāb minhāj al-t ālib li ta˓dīl al-kawākib (The . Sarton. Roser. but they preserve texts older than the Persian and Arabic compilations. Ammān: Dār al-Furqān. H. The tabulation of the equations indicates that the technique of “displacements” was used in order to provide values of the equations which were always positive. This zīj (astronomical handbook with tables) is based on the one by Ibn Ishāq. S. . I. . 1971. Muhammad ibn ˓Uthmān al-Azdī was born in Marra. respectively. ---. Vol. . Tihon. Emilia. 1998): 259–86. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 8. The procedures found in the Talkhīs are studied here in a . 45–64. teacher of Ibn Qunfūdh. Information is also available from Greek sources. his two most important works are the Minhāj and the Talkhīs. See also: ▶Zij. Archives Internationales d’Histoire des Sciences 39 (1989): 22–50. of the prophet). Taljīs a˓māl al-hisāb. Juan. sūfī et . Saidan. Ibn al-Bannā˒ al-˓adadī al-Marrākussī. . Al-maqālāt fī ˓ilm al-hisāb li-Ibn al-Bannā˒. S. Abū-l. Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos 6 (1958): 1–10. E. Vernet. Contribución al estudio de la labor astronómica de Ibn al-Bannā˒. The Computation of Planetary Longitudes in the ‘Zij’ of Ibn al-Banna. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Ibn al-Bannā˒ de Marrakech. P. Hadīth (commentaries . 1951. Vol. II. J. Leiden: E.

the main representative of which was Ibn al-Zarqāllu/ Azarquiel (d. J.A. his teacher full of praise in his ˓Uyūn. On Medicinal Plants Systematics. Revista de filologia de la Universidad de La Laguna 17 (1999): 205–19. as well as some 150 authorities including al-Rāzī and Ibn Sīnā. (Málaga. E. It also conveys new information on the astronomical works of the Toledan school of the eleventh century. ---. Brill. . cines. work. U. Vol. Esquisse d’histoire de la pharmacologie et botanique chez les musulmans d’Espagne. . 1984). Ibn al-Baytār.400 animal. Histoire 33 (1997): 23–39. dedicated to al-Kamil’s son. Al-Andalus 3 (1935): 31–3. M. Introduction to the History of Science. less known than the . 21 (1956): 125–30. Actas del XII Congreso de la .3 (July–Sept. Madrid. Risāla f ī’l-aghdhiya wa’l-adwiya (Treatise on Food and Medicines). He was interested in the works of al-Ghāfiqī. . vegetable. beginning of the twelfth century) for his modifications of Ibn al-Zarqāllu’s doctrines. . New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Diyā˒ al-Dīn Abū Muhammad . Leiden: E. but less in the West. and Galen. Among Ibn al-Baytār’s works we can mention . . He was also concerned with synonymy. Spain at the end of the twelfth century (ca. Sultan al-Sālih and dealing with the simple medi. Max. He traveled through Arabia. Union européene d’arabisants et d’islamisants. Greek. 320–6. Vol. George. 1100). Las propiedades medicinales del acíbar según el ‘Kitab al-y de Ibn al-Baytar’. in 1224. 1970. and Al-Jāmi ˒ li-mufradāt al-adwiya wa-l-aghdhiya (Compendium of Simple Drugs and Food). the thirteenth century) but an incomplete copy must have circulated early for Ibn al-Raqqām (d. of the Physician). and not a simple set of instructions for the use of the tables. Madrid: Mapfre. Hajjāj. Las ciencias de los Antiguos en al-Andalus. Encyclopédie de I’Islam. Dioscorides. aforementioned two. Vol. 1996): 5–7. Sarton. AD 1190–1248). He studied in Seville with Abūl-˓Abbās al-Nabātī. finding the technical equivalents between the Arabic and Persian. P. and Iraq. Madrid: Mapfre. because it contains a highly technical and complete exposition of Ptolemaic astronomy with geometrical demonstrations. 697–712. Al-Andalus . probably from Seville.I. Autores y plantas andalusíes en el Kitāb al-Yāmi˒de Ibn al-Baytār. He was an Andalusian astronomer. Torres. Ibn al-Baytār’s main contribution is the systematiza. Point 2. Vernet. tion of the discoveries made by the Arabs during the Middle Ages in this field. Andrea Alpago used it in his works on Ibn Sīnā. Médiévales: Langue. Ibn al-Baytār. 1992. was influential in the Maghreb and contributed to the development there of a new kind of astronomy in the Andalusian tradition. ˓Abdallāh ibn Sālih. 1315) states that Ibn al-Hā˒im did not include any tables in his work. and Tafsīr kitāb Diyusqūrīdis (Explanation of Dioscorides’ Book) in which he inventories 550 medicines found in the first four books of Dioscorides. ¯ Ibn al-Ha˒im J ULIO S AMSÓ ˓Abd al-Haqq al-Ghāfiqī al-Ishbīlī is known as Ibn . As a zīj (astronomical handbook with tables). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. it is exceptional in Western Islam. This . arrived in Cairo where he was named chief herbalist by the Ayyūbid Sultan al-Kāmil. Textes. al-Zahrāwī. Ana María. 759–60. and Romance languages. . I. ---. and Abū-l.¯ E MILIA C ALVO Ibn al-Baytār al-Mālaqī. 1992. 1931. Meyerhof. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Berber. Other works of Ibn al-Baytār. Julio.E. 2nd ed. Al-Mughnī f ī’l-adwiya al-mufrada (The Complete Book on Simple Drugs). C. ▶Ibn al-Raqqām I References Cabo González. are Mizān al-tabīb (The Measure . Latin. in Málaga. References Samsó. III. 1204) his very important al-Zīj al-Kāmil fī’l-Ta˓ālīm (The Perfect Handbook on Mathematical Astronomy) to the Almohad Caliph Abū ˓Abd Allāh Muhammad al-Nāsir (1199–1213). Around AD 1220 he migrated to the East and. who flourished in Tunis at the beginning of . Ibn al-Baitar. Juan. numerical tables (three have been preserved in the zīj of Ibn Ishāq. Palestine. which is extant in a unique and incomplete manuscript in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University.Ibn al-Hā˒im 1089 Ibn al-Baytar . The Jāmi ˒ had great influence in the Near East. Ibn al-Hā˒im appears as a defender of Zarqāllian orthodoxy and harshly criticizes Ibn al-Kammād (fl. Las Ciencias de los Antiguos en al-Andalus. Ibn al-Hā˒im’s zīj contained . II. and mineral medicines. He dedicated (ca. Dubler. Samsó. 538–9. Ibn al-Baytār en Armenio. Julio. Maqāla fī’l-laymūn (Treatise on the Lemon). al-Hā˒im. ˓Abdallāh ibn Ahmad. 1971. as well as new planetary parameters. See also: ▶Ibn al-Zarqāllu. . was a pharmacologist born . . 1986. which enumerates alphabetically some 1. Ibn Abī Usaybi˓a was one of his followers and left a mention of . Ibn al-Baytar et ses apports à la botanique et à la pharmacologie dans le “Kitàb al-Gami”. Hamdard Medicus 39. al-Idrīsī. Syria.

Also. as with the theory of the demonstration within the difficulties raised by the fifth postulate of Euclid. defined as . to combine the geometry of Apollonius with that of Archimedes. in the Islamic East as well as the Islamic West. . Ibn al-Haytham lived at a privileged time. the comparison of which has recourse to that of the ratio of angles or of the ratio of segments. but it has not survived. first in Arabic. Of the 12 papers on infinitesimal mathematics. . three on statics and hydrostatics. contrasts singularly with the paucity of information we have on the man. is serious as it brings into question the authenticity of certain writings attributed to al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham.1090 Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) R OSHDI R ASHED Among the mathematicians of classical Islam. He continued to live in Cairo until his death. But his renown. . his Kitāb f ī al-ma ‘lūmāt (On the Known Things). Biobibliographers. and his Kitāb f ī Hall shukūk Kitāb Uqlīdis fi ‘l-usūl wa-sharh . It is precisely this quality which distinguishes his contributions. . He composed 12 treatises on infinitesimal mathematics and then on conic theory. Ibn al-Haytham also edited an important paper on number theory. This accounting shows clearly that Ibn al-Haytham grappled with all the mathematical sciences of that time. two on astrology. The first three are devoted to the study of lunes and the quadrature of a circle. Muhammad ibn al-Haytham. He proposed a hydraulic . We will now briefly examine the principal aspects of his research. After a critical reading of these sources. Already initiated by al-Hasan ibn Mūsā and followed by Thābit. and the same number on practical geometry. Half of his writings are in the field of mathematics. cite 96 titles of . From the thirteenth century until today. to him. Hebrew. . but a new organization of geometry which possessed a real heuristic value. notably al-Qiftī. he deals as much with the constitution of a new discipline. he quickly gained a wide reputation. under the reign of Fatimid al-Hākim. (Commentary on the Elements of Euclid). Ibn al-Haytham arrived in Cairo. of medicine who lived in Baghdād at the same time. only seven have survived. the results of which demonstrate the role of the function f. . 23 on astronomy. and Ibn Sahl. Ancient biobibliographers attributed a book on algebra . very little information remains: born in Iraq. after 432/1040. From the outset. To those can be added a third area in which Ibn al-Haytham takes up several problems relating to the foundations of mathematics and their methods in his treatise Maqāla f ī’l-tahlīl wa . due undoubtedly to similarity of the two names of these contemporary authors. most likely in Bassorah. . 14 on optics. the most important of which are in infinitesimal mathematics and the theory of conic sections and their applications. sometime in the second half of the tenth century. the significance of his works surrounded the man with the aura of a legend. led to the study of geometric transformations and of projective methods. ‘l-tarkīb (On Analysis and Synthesis). It was this work which Ibn al-Haytham developed further in his own geometrical studies. project to control the waters of the Nile. The contributions of Ibn al-Haytham in geometry can be divided into several groups. not all of which have survived. biographers have confused al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham with . or at least the most advanced part of this discipline. Sources available to us consist of narratives recounted by ancient bibliographers where legend becomes mixed up with the rare historical evidence. few are as famous as al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham . (Alhazen in the Latin West). Thābit ibn Qurra and his grandson Ibrāhīm ibn Sinān. two in philosophy (one on the Place and the other on the Indivisible Part). his Sharh Usūl . this work . In these books. four treatises on arithmetic. or with the theory of parallels. Ibn al-Haytham. to name a few. a philosopher and theorist . his work following a century of intense research in these fields by eminent scholars such as the Banū Mūsā. Ibn al-Haytham begins by setting up four lemmas. ma˓ānīh (Solutions to Doubts) again concerning Euclid. and four on various other topics. al-Qūhī. Mathematics Ibn al-Haytham’s mathematical research was particularly in the field of geometry and not of algebra. This combination is not a static synthesis. and then from the translations of his works in optics and astronomy into Latin. Uqlīdis f ī ‘l-handasa wa ‘l-˓adad wa talkhīsuhu . completely justified by the importance of his contributions and especially of the scientific reforms accomplished in them. In the most important of the three papers. including the authoritative and voluminous Kitāb al-Manāzir (Book of Optics). We will see that he was always at the leading edge of research or at the culmination of one tradition and the beginning of a new period. or his scientific milieu. A physicist and astronomer as well as mathematician. These same narratives are precisely what modern bibliographers continue to reproduce partially or totally until today. his teachers. and Italian. a kind of proto-topology. geometers wanted to combine closely the study of the positions of figures and their metric properties: in other words. This confusion. Note that the calculation of the area of lunes involves the calculation of sums or differences of areas of sectors or of triangles. but it was rejected by the Caliph.

F ī sūrat al-kusūf (On the . (The Light of the Stars). the theory of light to which are linked geometric optics and physical optics. Other treatises on infinitesimal mathematics deal with the volume of a solid curve: Misāhat al-mujassam . With this extension. Shape of the Eclipse) and al-Hāla wa-qaws quzah (The . Halo and the Rainbow). The organization of the Optics reflects this new situation: there are chapters devoted entirely to propagation.Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) 1091 f ðxÞ ¼ sin2 x x in the study of lunes. His calculation is equivalent to that of the integral Z b 8 8 k 2 ðb2 À 2b2 y2 þ y4 Þdy ¼ k 2 b5 ¼ V . to giving physical support to the rules of propagation – making a firm mathematical analogy between a mechanical model of the movement of a solid ball thrown against an obstacle and that of light – and on the other hand to proceeding geometrically at all times. and meteorological optics in Daw˒alqamar (The Light of the Moon). such as the third chapter of the first book and books IV to VII. and the other. . which had already been studied by Thābit ibn Qurra and al-Qūhī. others deal with vision and related problems. This reform also resulted in the emergence of new problems. he examines the relationship between proving the existence of a magnitude or a property and the question of effectiveness of its construction. Ibn alHaytham modified the meaning of optics. which can be written as: n is prime ðn À 1Þ! À 1ðmod nÞ: As for the converse of Euclid’s theorem of perfect numbers. Adwā˒ al-kawākib . He was well acquainted with the Conics of Apollonius and had copied them in his own hand.  15 15 a with V being the volume of the circumscribed cylinder. and the converse of Euclid’s theorem for perfect numbers. on the one hand. It was the most advanced mathematical work of its time and for several centuries following. The basic aspect of this reform was to clarify the difference between the conditions of the propagation of light and the conditions of the vision of objects. he applied the theory of the intersection of conics to the resolution of problems which cannot be constructed with a compass or ruler. dioptrics. In calculating the volume of a paraboloid. In it. Ibn al-Haytham was one of the first mathematicians who insisted on demonstrating the existence of the point of intersection of two conics in these last examples. so he knew that. In addition to his writings on conics. Optics A brief look at the work of Ibn al-Haytham on optics reveals not only its revolutionary nature but also its comprehensiveness. the eighth and last book was lost. in Greek. the solution of a solid arithmetic problem). Indeed. its propagation. But let us simply note his expression of what is called Wilson’s theorem. problems either passed down (for example. a theory of vision and the associated physiology of the eye and psychology of perception. and its effects as a material agent. This leads us to the revolution accomplished by Ibn al-Haytham in optics and more generally in physics. He shows that this volume is 8/15 of the volume of the circumscribed cylinder. the regular heptagon) or posed by him (for example. such as Alhazen’s I . notably burning mirrors (parabolic and spherical burning mirrors). ing Sphere). Ibn al-Haytham proceeded in this study with the help of the method of integral sums. catoptrics. al-mukāfi˒ (The Measurement of a Paraboloidal Solid) and Misāhat al-kura (The Measurement of a Sphere). In his study Tarbī ˓ al-dā˒ira (On the Quadrature of a Circle). In order to do this calculation. he tried to show that any even perfect number is in Euclidean form. Ibn alHaytham deals rapidly with the volume of a revolving paraboloid. This group includes an important treatise devoted to isoperimetric and isepiphane problems. Ibn al-Haytham’s second group of mathematical writings dealt with the theory of conic sections. He then moves on to his own invention: how to calculate the volume of a paraboloid obtained from the rotation of a parabola around its ordinate. a geometry of the gaze with which a theory of vision is associated. It is impossible in this space to explicate the mathematical results of Ibn al-Haytham’s work. He devoted the seventh paper in this group to that. Moreover he combined both a projective method and an infinitesimal method. Optics consisted henceforth of two parts: one. He tried to reconstruct the book according to the indications of Apollonius. he stated Wilson’s theorem. which led him to take up a whole range of different problems. which he also applied in calculating the volume of a sphere. Ibn al-Haytham generalized the proposition X-1 of Euclid’s Elements. in other words in the form 2p(2p + 1 – 1) with (2p + 1 – 1) prime. but also bears significantly on the theory of light. Optics is not any more reduced to a theory of direct vision. in al-Kura al-muhriqa (The Burn. to study these extrema. touching all the known branches of optics: optics in its proper sense in his Book on Optics and his Discourse on Light. he had to undertake the first substantial research on the theory of a solid angle. Ibn al-Haytham sought to bring about a program of reform. in the course of solving the problem called the Chinese Remainder. both by observation and by experimentation. This led.

1942–1943. more) refringent to a milieu more (respectively. . Looked at thus. 1993a. ▶Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī. Géométrie et dioptrique au X e siècle: Ibn Sahl. one of the founders of the school of . It remained for subsequent astronomers. that an elementary treatise of Muhammad ibn al. not only as burning instruments but also as optical instruments in dioptrics. Peccham. Historia Mathematica 29 (2002): 247–65. Two Editions of Ibn al-Haytham’s Completion of the Conics. of Ibn al-Haytham in astronomy yield nothing to his works in mathematics or optics. a fortiori. . his influence can be seen in the works of Ibn Hūd. their thematic variety. the influence of his work. He devoted a substantial part of the seventh book to a study of the refracted images of an object. he did not believe that objects sent off “forms” or totalities which emanated from the visible under the effect of light. R. Ibn al-Haytham then explained how the eye perceives the visible with the help of its rays emitted from all points. . The attribution of the book On the Configuration of the Universe to him is also doubtful. notably if the surface of separation of two milieux is either planar or spheric. It is too soon to measure the impact of the writings of Ibn al-Haytham on his successors in this field also. viewed as much as a general practice of investigation as the norm of a proof in optics. but they appear to be immense. the Commentary on the Almagest is often erroneously attributed to Ibn al-Haytham. less) refringent 2. Michel.ibla bi-al-hisāb . the works . 2 vols. and more generally in physics. The principle of inverse return Instead of pursuing the path opened up by his predecessor Ibn Sahl. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 13 (2003): 311–5. M. Astronomy By their number. if light passes from a milieu less (respectively. J. Let us now take a quick look at how this reform in optics was carried out. The authentic works of Ibn al-Haytham have not yet been seriously studied. The two qualitative laws. The impact of the work of Ibn al-Haytham varies according to the field. known to his predecessors Ptolemy and Ibn Sahl. and al-Samaw’al. Before assessing his contribution in astronomy. The seventh and last chapter is devoted to dioptrics. ▶Physics. Cairo: Nori Press. in order to defend the intromissionist theory of visible forms. Optique et mathématiques: recherches sur l’histoire de la pensée scientifique en arabe. ▶Optics. Ibn al-Haytham rejected any doctrine of a ray stemming out from the eye. ▶Almagest . to recognize their debt to Ibn al-Haytham’s book al-Shukūk ˓alā Bat lamyūs (Doubts on Ptolemy). Kepler. he deals with catoptrics. It should be noted only . The incident ray. Nazīf. and the refracted ray are in the same plane. buhūthuhu wa kush. al-Qūhī et Ibn al-Haytham.1092 Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) problem in catoptrics. the examination of the spherical lens and the spherical diopter. there is the work of al-˓Urd ī which shows . Roger Bacon. Haytham. one of the high points of research in classical optics. Alain. and Snell. In Arabic. In optics. the solid angle. . Paris: Les Belles Lettres. This treatise was the first deliberate study on the spherical aberration for parallel rays falling on a glass sphere and giving off two refractions. or the measurement of figures and solid curves. His theories rest on two qualitative laws of refraction and on several quantitative rules. reedited in 1572 under the title Opticae Thesaurus) and his treatise On Parabolic Burning Mirrors provided a basis of research for centuries of scholars such as Witelo. in order to improve upon certain results that he had already obtained in his Optics. Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī. Al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham. the eye becomes a simple optical instrument. Finally in astronomy. we must wait until his books have received the editing and study that they deserve. called a visual ray. In mathematics. (Determination of the Direction of Mecca by Calculation). He returned to the spherical lens in his treatise On the Burning Sphere. ▶alKhayyām. He saw them rather as forms reducible to their elements: a ray emanating toward the eye from every point of a visible object. apart from a few rare and particular contributions. ---. Ibn al-Haytham returned to a study of angles in order to establish the quantitative rules. and to experimental control. the power of the analysis they show. far away) from the normal. can be stated as follows: 1. among others. there is the commentary of Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārsī. among many others. Rashed. the refracted ray gets closer (respectively. the normal at the point of refraction. But unlike the intromissionists of antiquity. References Hogendijk. notably al-˓Urd ī. But we do not know anything of successors who might have tried to follow up on his research on lunes. ūfuhu al-basariyya. Frederick of Fribourg. Marāgha. Géométrie et philosophie: De Thabit ibn Qurra à Ibn al-Haytham. Aldershot: Variorum. In the three following chapters. It was in the course of this study that he fixed his attention on the spherical diopter and the spherical lens. 1992. Jan P. In the Optics he devotes the first three chapters to the foundations of this theory. and by their results. such as the Samt al. al-Khayyām. . all controlled experimentally with the help of an instrument which he designed and built himself. the Latin translation of his Optics (under the title Perspectiva or De Aspectibus. See also: ▶Geometry.

1 (2003): 79–99. 2002. I. ▶Ibn al-Hā˒im . Vernet. Un tractat d’obstetricia astrològica. Vernet.Ibn al-Majūsī 1093 ---. Gould and R. dietetics. and practical medicoethical procedures. known also as Kitāb al-Malikī (Latin Liber regius. The Optics of Ibn al-Haytham: Books 1–111 on Direct Vision. Kitāb al-Malikī was first rendered into Latin by Constantine Africanus (AD 1020–1087) under the title Pantegni. In that period. the Buwayid Dynasty’s power and glory reached their apex. ---. Ibn al-Haytham]. surgery. 1100) as well as the student who helped him in observations made in Cordoba during his last years. Ibn al-Majūsī dedicated his medical encyclopedia. the theoretical and the practical. Boston: Kluwer Academic. 1996. considered one of the leading Muslim physicians of his time. On Ibn al-Kammad’s Table for Trepidation. 1992. J. without giving credit to its original I ¯ Ibn al-Kammad J ULIO S AMSÓ Abū Ja˓far Ahmad ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Kammād was an Andalusian astronomer who flourished in Cordoba toward the end of the eleventh century and the first half of the twelfth. ed. In it he appears as a follower of the Zarqallian tradition. . preventive medicine. therapy.4 (1996): 317–34. . Baghdad that lasted for almost three centuries. Ibn al-Kammâd’s Star List. . Mancha. Estudios sobre Historia de la Ciencia Medieval. 320–4. and therefore called the Magian. 4. Dominique. who reigned from AD 949 to 983 in Shīrāz. Ed. Artifacts. C. London: Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation. ---. L. Andalusian Astronomy: al-Zij al-Muqtabis of Ibn al-Kammâd. who died ca. When he had developed a reputation for excellence and skill. Les mathématiques infinitésimales du IXe au XIe siècle [v. A. He compiled three sets of astronomical tables (zījes) of which only one (al-Muqtabis) is extant in a Latin translation made by Johannes of Dumpno in Palermo (1262). Rashed. Ibn al-Majūsī was invited to become a physician-in-ordinary at the palace of King ˓Ad ud . Goldstein. Bernard R. He was probably a direct disciple of Ibn al-Zarqāllu/Azarquiel (d. Valid for all Eternity) because of his departures from Zarqallian orthodoxy. R. Vol. al-Dawlah Fannā Khusraw. Barcelona: Universidad de BarcelonaUniversidad Autónoma de Barcelona. The book comprises two parts. He was of Zoroastrian ancestry. Madrid: Mapfre. Transformations ponctuelles et Philosophie des Mathématiques. Juan. It brought together original contributions on public health. S. C. Bellaterra. AD 983. II. Boston: Kluwer Academic. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. 1989. José and Bernard R. In recognition of the King’s generosity and patronage to the sciences and the arts. J. Analysis and Synthesis According to Ibn al-Haytham. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. 1942. 273–300. and José Chabás. . is a small astrological work in which Ibn alKammād studies the problem of the length of human pregnancy and the determination of the exact moment of the conception. presented to the King’s royal library) in Shīrāz. See also: ▶Zīj. London: al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation. 1993b. Rashed. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy: A Historical Journal 13. Goldstein. 1994b. Centaurus 38. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 52 (1998): 1–11. although he often corrects his master’s parameters. Representations and Social Practice. Millás-Vallicrosa. 1994a. 231–47. 1979. Also extant. References Chab’as. Kāmil al-Sinā˓ah al-Tibbīyah. José M. Las Ciencias de los Antiguos en al-Andalus. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 48 (1994): 1–41. Toward 1204. at the end of the first quarter of the tenth century. Raynaud. Sabra. Méthodes Géométriques. Ed. Ibn al-Haytham. He was the Buwayhid Shāh who founded al-˓Ad udī Bīmāristān. in Arabic. clinical observations. and he is known in Latin as Haly ˓Abbās. in the southwest of Iran. London: Warburg Institute. His work was influential in late Maghribean and Egyptian astronomy. 121–40. Ibn al-Hā˒im makes a strong criticism of one of his other two zījes (alAmad ˓alā˒l-abad. 3 vols. materia medica. Samsó. Mathématiques infinitésimales du IX e au XI e siècle. He studied medicine under a leading medical tutor (shaykh) named Abū Māhir Mūsā ibn Yūsuf ibn Sayyār. ¯ ¯ Ibn al-Majusı S AMI K HALAF H AMARNEH Abū’l-Hasan ˓Alī ibn al-˓Abbās ibn al-Majūsī was . Las Traducciones Orientales en los Manuscritos de la Biblioteca Catedral de Toledo. Cohen. London: Routledge. for quotations and tabular materials from his zījes appear in the thirteenth century zīj of Ibn Ishāq al-Tūnisī in Abū˒l-Hasan ˓Alī al-Marrā. He was born in the old Persian city of Arrajān. Julio. The Development of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic and Algebra. Ibn al-Haytham sur la vision binoculaire: un précurseur de l’optique physiologique. Roshdi. each of which has ten treatises. kushī’s treatise on mīqāt (Astronomy Applied to Muslim Worship) and in a fourteenth century anonymous Egyptian treatise on the same topic. the famous hospital in .

1. the “postoperative period. Damascus (Syria). Leiden: Brill. it must be transferred into the left cavity. Cairo. But there is no passage between these two cavities. practice. as some people have thought. Arabian Medicine. and al-Muthaf . and 118 (1913): 199–208. and precision. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ed. 1985. leaving behind an essential document in the Arabic legacy to the history of the medical sciences in this golden age. Kamil al-Sinā˓ah or Kitāb . It is of historical significance that Ibn al-Nafīs. the “stage of presentation for clinical diagnosis”. he was a Shāfi˓ī jurist. Leipzig: Weicher. The first. 1898. Julius Lippert. in Būlāq. Ibn al-Majūsī. Mittelalter. Altterthum. divides the procedure to be followed by doctors in surgical operations into three stages: first. therefore. (Comprehensive Book on the Art of Medicine). 1903. be that when the blood has become thin. Morocco: Ministry of Islamic Affairs. Leiden: Brill. French trans. Among his medical works is Kitāb al-Shāmil fi ‘l-sinā˓a al-Tibbiyya . AH 1294/ AD 1877. He studied medicine at the Great Nūrī Hospital (al-Bīmāristān al-Nūrī) in Damascus. Ibn al-Majūsī. are to be found in Cambridge University Library (Cambridge. England). Among the Arabic compendia on the theme of the healing arts in Islam. Discourses 2 and 3 on Anatomy and Physiology. The pores of the heart there are compact and the substance of the heart is thick. Sami Khalaf. Its manuscripts. d. In 1960. England). as Galen thought. ˓Alā˒ al-Dīn Abu’l-Hasan ˓Alī Ibn Abī . Ernst. and a facsimile edition was published in 1985 in two volumes. It was well read among students and practitioners alike. Al-Majūsī was fully recognized when the book was translated from Arabic into Latin by Stephen of Antioch in 1127. Al-Majūsī ‘On Dermatology’. thoroughly educated in Islamic theology and jurisprudence at the Masrūriyya School (Madrasa) in Cairo. Vol. is dated AH 641/AD 1243–1244. Qānūm fi ‘l-Tibb li-Ibn Sīnā (Commentary on Anatomy . Majūsī by saying that he “excelled in the study of medicine. Edward Granville. P. Jamāl al-Dīn ˓Alī ibn Yūsuf.” during which the patient remains under the doctor’s supervision until full recovery is achieved. nor does it contain an invisible passage which would permit the entry of blood. In addition to practicing medicine. the “operative stage”.. Richter. Another important work is Sharh Tashrīh Kitāb al. Lucien.1/2 (1980): 3–36. where he eventually became a Chief of Physicians. Gurlt. it is passed into the arterial vein (pulmonary artery) to the lung. 2 vols. d. Hamarneh. Majūsī’s Kitāb al-Malikī stands as one of the leading texts in its style. Archiv fur Dermatologie und Syphilis 113 (1912): 849–64. the Bodleian Library (Oxford. al-Hazm al-Qurashī. According to the author. . so far unpublished. AD 200). and was also a personal doctor to the then-ruler al-Zāhir Baybars (r. many editions in Latin and Arabic have appeared. Since then. Tārīkh al-Hukamā˒. Paris: Leroux. Frankfurt: Institute for the History of Arabic–Islamic Science. al-Malikī. AD 1174). second. 1260–1277). systematization. where the pneuma is generated. ¯ Ibn al-Nafıs A LBERT Z. It neither contains a visible passage. in Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine). Ibn al-Nafis was a prolific author. The judge and historian Ibn al-Qiftī praised . as for example al-Rāzī (Rhazes. and third. P. ca. 1921. Fuat. which was so faithfully emulated by many medieval Arabic-speaking doctors. Al-Majūsī’s Observations and Instructions on Medicine and Public Health. It must.” thus deviating from the traditional image of the physician– philosopher Galen (d. of which he managed to publish only 80. founded by the Turkish ruler Nūr al-Dīn Mahmūd . When the blood in this cavity has become thin. Hence. Liber regius. the substance of the heart there being impermeable. He jotted down preparatory notes for this voluminous book in 300 volumes. Sezgin. 1876 and Rabat. Histoire de la médecine arabe. al-˓Irāqī (Iraq). and teach medicine in Egypt. AD 1037). Arabic ed. Renaissance. [and] worked hard to comprehend its doctrines and laws from the original sources. he is classed as a “jurist physician. ca. 1980. ˓Alī ibn al-˓Abbās. . AD .1094 Ibn al-Nafīs author. the two other manuscripts are its 42nd and 43rd volumes. Berlin: Hirschwald. He chose to live. Geschichte der arabischen Schrifttums. References Browne. de Koning. 1967. al-Qifti. . in Kitāb al-Shāmil. was born in a village near . Ibn Zankī (d. AD 925) and Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna. Leclerc. three autographed manuscripts of this book were discovered in the Lane Medical Library (Stanford University). referred to by Ibn al-Nafis himself as the 33rd mujallad (bound volume). Geschichte der Chirurgie und ihrer Ausübung Volkschirurgie. in order to be dispersed inside the . Hamdard Medicus 23.” Ibn al-Majūsī died in Shīrāz in AH 384/AD 994. I SKANDAR Ibn al-Naf īs. 1903. Facsimile ed. In it he gives the earliest known account of pulmonary circulation: “…This is the right cavity of the two cavities of the heart.

9 (Sept. Syria. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Nassar. . Realdo Colombo (AD 1559). The father was summoned by the governor to serve as a secretary to the Department of Welfare (dīwān albirr). Andreas Vesalius (d. AD 1564). Hoboken. . . who does not mention blood circulation. Ibn al-Nafīs imagines the generation – inside a cave on a deserted island – of a human being. Nafīs). . Ibn Al-Nafis. ˓Alā˒ al-Dīn. Ibn al-Nafīs. New York: Scribner’s Sons. by a friend of al-Karakī’s family. Muhammad Zāfir and Muhammad Ruwās Qal˓jī. At that time. through experimentation which lasted almost 20 years. Vol. a bachelor who devoted all his time to the practice of medicine on which he wrote several books. In his old age. Ibn al-Nafīs wrote a large textbook. including an extensive private library. divided into two sections: “On the Theory of Ophthalmology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Saidi. founded in AD 1284 by Sultan Qalāwūn (r. Ibn al-Nafīs bequeathed his own house. historian. was by Abū’l-Faraj’s first teacher in the healing art – the prominent physician and historian of medicine Ibn Abī Usaybi˓ah (d. Mūjiz al-Qānūn. Albert Zaki. Thaqāfa (Isīkū). through the interventricular septum…” We now say it was William Harvey (d. 2000): 139–50.2 (Oct. mental Ophthalmology). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 91. 1970– 1980. discovered the entire path of blood circulation. AD 1279–1290).” A very popular and concise book was Ibn al-Nafīs’ Mūjiz al-Qānūn fi ‘l-Tibb (Abstract of Ibn Sīnā’s . 1988. . Robert E. with its undue brevity and popularity among Arabic-speaking students of medicine. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. after mixing with the air and becoming fit for the generation of pneuma…” Ibn al-Naf īs’ discovery of pulmonary circulation antedates the accounts mentioned by Michael Servetus (AD 1553). Adler. linguist. AD 1603). Al-Muhadhdhab fi ‘l-Kuhl al-Mujarrab (The Polished Book on Experi. then the knowledge of prophecies. S. The author guides the reader to the way in which this lone human being would arrive at the discovery of science and philosophy.” followed by detailed accounts of “Simple and Compounded Ophthalmic Drugs. Karakī’s family and Usaybi˓ah took place in Sarkhad.913 (2001): 743. The meeting between al. a bright fellow who had acquired the basics in . and to mix with the air. See also: ▶Ibn Sīnā. A Few Notes on Hunayn’s Translation and Ibn al-Nafis’ Commentary on the First Book of the ‘Aphorisms’. Ibn al-Nafīs. refutes Galen in his statement: “…I do not see how even the smallest amount of blood could pass from the right ventricle to the left ventricle. . A very close friendship developed between the physician as a leading and resourceful practitioner. Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine (ISHIM) 1. L. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 89 (1996): 178. and Ibn al-Nafīs’ Abstract of Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine. Does History Repeat Itself in Medicine? Postgraduate Medical Journal 77. Casablanca: Al-Najāh al-Jadīdah Press. On the philosophy of religion. ▶al-Rāzī References Abdul-Aziz. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy: A Historical Journal 10. also known by the title Fādil Ibn Nāt iq. Al-Muhadhdhab fi’l-Kuhl al-Mujarrab li-˓Alī (Ibn al. 2004. Manshūrāt .Ibn al-Quff (al-Karakī) 1095 substance of the lung. eds. I ¯ Ibn al-Quff (al-Karakı) S AMI K. legal doctrines of Islam. The Discovery of the Pulmonary Circulation: Who Should Get the Credit: Ibn al-Nafis or William Harvey. The first and most intimate biography. Iskandar. The finest parts of the blood are then strained. It was written along the lines . Farrokh. was born on the 22nd of August 1233. together with the incomprehensibility of some of its statements. Sharif Kaf. Al-Ghazal. Amal. led to the decline of late medieval medical education. A.. and man of letters. 2002): 46–8. the governor (wālī ) of Sarkhad and the entire province. Ibn al-Nafīs wrote Al-Risāla al-Kāmiliyya fi’l-Sīra al-Nabawiyya (Missive on the Complete Prophetic Conduct). and Andrea Cesalpino (d. and particularly the Sīra (conduct) of the Prophet Muhammad. William Harvey and the Circulation of the Blood. to the Qalāwūn Hospital. H AMARNEH Abū’l-Faraj ibn Ya˓qūb ibn Ishāq Ibn al-Quff al-Karakī . He died on 17th December 1288 (11th Dhu’l-Qa˓dah 687). Calcutta: Education Press for Committee of Public Instruction 1828. AD 1185) Hayy Ibn Yaqzān. In it. of Ibn Tufayl’s (d. As Usaybi˓ah was the physician-counselor to . in the city of Karak (hence the name al-Karakī) in the district of Transjordan in larger Syria (Bilād al-Shām). and the . 602–6. adviser. It has been claimed – probably unfairly – that the tedious prolixity of Ibn Sīnā’s Canon of Medicine. . Ibn al-Nafīs died in his 80s. and Ya˓qūb al-Karakī as an able secretary. . . Al-Wafā˒ī. 1270). Canon of Medicine). al-Karakī’s family moved from Karak north to Sarkhad.1 (Mar. . Abou Aly. passing into the venous artery (pulmonary vein) reaching the left of the two cavities of the heart. the son Abū’l Faraj was 11 or 12 years of age. . 9. AD 1657) who. Munir E. al-Munazzama al-Islāmiyya li-l-Tarbiya wa’l-˓Ulūm wa’l. 1998): 508.

1096 Ibn al-Quff (al-Karakī) education in Karak. and Usaybi˓ah . 1989. Medical Association of Egypt 20 (July 1937): 349–57. 2.1 (1991): 27–36. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. J. This is possibly the finest work of its kind in medieval times. the true founder of the “Slave” dynasty was Sultān al-Zahir Baybars . al-Karakī was summoned to the Syrian capital. and it needs translation into English for wider audiences. an Introductory Survey of his Time. Ibn Abī Usaybi˓ah. Journal of the History of Arabic Science 11 (1997): 75–88. 2. Lucíen. Samir Yahia. K. 1037). From ˓Ajlūn. Hamdard 3. 1. al-Sālih Najm al-Dīn (1245– . El-Gammal. Carl. completed about 1275. The Physician. Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki and His “al-‘Umdah” (On Surgery). Damascus.–July 1996): 59–64. ---. There was also the rise of the Bahri Mamluks (slave sultans 1250–1381). Paris: Leroux./1281. Ibn al-Quff’s Contributions to Arab-Islamic Medical Sciences. ---. 1171–1193) and his succes. his home country in Transjordan. completed in early 1272.). It is extant in several manuscripts. Introduction to the History of Science. The son continued his study under some of the most illustrious physicians at the time. entitled al-Usūl. Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur.1–2 (Jan. . 273–4. (d. . of al-Rāzī (Latin Rhazes. Brill. and technoscientific changes. During this time. Sarton. al-Karakī’s family moved to Damascus (the Syrian capital of the Ayyūbids) where the father was promoted to a higher position. and army personnel. Book on Preventive Medicine and the Preservation of Health. See also: ▶Ibn al-Majūsī References Brockelmann. 1833. Cairo: The Atlas Press. Hamarneh. After the fall of the Sarkhad province into the hands . Having had excellent training and having become a worthy practitioner-surgeon. Damascus had great hospitals. 1277). 1943. of the Healing Arts). such as Al-Masā˒il by Hunayn ibn Ishāq (809–873).4 (1990): 23–37. It was published in Hyderabad. willingly accepted the challenge. ---. The last Sharh was complete about 1274. and the major writings . . Georgy. The Arabian Surgeon Ibn al-Quff. Leiden: E. Therapist and Surgeon – Ibn al-Quff (al-Karakī 1233–1286). Vol. 649. of the Ayyūbid King. Techniques and Commentaries on Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki’s Surgical Manual ‘Al-“Umdah’ (ca. methods of treatment. 939–1013). Only recently have al-Karakī’s literary contributions begun to draw wider recognition. S. Clot. 117–78. Amman: University of Jordan Press. . r. However. Antoine B.D. 1249). The father asked the physician if he would teach his son the healing art. Life and Works. and the identification of causes and symptoms of diseases. Preparation of Ethereal Oils (al-Duhoun) by Ibn al-Quff (13th century A. Compte rendu des travaux de l’école de médecine d’A. Nutritions and Dietetics in Ibn al-Quff al-Karakī’s Writings. sors. India. Hamarneh. 1927. The major texts which were studied included some of the writings of Hippocrates (known as the Hippocratic corpus. Completed 680 A. There Ibn al-Quff had his training to become a physician. including the hospital located in the Citadel for the Royal family. Vol.1 (Jan. medicine and the preservation of health in 60 chapters. . Innovations. He also continued to fulfill his duty in caring for the sick and the wounded and continued his research and publications. Ibn al-Quff was summoned in about 1262 (at the age of 29) to be the physician-surgeon in ˓Ajlūn. 1998): 5–21 (facsims). Ed. ˓Uyūn al-Anbā ˒fi Tabaqāt al-˓Atibbā˒. 1876. His writings should place him among the greatest physician-surgeons and public health experts during the Arab-Islamic Golden Age. particularly the clinical and therapeutic texts. George. political. Cairo. 1974. We know that many medical students came to hear his lectures and listen to his eloquence. on preventive . and the other a commentary on the generalities of the Qānūn of Ibn Sīnā (d. ca. 1281). Sobhy. the healing arts reached new heights. ---. 1299 AH/1882. and the rise of the Ayyūbid (Sunnite) dynasty in Cairo and Damascus under the leadership of Sultān Salāh al-Dīn (Saladin. Al-Karakī’s best and most renowned manual is al-˓Umdah on surgery. Vol. at the end of which he published his first medical encyclopedia Al-Shāf ī-al-Tibb (The Comprehensive . 203–4.-Mar. . His other work is Jami˓ al-Gharad. Leclerc.H. Cairo: Būlāq Edition. This medieval period had witnessed great cultural. (The Thirtieth Treatise) by al-Zahrāwī (Abulcasis. Ibn al-Quff al-Karakī. It is composed of 12 treatises encompassing the entire medical field. There he served the profession for a decade. Hamdard 3. Among these are two commentaries: one on the Hippocratic Aphorisms. There he served at its Citadel and hospital from 1272 until his untimely death in early July 1286 at the age of 52. and Supplement 1 (1937): 899. 865–925). Histoire de la médecine Arabe. who was first purchased to serve in the Ayyūbid army and then became their ruler. in 1356 AH/1937 and ranks second after al-Tasrīf . such as the Aphorisms and Prognoses) and some of the medically important catechisms. Zabel (Egypt). Sami K. civil servants. edited in Cairo. Paris: Cavellin. He soon taught him the basics of the field: the theory and practical aspects of medicine. There was the fall of the prestigious Fātimid (Shī˓ite) dynasty in . Bulletin of the Indian Institute of the History of Medicine 26. . Hamdard Medicus 41. It was a significant contribution to the field at the time and contained many timely observations and innovations.

and physician. ibn al-Raqqām. he described the observations and procedures with which he had constructed his new planetary models and derived new parameters. his works on astronomical timekeeping are considerably less significant than those of his colleague al-Khalīlī. new planetary models. ir’s planetary theory was investigated for the first time in the 1950s. . ¯. astronomical instruments. Later. Damascus ca. contains a new set of planetary tables based on his new theory and parameters. various ingenious modifications of those of Ptolemy. which was based on strictly Ptolemaic planetary theory. his most significant contribution to astronomy was his planetary theory. Ibn Al-Shatir D AVID A.. He was probably born in Murcia and left the city when it was conquered by Alfonso X in 1266. Ibn al-Shātir’s al-Zīj al-jadīd (The New Astronomical . In his planetary models Ibn al-Shātir incorporated . Among his students in astronomy we find king Nasr (1309–1314). lished himself in Nasrid Granada where he taught . Ibn al-Shāt . an Andalusian astronomer. the first of which was probably compiled in Bejaia in 1280–1281. sources. Nevertheless. Andalusī. Ibn al Shātir presented the reasoning behind his . Joan. Barcelona: Instituto Millás-Vallicrosa de Historia de la Ciencia Arabe. Samsó. extant in several manuscript copies. This work has survived. was an astrolabe maker: one of his instruments (made in Guadix in 1320) is still preserved in Madrid. His book on Shadows is a brilliant treatise on Gnomonics where Ibn al-Raqqām explains how to build all kinds of sundials (among which we find a portable sundial which includes a compass) using projections on a plane which. ▶Zīj. ˓Alā˒ al-Dīn ˓Alī ibn Ibrāhīm was born in . derive from Ptolemy’s Analemma. al-Raqqām. Tunis and. See also: ▶Ibn al-Zarqāllu. K ING Ibn al-Shātir. Zeitschrift für Geschichte der ArabischIslamischen Wissenschaften 1(1984): 61–72. 421–7. is still at a preliminary stage. Both works bear witness to the diffusion of Ibn al-Zarqāllu’s astronomical ideas in the Maghreb and Andalusia. in Nihāyat al su˒l f ī tashih al-usūl (A . ---. his models are the same as those of Copernicus. 414–5. The Astronomical Tables of Ibn al-Raqqam: A Scientist of Granada. ▶Sundials Kennedy. responsible for the regulation of the astronomically defined times of prayer. This question has since been the subject of a number of investigations. Ibn al-Shātir made substantial advances in the design of . Madrid: Mapfre. an astronomical handbook with tables. I References Carandell. Ibrāhīm ibn Muhammad . Analemma for the Determination of the Azimuth of the Qibla in the Risāla fī ˓Ilm al-Zilāl of Ibn . Handbook). Ibn al-Shātir appears to have begun his work on . He lived in Bejaia (Algeria). 1315) was . while the second was made in Tunis and later adapted to the coordinates of Granada. mathematician. The first of his zījes. .Ibn Al-Shātir . 1992. let alone on the later influence of his planetary theory in the Islamic world or Europe. E. planetary astronomy by preparing a zīj. mathematics and astronomy (as well as medicine and law). but research on the astronomy of Ibn al-Shātir and his . and the discovery that his models were mathematically identical to those of Copernicus raised the very interesting question of a possible transmission of his planetary theory to Europe. Risāla fi ˓ilm al-Zilāl de Muhammad ibn al-Raqqām al. In a later treatise entitled Ta˓liq al-arsād (Comments . No copy of this treatise is known to exist in the manuscript sources. Final Inquiry Concerning the Rectification of Planetary Theory). 1988. ultimately. . S. Although he was head muwaqqit at the Umayyad mosque in Damascus. has not survived. with the reservation that they are geocentric. accepted the invitation of Muhammad II (1273–1302) and estab. entitled al-Zīj al-Shāmil fī Tahdhīb al-Kāmil (A General Set of Astronomical Tables in which [Ibn al-Hā'im’s] Kāmil Zīj is Corrected). Also. His second zīj al-Zīj al-Qawīm fī Funūn al-Ta˓dīl wa-l-Taqwīm (The Solid Handbook to Calculate Equations and Planetary Positions) is a summary and adaptation of the first one to the coordinates of Tunis and Granada. This work. Julio. 1305. as well as two sets of astronomical tables (zījes). His son. On the other hand. He was the most distinguished Muslim astronomer of the fourteenth century. . Las Ciencias de los Antiguos en al-Andalus. Finally. Among his extant works we should mention his Risāla fī ˓Ilm al-Zilāl (Treatise on the Science of Shadows) . follows narrowly the theoretical contents of Ibn al-Hā˒im’s al-Zīj al-Kāmil fī’l-Ta˓ālīm to which Ibn al-Raqqām adds the numerical tables which had been lost in the manuscript of Ibn al-Hā'im’s work. on Observations). Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften Bd 11 (1997): 35–72. 1097 ¯ Ibn al-Raqqam J ULIO S AMSÓ Muhammad ibn al-Raqqām al-Andalusī (d. ▶Alfonso X. . after 1280.

Apart from this obscure reference. apparent removal of the eccentric deferent and equant of the Ptolemaic models. 1971. and suppl. Centaurus 16 (1971): 285–98. ▶Zīj. Ibn al-Shātir died in Damascus ca. marble and a monumental 2 × 1 m in size. astrolabe and designed an astrolabe that he called al-āla al-jāmi˒a (the universal instrument). the astrolabic and the trigonometric varieties. but it appears that the instrument was shaped like an arch. the three centers of astronomical timekeeping in the Islamic world. horizontal sundial that was erected on the northern minaret of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus. Secondary Sources Brockelmann. Brill. . 1943–1949. as well as with respect to daybreak and nightfall. and new versions of. these were the main sources of inspiration for his own non-Ptolemaic planetary models. p. as far as we can tell. Carl. Brill. contained in a box called sandūq al-yawāqīt (jewel . In its original form and in various recensions this work was used in both cities for several centuries. measuring 12 × 12 × 3 cm. II. J. He also wrote on the two most commonly used quadrants. 2nd ed. Janin. Louis. A much smaller sundial forms part of a compendium made by Ibn al-Shātir. . 609–29. unfruitful. and was fixed perpendicular to a wall. since it considerably reduced the variation of the lunar distance. The driving mechanism was not visible and probably was built into the wall. bore a complex system of curves engraved on the marble which enabled the muwaqqit to read the time of day in equinoctial hours since sunrise or before sunset or with respect to either midday or the time of the afternoon prayer. 156. Several works by the scholars of the mid-thirteenth century observatory at Maragha are mentioned in Ibn al-Shātir’s introduction to this treatise. corresponding to an unspecified locality just north of Damascus. now preserved in Aleppo. his zīj. the reappearance of his planetary models in the writings of Copernicus strongly suggests the possibility of the transmission of some details of these models beyond the frontiers of Islam. and Turkey. The instrument now on the minaret is an exact copy made in the late nineteenth century. a development in gnomonics usually ascribed to European astronomers. Ibn al-Shātir also compiled a set of tables displaying . These tables display such functions as the duration of morning and evening twilight and the time of the afternoon prayer. The latitude used for these tables was 34°. and it is clear that . measured three-quarters of a cubit in length. Trepidation and Planetary Theories: Common Features in Late Islamic and Early Renaissance Astronomy. Later . box). so this is not really verifiable. and 3 suppl. One astrolabe and one universal instrument actually made by Ibn al-Shātir survive. See also: ▶al-Khalīlī. Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. as well as standard spherical astronomical functions. the values of certain spherical astronomical functions relating to the times of prayer. Ibn al-Shātir wrote on the ordinary planispheric . The essence of Ibn al-Shātir’s planetary theory is the . Ibn al-Shātir’s sundial. The motivation for this was at first sight aesthetic rather than scientific. Thus his influence in later Islamic astronomy was widespread but. On the other hand. no apparent advantage was gained by the additional epicycle. Fragments of the original instrument are preserved in the garden of the National Museum. Le cadran solaire de la Mosquée Umayyade à Damas. MS Oxford Bodleian A30. 1375. It is .1098 Ibn Al-Shātir . Leiden: E. A contemporary historian reported that he visited Ibn al-Shātir in 1343 and inspected an “astrolabe” that . as well as to establish the local meridian and the direction of Mecca. J. His account is difficult to understand. Damascus. Willy. 13° Convegno Volta. His principal treatises on instruments remained popular for several centuries in Syria. 1937–1942. we have no contemporary record of any continuation of the sophisticated tradition of mechanical devices that flourished in Syria some 200 years before his time. Leiden: E. Two special quadrants which he designed were modifications of the simpler and ultimately more useful sine quadrant. In the case of the sun. In any case. with secondary epicycles used instead.. Egypt. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. The gnomon is aligned towards the celestial pole. Part of the instrument rotated once in 24 h and somehow displayed both the equinoctial and the seasonal hours. the new configuration to some extent corrected the major defect of the Ptolemaic lunar theory. ▶al-Jazarī. vols. 157. . Ibn al-Shātir designed and constructed a magnificent . 2 vols. none of whom appears to have been particularly interested in his nonPtolemaic models. the relative sizes of the primary and secondary epicycles were chosen so that the models were mathematically equivalent to those of Ptolemy. Hartner. the ultimate object was to produce a planetary theory composed of uniform motions in circular orbits rather than to improve the bases of practical astronomy. In the case of the moon. the latter had constructed. p. prepared commentaries on. It could be used to find the times (al-mawāqīt) of the midday and afternoon prayers. In the case of the planets. astronomers in Damascus and Cairo. but his major work on observations is not available to us. ▶Astronomical Instruments References Primary Sources Zīj of Ibn al-Shātir. made of . II.

reprinted Amsterdam: Oriental Press. Suhayl – Journal for the History of the Exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation (Barcelona) 2 (2001): 9–105. 435. however. Suter. he was originally from a Berber tribe from the Maghreb (North Africa). Munich: Salesianische Offizin. But since some historians have given him the surname al-Ishbīlī. commonly known as Ibn al-Yāsamīn. Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam. King. reprinted in King. We also know nothing specific about his place of birth. 1994. The Astronomy of the Mamluks. Aldershot: Variorum. 1983. 1987. Kennedy. Concomitant with his mathematical activities was Ibn al-Yāsamīn’s dedication to poetry. et al. London: Variorum. But none of these can be seen as the cause of his assassination in 1204 in Marrakesh. and D. I ¯ ¯ The Mathematical Writings of Ibn al-Yasamın The best-known work of Ibn al-Yāsamīn is a poem of 53 verses in rajaz meter entitled al-Urjūza alyāsmīnīyya fi al-jabr wa ‘l-muqābala (Poem on Algebra and Restoration). Vol. there are many commentaries on it by other famous mathematicians such as Ibn Qunfudh (d. David A. That being said. and Imad Ghanem. King. know nothing of the context in which he received this rich education nor of his teachers. 391–392. Zur Geschichte des Quadranten bei den Arabern. We know nothing about the exact date of his birth. 1929. 1975.Ibn al-Yāsamīn 1099 Janin. 2004. Ibn al-Hā˒im . 46. In it the author defines the algebra known in his time – number. ---. We also do not know exactly when Ibn al-Yāsamīn began to publish his mathematical writings. but can reasonably . Journal for the History of Astronomy 18 (1987): 35–43. Heinrich. Vol. he may have been born or grown up in Seville. with a contribution by Bernard R. Edward S. Edward S. Paris: Institut du Monde Arabe. Leiden: Brill. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. For a long time. 1986. we . 1993. ‘Abdallāh ibn Muhammad ibn Hajjāj al-Adrīnī. Abū ˓Abdallāh Muhammad ibn Qāsim . Thus. particularly in the Andalusian poetry of the Muwashshahāt. Schmalzl. place it in the second half of the twelfth century. XII. he was using it in his teaching. . in 1190 also in Seville. 1976. A. since we know he also became famous in the fields of law and literature. It may have been his literary success which led to his frequenting the court of the third Almohad caliph Abū Yūsuf Ya˓qūb (1184–1199) and of his successor Muhammad al-Nāsir . III. A. A Survey of the Scientific Manuscripts in the Egyptian National Library. Also some of his contemporaries accused him of leading a dissolute life. some of his poems had even been set to music and sung at this time. Ibn al-Shātir’s sandūq . Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber und ihre Werke.s. multiplication. Leiden: Brill. Syrie – mémoire et civilisation. These frequent court visits and the fame of his literary and mathematical publications probably gained Ibn al-Yāsamīn some enemies. and 439. and division of monomials.2 (1956): 121–77. S. and. A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. ---. 1407) and al-Qalasādī (d. who taught him algebra and the science of calculation. This education was not restricted to mathematics. Kennedy. Vol. D. 1982. alyawāqīt: An Astronomical “Compendium. 357–364. Saliba. As his name indicates. 1501) in Egypt and . the operations of algebra – the restoration. In Dictionary of Scientific . he was black like his mother. according to Ibn Sa˓īd. ---. C30. elsewhere. (d. London: Variorum. 416. then the six canonical equations of al-Khwārizmī with the processes of solving them.” Journal for the History of Arabic Science 1 (1977): 187–256. L'astronomie en Syre à l’époque islamique. Ibn alAbbār tells us only that Ibn al-Yāsamīn’s famous algebraic poem was drafted in Seville and that. Edward S. and sequence. King. In Synchrony with the Heavens: Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Louis. Cluzan et al. Goldstein. which could have been in the Andalus (Spain) or the Maghreb. D. 2 Instruments of Mass Calculation (Studies X–XVIII). Ibn al-Shātir. reprinted in King. The Life and Work of Ibn al-Shāt ir. Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences. more . . A. Astronomical Handbooks and Tables from the Islamic World (750–1900): An Interim Report. ---. George. Winona Lake. the contribution of Ibn al-Yāsamīn to mathematics was known only through his Urjūza in ¯ ¯ Ibn al-Yasamın A HMED D JEBBAR The name of this mathematician is Abū Muhammad . and finally. New York: New York University Press. Leipzig. comparison. This poem has been widely read throughout the centuries both within the Maghreb and beyond. 1: The Call of the Muezzin (Studies I–IX). 1423) and Sibt al-Māradīnī (d. Isis 74 (1983): 531–555. and Julio Samsó. Ibn Sa˓īd states that his formative education occurred in Seville. Biography. The only information we have is from Ibn al-Yāsamīn himself about one of his professors. 2nd revised ed. root. Aleppo: Institute for History of Arabic Science. Theory and Observation in Islamic Astronomy: The Work of Ibn al-Shātir of Damascus (1375). . ---. Beirut: American University of Beirut. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 1486) in the Maghreb. Peter. (1199–1213). . Indiana: Eisenbrauns. 1993. n. In Ed. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy. al-Shalūbīn. Kennedy. In any case. and according to Ibn Sa˓īd. 12. 2005. A History of Islamic Astronomy. an Arab Astronomer of the Fourteenth Century. 1900. Islamic Astronomical Instruments. David A..

Sciences Arabes. Zemouli. compared to that of the first one. there has not been any explicit . Its importance is also due the nature of its materials and its mathematical tools which make it an original book and also one which is totally representative of this period of transition in which three mathematical traditions were juxtaposed – of the East. it is the only one which consolidates these two disciplines. But the distribution of these last two poems was relatively modest. 1283). It is quite possible. Cairo: Matba˓at as-sa˓āda. reference to the book in Maghrebian mathematical writing. Souissi. 1986. Ibn alYāsamīn treats multiplication and division first. was born in the first quarter of the eleventh century to a family of . Among the works of the Muslim West which have come down to us. Guergour. which is also plausible and which can be added to the first. There could be at least two possible explanations for this. 47. Proceedings of the Symposium. Zakariyā al-Gharnātī. the remarks and suggestions of Ibn alYāsamīn concerning the reading of certain expressions demonstrate that the symbolism of fractions had not been established definitively in his time. 1988. seems to be based on Andalusian mathemati. . al-Miknāsī (d. 1945. A. like those of al-Majrītī and his pupils. niyya. sometimes known as Azarquiel. Kuwait. we have not yet found any explicit reference to the contents of the two other poems in any works on calculation written after the twelfth century. a break in the tradition whose cause is to be found outside the scientific milieu of that time. Étude comparative entre deux commentaires du Talkhīs d’lbn al-Bannā˒: celui d’lbn Qunfudh et celui d’lbn . . with the work of al-Khwārizmī. 1282– . ¯ Ibn Al-Zarqallu E MILIA C ALVO Ibn al-Zarqāllu. Actes du Premier Colloque Maghrébin d’Alger sur l’Histoire des mathématiques arabes. Quelques aspects de l’algèbre dans la tradition mathématique arabe de l’Occident musulman. Cairo: Dār al-ma˓ārif. before addition and subtraction. . moreover. Indeed. 1988. 1988. Naqqāsh. 1513). entitled Talqīh al-afkār . This approach. At-Takmila li kitāb as-Sila. For example. 1956. as-sābi˓a. This hypothesis is not implausible if one takes into account the personality of Ibn al-Yāsamīn and his controversial behavior and also his close ties to Almohad power. 1228). Master’s . since there is no difference between the symbols used in the Talqīh . it is a book of 200 folios which contains classic chapters on the science of calculation and on geometry. in particular. that it was the success of this poem which led him to write a second one on irrational quadratic numbers and maybe a third on the method of false position. Manzūmāt Ibn al-Yāsamīn fī a˓māl al-jabr wa .. Al-Ghusūn al-yāni˓ā fī mahāsin shu˓arā’ al-mi’a . The second reason. as much in quantity as in quality. Thesis. like Ibn Mun˒im (d. See also: ▶Ibn al-Banna˒. Alger: Maison du Livre. which can be found again later in the work of Ibn al-Zakariyā’ alGharnātī. 99–123. contrary to the Maghrebian tradition which prevailed from the fourteenth century on. and aside from the rare copies that exist. cal practice. Ibn Sa˓īd. with the Help of Dust Letters [Hindu Numerals]). in so far as similar chapters (i. Alger. al-Qād i al-Sharīf (d. This was not the case. 1321). Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm ibn Yahyā al. it appears. Kuwait: Mu’assassat al-Kuwayt li t-taquaddum . bi rushūm hurūf al-ghubār (Fertilization of Thoughts . . al-Husaynī. M. 43. ▶al-Karajī References Djebbar. T. ˓Abd al-Qāhir al-Baghdādī or the Kitāb al-Kāf ī (The Sufficient Book) by al-Karajī. can be found in mathematical practice after Ibn al-Yāsamīn. d’Alger. Jalāl Shawqī. a practice which bore the strong imprint of mathematicians from Marrakesh. 1992 (in press). Ibn al-Abbār. Ed.. 5e Symposium International sur les .1100 Ibn Al-Zarqāllu algebra. al-˓ilmī. for the symbolism of equations which had been established relatively early. l-hisāb. . As for the presence of geometry in a work on the science of calculation. We have observed this same phenomenon of the absorption of a mathematical tradition first in the East with the first written Arab arithmetical works from the ninth century and. chapters which deal with problems in metric geometry) had already been inserted in works edited in the East. al-afkār of Ibn al-Yāsamīn and those used in the Bughyat at -t ullāb (The Hope of Students) of Ibn Ghāzī . Y. . Ed. ▶al-Majrītī. 42. the Andalus. Al-lum˓a al-māradīniyya fī sharh al-Yāsamī. and then in the Andalus with writings of the tenth century. and Ibn al-Bannā˒ (d. The same situation exists for Ibn al-Yāsamīn’s fourth written work on mathematics. viewed in its entirely. For fractions.e. the following elements contribute both to the originality of his work and to its being anchored in the great Arab mathematical tradition of the ninth to eleventh centuries: In arithmetic. Ibrāhīm al-Ibyārī. such as the Takmila fi l-hisāb (Complement to Calculus) of . This work is much more important than his poems.N. Grenada. this is not exceptional in regard to the Arab mathematical tradition. In spite of what we have noted about the contents of Talqīh al-afkār.S. First. . ˓Izzat al-˓Attār . and the Maghreb – before they became blended in the same mold. 1993. E.. Mu’allafāt Ibn al-Yāsamīn ar-riyādiyya.

he decided to become a traveler to gain firsthand knowledge about as many . Zarqāllu y Abū’l Salt. ▶Ibn al-Hā˒im. Mercè. so these positions will always be the same for a given date within the cycle. . . an instrument consisting of the representation. Barcelona: Instituto de Cooperación . Ibn Ishāq. The Solar Theory of al-Zarqāl. Soomer. Julio. Vol. ▶Armillary Sphere References Boutelle. ▶Astrolabe. Pedersen. comprised an exact number of synodic and zodiacal revolutions. R. the Alphonsine Libro de las Armellas. Here Ibn al-Zarqāllu established the proper motion of the solar apogee to be of 1° in 279 Julian years. Al-sakkāziyya. Ibn al-Zarqāllu lived in Toledo until ca. I Ibn Bat tut a . Rpt. . of Toledo first as an artisan. The goal-years consisted of cycles peculiar to each planet. when he moved to Cordoba where he composed his last works under the patronage of the king of Sevilla al-Mu˓tamid ibn ˓Abbād and where he died in AD 1100. . 1986. A History of Errors. in turn. al. Abraham ibn ˓Ezra. Abū’l-Hasan ˓Alī Ibn . Kitāb al-˓amal bi’l-saf īha al-zījiyya (Treatise on the . This instrument offers the possibility . These cycles were known by the Babylonian astronomers. and after as the director of a group which carried out astronomical observations. con el Mundo Arabe-Universidad de Barcelona. The Almanac of Azarquiel. Ibn al-Zarqāllu’s works are basically astronomical. These cycles included an entire number of solar years which. Ibn . After reaching Egypt via Tunis and Tripoli. Université de Copenhague. 592–5. 1987. S... (Treatise on the Shakkāziyya Plate) are two treatises on the use of a universal astrolabe called saf īha (plate). Finally. drawn to scale. He also took an active part in the elaboration of the Toledan Tables which seem to have been the result of the work of a group of astronomers directed by the qādī Sā˓id. . Trepidation consists of a back-and-forth vibration within fixed limits.Ibn Battūta . G. Millás Vallicrosa. The advantage of these cycles for astronomers is that the positions of the planets can be calculated for a complete cycle which will be repeated. Some Versions and a Text Cahiers de l’Institut du Moyen-Age Grec et Latin. 1992. M. Ibn al-Naqqāŝ al-Zarqāllu. It allows the determination of planetary longitudes. Both his treatise on its construction and his treatise on its use are extant. AD 1078. He was born in Tangier to a welleducated Moroccan family that produced many judges.. Samsó. Syria. and Ibn Bāso. which was incorporated into . by combining Ptolemaic parameters with the Babylonian doctrine of the goal-years. Plate for the Seven Planets) describes the equatorium. ¯ . Ceniaurus 12 (1967): 12–19. al-Bannā’. B ILAL A HMAD Ibn Battūta (1304–1369) was the greatest Muslim . Barcelona: . Zarqaliyya Plate) and Risālat al-safiha al-shakkāziyya . Vernet. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. ▶Abraham ibn ˓Ezra. Treatise on the Motion of the Fixed Stars is preserved in a Hebrew translation. al-Raqqām and Ibn al-Bannā˒. and Hejaz. J. and they are also found in Ptolemy’s Almagest. 1987. without computation. 1101 artisans. It is probably the most complete medieval text on the trepidation theory. Las ciencias de los Antiguos en al-Andalus. Beirut: American University of Beirut. Los tratados de construcción y uso de la azafea de Azarquiel. Ibn al-Hā˒im. Granada: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. ▶Ibn al-Bannā˒. ---. translated or adapted by Ishāq ibn Sīd. Ecuatorios andalusies. . of making calculations for any given latitude by means of only one plate. . although an astrological treatise by him is also extant. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. J. at age 21 he headed toward Mecca both to make a pilgrimage and to study under some notable Muslim scholars in Egypt. 1943–1950. Madrid. which is used to determine the position of a planet at a given moment. Ibn Ishāq. Comes. 502–10. See also: ▶Ibn al-Kammād. Madrid: Mapfre. . The text is lost but it can be reconstructed from the works of later astronomers like Ibn al-Kammād. Centaurus 14 (1969): 306–36. . 1983. . He entered the service of the qādī (judge) Sā˓id . The treatise proposed three different geometrical models to demonstrate this theory. Other works of Ibn al-Zarqāllu are described below: The Almanac is a reelaboration by Ibn al-Zarqāllu of the work of an unknown author called Awmātiyūs. Al-Zarqāllu. There is an Alphonsine translation in the Libros del Saber de Astronomia of the treatise on the use of the saf īha zarqāliyya. . . Fīsanat al-śams (On the Solar Year) was probably written between AD 1075 and 1080 and based on 25 years of solar observations. F. Madrid: Instituto Hispano-Arabe de Cultura. Studies in the Islamic Exact Sciences. His work exerted considerable influence on later authors such as Ibn al-Kammād. traveler of his time. Ion al-Samh. 1991. Puig. which is supposed to account for the variation in velocity of the slow eastward motion observed in the fixed stars. Risālat al-saf īha al-zarqāliyya (Treatise on the . he was probably the author of a treatise on the construction of the armillary sphere. Canones Azarchelis. 1976. Estudios sobre Azarquiel. XIV. . Ibn al-Hā˒im. Universidad de Barcelona. After receiving basic education in his home town. of a planetary model. José María. 54.

After his retirement. . Oxford: Clarendon Press. he directed his pupil in reading and the use of several medical works. the Persian Gulf. governors.. 1930. Gibb. C.. London: Croom Helm. In the following years.. Richmond: Curzon Press. the Sultan for several years. The Adventures of Ibn Bat t ūt a: A Muslim .. town and dictated his recollections to Ibn Juzayy – a royal poet. Butlān was a physician. . and some scholars doubt that he ever reached Beijing. . . Ibn Battūta’s narrative for this entire journey is sketchy . Pilgrimage and Travel in Mediaeval and Modern Islam. R. theologian from Baghdad (eleventh century). from where he went to the Kingdom of Granada... Ibn Battūta. and Galen. . a clear and lucid picture of Constantinople. presents. . a commentator on Aristotle. he again held the office of qādī (judge) in a Moroccan .. and visited Bengal. . . he believed that Ibn Rid wān. The Sultan of Sumatra provided him with a new ship to go to China. supported . . E. in spite of his great knowledge of the works of the Ancients. tributions of the rulers. and Azerbaijan. The Dawn of Modern Geography. and Lahore – before he finally reached Delhi. . He had for a teacher a Nestorian priest. Teaching at the hospital founded in Baghdad by ˓Ad ud al-Dawla.. Muta˓āllimīn (Questions on Medicine for Students) by Hunayn ibn Ishāq. Ed. Hippocrates. R. . Iraq. Traveller of the Fourteenth Century. Ibn Battūta enjoyed the patronage of . . his home from Alexandria via Tunis. . He eventually reached Fez (Morocco). in a controversy with the physician . On his way back.. and other Sultanates. for understanding the ways of life in the fourteenthcentury Muslim world. He sailed across the Red Sea to Yemen. Ibn Battūta visited Sri Lanka (Ceylon). On his return journey.. he appointed Ibn Battūta the ambassador to . Baghdad. Ibn Battūta passed through the towns of Bukhara. P. southern Iran. After crossing the Steppes with a caravan. I. Ibn Battūta embarked for . Calicut. 75–85. . Golden Roads: . and Sumatra. His next destination was western Sudan. parts of the world as possible. Netton. who had refuted it. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society. References Beazley. he refused to conform blindly and to the letter. 3 vols. The Travels of Ibn Bat t ūt a. including the position of judge in many parts of the Muslim world. and Herat. Ibn Battūta was an outstanding adventurer. who was interested in botany and wrote on the humors. Ibn Battūta’s next expedition (1330–1332) . philosopher. On the subject of the al-Masā˒il fi’l-Tibb fi’l. He taught him so well that later. In April to May of 1349. After traveling across the Sahara. Abū’l-Faraj ibn al-Tayyib. His . A. A. Assam. education and experience earned him numerous honors and awards. R. Ibn Butlān.. Travel and Travellers of the Middle Ages. Saray (the capital of the Khan of the Golden Horde). 3. Sardinia. 1986. 1958–1971. . ---.¯ R OGER A RNALDEZ Abū’l-Hasan al-Mukhtār ibn ˓Abdūn ibn Sa˓dūn Ibn . .. International Migrations of Literate Muslims in the Later Middle Period: The Case of Ibn Battūta. . Vol. he turned his boat to the Persian Gulf area and concluded this trip by another pilgrimage to Mecca. Beirut: Dar Sadir. . started from the seaport of Jidda. Ibn Battūta’s fascination . Ibn Battūta’s travels were supported by the con. 1993. and Egypt. Ibn Battūta’s Rihlah (Book of Travels) provides . AD 1325–1354.1102 Ibn Butlān . R. . .. In 1342. and natural qualities. He then crossed the Hindu Kush Mountains and visited many important towns and cities in the Indus Valley – particularly Sukkur. of Delhi. 1964. and Algeria. . Samarkand. . wine. . Ibn Rid wān. He then decided to spend the next 3 years (1327–1330) in the holy towns of Mecca and Medina in Hejaz.. Multan.. for travel took him to Syria. had not understood it at all. Also he asked why . China. Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq received him with respect and . H. maintained that one could understand the . went again to the Maldives. London: Kegan Paul. . . and other prominent residents of the places that he visited. he eventually reached Mecca via Sumatra. India – Ibn Battūta decided to go to India. After hearing of the benevolence of Muhammad bin Tughlaq – the ruler . Ibn Battūta’s Rihlah is a valuable document . in Spain. Balkh.. and Christian . After his ship wrecked near Calicut on the Malabar Coast of India. . Dunn. . he first passed through Egypt and Syria. the Sultan of the Maldives in a war. He arrived at the Chinese port of Zaytun and reached Beijing via the inland waterways. Syria. . he decided to go to the Maldives where he married into the royal family. This time he adopted a very unusual route: by moving northward.. basic precepts of medicine by simply reading books. The Sultan also appointed him the chief justice of Delhi. Rihlat. “because he didn’t study it under the direction of masters in this art. Ibn But lan . 1906. Migration. he visited the Empire of Mali and returned to retire in Fez. Newton. traveled across Yemen by land.” That is why. he then traveled extensively in Anatolia (Asia Minor) and the territories of the Golden Horde where he was well received by the local sultans and other prominent people. and from Aden he sailed along the coast to various trading ports of East Africa.

kept a diary and cited the names of several savants who had succumbed to it. and the soul on which Ibn Rid wān had commented before. covering theology. there is an emission of sperm. L. Ibn al-Qiftī. they wake themselves up without urinating in their beds. in Egypt. and M.Ibn Hawqal . 1965. when you consider how much easier it is to urinate than to ejaculate when one is awake. J. Royaume de Maroc. His work is very diverse. . and arrived . water. See also: ▶Hunayn ibn Ishāq. 1960. 1876. . while Galen did so relative to their perceptible action in the organs which were their instruments. On the other hand. Usāma ibn Munqidh. Ibn Butlān tended . It was translated into Latin and German. subject of medical ethics. These covered diverse subjects. it as the result of a mixture of bile and phlegm. Meyerhof. and Azerbaijan around AD 955. . Iraq. crossed Syria. logic. and the temperaments. Hunayn ibn Ishāq explained . J. Ibn Butlān posed. Arts. with recommended remedies used by monks. Sarton. a treatise . . Finally. to agree with Galen who explained it by the predominant action of heat. with regard to the “egg yolk” color of bile. His interpretation of the work of the Ancients is original and animated by a critical spirit. and attempted to explain apparent opposition by showing that they had very different points of view. . visiting the Maghreb and Andalusia between 947 and 951. on the . beginning in AD 943. Ibn al-Qiftī retained for us a list of the problems that . Paris: E. That was also the year when a terrible epidemic of the plague broke out in the capital of the Byzantine Empire. touching . . . Rpt. Lippert. the humors. References Ibn Abī Usaybi˓ā. where he arrived in 446/1054. through the Muslim world. Leroux. . In the field of physiology. Encyclopedia of Islam. he wondered about . ˓Uyūn al-anbā˒ f ī Tabaqāt al-At ibbā . After this he went to Antioch where he directed the establishment of a hospital. In the same way. Aristotle divided the organs according to their physical constitution. he questioned why it is that when men dream they are urinating. 1980 and New York: B. I Ibn Hawqal . Ibn Butlān left Baghdad. 1937. 1103 clear-sighted doctors had lost the habit of caring for certain maladies. with warm medicines. to Constantinople. Cairo: Egyptian University Faculty of . at the time of the schism which would eventually separate the Greek from the Latin church. He worked as a merchant and traveled. Rabat: Ministère des habous et des affaires islamiques. Schact. 1903. Leiden: Brill. E MILIA C ALVO Ibn Hawqal al-Nasibī Abū’l-Qāsim Muhammad ibn ˓Alī . Ibn Butlān’s most important medical work is the . 1980. which rends the bile hotter and lighter. and medicine. Harrānī. of medicine by Abū’l-Hasan Thābit ibn Ibrāhīm al. Bayrūt: Dār Maktabat al-Hayāh. as the Ancients had done. . (Sources of Information on the Classes of Physicians). ▶Ibn Rid wān . He returned . was born in Nisibis (now Nusaybin. The Medico-Philosophical Controversy between Ibn But lān of Baghdad and Ibn . Introduction to the History of Science. philosophy. there is a treatise devoted to a discussion of whether a chicken is hotter than a smaller bird. Al-Qāhirah: Maktabat al-Thaqāfah al-Dīnīyah. Egypt. and died in 460/1068. Turkey) in the second half of the tenth century. Leipzig: Dieterichische Verlagsbuchshandlung. There is also a treatise on the maladies caused by food. Eventually he retired from traveling. 1960. Transoxiana. . which included a satire on charlatans and ignorant physicians. . Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. climate. while when they dream of a sexual encounter. He wondered why this was so. 1927. Histoire de la médecine arabe. Thus Aristotle studied organic forces relative to their nature. . movement. as well as the influence of the environment. about whom many praises were said. egg yolk alone and the entire interior of the egg. Franklin. J. where he undertook several polemics with Ibn Rid wān. which signifies at the same time both the . In AD 973. Taqwīn al-sihha (Strengthening of Health). For example. These differences can be explained by the ambiguity of the term muhh. George. on hygiene dedicated to general questions on the four elements. Ridwān of Cairo.. The patriarch Michel Cérulaire asked him to edit a treatise on the Eucharist and the use of bread without leavening. he was in Sicily. Persia. Leclerc. both the yellow and the white. It seems also that Ibn Butlān was instructed in the practice . Ibn Butlān . and preferred to use cold ones.. and Khwarazm between 961 and 969. Galen in relation to the illnesses which affected them. Kitāb al-I ˓ibar. and housing on health. The originality of the work lies in its form: it is presented in small tableaux. The author studied the nature and value of nutrition. Another noteworthy work is Da˓at al-At ibbā (The Physician’s Banquet). Armenia. Ta˓rīkh al-Hukamā (History of Philosophy). Schact. He relied on logic and the grammar of languages. in particular the philosophical questions and ideas of Aristotle concerning place. the chemical nature of the force of physical attraction between lovers. Ibn Butlān. Ed.

He prescribes medicines such as horseradish. which belongs to the category of the so-called . or alteration of the patient’s physical surroundings. diffusion. and Sicily are also described. The manuscripts of The Choice Book in Leiden. La géographie humaine du monde musulmane jusqu’au milieu du XIe siècle. He cites al-Rāzī and Rufus of Ephesus. Ed.1104 Ibn Hubal Ibn Hawqal is the author of a book on geography .” to form deposits in the kidneys and bladder. It consists of a description of the Islamic countries. ---. although some non-Islamic regions of Sudan. and varying ages of the manuscript copies attest to its popularity. . a pharmacopoeia. Vernet. Bibliotheca Geographorum Artabicorum. Ibn Hawkal. 1967. al-˓ard. mindful of the agonizing pain caused by the condition he is discussing. J. 6. there are also several copies in Turkey. and accomplished poet. phlegm. although he . He is also the author of a book on Sicily which is not preserved. certain interest toward Fātimid politics. 2. within the body (blood. of later geographers such as Abū’l-Fidā. Ibn Hawqal. 186. Paris: Commission Internationale pour la Traduction des Chefs d’oeuvres. for instance. Juan. 3. . he attributes the condition to excessive bodily heat which causes phlegm. In discussing stones. 1967). al-masālik wa’l-mamālik. The Choice Book is divided into three main parts. Ibn Hawqal’s Kitāb al-masālik influenced the work . 2nd ed. P. Kitāb sūrat . Vol. and treatment of stones in the kidneys and bladder. al-Ārā˒ wa’l-mushāwarāt. symptoms. 988. It resembles the medical encyclopedias of Ibn Sīnā and al-Rāzī in that it is a compendium of Galenic medical knowledge. medical authority. Miquel. de Goeje. . Bibliotheca Geographorum Artabicorum. His chief work. AD 977. a “thick fluid. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. ginger. 1873. and a list of maladies arranged according to the affected organs. entitled Kitāb al-masālik wa’l-mamālik (Book on the Routes and Kingdoms). G. MS 2348) is ascribed to him. The final result was a book whose descriptive part surpassed the works of earlier authors. J. Ed. Ibn Hubal E. cannot be considered a Fātimid dā˓ī (propagandist). of Medicine for Jamal al-Din al-Wazir). In spite of what we might today consider the erroneous basis of his theoretical approach. The whole Arabic text was edited in Hyderabad 1943–1944. dedicated to Sayf al-Dawla. Kitāb . . Encyclopédie de l’Islam. but conveys the impression of a knowledgeable practical physician. Born in Baghdad in 1121 (AH 515). Vol. but Albert Dietrich maintains that a proper critical edition is still badly needed. Ibn Hubal shows an impressive concern for personal observations and clearly relies on extensive clinical practice. and India are listed in Brockelmann. ---. al-˓ard. he migrated to Khilat (modern Ahlat. and the third ca. Kramers. 810–1. choler (yellow bile). He showed a . He later moved to Mardin to serve another lord. Nubia. bleeding. they describe the causes. . Vol. Wiet. 1938 (Rpt. pain and disease reveal an evil condition or imbalance among the fluids. Maisonneuve. Leiden/Paris: E. Although this large book does not seem to have been translated into Latin during the Middle Ages. 1971. No copy appears to survive of Ibn Hubal’s Kitāb al-Tibb al-Jamāli (Book . and died at Mosul (in modern Iraq) in 1213 (AH 610). Cairo. Ibn Hubal employs the usual medieval medical terminology derived from earlier Greek physicians: four fluids. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Turkey. He also cites his own personal experience of a more desperate remedy which he witnessed: a surgical operation to remove a bladder stone from a boy. Leiden: Brill. also known as Kitāb sūrat . H. in manuscript in Paris (B. ▶Geography References Ibn Hawqal. Kitāb al-Mukhtār f ī al-Tibb (The Choice Book of Medicine). ibn Hubal al-Baghdādī was a famous physician. . and fragmentary ones in Princeton and the British Library in London (the London text starts with the diseases of the brain). and chicken soup to break up the stones or cause them to be passed. From the contents of his work. comprising anatomy and general principles. also gives economic information. 1972. . Leiden: Brill. J. Two chapters of Ibn Hubal’s medical encyclopedia were published from the Leyden manuscript with an accompanying French translation.. Atlas of Islam. and became very prosperous in the service of the local ruler. Turkey). M. supplemented by personal clinical practice. or humors. R UTH H ARVEY Muhadhdhib al-Dīn Abū’l-Hasan ˓Alī ibn Ahmad ibn ˓Āli . 2. See also: ▶Balkhī School. his sympathy with the Fātimid movement can be deduced.N. He . André. 2nd ed. the number. and melancholy (black bile)) are held to constitute in their balance and proportions the essential foundations of good health. Paris: Mouton. was written in about 1165. the second ca. Paris. 1964. Most remedies and treatments consist of trying to correct the malfunctioning fluid through diet. Brill/G. incorporated new material from his travels which led to three successive revisions of his Kitāb al-masālik: the first one in AD 967. running from head to foot. Ibn Hawqal based his work on al-Istakhrī’s book and . Configuration de la Terre. on the shore of Lake Van. His interests are focused not on rare or precious goods but on basic agricultural and artisanal products. A short work on logic.

¯ J ULIO S AMSÓ Abū-l-˓Abbās Ahmad ibn ˓Alī ibn Ishāq al-Tamīmī al. Brill/G. 471–2. London: Variorum Reprints. Ibn al-Bannā˒. . J. Isidore) and established the chronological limits of the Latin influence on medicine in Andalusia. 1093). 1986. Ibn Juljul is the author of Tabaqāt al-at ibbā˒ wa . Kitāb t abaqāt al-at ibbā˒ wa ‘l-hukamā˒. Ibn Mu˓ādh al-Jayyānī (d. . and the rest refer to African and Andalusian scholars. King. Maqāla fī dhikr aladwiya al-mufrada lam yadhkurha Diyusqūridūs (Treatise on the Simples not Mentioned by Dioscorides). Sayyid. Ibn Juljul E MILIA C ALVO Ibn Juljul al-Andalusī. 1966. . zīj is. Ibn Ŷulŷul. Ed. 1943–1944. . E. Samsó. Galen. 994. . Dioscorides) and Western ones (Orosius. King. Samsó. (Treatise on the Explanation of the Errors of Some Physicians). Textos y Estudios I. Tūnisī was a Tunisian astronomer of the early thirteenth century. King. the oldest extant summary in Arabic on the history of medicine (it was finished in AD 987). in Córdoba in AD 943 and died ca. S. Cairo: Matba˓at al-Ma˓had al-Ilmī al-Faransī . D. ---. Ibn al-Kammād (fl. Reprecht. Hyderabad: Da’irat al. An Overview of the Sources for the History of Astronomy in the Medieval Maghrib. 1965. Ildefonso. 1100). Brill. Ibn Ishāq’s . 57–70. a first rate new source for the study of both Andalusian and Maghribian astronomy. in the time of the Caliph ˓Umar II (AD 717–719). He studied medicine with a group of Hellenists presided over by Hasdāy ibn Shaprūt. Vol. written in 982. . J. De Koning. The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Ibn Juljul used Eastern sources (Hippocrates. It contains 57 biographies grouped into nine generations. Indian Astronomy in Fourteenth Century Fez: The Versified Zīj of al-Qusuntīnī. . Ed. Garijo. 802. Leiden: E. and Risālat al-tabyīn fī-mā ghalata fīhi ba˓d al-mutatabbibīn . Rpt. Sulaymān ibn Hasan. Ibn Abī Usaybi˒ah. Maqāla fī adwiyat altiryāq describing the components of the theriaca. personal physician of Caliph Hishām II (976–1009). which includes 62 simple medicines not mentioned in Dioscorides’ Materia Medica. Ed. References Dietrich. from which only a fragment is preserved. A. David A. Leiden: Brill. and Ibn al-Zarqālluh’s Solar Theory. on observations made by a Sicilian Jew. Expiración García Sànchez. Aldershot: Variorum Reprints. . Ibn Hubal. their translation into Arabic and their identification. Ciencias de la Naturaleza en Andalusia. Granada: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. Ed. ca. 2nd ed. 1994 (no. ¯ ¯ Ibn Ishaq Al-Tunisı . It contains an important set of tables (completed ca. The work has chronological errors but provides interesting information about the oldest translations into Arabic. . 1994 (no. Hunayn’s Ta˒rīj al-at ibbā˒ (History of the Physicians). Ed. Beirut: Dār Maktabat al-Hayāh. by Ibn al-Zarqāllu (d. Maisonneuve. F. containing the transcription of the Greek names of 317 simple medicines. Julio and Honorino Mielgo. Vernet. Ibn Ishāq al-Tūnisī and . 1400) was discovered by David A. ‘l-hukamā˒ (Generations of Physicians and Wise Men). Córdoba: Universidad de Córdoba. P. after Ishāq ibn . Parts of these tables seem original and are based. 778–9. . Ibn Djuldjul. therefore. . J.Ibn Juljul 1105 References Dietrich. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy. 1971. Samsó. Traitésur le calcul dans les reins et dans la vessie. . A. ca. Tratado Octavo. ˓Uyūn al-Anbā f ī t abaqāt al-at ibbā˓. J. Ibn Juljul. Samsó. X). Julio and Eduardo Millás. 1896. Ma‘arif al-‘Uthmaniyah. The rest is a miscellaneous collection of materials which derive from Andalusian sources. . New ed. was born . 1204) as well as others. III. Ildefonso Garijo. and Spanish Trans. the Caliph ˓Abd al-Rahmān III. 1125). Journal for the History of Arabic Science 6 (1982): 3–45. many of which seem lost. 1990. Aldershot: Variorum Reprints. . I References Kennedy. Vol. 1988. ---. . VI). Ibn Ishāq . 1955. but by some later author who also used materials derived from the aforementioned Andalusian zījes. Ed. Other works of Ibn Juljul are Tafsīr asmā˒ al-adwiya al-mufrada min kitāb Diyusqūridūs (Explanation of the Names of the Simple Drugs from Dioscorides’ Book). al-Mukhtār f ī al-Tibb. according to the famous historian Ibn Khaldūn. lil-Āthār al-Sharqīyah. The canons (instructions for the use of the numerical tables) were not written by Ibn Ishāq . Medicinalia Arabica. Ibn Mu˓ādh al-Jayyānī on the Qibla. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck u. He compiled an impressive astronomical handbook with tables (zīj) a manuscript of which (copied ca. Ibn al-Hā˒im (fl. a Jewish physician and vizier of . Islamic Astronomy and Medieval Spain. 125–57. King. J. Islamic Astronomy and Medieval Spain. Leiden/Paris: E. P. Encyclopédie de l’Islam. 4 vols. Deuxième Colloque Maghrebin sur l’Histoire des Mathématiques Arabes. and later became the . 1218) which mark the starting point of a Maghribian (North Africa) astronomical school. El tratado de Ibn Ŷulŷul sobre los medicamentos que no mencionó Dioscórides. Ibn Hubal. Tunis: Université de Tunis. and David A. 3. . . Thirty-one of them concern Asian authors. 1968–1971. Albert. 1992a.

Islamic Culture 73 (1999): 37–43. Hartmut Fähndrich. Die Medizin im Islam. a genre frequently employed by Ibn Jumay˒ in other works and by Arabic medical authors in general. Ibn Treatise to Salāh ad-Dīn on the Revival of the Art . and Chapter 3 suggests ways to revive the art of medicine. and Spanish Trans. al-Maqāla as-salāhīya fī ihyā as-sināa at-tibbīya . formally the work stands in the literary tradition of the epistle. The only one of Ibn Jumay˒’s works published to date. Rpt. Jumay˒. The State of Arabic Medicine at the Time of Maimonides According to Ibn Ĝumay˒’s Treatise on the Revival of the Art of Medicine. a compendium of the different fields of the art of medicine. where he remained until his death.e. the same cannot be said about this kind of work. Information About the Classes of Physicians). Juan. of Medicine. Bulletin of the History of Medicine 18 (1945): 169–78. and ways to ameliorate the situation. Ibn Jumay˒ H ARTMUT FAHNDRICH A contemporary of the great Jewish doctor and philosopher Moses Maimonides. with its introductory and deontological character. and trans. ▶Medicine in Islam References Fenton. Scientist. inducing him always to carry al-Jawharī’s Kitāb as-sahāh (The Truthful Guide) to class so he could . it deals with the doctor’s profession on a more theoretical level. 1983. Los médicos andaluces en el “Libro de las generaciones de los médicos” de Ibn Ŷulŷul. Ibn Juljul: Physician and Herbalist. Samsó. he read the Qur’ān and studied the religious sciences as well as Arabic and .. . . . including the qualities of medicine and the need for it. . wa ’l-ajsād (Guide to the Welfare of Souls and Bodies). 1992b. Ibn Juljul. ¯ Ibn Khaldun C HARLES E. 187–8. Fred Rosner and Samuel S. Chapter 2 deals with the reasons for the decline of medicine. New Jersey: Jason Aronson. Ed. Sultan Saladin’s Physician on the Transmission of Greek Medicine to the Arabs. Ibn Khaldūn spent much of his life in political activities. . born of a Jewish family in Fustat (Egypt) and studied with another physician of some renown. . . 1992. spent the first two-thirds of his life in North Africa and Muslim Spain. This treatise. In that lies the importance of this doctor of the twelfth century AD. Leiden: Brill. The treatise falls into three chapters: Chapter 1 concerns the presentation of medicine. Las Ciencias de los Antiguos en al-Andalus. owes its composition to a conversation he had with his sovereign on the deplorable state of medicine in his time. . Ibn Jumay˒ died in 594/1198. 548/1153). 1970. fleeing in 1382/784 to Egypt. . the most important of them being Kitāb al-irshād li-masālih an-nufūs . Though he is best known for the lengthy Introduction (Muqaddima) to his massive philosophical history of civilization (Kitāb al-˓Ibar). Paul B. Manfred. Vol. 7. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. He was . New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. was one of the physicians in the service of Salāh ad-Dīn. Ullmann. ---. Ibn Jumay˒. ˓Ādnān ibn al-˓Aynzarbī (d. Wiesbaden: Kommissionsverlag Franz Steiner. . . is not mentioned by Ibn Abī Usaybi˒a. Ed. in Estudios de Historia de la Ciencia Medieval. Ildefonso Garijo. Ibn Jumay˒ is presented as the author of eight works on medical or medicine-related subjects. as Ibn Jumay˒ mentions in the introduction. Northvale. . 270f. The relevant biographical dictionaries mention Ibn Jumay˒’s talents in medicine as well as his highly developed linguistic consciousness. 215–29. Its contents – the complaints about the declining state of the art and considerations about its improvement – were not unknown in his time either. Anuario de Estudios Medievales 5 (1968): 445–62. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona. The theme goes back to Galen or even Hippocrates. Max. Johnstone. . Vernet. i. Córdoba: Universidad de Córdoba. In Ibn Abī Usaybi˒a’s dictionary of medical doctors.. B UTTERWORTH ˓Abd al-Rahmān ibn Khaldūn (1332/732–1406/808) . Tratado Sobre los Medicamentos de la Tríaca. 1973. See also: ▶Moses Maimonides. Thus. 1993. Madrid: Mapfre. the reasons for this. ˓Uyūn al-anbā˒ fī t abaqāt al-at ibbā˒ (Sources of . Ibn Jumay˒. Born and raised in Tunis. 469–86. including a brief presentation of its history. Ibn Ŷulŷul. . as well as the difficulties of medicine and their consequences. Whereas compendia of a more technical presentation of medicine in medieval Arabic literature are comparatively numerous.1106 Ibn Jumay˒ ---. 1979. Others also deal with practical questions of the doctor’s craft such as first aid or nutritive advice. Julio. (Treatise to Salāh ad-Dīn/Saladin on the Revival of the . P. and Philosopher. Ed. It is a deontological work. . Meyerhof. check words of which he was uncertain. Kottek. Moses Maimonides – Physician. Art of Medicine).

customs.” Its Introduction consists of six very long chapters that explore the character of human civilization in general and Bedouin civilization in particular.” Though his enterprise is therefore “rooted in philosophy” and to be considered a branch of it. Probably born in Khurāsān.” Yet in the end Ibn Khaldūn hints that he has almost digressed in the whole undertaking. but he fears he has strayed from his basic point. and died in ca. and metaphysics. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. and the differences among nations. to get “at the truth. Many unqualified people have trammeled with the books of history written by competent Muslim historians. he wrote on history. He became a companion of the ˓Abbāsid Caliph al-Mu˓tamid (AH 256–279/AD 870–892). character. A few years before his death he met with the famous Mongol chieftain Tamerlane. Persians. But the period in Egypt was. besides writing on geography. and. subtle explanation of the causes and origins of existing things. Ibn Khaldūn endured several years of upheaval (1366/766–1375/776). latter converted to Islam. the nature of existent things. After a few years there. subjects that allowed him to become a court secretary to the Marinid ruler Abū ˓Inān in Fez at about the age of 22. and then the characteristics of settled civilization. investigating the various ways it has been done. Ibn Khaldūn’s Philosophy of History. lists at least eight works to his credit. Mahdi. . al-Mas˓ūdī (d. a time for revising his Kitāb al-˓Ibar and working on the Introduction (Muqaddima) to it. became the director of posts and information in Jibāl (Media) and subsequently became director-general of the same department in Baghdad and later in Sāmarrā (Iraq). places and periods with regard to ways of life. Consequently. was born in ca. in his al-Fihrist. Trans. judge (qādī al-qudā). Ibn Khaldūn considers his task to be that of showing the merit of writing history. The Arab historian Abu˒l-Hasan ˓Alī ibn al-Husayn . Muhsin. AH 205/ AD 820 (or AH 211/AD 825). they have introduced tales of gossip imagined by themselves as well as false reports. Abū ˓Abd Allāh of Bougie. Al-Nadīm. Franz Rosenthal. the different human sciences. and even on the culinary art. . and deep knowledge of the how and why of events. What he wanted to do was to explain the nature of civilization and its accompanying accidents. That . the arts and crafts by which humans gain their livelihoods. without looking at natural conditions and human customs. the reason to write history or the “inner meaning of history” is. genealogy. References Ibn Khaldūn. wines. music. schools. are “the principles of politics. AD 956) considered him an imām (leader) in authorship and mentions his voluminous historical work dealing with the ancient kings and . finally. Properly speaking. His grandfather. and everything else … plus a comprehensive knowledge of present conditions in all these respects … complete knowledge of the reasons for every happening and … [acquaintance] with the origin of every event. above all. What needs to be known. and thus what he sets out to make known. court intrigues led him to seek tranquility in Egypt. settled for about 4 years in Qal˓at Ibn Salāma near Oran and began work on his history. London: George Allen and Unwin. and showing the errors of previous historians. Following these forays into practical politics. During the next quarter of a century he served the Mamlūk Sultān Barqūq as judge (qādī) and chief . including almost 2 years of prison. professor at various universities . . and the most powerful of their contemporaries. Berbers. Ibn Khurdādhbih was a versatile writer. sets forth “the record of the beginning and the suite of the days of the Arabs. other historians have compiled partial reports of particular dynasties and events without looking to the way things have changed over time. Ibn Khaldūn went to Grenada in 1362 to become an advisor and tutor to Muhammad V.Ibn Khurdādhbih 1107 poetry. (including the prestigious al-Azhar). he . mathematics. the first scholar to write on world geography in Arabic. I ¯ Ibn Khurdadhbih S AYYID M AQBUL A HMAD Abu˒l-Qāsim ˓Ubayd Allāh ibn Khurdādhbih (also spelled Ibn Khurradādhbih). After some vicissitudes. was a Zoroastrian. Ibn Khaldūn acknowledges a problem with the way history has come down. position lasted only about 2 years. AH 300/ AD 912. then moved to Tunis under the patronage of Abū al-˓Abbās in order to have access to documents and libraries. in his words. The Kitāb al-˓Ibar is a multivolume effort that. 1958. by means of reflection. Khurdādhbih. no longer than his subsequent position as prime minister or hājib to Prince . 1957. sects. He also received specialized training in court correspondence and administrative matters. as well as the basic kinds of political associations. qualities. natural science. and one time university president. Ibn Khaldūn starts by explaining the merit of history and how to go about writing it. When he grew up. he was brought up in Baghdad. then was educated in logic. and his father was the governor of Tabaristān. New York: Pantheon Books. Moreover.

We do not know the date of his birth or death. 1841. oceanography. and with the Gujarati and the Konkani (Maharashtra. seas and mountains. . In his Kitāb al-fawā ˒id. 1. De Goeje. this work is an abridgement (prepared not later than AD 885–886) of his larger work (not extant) written in ca. Amr ibn Fad l ibn Duwayk ibn Yūsuf ibn Hasan ibn . 1957. nautical astronomy. it is not unlikely that Ibn Mājid was in contact with the Indian navigators of his time. 1960. India) navigators. Trans. whose qiyāsāt (readings of the ports and harbors) he seems to have known. but he also set the style for writing on descriptive geography. Among his important works in prose is the Kitāb al-fawā˒id f ī ˓usūl ˓ilm al-bahr wa’l-qawā˓id (The Book of Benefits . ---. Najdī was the greatest Arab navigator of the fifteenth century AD and one of the greatest of the Middle Ages. Murūj al-Dhahab wa Ma˓ādin al-Jawhar (Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems). which. was published by M. Istoria Arabskoi Geograficeskoi Literatury. he had studied and improved upon the work of his father (al-Hijāzīya) and had studied a number of earlier . He was particularly knowledgeable about Siam and Bengal. and geography. Djughrāfiyā. Ibn Khurdādhbih. Vol. On the practical side of navigation. (Sālāh al-Dīn ˓Uthman . Arabic works on astronomy and geography. India) . It is not unlikely that Ibn Khurdādhbih relied heavily for his information on the ancient Sassanian government records which must have become available to him as the person in charge of the department of posts and information in Baghdad and elsewhere. since they were more current and since many of the ports mentioned in the older works no longer existed. on nautical theory and on describing the seas (mainly the Indian Ocean) which served as guides for the Arab navigators of later periods. Several later ArabIslamic geographers utilized his work as a major source of information. 1989. London: Allen. who belonged to the Abbāsid period. was called dil-i Irānshahr (the heart of Iraq). dated AH 895/AD 1489–1490. Born in Julf ār (Oman). Arabic Classical Accounts of India and China. Ibn Mājid wrote a number of works. J. entitled Al-Masālik al-Mamālik (Roads and Kingdoms). Leiden: E.1108 Ibn Mājid peoples of Iran (Murūj 1965). He thought his own works were more accurate than theirs. The ancient Persians used to divide the known world into seven circular regions called kishvars (kingdoms) with Irānshahr at the center and the remaining six circles drawn around it. Beirut: Dār al-Gharb al-Lubnān.) ¯ Ibn Majid S AYYID M AQBUL A HMAD Shihāb al-Dīn Ahmad ibn Mājid ibn Muhammad ibn . 1987. Al-Masālik al-Mamālik deals briefly with mathematical and physical geography. IU. and these navigators frequented these regions more than the Arab navigators did. In his works Ibn Mājid covered a number of subjects relating to navigation. Aloys Sprenger. Such an arrangement is observable in his descriptions of the various routes emerging from al-Sawād. in his methodology and arrangement of the material and in the use of geographical terms and Persian couplets. on the Principles of the Science of Navigation). no work of such magnitude existed before him. he says. Husayn ibn Abī Ma˓laq al-Sa˓dī ibn Abu’l-Rakā˒ib al. See also: ▶Geography in Islam Krachkovskii. he belonged to an illustrious family of navigators. Ibn Khurdādhbih’s major work on geography. Considering the vast amount of information contained in the work and the early date of its compilation. . the other three were Muhammad ibn Shādān. Then. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. Ibn Mājid considered himself the fourth of the great Arab navigators of the Middle Ages. M. the Sūliyān (Cholas of Tamil Nadu. J. Ibn Khurdādhbih also claimed to have translated into Arabic the geographical treatise of Claudius Ptolemy (ca. Moscow and Leningrad. . Hāshim. Al-Masālik al-Mamālik. both in prose and poetry. Ed. it may be said that Ibn Khurdādhbih was the father of Arab-Islamic geography. Ibn Khurdādhbih was not only the first to write on geography in Arabic. However. This book and many others have been reproduced in the editions mentioned in the bibliography. and Layt . . AD 846–847. Again. Arabic Trans. I. Brill. Both his father and grandfather were mu˓allims (masters of navigation) of repute. ibn Kahlān. . S. but the translation is not extant. he pays special References Ahmad. In fact. but the major portion of the work is devoted to descriptions of land and sea routes in the four directions emerging from al-Sawād. and reports on countries like India and Central Asia. it deals with marvels of the world. Maqbul. sources of the rivers. Sahl ibn Abān. Encyclopedia of Islam. J. a distinct Persian influence is discernible. AD 90–168) from a “foreign language” (probably Syriac or Greek). Al-Mas˓ūdī. Tārīkh al-adab al-jughrāf ī al˓Arabī. Apart from his practical experiences as a navigator. . De Goeje in 1889. Leiden: Brill. 1889. but he must have died at an advanced age sometime in the first decade of the sixteenth century.

quoted by al-Rāzī and al-Bīrūnī. A History of Arab-Islamic Geography 9th– 16th Century AD. position. it is well attested that Hunayn ibn Ishāq undertook the transla. Being a Translation of Kitāb al-Fawā˒id f ī sūl al-bahr wa’l-qawā˒id of Ahmad . 1971. Shumovsky. . But only 31 are extant. He died in Samarra in 857. the sailors obedient. which he calls al-madqal (place of entry). ▶Compass ¯ Ibn Masawayh D ANIELLE J ACQUART Abū Zakariyyā˒ Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh was born in . and the seasons suitable. which no geographer had done before. who then went traveling in order to learn Greek and purchase manuscripts. the works on barley water. Ibn Mājid had met Vasco da Gama. at least at the beginning: Ibn Māsawayh is supposed to have driven Hunayn out of his teaching . 856–69. the ophthalmological treatises have also been analyzed. Methods of Healing) at Ibn Māsawayh’s request. They should be patient and soft-spoken. . Māsawayh. A. 1390/1971. For instance. 1921. Ibn Abī Usaybi˓a listed 42 works. Instructions nautiques et routiers arabe et portugais des XVe et XVIe siècles. Mājid al-Najdī. London: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. captains should see that their instruments are in perfect order. and tides. . latitudes and longitudes. Ta˓āwunīyah. Tibbetts. he came from Jundīshāpūr (in Persia) to Baghdad. which had been given to the caliph by the prince of Nubia in 836 as a present. and perfumes. Ibn Māsawayh had access to some Indian works: he quotes. but none is extant under his name. ---. Leiden: E. Those that have been edited – and sometimes translated into English or French – are the Aphorisms. Sayyid Maqbul Ahmad. we know from an Arabic work. which can perhaps be identified with his Kitāb at-tashrīh (Book of Anatomy). He also presents a systematic description of the sea coasts of the Oikumene (the known world at that time). The relationship between both physicians was nevertheless strained. Ibn Mājid claimed to have made several contributions to navigation and to determining the direction of the qibla (Mecca) from different positions of the earth with the help of the compass card. . it appears that he did not conceive that a terra incognita existed in the southern quarter of the earth. with whom . landfalls. most probably. should not deprive merchants of their rights. the stars corresponding to the 32 divisions (aqnān) of the compass card. He thought that the Indian Ocean was connected with the Atlantic through a sea channel. he became the personal physician of four successive caliphs from al-Ma˒mūn to al-Mutawakkil. He also claimed to have fixed a magnetized needle on the mariners’ compass (probably on a day box). J. and very few have been edited or studied. Thus. nautical instruments. whom Māsawayh bought from the physician Dawūd ibn Sarābiyūn. Mājid. These include knowledge of the rising and corresponding settings of the stars (al-anwā˒). b. Moscow: Nauka. was a pharmacist in the service of the physician Jibrā˒īl ibn Bahtishū˓. Ibrāhīm and ˓Izzat Hasan. Amman: Al al-Bayt University. Damascus: al-Matba˓ah al. Although the Portuguese sources do not mention him by name in this regard. as well as the medical calendar. Encyclopaedia of Islam. It was said that he did translations from Greek into Arabic. Christian Nestorian physicians. Ibn Mājid. the winds and seasons of the seas. Following in Galen’s footsteps Ibn Māsawayh afterward wrote an anatomical monograph. As for many other authors of this period. Baghdad during the caliphate of Hārūn ar-Rashid (786–809). He married the daughter of his colleague Abdallāh at-Tayfūrī and had a son of poor intelligence. Gerald R. 1957. as far as we know. literate. Brill. . it is difficult to distinguish legend and history in his biography. Maqbul. he only commissioned some of them. Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean Before the Coming of the Portuguese. 1995. and had guided him to Calicut. and not in 777 as was stated by Leo the African. He emphasizes that before sailing. 1960. . It seems that among the works which were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages under the names of “Mesuë” or “Johannes I References Ahmad. It was also reported by Arabic medieval historians that Ibn Māsawayh had the opportunity of dissecting an ape. His father. like guidelines to navigators such as the prerequisites for sailing on the sea. T. Ibn Mājid. for instance. . and he describes the lunar mansions. Apart from his knowledge of Greek medicine. . Khūrī. . and they should be courageous. tion of Galen’s Methodus medendi (Arabic Kitāb hīlat al-bur˒. Kitāb dafal al-˓ain (Book on the Defectiveness of the Eye). as other geographers of his time believed. Yūhannā ibn Māsawayh belonged to the milieu of .Ibn Māsawayh 1109 attention to subjects of a more general nature. He was very famous as a teacher and practitioner. Kitāb al-fawā˒id f ī ˓usūl . S. simple drugs. al-Barq al-Yamānī f ī’l-fath al-˓Ut mānī (The Yemenite . From his writings. ˓ilm al-bahr wa’l-qawā˓id. Āryabhata in his ophthalmological treatise . ▶Lunar Mansions. India. Lightning on the Ottoman Conquest) by al-Nahrawālī that it was he who directed Vasco da Gama from Malindi (East Africa) to India. named Risala. Ed. See also: ▶Qibla. . who played an important part during the eighth and ninth centuries. Talāt a rahmānajāt al-majhūla li Ahmad b. Gabriel. and well behaved. His mother was a slave. some others were . and the essentials required by captains of boats. Ferrand. Paris: Geuthner.

opportunity fleeting. Yūhannā. Die Augenheilkunde des Jūhannā b. Hamdard medicus 40. despite their importance in the history of Arabic medicine. . Some original features of Ibn Māsawayh’s medicine can be drawn from his Nawādir at -t ibb. Clio Medica 3 (1968): 109–17. the observance of astrological and climatological rules. Danielle Jacquart. Troupeau. the year of a solar eclipse he describes from first-hand observation. Vol.” They stressed the necessity for physicians to be both learned and skilled. Ibn Māsawayh’s works remain very little known. Ibn Māsawaih and His Treatise on Simple Aromatic Substances. ▶Leo the African Ibn Māsawayh. and Kitāb majhūlāt qisiyy al-kura (Determinations of the Magnitudes of the Arcs on the Surface of a Sphere). Hunayn ibn Ishāq and modeled on the Hippocratic . and perhaps the most historically significant of his extant works. a . Fuat. Paul. Gérard.. See also: ▶al-Kindī. art long. this work has nonetheless reached us in three other linguistic References Hamarneh. a second translation appeared as the sixth book of Rāzī’s Secrets of Medicine: it was done during the thirteenth century by the Dominican Giles of Santarem. Martin. The Aphorismi – a faithful translation of Nawādir at -t ibb – . . Aphorisms. Die Medizin im Islam. he will be very successful” (aph. Throughout the remaining 124 aphorisms the following topics are covered: the link between body and soul. 231–6. Les Aphorismes De Jean Mésué. However. Dedicated to . mainly pharmacological. Leiden: Brill. a set of astronomical tables based on those of al-Khwārizmī and probably translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona. medical treatment with substances contrary to disease had to be prescribed cautiously and their sole goal was to purge. as well as natural substances used for treatment. Physicians had to be cautious not to alter nature too much.1110 Ibn Mu˓ādh Damascenus. Leiden: Brill. the numerical ratios which rule human temperaments. Levey. Bulletin de l'Institut d'Egypte 15 (1933): 235–57. The only secure date we have for him is 1079. The eight first aphorisms can be considered as a kind of commentary on the first Hippocratic aphorism: “Life is short. this short work was intended to give practical advice. Certainly the most original. since this would be very harmful. treatment by diet was preferred to pharmacopoeia: “If the physician can treat with food. during the same day. Maqāla fi sharh al nisba (On Ratio). (d. it can be compared with a very cold wind which.” only the Aphorismi Johannis Damasceni and some ophthalmological fragments can be attributed to Ibn Māsawayh. It has to be noted that this last idea was deeply developed by Ibn Māsawayh’s contemporary. 1970. Among his few surviving astronomical and mathematical works are included the Tabulae Jahen. in the early eleventh century. Der Islam 6 (1916): 217–56. ---. 108). Sbath. 1970. is the brief treatise On Twilight and the Rising of Clouds. 60). Ibn Masawayh (Mesuë the Elder): On Medicine. Traité sur les substances simples aromatiques par Yohanna ben Massawaih. . For example. Genève/Paris: Droz/ Champion. While no Arabic exemplar has yet come to light (the original title was probably Ma’l-fajr wa’l-shafaq). Et Leur Diffusion En Occident.1 (1997): 5–16. to the exclusion of drugs. 1093) has traditionally been assigned a birth date of 989. Carl and Max Meyerhof. Māsawaih. commentary on Book 5 of Euclid’s Elements. where he evidently served as a qādī (judge) for much of his life. III. The ending “al-Jayyānī” to his name indicates that he was from Jaén in Andalusia. judgment difficult. M ARK S MITH Ibn Mu˓ādh al-Jayyānī. were largely diffused from the twelfth century. Ed. In the same manner. Journal of the History of Medicine 16 (1961): 394–410. Le livre sur l'eau d'orge de Youhanna ben Massawaih. Sami K. against diseases. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. the attention that physicians have to pay to the healthy nature of their patients. Sezgin. ca. . Bulletin de l'Institut d'Egypte 19 (1937): 5–27. recent scholarship suggests that Ibn Mu˓ādh was born somewhat later. . Manfred. Médecine arabe: biographes critiques de Jean Mésué (VIIIe siècle) et du prétendu Mésué le Jeune’ (Xe siècle). Jean-Charles and Gérard Troupeau. before the spread of Hunayn’s translations. Therapy and Pathology. Sournia. the strongest contrary is not introduced into the body. experiment dangerous. Ullmann. médecin Du Calife Haroun Al-Rashid. blows after a very hot one” (aph. Histoire des sciences médicales 3 (1997): 317–26. Bulletin de l'Institut d'Egypte 21 (1939): 13–24. a work on trigonometry. Ibn Māsawayh composed an important work on dietetics. are probably apocryphal for the most part. al-Kindī. . 1980. In addition to several pharmacological treatises. the other ones. ---. Gérard Troupeau. Detailed studies would shed light on the decisive stage constituted by the beginning of the ninth century.. Ibn Māsawayh stated: “It is important that. Ibn Māsawayh seems also to have been very much attached to the idea that physicians must mainly reinforce nature by using drugs similar to it. ¯ Ibn Mu˓adh A. Abū ˓Abd Allāh Muhammad . Le livre des axiomes médicaux. Le livre des temps d’ Ibn Massawaih. Prüfer.

The Medieval Hebrew and Italian Versions of Ibn Mu˓āhd’s ‘On Twilight and the Rising of Clouds’. the relative size of sun and earth (5. the mean distance between earth and sun (1. the algebraist Ibn al-Yāsamīn. From Deferent to Equant. Nuncius 8 (1993): 611–643. Ibn Mu˓ādh calculates the atmosphere to be around 52 mile high. Isis 58 (1967): 77–85. Consequently. At the age of 30. the biographers of the Maghreb do not mention Ibn Mun˓im. of Ibn Mun˓im. ▶Ibn al-Haytham. cited above. . Qutb al-Dīn Al Shīrazī and Ibn . This figure remained canonical in the Latin West until the end of the sixteenth century. Although he offers no practical justification for this inquiry. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 2 (1992): 83–132. in a couple of querulous asides. A. have had something to do with this. He was known as one of the best scholars of his era in geometry and number theory. To our knowledge. a scholar originally from Andalusia. The sheer number of Latin manuscripts – plus the Italian translation – indicates the seriousness with which this treatise was received and disseminated in the medieval West. Plooj. a late twelfthcentury Latin translation from the Arabic. This leads one to believe that there was a variety of scientific activity. or even within the court itself. Within this context. thanks to a generous and often enlightened patronage. La trigonometria europea en el siglo XI: Estudio de la obra de Ibn Mu˓ad. near Valencia. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. . may . The little information we do have on Ibn Mun˓im comes from his own introduction to his mathematical text. it soon became clear that Ibn Mu˓ādh’s calculation was useless because it failed utterly to take atmospheric refraction into account. and he lived in Marrakesh where he taught and where he died in 626H/1228. only the last. Rotterdam: van Hengel. Mark. King and George Saliba.5:1 in terrestrial radii). he does. and from the book of Ibn ˓Abd al-Malik. he began to study medicine which he practiced successfully at the same time as his mathematical activities. I. and they use the contents of his book. 445–65. Ibn Mun˓im’s full name was Ahmad ibn Ibrāhīm ibn ˓Ali Ibn Mun˓im . when Tycho Brahe raised the issue of atmospheric refraction to prominence. Tabulae Jahen. 1979. M. another on geometry. And of these. berate those (religious conservatives?) who would squelch rational inquiry out of mere ignorance. Barcelona: Instituto de Historia de la Ciencia de la Real Academia de Buenas Letras. During his reign celebrated scholars like the grammarian Abū Mūsā al-Jāzūlī.Ibn Mun˓im 1111 forms: a fourteenth-century Hebrew translation from the Arabic (represented by one manuscript). Edward B. See also ▶al-Khwārizmī. Only three of Ibn Mun˓im’s numerous mathematical texts and letters are known today: one on magic squares. albeit indirect. his figure of 52 mile was drastically reduced by Johan Kepler and succeeding astronomers. A. Smith. Ibn Mun˓im wrote it under the reign . Saliba. H. The Authorship of the Liber de crepusculis. Mu˓ādh. author of the magisterial Kitāb al-manāzir (De aspectibus). El Kitāb mayhūlāt. evidence that On Twilight exerted its share of influence in the medieval East as well. The determination itself depends upon four basic parameters: the depression of the sun below the horizon at first light (18°). . 1950. The Height of the Atmosphere According to Mu˓āyyad al-Dīn al ˓Urd ī. George. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 2 (1964): 108–12. According to the latter source. al-˓Abdarī. and the third on the science of calculation. There is also clear. Goldstein. and a fourteenth-century Italian translation from the Latin (represented by one manuscript). is extant. On the basis of these parameters and using simple trigonometric functions. living in Marrakesh in the Almohad era. A. Ibn Mun˓im A HMED D JEBBAR The oldest mathematical work from the Maghreb which deals with combinatory problems is the Fiqh al-hisāb . al-Nāsir (1199–1213).000 mile). and the doctors of the Ibn Zuhr family all lived in the Almohad capital. and the circumference of the earth (24. Euclid’s Conception of Ratio and his Definition of Proportional Magnitude. ▶Astronomy in the Islamic World Smith.110 terrestrial radii). David A. probably by Gerard of Cremona (represented by 25 manuscripts). even though they write at length about mathematicians of lesser significance. That it was commonly misattributed to Ibn al-Haytham. Mark and Bernard R. Fiqh al-hisāb. The Latin Version of Ibn Mu˓ādh’s Treatise ‘On Twilight and the Rising of Clouds’. He was originally from the town of Denia on the east coast of Spain. V. Aside from Ibn ˓Abd al-Malik. of the fourth Almohad caliph. Villuendas. Sabra. 1987. I References Hermelink. Ed. his book was the first in the entire history of mathematics to have devoted a whole chapter to these types of problems and to have stated them and solved them according to a common procedure. Ibn Mu˓ādh’s purpose in On Twilight is to determine the height of the atmosphere under the assumption that the first light of dawn is produced when rays from the rising sun tinge vapors at the very upper edge of the atmosphere.

induction. and 4. and even more the techniques.…. and reasoning ad absurdum. . But its importance does not end there: with regard to the linguistic tradition of the Maghreb. of n objects p times p. þ CpÀ1 : Thus. which take into account the vowels and the sukūn accompanying the letters. In fact. In order to do that. however. One can even suppose that if combinatorial reasoning had enjoyed a quantitative development in the field of application. the work represents an important link. in the Fiqh al-hisāb. The elaborate nature of his procedures and results which appear in the Fiqh al-hisāb. as well as the . of this conjecture. In addition to the results included in this chapter of Fiqh al-hisāb. seeks to enumerate the combinations with repetitions. The second part. 1029) had already constructed but for other purposes and using another procedure. adopting a method analogous to the preceding one and which necessitates recourse to the table of numbers. 3. to our knowledge for the first time. pk threads are. and deduces the relationships: pÀ1 pÀ1 pÀ1 p Cn ¼ CnÀ1 þ CnÀ2 þ . it would have resulted in its explicit recognition as a process of reasoning beside analysis. as much by the way of posing the problems and linking them to each other. known Arabic work from the Muslim West in which an autonomous chapter on combinatorial analysis appeared. All these propositions.…) which occur in the counting of words that it is possible to pronounce in a given language. with the desired combinations. Then he establishes. allow the resolution of the problem which Ibn Mun˓im formulates as follows: to determine the number of words of 1–10 letters which it is possible to make with the letters of the Arabic alphabet. he presents. even though he is obliged. the number of possible readings of a word of n letters. he defines precisely the framework in which he is stating the chosen hypotheses and the degree of generality researched. spirit of the method which emerged from them leads to the theory that the beginning of the mathematization of combinatorial problems within the framework of Arabic science occurred prior to the work of Ibn Mun˓im. that of the extension of formulas and their use in solving problems. p2. relative formulas with permutation. An. in accordance with an inductive method. It was moreover this same method that the French scholar Mersenne rediscovered and applied to his work in the seventeenth century. He takes care to explain.” This section is not. a rule which enables one to determine all the possible combinations of n colors p times p. respectively. identifies its elements. so that p1. of the same color. as by the established results. without repetition. Ibn Mun˓im’s study continues by establishing. of combinatorial reasoning for establishing general propositions appeared as a clear acknowledgment of its mathematical character. apparently removed from the initial problem and stated thus: being given threads of silk in n colors. lished his results is also notable. To set up problem 6. . Ibn Mun˓im begins by setting out the problem as a mathematician. This is the content of problems 2. along with several applications. The third part of his study includes. synthesis. . or correction. much longer. entitled “an . that of calculation using tables. the famous arithmetical triangle which algebraists from the Muslim East like al-Karajī (d. His systematic use . and including vowels and the sukūn which can appear on letters. of all the elements (Pn. using a set of colors of silk as an abstract model. in the course of his exposition. a complete overview of practical calculations. for mathematics. Ibn Mun˓im goes back to his model of bunches and proposes to solve a difficult dilemma. a series of tables which enables the determination. of a group of letters such that they give. the way in which Ibn Mun˓im estab. Also. we want to determine the number of bunches it is possible to make with p threads of k colors. a triangular numeric table. more and more closely. and the beginning of another stage. this study goes beyond the linguistic framework in which it is formulated. including all possible repetitions of letters in a words. with or without repetitions. by the methods of reasoning used. In problem 5. taking into account all the signs (vowels and sukūns for Arabic) used by a given language. that he proposes first to treat the problem in a general manner. in order to make his ideas clear. accounting of words which are such that human beings can express them only by one of them. the Fiqh al-hisāb remains the oldest . to formulate it in specific terms using the Arabic alphabet. marking the end of one stage in the progress of combinatorics.1112 Ibn Mun˓im Combinatory analysis is taken up the 11th section of the first chapter of Fiqh al-hisāb. by recurrence. he constructs. Cn. While inductive reasoning is a traditional tool of Islamic mathematics with its privileged domains and unique stature. the book was a culmination in that it laid out a general solution to a given problem. While we await the confirmation. the author concludes the first part by establishing a formula of arrangements. he uses two types of reasoning which can be called inductive and combinatorial. using induction. in the eyes of this author. In fact. to our knowledge for the first time. one cannot say the same for combinatorial reasoning which appeared.

since this commentary was adopted by his students. . . Ibn Qunfudh Y. . following in that the tradtion of several older authors. no copy of this book has been found. Ibn al-Bannā˒. tary on Talkhīs). His originality lies in the symbolic way in which he expressed it: or. Reading it permits us to make several important observations on mathematical writing in this era. . . Five copies of this work are extant. one finds in the work of Ibn Qunfudh an equation of which the second number is zero. notably in the chapter on the product. 1994. R. 8. To this day. Constantine. . Mabād’ as-sālkin f ī sharh rajz Ibn al-Yāsamīn (Principles for Those who are Concerned with the Commentary on the Poem of Ibn al-Yāsamīn). Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic.r–7 = 0. France: Université de Paris-Sud. 3. 1981. Algeria and came from an old family which was cultured and well to do. where he remained for 18 years. and we do not even know if he taught the contents of his own mathematical writings at Constantine or in the cities where he was posted. Ibn Qunfudh’s terminology also differs significantly from Ibn al-Bannā˒’s. then he provides a detailed list of the writings of Ibn al-Bannā˒. . was known under the two names of Ibn Qunfudh and Ibn al-Khatīb. . time. This hypothesis is reinforced by the presence of this same symbolism in the book Hatt an-niqāb and in the book . Ibn Qunfudh began this poem according to the traditional procedure of commentators of the Middle Ages. Bughyat al-fārid min al-hisāb wa l-farā’id (The . The symbolism was universally used in mathematical works from Maghreb.. and teaching and publishing some of his own work. he gives an abstract of its contents. He was born in 710 AH (AD 1339) in . in modern symbols. This was to become normal practice during this period. Rashed. Finally. What is not traditional is his use of mathematical symbolism to resolve equations and to represent polynomials. We think that he acquired his advanced education either completely or partially during his stay in Fez. Elsewhere. . who wrote on subjects which were very different from each other without having taught them. A. Desire of the Genealogical Specialist to Know Arithmetic and Successional Division). . This is a resume of Hat t an-niqāb. Djebbar. L’analyse combinatoire au Maghreb: l’exemple d’Ibn Mun˓im (XIIe–XIIIe siècles). Since this is Ibn Qunfudh’s most important work. especially in Ibn Yāsamīn’s book Talqīh al-afkār. something which one finds nowhere else in the literature of other mathematicians of this time.. Ibn Qunfudh died in 810 AH (AD 1407). . At the same . After his elementary education. . or even if he was content only to edit them. 4. A. at-Talkhīs f ī shzarh at-Talkhīs (Abridged Commen. We know that it is in this city that he edited in 771 (1370) his most important mathematical work. it is useful to describe certain aspects of its contents. 1985. I . The Development of Arabic Mathematics: Between Arithmetic and Algebra.. . Paris: Publications Mathématiques d’Orsay. The author begins his book with some advice and directions designed to facilitate the reading of any book. . However. covering different scientific themes. he returned to Fez. mufti (jurist). There he studied with several professors. It is also important to note again the existence of Ibn Qunfudh’s mathematical symbolism. 2. written by Ya˒qūb al-Muwāhidī Tahsīl al-munā f ī . We know that Ibn Qunfudh began his studies with his father and his maternal grandfather. recent research reveals that this symbolism had been used previously at the end of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century. the Hat t an-niqāb ˒an wujūh ˒amāl al-hisāb. Ibn Qunfudh supplies arithmetic rules which one does not find in Ibn al-Bannā˒’s work.. he devoted himself to the teaching and editing of scholarly work. . which is a commentary on the Talkhīs a˒māl al-hisāb of . of which two copies are extant today. Orsay. in order to follow them eventually under the direction of other professors from his same town. No information has come down to us on the subject of the contents of this teaching. Enseignement et recherche mathématiques dans le Maghreb des XIIe –XIV e siècles. . sharh Talkhīs Ibn al-Bannā. of which we know only four titles: 1. Veil on the Operations of Calculation). particularly in the chapters on roots and on algebraic equations. (preacher). and qādī (judge). What follows is an attempt to give a glimpse of Ibn Qunfudh’s contributions to mathematics. G UERGOUR Abū’1˒ Abbās Ahmed Ibn al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ali Ibn al-Khatīb . in Morocco. Ibn Qunfudh went back to Constantine in order to take up duties as a khat ib . written in 721 (1321). . During the period of famine which raged in all of Maghreb in 776 (1374).Ibn Qunfudh 1113 See also: ▶Combinatorics in Islamic Mathematics References Djebbar. Hat t an-niqāb ˒an wujūh ˒amāl al-hisāb (Lifting the . an equation which had formerly been studied by Ibn Badr. In the beginning of each chapter.

A. Algeria. in Hyderabad/Deccan (India) in 1956. Ibn Rid wān watched him teaching: pupils . The Life and Works of Ibn Qutayba. Ibn Ridwan . 1943. When he was 59. based on the writings of Hippocrates and Galen. Rabat: Université de Recherches Scientifiques. 1985. traditions. Fasi and Adolphe Faure. Number 85–01. teachers and put questions to each of them. A. en Histoire des Mathématiques E. And some of it even lived on into our time. for some years he was qādī (a judge according . T. he concluded that he should first study geometry and Ibn Qutayba PAUL K UNITZSCH Ibn Qutayba. E. In his youth. he wrote a book entitled Fī Sīratihī (On His Own Conduct). Quelques apects de l’algèbre dans la tradition mathématique arabe de l’occident musulman. 184–7. the teacher listened but did not utter one word of explanation and did not even bother to correct their errors. and guide them in their nightly desert travels. fi’l-Tibb li’l-Muta˓allimīn (Questions on Medicine for . he first sought out a popular teacher in Cairo. ---. Alger: la Maison des livres. biography. 1990. . and Indian astronomy. Les écrits mathématiques d’Ibn al-Yāsamīn. teaching. Number 81–02. Many Arabic philologists and lexicographers wrote books of this type. M. Les écrits Mathématiques d’Ibn Qunfudh al-Qasant īnī . but most of these did not survive. (810/1406). Enseignement et recherche mathématiques dans le Maghreb des XIIIe—XIVe siècles. was born in 828 in Kufa or Baghdad.S. Facts. to Islamic rules) in Dinawar (northern Iran). as. He decided on self-education at the tender age of 15. 1965. ¯ A LBERT Z. Ibn Qutayba was a scholar of typical Arabic–Islamic education. and some science. Hunayn Ibn Ishāq’s (d. was born in AD 998 at Gīzah. Paris: Publications Mathématiques d’Orsay. l'homme. To realize his ambition. He concluded that they merely knew the titles of books but were ignorant of their contents. but financial difficulties prevented his going there. From perusing Galen’s On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato. He was the . Paris: Publications Mathématiques d’Orsay. Damascus: Institut français de Damas. Tabaqāt al-At ibbā˒ (Sources of Information About the . is of great interest. In his career. Uns al-faqīr wa ˒izz al-haqīr. Leiden: Brill. 1937. Ibn Qutayba. Beirut: American Press. Carl. ---. Students). 1986. Zemouli. Ed. . urjuzat Ibn Yāsamīn al-jabria. AD 873) Kitāb al-Masā˒il . 1992. . Therefore Ibn Qutayba’s Book on the anwā˒. the star name Aldebaran (for α Tauri). Ibn Qunfudh. who instructed Ibn Rid wān to memorize . literature. and died in 884 or 889 in Baghdad. Much of this material continued to be used later in the most active period of Arabic – Islamic astronomy. Supplement I. predict weather—especially rain. Of particular scientific interest is his Kitāb al-anwā˒ (Book on the anwā˒). Ibn Rid wān sought to find other . a self. but its text is partly preserved in Ibn Abī Usaybi˓a’s ˓Uyūn al-Anbā˒ fī . educated physician philosopher. son of a poor baker ( farrān) and had to earn money in his youth by practicing medicine. a suburb south of Cairo (al-Fustāt). I SKANDAR Abu’l-Hasan ˓Alī Ibn Rid wān ˓Alī Ibn Ja˓far. He left twenty works of varying lengths covering all the fields mentioned. His studies included all branches of the traditional Arabic and Islamic knowledge of his time: religion. . I. Colloque Maghrébin sur l’histoire des mathématiques Arabes. which was printed in Arabic. Guy. and nomenclature are amply described. read the text. 120–3. history. philology. terminology. for example. from the time before their acquaintance with Greek. ses idées. 1981. Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur. 1–3 décembre 1986. Lecomte. He pondered over traveling to Iraq for further education. Doctoral thesis. ---. Y. son oeuvre. Anwā˒ are asterisms and stars used by the Arabs in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times to determine seasons. and telling people’s fortunes from astrological signs. Abū Muhammad ˓Abdallāh ibn Muslim.1114 Ibn Qutayba See also: ▶Ibn al-Bannā References Djebbar. Dirāsa ˒an Ibn Qunfudh was tahqīq sharhihi li . where he also died. References Brockelmann. 1965. In it. . he believed in astrology ( ˓ilm al-nujūm) and was convinced that the stars at the time of his birth indicated a prosperous medical career. The work is now lost. Guergour. the author has assembled information on the popular astronomical and meteorological knowledge of the old Arabs. 1988. Persian. which they displayed on shelves in their private libraries. Mémoire de D. Classes of Physicians). Doctoral thesis. lexicography. 1950.N. I. d’Alger. L’analyse combinatoire au Maghreb: l’exemple d’Ibn Mun˒. Huseini. later he lived and taught in Baghdad. Muhamed al. Algeria. .

Islamic law. In the final and seventh grade. of the medical profession. AD 1036–1094). La Doctrine rhétorique d’Ibn Rid wān et . treated the poor for free. Spain. Ibn Rid wān gives an account of “the six non-natural . Meyerhof and Schacht (1937). For example.” Furthermore. Quality of Medical Education). Ibn Rid wān preserved for . Albert Z. . . I SKANDAR Abu’l-Walīd Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad . An Attempted Reconstruction of the Late Alexandrian Medical Curriculum. 2. Later. Ibn Abī Usaybi˓a. His fame reached the Fātimid Caliph al-Mustansir . Vol. At the . measurement. students studied Galen’s On the Method of the Preservation of Health. These are well documented by . . In On the Prevention of Bodily Ills. age of 59 he divided his time between practicing medicine. Among Ibn Rid wān’s extensive bibliography are his . Like his father and . Cairo: The Egyptian University. Sixteen of Galen’s books were to be studied in seven grades: Grade 1 included Galen’s On Sects. ˓Uyūn al-Anbā˒ fī Tabaqāt al-At ibbā˒. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1984. Columbia University. Faculty of Arts. In it he attributes the decline of medicine in his time to the popularity of poor-quality compendia (kanānīsh) and summaries and commentaries of the books of Hippocrates and Galen. August Müller. See also: ▶Ibn Butlān . .. .Ibn Rushd (Averroës) 1115 logic. Rhetoricam Aristotelis Ex Glosa Alpharabii’. The main courses include logic and medicine proper. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 8. daily physical exercise (al-riyādah). Ph. to avoid any confusion. He was kind. AD 1126–1198). food and drink. Treatise On the Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt. and To Glaucon on Therapy. Schacht. and medicine. Dols. On the Art of Physics. . She absconded with all the precious items he had accumulated and 20.3 (1976): 235–58. Maroun. and compulsory subjects: physics. Ibn Ridwān’s . medicine proper. Meyerhof. Dissertation. Prevention of Bodily Ills in Egypt) and the Al-Nāfī ˓ f ī Kayfiyyat Ta˓līm sinā ˓ at al-Tibb (Useful Book on the . References Aouad. the late Alexandrian medical curriculum (sixth to seventh century AD). the compounding of drugs. he was nicknamed al-haf īd (grandson). Michael W. Jennifer Ann. Ed. La Doctrine rhétorique d’Ibn Rid wān et la ‘Didascalia in . Ibn Rid wān was discourteous in criticizing members .000 gold dīnārs which he had kept in the house. hearted. . including language and grammar. chapter 5 of this treatise is entitled “On the Incorrectness of Most of Ibn al-Jazzār’s [d. The hills in the east hold back the “hot and humid” winds. treatise Fī Daf ˓ Madārr al-Abdān fī Ard Misr (On the . In his Useful Book. . It consists of preparatory (introductory) courses and main courses. Publication No. Medieval Islamic Medicine. arithmetic. ibn Rushd (Averroës. On the Pulse. A Contribution to the History of Greek . was the namesake of his famous grandfather. until he reached the age of 32. Ibn Rid wān died in AD 1067. 2001. and . Medical History 20. New York. a native of Cordoba. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 7. Ridwān of Cairo. . and was always willing to extend a helping hand to the needy. 1937. AD 1009] Reasons for the Unhealthy Air in Egypt. astrology. Learning Among the Arabs. and psychic events. Max and J. To Teuthras. 99–105. Ibn Rid wān’s mind became disturbed . I ¨ Ibn Rushd (Averroes) A LBERT Z. then proceeded to read textbooks on medicine proper. The Alexandrian curriculum specifies the titles of textbooks of logic. he describes the Nile and the Muqattam Hills on both sides of the river. He studied the well-known books on these two subjects. sleep and wakefulness. reading books on literature. Ibn Rid wān worked very hard as a practicing doctor . . (taghayyar ˓aqluhu) as a result of being robbed of all his cherished possessions. and ethics. In old age. la ‘Didascalia in Rhetoricam Aristotelis Ex Glosa Alpharabii’. The Medico-Philosophical Controversy Between Ibn But lān of Baghdad and Ibn . (r. .1 (1998): 131–60. He had adopted an orphan young girl whom he brought up in his own house. 1884. . Seymore. compiled by incompetent physicians. . An extensive search for the girl was abortive. mine health and sickness: the air surrounding the body. numerals. posterity a unique document. 13.2 (1997): 163–245. ---. Iskandar.D. In this way he reached an understanding of the principles of the art of healing. when he became well known and earned enough money to build his own residential Palace of Candles (Qasr al-Sham˓). movement and rest. The Life of Ibn Ridwan and His Commentary on Ptolemy’s Tetrabiblos. The preparatory courses contain optional subjects. who appointed him Chief of Physicians (Ra˒īs al-At ibbā˒) in Egypt. retention and evacuation. disagreements arose with Ibn Butlān of Baghdad. geometry. which are most favorable for the temperament (mizāj) of animals and which do not reach al-Fust āt . Königsberg: Selbstverlag. and mathematics (including astronomy). causes” (al-asbāb al-sitta al-darūriyya) which deter.

a first-class practitioner. Ibn Rushd studied Islamic law (Sharī ˓ under the teacher. AD 1184– . during his lifetime. Hif z-al-sihha (Hygiene). he was a well-known jurist. . and those planetary movements whose existence can only be surmised by reasoning. He was actively researching matters pertaining to astronomy when he met Ibn Tufayl. his studies in religious law. but he is known to have . Zuhr severely criticized. entitled him to be considered a . and poets were invited. 1184). d. . Colliget) consists of seven books: Tashrīh al-A˓dā˒ (The Anatomy of Organs). AD 1111). before succeeding his father. The latter . Abū Yūsuf Ya˓qūb al-Mansūr (r. Ibn Rushd asked Ibn Zuhr to write a book on therapy. At his father’s insistence. In 1153. pressed by the Ash˓arite science of Kalām (Theology). Ibn Rushd visited many places in the Almohad realm. Very little is known about Ibn Rushd as a teacher of medicine. whose influence had grown as a result of their religious zeal during the period of the Crusades. which he did. It was called al-Taysīr fī’l-mudāwāt wa’l-tadbīr (An Aid to Therapy and Regimen). transcribed the whole text of Ibn Rushd’s book AlKulliyyāt (Generalities) from the author’s own autograph. . and at one time was the Imam of the great mosque of Cordoba. For 10 years Ibn Rushd enjoyed the patronage of Abū Ya˓qūb Yūsuf. one learns that Ibn Rushd conducted astronomical observations when in Marrakech. From his commentary on Aristotle’s De Caelo. under al-Hāfiz. . He was summoned to appear in court. who specialized in religious . AD 1162) and Ibn Rushd. and wrote Kitāb al-Muqaddimāt al-Mumahhidāt (A Book of Introductions that Pave the Way). Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar). (Symptoms). Muhammad Ibn Rizq. Later. been more interested in Islamic law. It took almost a century before a copy of Kitāb al-Qānūn. and Ibn . al-Sihha (Health). . AD 1037) Kitāb al-Qānūn fi’l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine). . AD 1163) in furthering education by founding colleges. In AD 1182. Kitāb al-Kulliyyāt (Latin. and his philosophical writings were deemed contrary to the teachings of Islam. al-˓Alāmāt . according to the author. (Recovery from Disease). actually reached Cordoba. a province of Cordoba. . at which time he was still holding the office of qādī. Ibn Rushd’s education under al-Tarjālī qualified him as a physician-philosopher. Al-Tarjālī was employed by the Almohad (al-Muwahhid) ruler Abū Ya˓qūb Yūsuf (r. See also: ▶Ibn Tufayl. completed by its author in Hamadan (Persia). al-Marad (Disease). al-Hāfiz Abū a) . AD 1163– . and in his commentary on the Metaphysics. Rushd were regular attendants at these meetings. Ya˓qūb Yūsuf. jurist ( faqīh). science of Tradition (Hadīth). he became a qādī (judge). Scientific collaboration existed between the eminent practitioner Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar. and with his approval. he . Ibn Rushd fell from grace in AD 1195 and was banished to Lucena. Nevertheless. succeeded Ibn Tufayl as a personal doctor to Abū . which he used for jotting down prescriptions for his patients.1116 Ibn Rushd (Averroës) grandfather. His teachers of medicine were Abū Marwān Ibn Jurrayūl. Ibn Rushd was also acquainted with the doctrines of the Mu˓tazila theology. the names of two of his students are known: ˓Abd Allāh al-Nadrūlī and ˓Īsā ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qādir. The purpose of the book. Out of jealousy. is to provide medical men with an introduction to concise accounts of the different parts of medicine (ajzā˒ al-t ibb). ▶Ibn Sīnā . who appointed Ibn Rushd as qādī of Seville in AD 1169. to which notable philosophers. . he mentions his yearning for his early studies in astronomy. when he was in Marrakech (Morocco). successfully conspired against him for his free-minded views. a well-known physician philosopher in Seville. attended meetings in Seville. By profession. those that can be seen by instruments of observation (remarking that some occurred over long periods of time that exceeded the lifetime of observers). .. 1199). Ibn Rushd studied the writings of Arabic-speaking astronomers and expressed his own opinion regarding the three kinds of planetary motions: those that can be detected by the naked eye. and was elevated to the office of grand qādī of Cordoba. matters. as well as the medical writings of the Ancients. . Al-Taysīr and the Kulliyyāt together were meant to cover the whole science of medicine. a philosopher and astronomer in his own right. al-Adwiya wa’l-Aghdhiya (Drugs and Foods).. Ibn Rushd’s home town. who was knowledgeable about Aristotelian philosophy.. he turned against the Ash˓arī school of thought and attacked its proponent. one of the four great sects of Islam. d. . and Abū Ja˓far Hārūn al-Tarjālī. following in the footsteps of his father. He memorized the Muwat t a˒ of Imam Mālik and was also greatly im. He adhered to the Mālikī sect. Ibn Rushd supported the Almohad ruler ˓Abd al-Mu˒min (d. . ducing him to Abū Ya˓qūb Yūsuf. Ibn Rushd . physicians. which Ibn . returned to Cordoba in AD 1171. Between AD 1169 and 1179. jurists (al-fuqahā˒) of the Mālikī sect. possibly instead of Ibn Sīnā’s (Avicenna. . and Shifā˒ al-Amrād . After reading it for the first time. Abū Bakr Ibn Tufayl (Abubacer). . Ibn Tufayl enhanced Ibn Rushd’s career by intro. the Imam al-Ghazālī (d. A merchant from Baghdad presented Ibn Zuhr with a beautifully transcribed and ornamented copy of Ibn Sīnā’s Kitāb al-Qānūn. Ibn Rushd also studied the . for the followers of the sect.. Ibn Zuhr condemned the book and kept tearing off the margins of its leaves.

He wrote a memoir on the transparency of the celestial sphere. Majid. We separate from the straight line CH the straight line CI equal to the straight line CE. 1970–1980. New York: Scribner’s Sons. ˓Uyūn al-Anbā˒ f ī Tabaqāt al-At ibbā˒.” That is to say that the mathematician better understands the notion of a medium and its definition by a certain characteristic opacity. Oxford: Oneworld. is the first known contribution on the geometric theory of lenses. 1–9. with no conceptual comment. is invested with a certain opacity which defines it. written in Baghdād around 984. Ibn al-Haytham had already captured this idea perfectly when. Abū Sa˓d al-˓Alā˒. Works and Influence. Königsberg: Selbstverlag. As usual. is nothing but the inverse of the refraction index n of the medium in relation to air. Ibn Rushd. This book. and a kind of anthology of problems about which we have no direct information. Kitāb al-Kulliyyāt. including the celestial sphere. It therefore deals with Snellius’ law of refraction. He no longer defines the medium by a certain opacity. Vol. but also demonstrates that every medium. . another always exists which is more so. 1884. But Ibn Sahl’s real discovery takes place when he poses the still unthought-of question of burning by refraction. 14524. composed in the course of his reading of Book V of Ptolemy’s Optics. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Ibn Sahl concludes that CE/CH is less than 1. Ibn Rushd. which was commented on by Ibn al-Haytham. the ray CE in the air. August Müller. postulated by Ibn Sahl but never calculated. for each transparent body.b.61. In these sentences. 2001.Ibn Sahl 1117 References Arnaldez. 1 Refraction in lenses. On the Measurement of the Parabola and On the Centers of Gravity. 1). which he will use throughout his research . refraction in lenses. He considers the straight line DC following which light propagates in the crystal. . he wrote that his predecessor wanted to demonstrate that “there is no limit to transparency. but characterizes it by a constant ratio. Fakhry. we extend the straight line BL along AB and set it equal to the straight line BK. Vol. and the perpendicular GE to the surface plane of the crystal. 75–8. the straight line CE according to which it refracts in the air. 2. we set the ratio of the straight line AK to the straight line AB equal to the ratio of the straight line CI to the straight line CJ. Ibn Abī Usaybi˓a. MS No. This ratio. Averroës (Ibn Rushd): His Life. namely two treatises. he writes: The straight line CE is therefore smaller than CH. At the beginning of the study of refraction in lenses. we can deduce that he flourished under the Buwayhid Dynasty. and probably in Baghdād. between 970 and 990. The memoir and the commentary have come down to us. Here Ibn Sahl clearly applies the law by which the ray CD in the crystal. Ed. It is this concept of constant ratio distinguishing the medium which is the masterpiece of his study of I Ibn Sahl. Many of Ibn Sahl’s important writings have been lost. From his correspondence as well as from diverse information transmitted by mathematicians of the second half of the tenth century. was a first-class mathematician. 12. Roger and Albert Zaki Iskandar. In this. Let us look again at On Burning Instruments (Fig. we divide HI in half at point J. 1987. Ibn Sahl takes up not only the rules of refraction set out by his predecessor. Ibn Sahl R OSHDI R ASHED Ibn Sahl. London: The British Library. are all on the same plane. Ibn Sahl considers a plane surface GF limiting a piece of crystal. . Let us begin with the contribution of Ibn Sahl to optics. and. Fig. and the perpendicular at G to the surface GF which cuts the straight line CD at H and the refracted ray at E. was also on the point of being lost. its formulation being very close to Snellius’ own formulation some six centuries later. His book Fī al-Harrāqāt (On Burning Instruments) . on reading this same memoir of Ibn Sahl.

There are many manuscript copies of this version and some early printed texts. the author explains that he intends to collect and reconcile the views of Dioscorides and Galen on a wide variety of medicinal substances.. Rpt. but not surgery. Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages. A Pioneer in Anaclastics: Ibn Sahl on Burning Mirrors and Lenses. He will not fail to give this same ratio again. and point J at the middle of IH. and as a dentifrice. There are many manuscript copies of the Latin translation. the blood. In his chapter on pearls. Donald. Manuscript copies of the Arabic versions exist in European libraries.2 (Autumn 1999): 245–9. but also Ibn al-Wāfid (997–1075). because he cites among his authorities not only al-Rāzī. Géométrie et dioptrique au X e siècle: Ibn Sahl. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. See also: ▶al-Rāzī. the angles formed. We have here a situation of privileged history: we are witness to the elaboration of a new chapter of geometry by two contemporary mathematicians. who lived in the ninth century. Aldershot: Variorum. Turbner & Co. and several early prints. Moses ben Mazliach translated Gerard’s version into Hebrew. set down as a follow-up to his contemporary. Burning Instruments: From Diocles to Ibn Sahl. He was the author of a treatise on drugs called Kitāb al-adwiya al-mufrada. nor to reproduce this same figure. Rashed. and then to add in the opinions of others. This treatise is composed of two books. the nerves. al-Rāzī (Razes). London: Kegan Paul.1118 Ibn Sarabi (Serapion) on lenses constructed in the same crystal. each time he discusses refraction in the crystal. A Note on Sabur ibn Sahl. al-Qūhī et Ibn al-Haytham. by CD and CE with the perpendicular GH. References Campbell. 1926. One has 1 sin i1 CG CE CE ¼ ¼ : ¼ n sin i2 CH CG CH Ibn Sahl takes on segment CH point I such that CI = CE. what sounds like a whole copy of the Large Kunnāsh is in Istanbul. cites Serapion. I shall mention only one paper. I remark upon the emergence of Ibn Sahl. and ˓Alī ibn ˓Abbās al-Majūsī (d. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 12 (2002): 285–303. which was translated into Latin as Liber de medicamentis simplicibus by Simon de Cordo of Genoa and Abraham of Tortosa in about 1290. The Small Kunnāsh was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona (d. Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. In fact. and co-author). let us consider i1 and i2. Al-Qūhī is. One has CI 1 ¼ : CH n The division CIJH henceforth characterizes the crystal for all refraction. in Optique et mathématiques: recherches sur l’histoire de la pensée scientifique en arabe. the mathematician alQūhī: his study of the method of projection of the sphere. 1992. naming the Kunnāsh. Oliver. In the Latin text. Ibn Sahl also made a substantial contribution in infinitesimal mathematics as well as in construction problems – the regular heptagon. 2 vols. respectively. Ibn Sahl made innovations not only in optics. This ratio is nothing but the inverse of the index of refraction in the crystal in relation to air. and a manuscript of this translation still survives. for instance.” and the confusion between them in all of the authorities seems inextricable. London: Routledge. who turned to Ibn Sahl for clarification of the notions found therein and for the proof by synthesis of what al-Qūhī showed by analysis. Usually the works of both Serapions appear together. . Yuhānnā ibn . 1993. Trench. Rashed. Among his mathematical inventions. the author of a treatise on The Art of the Astrolabe by Demonstration. He wrote two books in Syriac. he describes the generally accepted power of pearls to strengthen the heart. who may have been a younger contemporary. ---. Ibn Sarabi (Serapion) E. The propositions which al-Qūhī set forth seemed “difficult to understand” to one of his contemporaries. 994) criticizes Serapion for ignoring surgery. R UTH H ARVEY There are two different Arab authors known to the medieval Latin west as “Serapion. Isis 81 (1990): 464–91. The elder of the two authors was a Syrian. The younger Serapion is an even more obscure figure. 3 vols. of which the first opens with an introductory chapter on the theory of projections. melancholia. Sarabiyun. R. Kahl. In conclusion. ▶al-Majūsī References Bellosta. which were translated into Arabic: they are called the Large Kunnāsh (it was in twelve parts) and the Small Kunnāsh (in seven parts). The younger Serapion cannot have lived earlier than the eleventh century. and two chapters: anaclastics and the study of projection of the sphere. (ed. Both works deal with medicine and diet. a figure until recently almost unknown. in fact. 1996. but also in mathematics. R. Journal of Semitic Studies 44. 1187) and entitled Practica Joannis Serapionis dicta Breviarium. he then goes on to cite four Arab authorities on the effects of pearls on the eyesight. for instance. Hélène.

and Qazwīn. He is the author of the Qānūn al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine). adopted the Islamic astronomical view based on the nine spheres and interpreted them within the scheme of the emanation of intellects. Each order of intellect accordingly corresponds to one of the heavens. It is noteworthy that he wrote a great number of these works on horseback while fleeing from one city to another. Ibn Sīnā gained favor with the Sāmānid dynasty for having cured Prince Nūh ibn Mansūr and was thus allowed to . Riyādāyāt (Mathematics). Johannan b. Eventually he came to be known as the “prince of physicians”. In 1037 while traveling with ˓Alā˒ al-Dawlah he became ill and died as the result of colic. and his last major work al-Ishārāt wa’l-tanbīhāt (The Book of Directives and Treatments). Le Muséon 55 (1942): 139–42. Sezgin. he made the following revisions: 1. From Plotinus he adopted the emanation scheme. and Ilāhāyyāt . from Plato his theory of archetypes. Finally. following the death of the prince. and impossible. . (Metaphysics). This distinction became the central theme of medieval ontological discussions as well as of the subsequent debates within the Islamic philosophical tradition. the second intellect corresponds to the highest heaven which is located above the fixed stars. Zoologie. However. Yaqzān (Son of the Living Awake). For example. (Treatise of the Bird). physics. became a physician at age 16.Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) 1119 Peters. who had studied the Ptolemaic and Aristotelian systems. Furthermore. Ibn Sīnā gained the title of Shaykh al-Ra˒īs (Master of the Wise) because he composed numerous treatises. and from Aristotle his logic. . resulting in his traveling from city to city. Leiden: Brill. and Risālat al-taīr . chemistry. Philosophy). In 1022. in particular in Aristotle. crossing the desert on foot. ¯ ¯ Ibn Sına (Avicenna) M EHDI A MINRAZAVI Abū ˓Alī al-Husain ibn ˓Abdallāh ibn Sīnā (980–1037). al-Mabda˒ wa’l-ma˓ād (The Book of Origin and End). To this monumental work should be added Kitāb al-nijāt (The Book of Deliverance). 240. a synopsis of the Shifā˒. Pharmacie. Tabī ˓iyyāt (Natural . and the tenth intellect corresponds to the moon below which the corporeal domain of our world is located. Made the theoretical and practical aspects of medicine represent a unified whole. and having mastered the Qu˒rān and the sciences of his time. Plato and Aristotle. Ibn Sīnā divided all beings into three categories: necessary. Geschichte des Arabischen Schrifttums III: Medizin. and the first major work written in Persian for ˓Alā˒ al-Dawlah. . Ibn Sīnā. and toward the end of his life said he had learned everything he knew by then. 430 H. Ibn Sīnā lived in a tumultuous time when different princes were engaged in a power struggle. 1970. was born in the city of Būkhārā in the Eastern part of Persia into an Isma˒ili family. in particular Neoplatonism. He also wrote a book in which principles of medicine are written as poetry in order to facilitate their memorization by medical students. until he finally settled in Hamadān at the request of prince Shams al-Dawlah. In medicine. such as Hayy ibn . Ibn Sīnā wrote a number of treatises on medicine both in Arabic and Persian some of which deal with particular diseases. he argued that existent beings were made up of an essence and existence. He is buried in Hamedan. Dānishnāmah-yi ˓Alā˒ī (The Book of Knowledge). He demonstrated an incredible genius for learning. Tierheilkunde. Fuat. but also made extensive use of Greek philosophy. The genius of Ibn Sīnā was in interpreting these different thoughts within the unitary matrix of Islam. . 276 of which have been alluded to by his commentators. Unified the central principles of Greek medicine and interpreted them within an Islamic framework. 228. contingent. Serapion. there are a few works which are mystical and visionary. Ibn Sīnā went to Isfahān where . He mastered other sciences such as psychology. which . Curt. and pharmacology by age 18. and after a while traveled to Khorāsān. he found the peace and serenity that the intellectual life demands. bis ca. Kitāb al-hi. Among his other philosophical works are ˓Uyūn al-hikmah (Fountain of Wisdom). also known as Avicenna. Rayy. Ibn Sīnā was a great synthesizer in that he not only incorporated the ideas of some of his predecessors such as al-Kindī and al-Fārābī. By the age of 20. an area close to the Caspian Sea. dāyah (The Book of Guidance). Ibn Sīnā was in many ways a follower of Greek ideas on medicine. and psychology. became a standard text both in the Christian West and the Islamic world. he had already become an accomplished physician and gained the respect of the court for having cured several members of the royal family. 2. He first went to Gorgān. Ibn Sīnā’s most extensive and elaborate work is Kitāb al-shifā˒ (The Book of Healing) which itself consists of four segments: al-Mant iq (Logic). I Medicine Ibn Sīnā was in the tradition of such grand Muslim physicians as al-Rāzī and al-Majūsī. Ibn Sīnā has been called “philosopher of being” for he brought the question of being and the study of ontology to the forefront of philosophical debates and thereby corrected a deficiency that he saw in Greek philosophy. In addition to his magnum opus. astronomy. use the royal library.

providing a detailed description of the effects of medications on body. Aziz.1120 Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) 3. Avicenna on Theology. and understood the relationship between temperature and the spread of diseases. E.. its relationship with the body and the active intellect. Chicago. and how it is that ice floats on water. In a famous debate with al-Bīrūnī. He introduces five internal senses and their equivalent five external senses. In the fifth volume of this work. 1955–1958. and Duns Scotus. McKeever. In the second volume. In the third and fourth volumes. Mohammad and Henri Masse. used spices to stop bleeding after surgery. Ibn Sīnā’s treatment of the human soul. Anwaīi. and he goes on to discuss the fundamental principles necessary to maintain human health. he states that medicine is the science of knowing the structure of the human body. These causes could also be the result of psychological elements. the relationship between water and light. Murray. Avicenna. Ibn Sīnā’s treatment of the subject of psychology as a science which is both independent and part of the field of medicine is extensive. Introduced a number of medications and treatments for illnesses unknown to Greeks. 1974. Ibn Sīnā believed that the science of medicine was divided into two categories. 1951. is extensive.. Ibn Sīnā then goes on to say that the health of the body to a large extent depends on the health of the soul and he offers much elaboration on that point throughout his works. the nature of a vacuum. Ibn Sīnā treats the subject of the “three kingdoms” (minerals. The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qānūn Fī’l-t ibb). Carra de Vaux. 2 vols. Illinois: Great Books of the Islamic World. ed. Ibn Sīnā explains various healing properties of simple and compound drugs and their various applications. He extends the hierarchy of the incorporeal world to the material world. 1999. Some of his observations are extraordinarily advanced for his time. Nathan. and philosophy. Anesthetic and Analgesic Practices in Avicenna’s ‘Canon of Medicine’. William of Auvergne. he presents his diagnosis of a variety of illnesses known to him. Roger Bacon. London: J. Ibn Sīnā left an indelible mark on the history of science. Trans. New York: Pantheon Books. Alexander of Hales. heat.1 (2000): 147–51. C. Ibn Sīnā is known to have prescribed a variety of treatments for ailments. Essai de bibliographie avicennienne. The scope of Ibn Sīnā’s writings on sciences includes such topics as motion. commented on a number of contagious diseases. Avicenna and the Visionary Recital. used single hair lines of horses for stitching after surgery. Ibn Sīnā offers an extensive discussion of pharmacology. and animals). Ibn Sīnā’s philosophy remained the dominant philosophical school in the medieval west where he became known through translations of his works in Islamic Spain by Avendeuth. 4. Calcutta: Iran Society. V. Cairo: Dar al-Ma‘arif. G. Illnesses were brought about either by internal or external causes. Corbin. et al. Le Livre de Science. See also: ▶al-Kindī References Achena. ranging from meningitis and cancer to tuberculosis and gastrointestinal illnesses. Avicenne. Distributed by KAZI Publications. Perhaps one of the most important contributions of Ibn Sīnā to the field of medicine is the technical medical terminology which he introduced and which is still used by physicians in the Islamic countries. and J. Courtois. Documented the effects of medications on the body and commented on the necessity of a methodology in the study of pharmacological issues. Ibn Sīnā’s works continued to be translated through the sixteenth century influencing such western philosophers as the Augustinian Gundisalvo. which came to be known in the West as De mineralibus. In the first volume of the Canon of Medicine. 1956. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 28. ranging from psychotherapy and diet to exercising. he attributed the cause of plague to mice. 1960. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. plants. Internal illnesses were caused by an imbalance of temperament in the human body. He first argues for the existence of a soul which is rather similar to the Aristotelian psyche and then shows how this incorporeal part of man interacts with his corporeal dimension. experimented with various drugs as anesthetics when operating on patients. cooling. Avicenna Commemoration Volume. Bernard. Williard Trask. described surgical processes for many operations such as gall bladder. For example. 1950. Psychology In The Book of Healing. The Sicillian school also benefited much from Ibn Sīnā who was translated by Michael Scot. Henry. . concluding that whereas each domain has its soul it is only in humans that these souls reach their completeness. Arberry. the process of sedimentation. Amsterdam: Philo Press. Arthur J. who was a Jewish philosopher and Gerard of Cremona. Ibn Sīnā responded to ten questions on Aristotle’s De Caelo and eight other questions such as how vision is possible. trans. He discusses surgery as an independent branch of medicine and elaborates on the science of anatomy. medicine. He even experimented on animals using different drugs. theoretical and practical. . and classification of minerals in the Shifā˒. B. Alberttus Magnus.

O. Gruner. The General Principles of Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal and Neonatal Edition 77. Danielle. Radī . B. International Journal of Clinical Practice 51. al-Dīn ˓Alī Ibn Tāwūs was present at this Council. he . asceticism. . writer. Kohlberg of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has contributed a superb reconstruction of this library and a detailed critical analysis of the works it contained. Radhi and Farouk O. B. 1951. (d. Professor E. the Banū Tāwūs. London: I. concerned with religious matters. gling with the Philosopher: A Refutation of Avicenna’s Metaphysics. Krueger. Gotthard. devoutness. He belonged to a distinguished family of scholars. Avicenne et la Nosologie galénique: L’Exemple des Maladies du Cerveau. rature. 1974. American Journal of Otology 20. 672/1273). Hasnawi. Nasr. In AH 650/AD 1252. Strohmaier. Goichon. et al. Illinois: C. One of the Samples of the Influence of Avicenna on Ottoman Medicine: Shams Al-Dīn Irāqī. Social History of Medicine 13 (2000): 307–21. which . The date on which Ibn Tāwūs died in Baghdad is . . Shahrastānī. 1999. 1978. S. Belleten (Türk Tarih Kurumu) 64 (2000): 63–8. Peter M. enabled the Sayyid families to represent their community in political. or knowledge). . Gohlman. A. trans. and concerned himself extensively with popular religious practices. Wray. Avicenna of Persia. Ibn Tāwūs concentrated mainly on devotional lite. Nathan. Kâhya. Shah. William E. Tauris in Association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies. München: C.¯ ¯ Z EINA M ATAR Rad ī al-Dīn Abū-l-Qāsim ˓Alī ibn Mūsā ibn Ja˓far ibn . . had been established by the famous scholar Abū Ja˓far al-Tūsī (385–458/995–1066) as a center of learning . he took the futya ( fatwa. Kerbela. He had a reputation for saintly powers. as in this apocryphal story: When Sultan Hulagu conquered Baghdad in 656/ 1258. . and received the title from Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī . Ibn Tāwūs spent his formative years . Savage-Smith. M. E. a dynasty in Persia and Iraq. Avicenna. Parviz. he ordered that the scholars give an opinion on which was preferable: the unbelieving but just sultan. Perspectives Arabes et médiévales sur la Tradition Scientifique et Philosophique Grecque. was a religious scholar. and al-Kazimayan. 2001. 1952. They refrained from answering. traced back to ˓Alī ibn Abī Tālib. He was born in al-Hilla (Iraq) on 15 Muharram 589/21 . Ed. boasting five madrasas (institutions for the study of the Islamic sciences). 217–26. A man of deep faith. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. Ahmad Hasnawi. Revue d’histoire de la pharmacie 317 (1998): 9–28. London: Oxford University Press. understanding of fiqh (science. Springfield. The Definition of Motion in Avicenna’s Physics. political situations. Ahmad. and wrote that the unbelieving but just ruler was preferable to a Muslim despot. 320–454/932–1062). loftiness and godfearingness [along with his talents as] poet. Karachi: Naveed Clinic. M. et al. and scholarly matters. Haven C. 1963. Avicenna’s Poem on Medicine. On the Causes and Collapse and Sudden Death by Avicenna. F. New York: Columbia University Press. Although Ibn Tāwūs declined the office of Naqābat al. . Jazi. Seyyed H. 1966. London: Luzac. Beck. but he also wrote in the fields of history and astrology (see the listing of primary sources in the bibliography). Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 11 (2001): 219–55. Khan. Strug. Hamdard Medicus 41.4 (1997): 245. New York: Random House. trustworthiness. Leuven: Peeters. S. The sources stress his “erudition. apparently changed his mind during the Mongol Period. I Ibn Tawus . 1121 Dunn. He made pilgrimages to the holy Shī˓ī shrines of Najaf. Shī˓ī scholars. Some Aspects of Ibn Sīnā’s Important Contributions to Medical Science. A Treatise on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna. Morewedge. Thomas. La pharmacopée d’Avicenne. historian. Rahman. Asli. Ibn Tāwūs grew up in the town of al-Hilla. 1997. Avicenna (AD 980–1037) and Arabic Perinatal Medicine. and R. B. and eloquent speaker” (Āghā Buzurg Tihrānī 1983). religious.Ibn Tāwūs . man of letters. legal opinion). When he saw their hesitation. purpose. Ashrāf under the Caliph al-Mustansir (d.4 (1998): 19–25. whose ancestry can be . Jacquart. 1930. Albany: State University of New York Press. Shah.. This important office. Mazhar H. in his native town. Cameron. . . The Life of Ibn Sīnā. The Metaphysica of Avicenna ibn Sīnā.500 volumes in his private library. 640/1242). Muhhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Karīm.1 (1997): 75F–6F. which had originated under the Buwayhids (also Buyids. 1973. The Practice of Surgery in Islamic Lands: Myth and Reality. Beirut: Commission internationale pour la traduction des chefs d’oeuvre. Avicenna’s Psychology. and he was probably buried in Najaf. who aimed at providing the believer with a set of guiding moral and ethical principles. Le Livre des directives et remarques. . and in Baghdad where he lived for 15 years. Ibn Tāwūs was one of the most prolific medieval .1 (1999): 137. knowledge. H. Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Tāwūs . and astrologer. January 1193. The scholars were then gathered in al-Mustansiriyya for this . Ibn Tāwūs could also display wisdom in sensitive . generally accepted as 5 Dhū-l-qa ˓da 664/9 August 1266. Esin. he owned over 1. C. or the Muslim despotic one.

The Problemata Physica Attributed to Aristotle: the Arabic Version of Hunain ibn Ishaq and the Hebrew Version of Moses ibn Tibbon. Some Additions to the Bibliography of Mediaeval Islamic Astronomy from the Faraj al-Mahmūm of Ibn Tāwūs. Tehran: Dafteri Nashri Farhangi Islāmī. Juan. Qustā ibn Luqa. He was born at Guadix in Granada (modern Spain) in the first decade of the twelfth century. Vernet. where his great-grandfather had established and practiced medicine at the beginning of the twelfth century. Kitab al-Yaqīn bi-ikhtisās mawlānā ˓Alī bi-imārat al. 1989b. 1931. Ibn Tufayl enjoyed a . .D. written between AD 1288 and 1293. Tehran. 1944. Abū Yūsuf Ya˓qūb. close friendship with Abū Ya˓qūb until the latter’s death in 1184. Kohlberg. is described. 1963. Faraj al-mahmūm fī-ma˓rifat nahj al-halāl wa-l-harām . Ibn Tibbon is also the author of the Prologue to Abraham bar Hiyya’s Sefer Hesbon Mahlekot haKokabim (Calculation of the Courses of the Stars). Matar. until his own death in 1185–1186. Poulle. Leiden: Brill. Ed. Ibn . . Spain between AD 1266 and 1267. 1976. Ibn Tibbon E MILIA C ALVO Ibn Tibbon.1122 Ibn Tibbon References Ibn Tāwūs. Menelaus of Alexandria. Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tufayl al-Qaisi was . These names come from the translation of mehir (prophet) into the languages of Southern France. ---. mu˓minīn. George. Ibn Tibbon. Arabic learning and therefore Greek scientific traditions were made available to the scholars of medieval Europe. 8.. 182–214. Vol. Leiden: Brill. Thirteenth Century Work on Astrology and Astrologers. 1989a. 1922. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Journal des Savants (Apr. An Introduction to Shi˓i Islam. New York University. R. and Ibn Rushd from Arabic into . 1236. Beirut: Tawzī˓ Dār al al-˓Ulūm. . 1987. He served local rulers as physician and diplomat. 1999. Dreams and Dream-Interpretation in the Faraj alMahmūm of Ibn Tāwūs. Ibn Tibbon translated works by Autolycus of Pitane. Some examples of this instrument have been preserved. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. although the author says that he has used the Toledan Tables. Ibn Tibbon studied medicine at Montpellier and probably lived in Gerona. calculated for Montpellier and dated 1 March 1300. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona. Dissertation. A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work: Ibn Tāwūs . had been devoted to the translation of Arabic religious. E. Primary Sources He is also the author of some works dealing with astronomy: Roba˓ Yisrael (Quadrant of Israel). . Hebrew. Through these translations. in which an astronomical instrument. . and Trans. 1933. José María. the Almohad prince who became the most powerful Muslim ruler of his day. and eventually became the court physician to Abū Ya˓qūb Yūsuf. 1985. ---. . and Montpellier where he died in AD 1305. Jacob Ben Machir. The Faraj al-Mahmūm of Ibn Tāwūs: A . Introduction to the History of Science. Tractat de l ‘assafea d’Azarquiel. an Arab physician famous for his encyclopedic learning. ed. New Haven: Yale University Press. . Florence: Libreria Internazionale. Kashf al-muhajja. Die Zwölferschia: Zwei Religionsgeschichtliche Charakterbilder aus der Mongolenzeit. Qum: Manshūrāt al-Rad ī. 1904. Millās.3–4 . His family was originally from Granada and. M. he was esteemed and cherished by Abū Ya˓qūb’s successor. Zeina. . philosophical. Leipzig: Harrassowitz. Ibn Tibbon. 400–1. (1990): 165–75. Jābir ibn Aflah. for four generations. Euclid. Ph. 1926. 1992. called the quadrans novus. Ibn Tufayl . It consists of a simplification of the face of the astrolabe. . al-Malāhim wa-l-fitan. R UTH H ARVEY Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn ˓Abd al-Malik ibn . 2. which is incorrect. . ---. Ibn al-Saff īr. al-Ghazālī.–June 1964): 148–67. Le quadrant nouveau médiéval. ---. Sarton. Ibn Tibbon was probably born in Marseille ca. . S. The Muslim World 80. Momen. He spent most of his life in Lunel. . L. and His Library. Il quadrante d’Israel. min ˓ilm al-nujūm. Archiv Orientalni 57 (1989): 319–22. It is based on Ibn al-Zarqāllu’s reelaboration of Awmātiyūs’ almanac. Strothmann. Guiseppe Bofitto and C. ---. Emmanuel. . al-Haytham. and scientific texts. Kitāb al-Luhūf fī qat lā al-t ufūf. Secondary Sources References Filius. The Almanac. ---. Ibn al-Zarqāllu. Melzi d’Eril. is known as Profeit in Romance languages and as Prophatius Judaeus in Latin. Vol. E. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

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Ibn Tufayl’s importance for history is twofold: the . influence of his unique work, Hayy ibn Yaqzān, and his . . patronage of one of the most important Muslim philosophers of the Middle Ages, Ibn Rushd (known to the west as Averroes). The medieval Arab historian, ˓Abd al-Wāhid al-Marrākushi, recorded that Ibn Tufayl . . would bring all sorts of learned men to his sovereign’s notice. It was in this way that Ibn Rushd was given audience with Abū Ya˓qūb Yūsuf, and there was led on by the praise and encouragement of Ibn Tufayl to . demonstrate his familiarity with Aristotelian philosophical traditions. The Sultan himself joined in the discussion, and Ibn Rushd was commissioned to compose his great commentaries. It was through the mediation of Ibn Rushd’s works that Aristotle was reintroduced to the Latin West. The astronomer alBītrūjī (known in the West as Alpetragius) was a disciple and friend of Ibn Tufayl; he mentions Ibn . Tufayl’s criticisms of the traditional astronomical . theories on epicycles and eccentrics. Ibn Tufayl was said to have written poetry as well as . works on medicine and astronomy, but nothing seems to survive except Hayy ibn Yaqzān and (possibly) a . . poem on medicine recently rediscovered (see Russell 1986). The highly unusual Hayy ibn Yaqzān (Life, Son . . of Awareness) is a philosophical tale in the form of a table: it tells how Hayy, cast up as a baby or . spontaneously generated on an island, is fostered by a doe and grows to adulthood without any human contact whatsoever. Ibn Tufayl’s interest lies in positing the . natural unfolding of the human reason from the blank of infancy to the highest possible intellectual development; Hayy reaches the summit of human possibility in . a mystical experience of the godhead. Eventually Hayy . meets another human being who is so filled with awe at Hayy’s intellectual and spiritual attainments that he . persuades him to make an attempt to convert human society to wisdom. Humanity proves to be unworthy of Hayy’s teaching, and Hayy and his new-found friend . . retreat back to the island again to spend the rest of their lives in contemplation. Hayy ibn Yaqzān draws on the philosophy of Ibn . . Sīnā. It was edited as early as 1671 by Edward Pocock, who provided a Latin translation, thus inserting Ibn Tufayl’s ideas into the mainstream of European culture. . The Philosophus Autodidactus, as Pocock named it, was sent to Huygens, Locke, and Leibniz; it was possibly an influence on Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, and almost certainly one on Rousseau’s Emile. English translations have been appearing since 1686; there are Dutch, German, French, Catalan, Hebrew, Persian, and Russian versions. It is still stirring up scholarly debate and controversy. See also: ▶Ibn Rushd, ▶Ibn Sīnā

References
Conrad, Lawrence I., ed. The World of Ibn Tufayl: . Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Hayy Ibn Yaqzān. . . Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1996. De Vaux, Carra. “Hayy b. Yakzan” and “Ibn Tufayl”. . . .. Encyclopedia of Islam. New ed. Vol. 3. Leiden: Brill, 1971. Gauthier, Léon. Ibn Thofail: Sa Vie, ses Oeuvres. Paris: Leroux, 1909. Hawi, Sami S. Islamic Naturalism and Mysticism: A Philosophical Study of Ibn Tufayl’s Hayy bin Yaqzān. . . . Leiden: Brill, 1974. Ibn Tufayl. Le Philosophe sans Maitre. Presentation de . Georges Labica, traduction de Léon Gauthier. Algiers: Société Nationale d’Édition et de Diffusion, 1969; Rpt. 1988. ---. Hayy ben Yaqdhan, roman philosophique d’Ibn Thofail: . traduction française. 2nd ed. Paris: Vrin, 1983. Mallet, Dominique. Qui Enseigne Qui?: Lectures Du ‘Hayy . b. Yaqzān’ d’Ibn Tufayl. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy . . 8.2 (1998): 195–211. Naseem, Hamid. Muslim Philosophy Science and Mysticism. 1st ed. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2001. Nasri, Hani. The ‘Mystic’ and Society According to Ibn Bajjah and Ibn Tufayl. International Philosophical . Quarterly 26 (1986): 223–7. Russell, G. A. The Role of Ibn Tufayl: A Moorish Physician, . in the Discovery of Childhood in Seventeenth-Century England. Child Care Through the Centuries. Ed. John Cule and Terry Turner. Cardiff: British Society for the History of Medicine, 1986. 166–77.

I

¯ Ibn Wafid
E MILIA C ALVO
Ibn Wāfid Abū’l-Mutarrif ˓Abd al-Rahmān ibn . . Muhammad was a pharmacologist and physicist who . lived and worked in Toledo during the first half of the eleventh century (ca. 1008–1075). He studied the works of Aristotle, Dioscorides, and Galen in Cordoba but then he moved to Toledo where he planted a botanical garden for the king of this city, al-Ma˒mūn. Ibn Wāfid is the author of a book entitled Kitāb fī-ladwiya al-mufrada (Book on the Simple Medicines) which is a synthesis of Dioscorides and Galen. It is an extensive work to which the author devoted 20 years. It was abridged and translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona. Translations into Catalan and Hebrew are also extant. Ibn Wāfid is also the author of a pharmacopeia and manual of therapeutics entitled Kitāb al-wisād fī ‘l-t ibb . (Book of the Pillow on Medicine) which, according to Juan Vernet, could be a misreading of the Arabic title Kitāb al-rashshād fi’l-t ibb (Guide to Medicine). This . work can be considered complementary to the preceding

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Ibn Yūnus

one because Ibn Wāfid describes compound medicines in it, and it is a practical book: the information given is based on experience. Ibn Abī Usaybi˓a attributes to Ibn . Wāfid a work entitled Mujarrabāt fī-l-t ibb (Medical . Experiences) which could probably be identified with this Book of the Pillow. Ibn Wāfid is also the author of two works entitled Tadqīq al-nazar fī ˓ilal hāssat al-basar (Observations . . . on the Treatment of Illness of the Eyes) and Kitāb al-Mughīth (Book on Assistance) which are not preserved, and of a treatise on balneology which is preserved in a Latin version entitled De balneis sermo (Venice 1553). Ibn al-Abbār attributes to Ibn Wāfid a book entitled Majmu˓ al-Filāha (Compendium of Agriculture) although . his authorship is now being questioned.

References
Hopkins, J. F. P. Ibn Wāfid. Encyclopédie de l ‘Islam. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. Leiden/Paris: E. J. Brill/G. P. Maisonneuve, 1971. 987. Ibn Wāfid. El libro de la almohada de Ibn Wāfid de Toledo (Recetario medico árabe del siglo XI). Ed. Camilo Alvarez de Morales. Toledo: Instituto Provincial de Investigaciones y Estudíos Toledanos, 1980. ---. Kitāb al-adwiya al-mufrada. Ed. Luisa Fernanda Aguirre de Cárcer. Madrid: CSIC–ICMA, 1993. Samsó, Julio. Las Ciencias de los Antiguos en al-Andalus. Madrid: Mapfre, 1992. 267–70, 281. Vernet, Juan. Ibn Wāfid. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. 14. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976. 112–3.

¯ Ibn Yunus
D AVID A. K ING
Ibn Yūnus, Abu’l-Hasan ˓Alī ibn ˓Abd al-Rahmān ibn . . Ahmad ibn Yūnus al-Sadaf ī was one of the greatest . . astronomers of medieval Islam. Unfortunately nothing of consequence is known about his early life or education. As a young man he witnessed the Fatimid conquest of Egypt and the founding of Cairo in 969. In the period up to the reign of Caliph al-˓Azīz (975–996), he made astronomical observations that were renewed by order of the Caliph al-Hākim, who succeeded . al-˓Azīz in 996 at the age of eleven and was much interested in astrology. Ibn Yūnus’ recorded observations continued until 1003. Ibn Yūnus’ major work was a monumental zīj or astronomical handbook with tables. The Hākimī Zīj, . dedicated to the Caliph, is distinguished from all other extant zījes by beginning with a list of observations made by Ibn Yūnus and others made by some of his predecessors. Despite his critical attitude toward these earlier scholars and his careful recording of their

observations and some of his own, he completely neglects to describe the observations that he used in establishing his own planetary parameters – nor does he indicate whether he used any instruments for these observations. Indeed, the Hākimī Zīj is a poor source of . information about the instruments he used. In view of the paucity of this information, it is remarkable that the statement that Ibn Yūnus worked in a “well-equipped observatory” is often found in popular accounts of Islamic astronomy. Sayili has shown how this notion gained acceptance in Western literature. Ibn Yūnus’ Zīj was intended to replace the Mumtah . an Zīj of Yahyā ibn Abī Mansūr, prepared for the . Abbasid Caliph al-Ma˒mūn in Baghdad almost 200 year earlier. When reporting his own observations, Ibn Yūnus often compared what he observed with what he had computed using the Mumtahan tables. . The observations he described are of conjunctions of planets with each other and with Regulus, solar and lunar eclipses, and equinoxes; he also records measurements of the obliquity of the ecliptic (Chap. 11) and of the maximum lunar latitude (Chap. 38). In spherical astronomy (Chaps. 12–54) Ibn Yūnus reached a very high level of sophistication. Although none of the several hundred formulae that he presents is explained, it seems probable that most of them were derived by means of orthogonal projections and analemma constructions, rather than by the application of the rules of spherical trigonometry that were being developed by Muslim scholars in Iraq and Iran. The chapters of the Zīj dealing with astrological calculations (77–81), although partially extant in the anonymous abridgment of the work, have never been studied. Ibn Yūnus was famous as an astrologer and, according to his biographers, devoted much time to making astrological predictions. Ibn Yūnus’ second major work was part of the corpus of spherical astronomical tables for timekeeping used in Cairo until the nineteenth century. It is difficult to ascertain precisely how many tables in this corpus were actually computed by Ibn Yūnus. Some appear to have been added in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The corpus exists in numerous manuscript sources, each containing different arrangements of the tables or only selected sets of tables. In its entirety the corpus consists of about 200 pages of tables, most of which contain 180 entries each. The tables are generally rather accurately computed and are all based on Ibn Yūnus’ values of 30°0′ for the latitude of Cairo and 23°35′ for the obliquity of the ecliptic. The main tables in the corpus display the time since sunrise, the time remaining to midday, and the solar azimuth as functions of the solar altitude and solar longitude. Entries are tabulated for each degree of both arguments, and each of the three sets contains over 10,000 entries. The remaining tables in the corpus are of spherical

Ibn Zuhr .

1125

astronomical functions, some of which relate to the determination of the five daily prayers of Islam. The impressive developments in astronomical timekeeping in fourteenth-century Syria, particularly the tables of alKhalīlī for Damascus, also owe their inspiration to the main Cairo corpus. It is clear from a contemporary biography of Ibn Yūnus that he was an eccentric, careless, and absentminded man who dressed shabbily and had a comic appearance. One day in the year 1009, when he was in good health, he predicted his own death in 7 days. He attended to his personal business, locked himself in his house, and washed the ink off his manuscripts. He then recited the Qur˒ān until he died – on the day he had predicted. According to his biographer, Ibn Yūnus’ son was so stupid that he sold his father’s papers by the pound in the soap market. See also: ▶Yahyā ibn Abī Mansūr, ▶al-Ma˒mūn, . ▶al-Khalīlī

Ibn Zuhr .
M UNAWAR A HMAD A NEES
Abū Marwān ˓Abd al-Mālik ibn Zuhr (Latin: Avenzoar; . 484–557/1092–1162) belonged to the Arabian tribe of lyād, Banū Zuhr. His father, Abū al-˓Alā ibn Zuhr . . (d. 525/1131), was a respected physician in the courts of the Murābit dynasty (482–541/1090–1147). He . trained his son in the art and craft of medicine. Like his father, Ibn Zuhr started his career in the . service of the Murābit dynasty and earned a good . reputation. During the reign of ˓Ali ibn Tashfīn (499–537/1106–1143), he served at the palace in Marrakesh, Morocco, where his life was full of trials and tribulations. In ca. 535/1141, he was stripped of his official position and imprisoned. Although he was pardoned and released, he endured a hard life in prison and the experience left a resentment in his heart against the ruling dynasty. The beginning of the reign of al-Muwāhhidūn .. proved to be a blessing for Ibn Zuhr. He was not only . appointed as an official physician but also became a wazīr in the court of Abū Muhammad ˓Abd al-Mūmin . (d. 558/1163). During this period, Ibn Zuhr transmitted . his knowledge and skills to his children with meticulous attention. His son and daughter both became famous physicians. One of Ibn Zuhr’s treatises, . al-Tadhkirah (The Remembrance), was dedicated to his son in appreciation of his achievements. At least nine of Ibn Zuhr’s works are known, but . only a few are extant. He is said to have written two works and dedicated them to ˓Abd al˒-Mūmin. Al-Aghdhīyyah (On Dietetics) is a text on the therapeutic properties of selected foods. Al-Tiryāq al-Sab˓īnī is a book of antidotes against poisoning by enemies. This work, perhaps, was Ibn Zuhr’s way of . expressing gratitude to his benevolent patron. Al-Taysīr fī al-Mudāwāt wa al-Tadbīr (On Preventive Regimen and Treatment), in 30 treatises, is considered to be his monumental work. His friend Ibn Rushd considered it a great source of medical knowledge and therapeutic advice. In its Latin version, Alteisir scilicet regiminis et medelae, the treatise remained in wide circulation across Europe for centuries. Both Arabic and Latin copies of this work are extant. True to the medical norms of his days, Ibn Zuhr presented in this work a . mix of astrology and folklore blended with therapeutics and pharmacology. Al-Kulliyāt (The Collection), a general compilation on medical practice, appears as an appendix. The great historiographer Ibn Abi ˓Usaybi˓ah, in his . encyclopedic work ˓Uyūn al-Anbā fī Tabaqāt al. At ibbā, listed only seven of Ibn Zuhr’s works: . .

I

References
Primary Sources
MS Leiden Cod. Or. 143 and MS Oxford Hunt. 331 (major fragments of al-Zīj al-kabīr al-Hākimī). MS Paris B.N. ar. . 2496 (anonymous abridgment constituting the sole source for some additional chapters). MS Dublin Chester Beatty 3673 and MS Cairo Dār al-Kutub mīqāt 108 (complete copies of the Cairo corpus of tables for timekeeping).

Secondary Sources
Caussin de Perceval, A. P. Le livre de la grande table Hakémite. Notices et extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale 7 (1804): 16–240. King, David A. The Astronomical Works of Ibn Yūnus. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1972. (Available from ProQuest.com, no. 7229740.) ---. Ibn Yūnus. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. 14. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976. 574–80. ---. Ibn Yūnus Very Useful Tables for Reckoning Time by the Sun. Archive for History of Exact Sciences 10 (1973): 342– 94. Rpt. in D. A. King. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy. London, 1986. 2nd rev. ed. Aldershot: Variorum, 1993. IX. ---. Synchrony with the Heavens: Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization. Vol. 1: The Call of the Muezzin (Studies I–IX). Leiden: Brill, 2004; Vol. 2: Instruments of Mass Calculation (Studies X–XVIII). Leiden: Brill, 2005. King, David A. and Julio Samsó, with a contribution by Bernard R. Goldstein. Astronomical Handbooks and Tables from the Islamic World (750–1900): An Interim Report. Suhayl: Journal for the History of the Exact and Natural Sciences in Islamic Civilisation (Barcelona) 2 (2001): 9–105. Sayih, Aydin. The Observatory in Islam. Ankara, 1960. Rpt. New York: Arno Press, 1981. 130–56, 167–75. Stevenson, F. R. and S. S. Said. Precision of Medieval Islamic Eclipse Measurements. Journal for the History of Astronomy 22 (1991): 195–207.

pharyngeal paralysis. Sinān Ibn Thābit. Puente. Ibn Zuhr was one of the great Muslim clinicians and . 2.D. Through numerous translations of his works. ungüentos y jarabes/ prólogo de Paloma Díaz-Mas. therapists. Peña. Texas: Zahra Publications.Taysir’. cousin of the famous literary figure Hilāl al-Sābi˒. and inflammation of the middle ear were great improvements over the work of his predecessors. His detailed study of the pericardial abscess. Medicina ‘versus’ cirugía: el tratamiento de las enfermedades de los ojos en las obras de Abulcasis y Avenzoar. 4.2 (2002). he thus belonged to an intellectual aristocracy whose members frequented the corridors of power and the upper levels of the worlds of science and medicine. . Gillispie. Rpt. Carmen and Fernando Girón Irueste. Charles C. Ph. Vitiligo) 5. Sami K. developed new methods. Dictionary of Scientific . the fourth since the Banū Mūsā. Al-Aghdiyyah (On Dietetics) 6. he suffered from a malignant tumor that ultimately caused his death. Al-Tadhkirah (The Remembrance) 7. which was concerned with the properties of positions. He belonged to a privileged generation. 637–9. 976–9. Munawar Ahmad Anees. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar)’s Description of a Verrucous Malignancy of the Colon: With an English Translation from the Arabic and Notes on its Hebrew and . Fī al-Zīnah (On Beautification) Al-Tiryāq al-Sab˓īnī (On Antidotes) Fī ˓Ilāl al-Kilā (On Diseases of the Kidney) Fī ˓Illat al-Baras wa al-˒Bahaq (On Leprosy and . 1976. Dissertation. San Antonio. 1927 – When I Was Young…: Excerpts from Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar)’s ‘Kitab al. Averroes. F. . In his later age. Ibn Zuhr. Henry A. The translation of the major mathematical texts had been essentially completed and the great traditions of research had already been well established: that of the algebraists. Göttingen. 1840. Grandson of the famous mathematician Thābit Ibn Qurra. Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān was also heir to a historical tradition. One of the missing ones is Al-Iqtisād fī Islāh al-Anfūs wa al-Ajsād . that of the geometers. Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine (ISHIM) 1. especially those of his grandfather Thābit Ibn Qurra. ---. Thus. Michael R. Azar. it focuses on problems of hygiene and therapeutics. Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān developed the study of References Arnaldez. 1984. this work describes the physiology of several organs including the spleen. mental work and recorded his observations. intestinal and mediastinal tumors. son of a great physician and mathematician . medical practitioner. had already gathered considerable results. McVaugh. Addressed to the general reader. he remained highly influential in the medical academies of the West. Geschichte der Arabischen Aertze und Naturforscher. Bulletin Canadien d’Histoire de la Médecine 19. Avenzoar. etc. 1998. and bladder. Hamarneh. who followed the work of Euclid. Henry A. Al-Taysīr fī al-Mudāwāt wa al-Tadbīr (On Preventive Regimen and Treatment) He does not mention two of his treatises. beginning with alKhwārizmī and extended by Abū Kāmil. but also a mathematician of genius in his own right who made his own mark on the mathematics of his era. thanks to mathematicians like Thābit Ibn Qurra. Some of his work showed the influence of the Hippocratic and Galenic traditions. Leiden: Brill. and the geometry of Apollonius. Cristina de la. Roger. Spain. Spain) 20 (2000): 163–87.. The second is Jāmi˓ al-Asrār al-Tibb (Compendium of Medical Wisdom). and the tradition of the Banū Mūsā which. Madrid: Nivola. Reprinted Hildesheim: G. Azar. 1969. 1963. Biography: Ed. Profiting from scholarly works. médicos de al-ándalus: perfumes. liver. Dynamis (Granada. Ibn Zuhr and Ibn Rushd: Friendship or Rivalry? Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine (ISHIM) 1. (Treatment and Healing of the Soul and Body). See also: ▶Ibn Rushd Latin versions. ¯ ¯ ¯ Ibrahım Ibn Sinan R OSHDI R ASHED Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān Ibn Thābit Ibn Qurra was born in Baghdad in 296/909 where he died 37 years later in 335/946.1126 Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān 1. 431–40. .2: (2002b): 21–6. before being the object of a short-lived persecution to which he makes allusion but explains neither the cause nor the duration. Ibn Zuhr. Wüstenfeld. In addition to a discussion on dietetics. Olms. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar): Supreme in the Science of Medicine Since Galen: the Translation of His Work into Latin and His Image in Medieval Europe. and Joseph Shatzmiller.1 (2002a): 11–5. . al-Nayrīzī. Ibrāhīm was born into and raised in this world. He was buried in Seville. Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān was not only the “heir” to great tradition.. Ed. and elaborated theories. a geometry of measurement. Ibn Zuhr engaged in experi. Health Sciences In Early Islam. al-Jawharī. ---. 3. 2003. Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān was clearly a part of this tradition in which Archimedean geometry. Ibn Zuhr was a prolific writer and a highly successful . were all combined. Ibn al-Jatib. going against the GrecoRoman medical dictates. New ed. but his original insights came from a rich family heritage in medical practice. New York: Scribners. Encyclopedia of Islam.

Ibn Sinān wrote Fī al-dawā˒ir al-mutamāssa (The Tangent Circles). the other logical. Ibn Sinān again had recourse to geometric transformations in his Drawing of the Three Conic Sections. . In geometry. There is not enough space here to take up. he then demonstrates in a second proposition that it is the same for the ratio of the area of a portion of a parabola to that of an associated triangle. . was easier than my grandfather’s. AlMāhānī also proceeded from arithmetic lemmas. Fī al-masaā˒il al-mukhtāra (Selected Problems). he proposed a method (t arīq) for geometry students . even very briefly. beginning with what he wrote about his own studies: My grandfather had determined the measurement of this section.2 (1991): 211–32. But the examples discussed above do show how this eminent geometer left his mark on all the fields in which he worked. at 16 or 17 he had written a first version of his book Fī Alāt al-azlāl (On Instruments . My grandfather had determined his result in twenty propositions. The intensity of mathematical activity. Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān explained the composition of his work in his own autobiography which happily still exists. on the other hand. and that they had limited themselves just to analysis.Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān 1127 geometric transformations and their applications to conic sections. Thus he published the first treatise devoted to this subject. including mathematics and philosophy. which they presented to me. which allowed them to solve geometry problems. He proceeded from several arithmetic lemmas included in the twenty propositions. at the age of 24. and elegance. as was the case for the majority of things I brought up. which involved lengthy discussions. Mars. as well as to the measurement of the area of a portion of a parabola. The import of his work can be discovered in the work of Ibn al-Haytham who followed up on the research of Ibn Sinān in his own treatise on analysis and synthesis and in his writings on sundials. which he revised at the age of 25. the new demands of brevity. in 934. . ▶Sinān Ibn Thābit I References Bellosta. these remarks also reflect the qualities of Ibn Sinān as a mathematician: brevity. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 1. See also: ▶Banū Mūsā. He wrote “I found that the geometers of this time had neglected Apollonius’s method of analysis and synthesis. In this treatise. and rigor in demonstration. Ibn Sinān undertook two tasks at once: one didactic. He extended their work on sundials in developing a theory of a whole class of instruments. and the Fī rasm al-qutū˓ althalātha . Ibrahim Ibn Sinan: Apollonius Arabicus. On the one hand. Fī misāhat qit ˒ al-mahrūt al-mukāf ī’ (The Measurement . (Drawing of the Three Conic Sections). But several contemporary geometers led me to understand that a work of al-Māhānī on the same subject. he began his research at age 15. al-Mirrīkh wa al-Mushtarī ) in a treatise that he completed 6 years later. as well as the general interest in geometric transformations. I myself then determined the measurement in three geometric propositions without recourse to any arithmetic lemma. The question of the measurement of the section appeared to him clearly through the method of reductio ad absurdum. Hélène. All these works had been published and revised before Ibn Sinān was 25. Finally the questions posed by his predecessors about analysis and synthesis prompted him to write the first treatise worthy of the name on the subject. and I did not need the method of reductio ad absurdum. He then demonstrated his demand by the method of reductio ad absurdum in five or six propositions. and Jupiter (Fī istikhrāj ikhtilāfāt Zuhal wa . al-Tahlīl wa˒l-Tarkīb (Analysis and Synthesis). He published the autobiography after his 25th year. I was not pleased that al-Māhānī’s work was more advanced than my grandfather’s without there being one among us who surpassed his work. proposing a classification of geometry problems according to their numbers and the hypothesis that they are to verify. To illustrate the approach of Ibn Sinān let us look briefly at his Measurement of the Parabola. It was also by means of an affinity that he deduced all the hyperbolas of a particular hyperbola for which the latus rectum is equal to the transverse axis. the works of Ibn Sinān. Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān: On Analysis and Synthesis. ▶Thābit Ibn Qurra. ease. I demonstrated the surface area of this same section using the method of direct proof. and explaining for each class of problems the respective parts of analysis and synthesis. ---. According to his own account. all led Ibn Sinān to take up the theory of analysis and synthesis again. limiting themselves to such a degree that they led analysis to the point of letting people think that this analysis was not the synthesis that they were doing.” In this treatise. of Shadows). he reflected on geometric analysis itself. A year later he was discussing and criticizing Ptolemy’s views on The Determination of the Anomalies of Saturn. the large amount of work done. . Perspectives arabes et médiévales sur la tradition scientifique et . he demonstrates that the affine transformation conserves the ratios of the areas in the case of triangles and polygons. In addition to expressing pride in his heritage and the certainty of an exceptional scholar. he constructed an ellipse by transforming the circle by an orthogonal affinity – a process already found in the works of the Banū Mūsā. elegance. Ibn Sinān’s approach is the following: in a first proposition. of the Parabola).

2000. al-Khāzin. Saidan. Astronomie Géométrie et Philosophie d’Ibn Sinān (Oeuvres Complètes) 2006 (in press). Current scholarship places the date of composition in the last half of the fourth AH/AD tenth century. al-Qūhī. Although the treatises provide little insight into the state of intellectual activity in the sciences. Interspersed with these discussions are meditations on the usefulness of intellectual geometry (because. In the organization of their treatise. Rashed. they give an intriguing summary of what the educated non-scientist knew about the results of scientific research as they existed in that time. (Intellect. produces individual souls or faculties that individuate. human sciences. Leuven: Peeters. topics. P. God created the universe through a series of emanations from himself. Sinān b. etc. and earth). Roshdi Rashed. 880–943. Abhandlung über die Ausmessung der Parabel von Ibrāhīm b. is one of the first steps toward union with the Divine Knowledge. and the spheres of the seven naked-eye planets: Saturn. Vol. Fondateurs et commentateurs: Banū Mūsā. Ibrahim. advances to religious (shar˓iyy) sciences. esoteric. They discuss the relation between sensory and intellectual geometry. but adapting these results for non-scientific (in this case. The treatise on geometry (the second treatise of the collection) reports a few simple results from Euclid: the sum of the interior angles of the triangle is two right angles. This interest in esoteric or inner knowledge does not imply that they were uninterested in the physical world. especially among groups influenced by Shi˓ite and Ismā˓īlī ideas. New York: Charles Scribners’ Sons. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich 63 (1918): 214ff. Hélène Bellosta. largely social and religious) purposes. the Ikhwān tell us. ¯ Ikhwan al-Safa˒ . Vol. An appreciation of nature. Mars. The first of these individuating emanations were the nine celestial spheres (the invisible primum mobile. Ibn Hūd. 31–48. This is followed by a discussion of magic squares (numbers placed in geometric arrays) and their almost magical usefulness as talismans. and the Moon). First to appear was Intellect. The treatises contain a strong gnostic element. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. This collection of treatises continues to play an important role in the intellectual milieu of modern Islam. et al. followed by the four terrestrial elements (fire. or philosophic ( falsafiyy) sciences. (Brethren of Purity) constitute an encyclopedia of the sciences which has had a long and influential career in Islamic civilization. Jupiter. air. Les mathématiques arabes. H. Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān Ibn Thābit Ibn Qurra. Ibn Qurra.) The World Soul. In Arabic). R. Venus. 1976. 2–3. abstracted from the sensations. Ibn Sinān. advance to physical sciences. a culture aware of some of the results of science and mathematics.1128 Ikhwān al-Safā˒ . Rasā˒īl Ibn Sinān (The Works of Ibrāhīm Ibn Sinān. Rather. there is no discussion of the demonstrations that validate these facts. Sun. 1973. I. it commences a return ascent heavenward through a process of purification from the contamination of matter achieved through personal morality and deepening esoteric knowledge of the one. They also offer a window into what might be called a sub-scientific culture. A. the Ikhwān are interested in facts only when related to other facts so as to provide insight into the deeper. Ibrahim Ibn Sinan: logique et géometrie au Xe siècle. the Ikhwān begin with mathematical sciences. Ed. A. the sphere of the fixed stars. and finally reaches the highest. Drawn by an irresistible desire for union with the unity of God. However. VII. prime matter. or give form to. Paris: Vrin. Ibn al-Samh. Ahmad Hasnawi. 1983. R. Thābit. through further emanations. This system is at odds with traditional Islamic discussions of the arrangement of the sciences in that it makes religious sciences subordinate to philosophic or intellectual sciences. 1995. The gnostic tendencies of the authors appear in the Neo-Platonic and Neo-Pythagorean descriptions of cosmogony and cosmology embedded within these treatises. The student begins with introductory or preparatory (riyādiyy) . water. Ibn Sinan. it exercises the soul for moving beyond phenomena toward the invisible one) and on the necessity for human cooperation and brotherhood in the effort. The treatises contain little scientific information that is new. R. and finally to metaphysical and revealed sciences. philosophique grecque. instructs the World Soul through the Archetypes. Mercury. London: al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation. therefore. Ed. an emphasis on esoteric knowledge that exists within the exoteric or phenomenal features of everyday life but is accessible only to the initiated. It is necessary to have a thorough understanding of nature in order to penetrate to the inner truth that it expresses. 1997. meanings of the knowledge. Suter. Leiden: Brill. ---. . This represents the farthest separation of soul from God. S. Les Mathématiques infinitésimales du IX e au XI e siècle. This anonymity has generated considerable debate among historians over their identity. an exterior angle is equal to the two opposite interior angles. Bellosta. Their gnostic orientation can be seen in the classification of knowledge proposed by the Ikhwān. Kuwait: Qism al-Turāth al-˓Arabī. followed by its Archetypes and the World Soul. The collection was prepared by a group of scholars who preferred anonymity. ¯ G REGG DE Y OUNG The 48 treatises composed by the Ikhwān al-Safā˒ . and the place of composition in Basra. Morelon and H. . Youschkevitch. Rashed.

˘ elemetare Zahlentheorie – ihr mathematischer Gehalt und ihre Beziehungen zu spätantiken arithmetischen Schriften. Nasr. When calculating the length of the meridian. in predicting a solar eclipse. one of the eight branches of traditional Āyurveda (Indian medicine) that deals with poisons and toxins in small dosages. he considered the earth as a perfect sphere rather than a spheroid. 5. Ryokichi. While he was active. Moreover. Harrassowitz. observations. In his surveying. and from the application of specific concoctions to punctures in the skin for treatment of certain skin diseases (Suśruta Samhitā in Cikitsāsthāna 9. 3 vols. He did not excel in devising new methods or new theories in either astronomy or geodesy. field notes. H.Inoculation 1129 References Bausani. Chap. The Caraka Samhitā speaks of how deadly poisons can be converted into excellent medicine and how two toxins can be antagonistic to each other. 1745–1818. western Asia. Ino calculated the length of a meridian which agreed (within several tenths of a second of a degree) with the figure given in the Dutch translation of Lalande’s Astronomie which had been imported into Japan. Chap. it is indicated that physical contact and sharing the same air can cause such diseases to spread. Die erste Risāla der Rasā˒il Ihwān as-Safā˒ über . believed to have been discovered sometime before AD 1000 in India (Henderson and Moss 1999). Janus 71 (1981): 181–274. 1932. as in the case of the commentator Dalhana. scabs. G. that of Japan had to be accurately measured so that. he did not take into account the effects of refraction. Euclidean Geometry in Two Medieval Encyclopaedia. when observing the position of fixed stars. But Ino had no knowledge of Dutch or dynamics and little understanding of astronomical theories. S. one deliberately inoculated. His mapmaking approach resembled the Sanson–Flamsteed method (it is presumed that his method was developed independently). of Japan. Scientific Elements in Ismā˓īlī Thought: The Epistles of the Brethren of Purity. From India. H. The Suśruta Samhitā. Despite Ino’s scientific failings. and diaries are preserved in the Ino Memorial Hall in Sahara City. the organisms in the blood that cause disease are said to be invisible. Tokyo: Iwanami. S. In particular. but by the twelfth century the term was also being used for smallpox. Nasr. in Chap. suggests a treatment regimen that includes avoidance of fatty foods and sweets. 1977. It appears that the idea of inoculation derived from both agada-tantra. 121–40. the Sino-Jesuit method could be employed for the Japanese longitude. After making over 2. . knowledge of Western astronomy was available through Dutch translations and Sino-Jesuit works and after. Ino Tadataka. there is mention of the eruptive boils of the disease masūrikā. A Treatise on Number Theory From a Tenth Century Arabic Source. S. An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines. S. Ismā˓īlī Contributions to Islamic Culture.000 measurements of latitude. A. or pustular material from lesions of patients. records of his surveys. the practice spread to China. Ino did not use modern triangulation but relied upon the old traverse method. based upon surveys covering the length and breadth of the land. John Z. 1975. Ed. and Africa and finally. Diwald. In the Nidānasthāna (Diagnosis). and phlegm. B. Inoculation S UBHASH K AK The first reliable account of inoculation is found in the eighteenth-century reports by British doctors concerning the Indian treatment of smallpox. References Most of Ino’s works. In the method. Al-Masāq 14 (2002): 47–60. parallax. 13. was a Japanese cartographer and an energetic field observer. Arabische Philosophie und Wissenschaft in der Enzyklopädie Kitāb Ihwān as-Safā˒. consisting mainly of maps. which is appropriate only for small areas. to Europe and North America. This Ino Tadataka N AKAYAMA S HIGERU Ino Tadataka. Brentjes. Otani. either into the skin or by nasal insufflation. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy. Holwell in 1767 for the College of Physicians in London.10). Ino none the less used the method for an area as large as all of Japan. Later. 1964. Since Sino-Jesuit works had set zero longitude at Beijing. or nutation. his map I . A major astronomical and geodetic problem of the time in Japan was finding the length of a meridian by Japanese measure. This resulted in an infection that was usually less severe than an infection acquired naturally. The Samhitas speak of organisms that circulate in the blood. mucus. The best source concerning the Indian method of treatment of smallpox is a report by Dr. . Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ˘ Goldstein. has an important place in geographical history. in the early eighteenth century. 54 of Uttaratantra or Kāyacikitsātantra (General Medicine). Centaurus 10 (1964): 129–60. Wiesbaden: . through the works of Lalande. It appears that originally it meant chicken pox. De Young.

In other words. Banaras. A. for the males. A. the patient was safe. University of Hong Kong. it is but justice to conclude. 1767. Vaccines. they prefer the outside of the arm. which produces the smallpox. This is how Holwell described the explanations offered to him by Ayurvedic vaidyas: The immediate (or instant) cause of the smallpox exists in the mortal part of every human or animal form. Smallpox and Vaccinia. Sharma. however distinct and mild the species. then with a small instrument he wounds. about the compass of a silver groat. Plotkin and W. D. The patient was to abstain from fish.1130 Inoculation report is an excellent source for understanding the mind of the Ayurvedic doctor of the eighteenth century. nor with matter from the disease caught in the natural way. which he moistens with two or three drops of the Ganges water. Becker and P. This old insight of the Āyurvedic Samhitās was a forerunner to the germ theory of disease that arose in the nineteenth century. Needham. according to the nature of the surfaces they encounter. dividing themselves into small parties. They inoculate indifferently on any part. Macgowan. Holwell. Ed. and the pledget to remain until it falls off itself… The cotton which he preserves in a double callico rag. more mild or malignant. which stirs up the first. 1980. is saturated with matter from the inoculated pustules of the preceding year. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Visvabharati. without injury to themselves… smallpox is more or less epidemical. but more particularly of the smallpox. by many slight touches. Moss. for the space of eight or ten minutes. and the same between the elbow and the shoulder for the females. that they return at particular seasons in greater or lesser numbers… That these animalculae touch and adhere to every thing. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Orientalia. B. they plan their traveling circuits in such wise as to arrive at the places of their respective destination some weeks before the usual return of the disease (Holwell 1971: 150–151). and throws it into a state of fermentation. The difference between these two forms was that in its natural course it is often fatal. An Account of the Manner of Inoculating for the Smallpox in the East Indies. de Hondt. China and the Origins of Immunology. Previous to the operation the Operator takes a piece of cloth in his hand. fixing it on with a slight bandage. and hence it is. in proportion as the air is charged with the animalculae. of three or four each. Holwell understood the idea behind inoculation in this manner: That when once this peculiar ferment. Philadelphia: W. References Henderson. Shanghai: Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs Medical Reports 27 (1884): 9–18. whereas when introduced through inoculation. Orenstein. Z. and B. that the mediate (or second) acting cause. but if left to their choice. for they never inoculate with fresh matter. Priyavrat. in greater or lesser proportions. J. J. then the bandage to be taken off. J. 1981–1985. just making the smallest appearance of blood. milk. Eleabas [Allahabad]. London: T. .” He added that since this practice of the East has been followed without variation. (which becomes his perquisite if the family is opulent) and with it gives a dry friction upon the part intended for inoculation. 1999–2001. that the blood is not susceptible of a second fermentation of the same kind. is multitudes of imperceptible animalculae [microorganisms] floating in the atmosphere. D. and ghee before and after inoculation for a period of 1 month. ---. it was only an inconvenience. is raised in the blood. Suśruta Samhitā. it must have been originally founded on the basis of rational principles and experiment. over all the distant provinces. that they pass and repass in and out of the bodies of all animals in the act of respiration. and ordering it to remain on for six hours without being moved. S. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies Occasional Papers and Monographs. Holwell says that inoculators are delegated for this service from the different Colleges of Bindoobund [Vrindavan]. and the quantity of them received with the food (Holwell 1767: 155–156). A. 1999. A. One would presume that they were Ayurvedic vaidyas or their assistants. Caraka-Samhitā. it is next to a miracle to hear that it “failed in one in a million. or by other channels. and with uniform success from the remotest known times. &c. midway between the wrist and the elbow. Saunders Company. Report on the Health of Wenchow for the Half-Year Ended 31 March 1884. Holwell claimed that when the inoculation regime was strictly followed. he believed that when the disease in its natural form or when introduced in its weak form by the inoculation had run its course. the immediate (instant) cause of the disease is totally expelled in the eruptions. and applies it on the wound. It is significant that the spread of disease was taken to be caused by the imperceptible animalculae (microorganisms). then opening a linen double rag (which he always keeps in a cloth round his waist) takes from thence a small pledget of cotton charged with the variolous [smallpox] matter. that these are the cause of all epidemical diseases.

While Anantharaman (1997) has reviewed the known scientific facts about the Delhi iron pillar. Iron Pillar at Delhi. 1) is testimony to the high level of skill achieved by the ancient Indian ironsmiths in the extraction and processing of iron. in the close vicinity of Besnagar.. and technical aspects of the Delhi iron pillar. Vishnupadagiri is most probably identified with Udayagiri in central India. The rough portion of the pillar was originally buried in the ground and later left exposed outside when the iron pillar was relocated at Delhi around 1333 AD. The Delhi iron pillar was relocated to its current location in New Delhi in the courtyard of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque (near the Qutub Minar) around 1233 AD by Iltutmish (Dass 2001. 2004). 4). The decorative bell capital (Balasubramaniam 1998a) is again a symmetrical object. an assistant of Alexander Cunningham. The original erection site of this pillar was Vishnupadagiri (literally “hill of the footprint of Vishnu”) as mentioned in the inscription. scientific. i. 3). excluding the decorative top (Fig. King Chandra. 2004) and this would have been approximately 20U in length thereby making the total length of the I Iron Pillar at Delhi. A chakra (circular discus) image was originally located atop the capital (Balasubramaniam et al. Balasubramaniam (2002. Results of scientific studies conducted in 1961 were summarized in a special issue of the NML Technical Journal (vol. 1 Delhi iron pillar located in the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque in the Qutub Complex at New Delhi. The chakra image that originally crowned the iron pillar capital additionally served to highlight its astronomical significance (Balasubramaniam et al. 2). Vidisha. . B ALASUBRAMANIAM The Delhi iron pillar (Fig. The rough surface occupies one-fourth (60U) and the smooth surface three-fourths (180U) of the pillar main body length. constructed the stone platform around the base of the iron pillar in 1871. Engineering Design The current burial level of the pillar was not the original burial level of the pillar when it was erected at Udayagiri. 2005) has compiled several new insights into the historical. Fig. as was also suggested by the use of the name “Chandra” on that king’s Archer-Type gold coins (Balasubramaniam 2000a). The history of the pillar is revealed in the die-struck three-stanza six-line Sanskrit inscription at a level of about 7 feet from the stone platform (Balasubramaniam 2000a). Hammer-marked cavities are still visible on the surface of the pillar in the rough region just below the smooth surface-finish region (Fig. and Sanchi (Balasubramaniam 2000a. 1963). The pillar was positioned so that the early morning shadow of the pillar fell in the direction of one of the important bas-reliefs at Udayagiri. A critical analysis of the dimensions of the main body of the pillar allows an appreciation of the pillar’s symmetrical design (Balasubramaniam 1997a). 5. Fig. in the period around the summer solstice. is probably identical with Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (AD 375–414). Dass 2001). Hadfield (1912) undertook the first systematic scientific study of the Delhi iron pillar. This is the oldest inscription on the pillar.Iron pillar at Delhi 1131 Iron Pillar at Delhi R. Balasubramaniam 2002) (Fig. mentioned in the inscription as the royal donor of this standarc for Vishnu.e. The astronomical significance of its erection site has been understood (Balasubramaniam and Dass 2004). the Anantaśāyin Vishnu panel in Cave 13. A review of its corrosion resistance appeared in 1970 (Wranglen 1970). Beglar. 2 Well-preserved Sanskrit inscription on the iron pillar.

. indicative of the engineering design of the pillar. Medium Iron Pillar at Delhi. The unit U measures 1 modern inch. Therefore. 3 Hammer marked cavities are still visible on the surface of the pillar in the rough region. Lime was not added in the ancient Indian furnaces. and chromium (Nil) was uniform through several millimetres into the sample from the surface (Bardgett and Stanners 1963). nickel (0. Fig. It possesses a nonuniform grain structure and slag inclusions are irregularly distributed. Iron Pillar at Delhi. The relatively higher phosphorus content in ancient Indian irons is related to the kind of slag that was created in the extraction process (solid-state reduction). Thermodynamic analysis of phosphorus removal from iron in the absence of calcium oxide in the slag also provides the same answer (Vikas Kumar and Balasubramaniam 2002). The presence of phosphorus is crucial to the atmospheric corrosion resistance of the Delhi iron pillar. which invariably resulted in higher phosphorus contents in ancient Indian irons. 4 Relative dimensions of the Delhi iron pillar.1132 Iron pillar at Delhi Iron Pillar at Delhi. 5). Compositional analysis near the surface regions of a sample from the iron pillar revealed that the composition of copper (0. The variation in the published compositions and the high phosphorus content of the Delhi pillar iron must be noted. Fig. The rough region was originally buried under the ground when the pillar was located at Udayagiri. The absence of calcium oxide in the slags leads to a lower efficiency for removal of phosphorus from the metal.07%). 5 The Delhi iron pillar decorative capital showing the discus image (chakra) that was originally located at the top of the capital. decorative top 60U (Fig. Iron of Delhi Pillar Several analyses of the Delhi pillar iron’s composition are available (Table 1). The unit U is equal to 1 modern inch. Some aspects of the microstructure of the Delhi pillar iron are also known. the depth of burial below ground level was equal to the height of the decorative capital.05%). The Delhi pillar iron contains a relatively large amount of phosphorus compared to modern-day iron (produced in the blast furnaces). All the available published microstructures have been described in Balasubramaniam (2003). Fig. manganese (0.05%).

in such areas of phosphorus segregation. Therefore.056 0. The box capital contains holes that are empty at the four corners.5 tons per sq. 6 Horizontal forge welding technique for manufacture of the main body of the pillar.008 0.007 0. The next three members are rounded structures.5 (1963) Under 0. which has been manufactured by utilizing iron rods of uniform diameter. (1963) 0. a cannonball fired at the Delhi iron pillar in the eighteenth century (either by Nadir Shah in 1739 or Ghulam Quadir in 1787) failed to break the pillar.280 Nil 0.747 Lahiri et al.08 0. in. Fig.9 tons per sq.81 Ghosh (1963) Above 0.26 0. In fact. I Iron Pillar at Delhi. Atop this comes the slanted rod structure.003 0.048 0. There are several evidences at the joints between members to indicate that lead solders were utilized for joining the pieces together (Balasubramaniam 1998b.. Manufacturing Methodology The pillar was manufactured using iron lumps and the method used to fuse the lumps together was forge welding. 6). The decorative bell capital of the Delhi iron pillar has been described in great detail elsewhere (Balasubramaniam 1998a). in. the protruding portion of which must have been chiseled away during the surface finishing operations. use of inserts.246 7.67 0.174 Nil 99. heating method.114 Nil – 99. excluding the circular discus that was originally atop the capital (Fig. The individual iron lumps were extracted in bloomery furnaces. and 5% elongation (Ghosh 1963)).23 0. The top of the pillar presently contains a hollow slot (Fig. A round disc comes above this and finally the box pedestal is placed on the top of the capital. The absence of a uniform distribution of pearlite is indicative of the segregation of phosphorus because.03 0.672–7.155 Nil Lal (1996) 0.436–0. ultimate tensile strength of 23. carbon diffuses out and the material becomes poorer in carbon content.011 7. 1999b). The heated iron lumps were placed on the side surface of the pillar and hammered on to the same by the use of hand-held hammers (Fig. Visual proof for the presence of these clamps has been discussed in detail elsewhere (Balasubramaniam 1999a). 8). The pillar is a solid body with moderate mechanical strength (yield strength of 23.026 Trace 0. the Delhi pillar iron exhibits a wide variation in structure and this is also a characteristic feature of ancient Indian iron. The decorative bell capital consists of seven distinct parts.90 0. 7).48 Nil to coarse polyhedral grains of ferrite with slip bands were revealed in some grains near the surface. Table 1 Published composition analyses of Delhi pillar iron Hadfield (1912) C – carbon Si – silicone S – sulfur P – phosphorus Mn – manganese N – nitrogen Fe – iron Others Specific gravity 0.720 0. The surface regions were free from pearlite that seemed to increase toward the interior. The bottom-most part is the reeded bell structure. forging method.006 0.Iron pillar at Delhi 1133 Iron Pillar at Delhi.004 0. The similarity of yield strength and ultimate tensile strength are indicative of the composite structure of the pillar iron. The pillar’s vertical and horizontal movements would have been aided by handling clamps provided on the surface of the pillar. with the top one being only half rounded because when the pillar is viewed from the bottom. use of dies and ease of handling (Balasubramaniam 1999a). The interior portions were comparatively rich in carbon. in which a . this part would appear curved when viewed in perspective from the bottom.0065 Diff 7.046 0. The addition of metal would have been sideways with the pillar in the horizontal direction. The likely manufacturing method has been deduced based on a critical analysis of various aspects concerning the manufacturing methodology like the hammering method.

Moreover. Corrosion Resistance Several theories that have been proposed to explain the superior corrosion resistance of the pillar can be broadly classified into two categories: the environmental and material theories. 2004). as the relative humidity at Delhi does not exceed 70% for significant periods of time in the year. the seven components of the capital were shrunk fit around a hollow cylinder. They include the mass metal effect. Fig. It is known that atmospheric rusting of iron is not significant for humidity levels less than 70%. Balasubramaniam 1997b. On the other hand. the iron beams in the Surya temple at Konarak in coastal Orissa (Graves 1912) and the iron pillar at Kodachadri Hills on the western coast (Anantharaman 1999)). the presence of phosphorus and absence of sulfur/manganese in the iron. chakra image was originally fit (Balasubramaniam et al. Other theories to explain the corrosion resistance are also to be found in the literature. That the material of construction may be the important factor in determining the corrosion resistance of ancient Indian iron is attested by the presence of ancient massive iron objects located in areas where the relative humidity is high for significant periods in the year (for example. Fig. As regards the fitting methodology. These theories have been critically reviewed elsewhere (Wranglen 1970. and this was joined to the main body of the pillar by means of a metallic insert (Balasubramaniam 1998a). a freshly exposed cut surface of the pillar acquires the color of the rest of the pillar in a relatively . passivity enhancement in the presence of slag particles and formation of phosphate film. residual stresses resulting from the surface finishing (hammering) operation. 7 The (a) top and (b) bottom portions of the decorative bell capital. The ideas proposed in this regard are the relatively pure composition of the iron used. several investigators have stressed the importance of the material of construction as the primary cause for its corrosion resistance. Iron Pillar at Delhi. 8 The top surface of the pillar capital presently contains a hollow slot. its slag enveloped metal grain structure. initial exposure to an alkaline and ammonical environment. The proponents of the environment theory state that the mild climate of Delhi is responsible for the corrosion resistance of the Delhi iron pillar. 2000b). presence of layers of cinder in the metal which do not allow corrosion to proceed beyond the layer (cinder theory) and surface coatings provided to the pillar after manufacture (treating the surface with steam and slag coating) and during use (coating with clarified butter). freedom from sulfur contamination both in the metal and in the air.1134 Iron pillar at Delhi Iron Pillar at Delhi.

Iron pillar at Delhi 1135 short period of time (Balasubramaniam 2001). Bulletin of Metals Museum 32 (2000a): 42–64. Acknowledgements The author gratefully acknowledges the co-operation of the Archaeological Survey of India. Identity of Chandra and Vishnupadagiri of the Delhi Iron Pillar Inscription: Numismatic. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals 50 (1997b): 23–35. The Rustless Wonder – A Study of the Delhi Iron Pillar. The corrosion resistance of the Delhi iron pillar is due to both Delhi (with the environment providing alternate wetting and drying conditions) and iron (with its high phosphorus content conferring protection by the formation of a protective passive film). Sanyal and Preston (1952) proposed that the large mass of the pillar implies a large heat capacity for the iron. ---. . ---. the pillar would heat or cool faster than the surroundings. ---. γ-FeOOH (lepidocrocite). FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopy proved the presence of magnetite and several oxyhydroxides in the amorphous form. 1997. 1994). The initial enhanced corrosion of the matrix leads to the enrichment of phosphorus concentration at the metal-scale interface. ---. Current Science 73 (1997a): 1057–67. Bulletin of Metals Museum 31 (1999a): 42–65. based on the known nature and structure of the rust on the Delhi iron pillar and other corrosion resistant ancient Indian irons. The formation of this phase at the metal-scale interface provides further corrosion resistance. Corrosion Science 42 (2000b): 2103–29. Decorative Bell Capital of the Delhi Iron Pillar. Growth rates have been roughly estimated for these two regions based on available Delhi iron pillar rust thickness measurements (Balasubramaniam 2002). and Mössbauer spectroscopy (Balasubramaniam and Ramesh Kumar 2000). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. I have explained the engineering design of the pillar followed by a description of the manufacturing methodology for the main body of the pillar. Archaeological and Literary Evidence. The enrichment of phosphorus in rust continues with prolonged exposure as observed in P-containing weathering steels (Misawa et al. ---. Bulletin of Metals Museum 34 (2001): 64–86. Balasubramaniam. 2002a. R. Journal of Metals 50. Some Aspects of Lead Presence in the Delhi Iron Pillar. The process of protective film formation during alternate wetting and drying cycles of the Delhi iron pillar has been outlined (Balasubramaniam 2000b) based on rust characterization results. The nature of this protective passive film has been addressed based on a detailed characterization of its rust. The Protective Passive Film of the Delhi Iron Pillar. Bulletin of Metals Museum 29 (1998b): 19–39. 2004) and the benign role of the large mass of the pillar was noted. the corrosion of the matrix is relatively fast due to the presence of second phase particles in the microstructure. Current Science 77 (1999b): 681–6. 1974). Studies on the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar. thereby implying that surface coatings were not intentionally applied. ---. A kinetic model for the growth of rust on the Delhi iron pillar has been proposed (Balasubramaniam 2002). Initially. the initial fast rate of corrosion is followed by a period where the corrosion rate is reduced drastically. Current Science 82 (2002b): 1357–65. Conversion of amorphous δ-FeOOH to nanocrystalline goethite is possible on longer exposure times (Yamashita et al. The Iron Pillar at Kodachadri in Karnataka. Enrichment of phosphorus follows the mesoscopic variation of phosphorus in the matrix (Dillmann et al. ---. On the Growth Kinetics of the Protective Passive Film of the Delhi Iron Pillar. National Metallurgical Laboratory Technical Journal 37 (1995): 123–45. ---. Elucidation of the Manufacturing Technology Employed to Construct the Body of the Delhi Iron Pillar. The Delhi iron pillar is a marvel of ancient Indian metallurgical skills.3 (1998a): 40–7. ---. New Insights on the Corrosion of the Delhi Iron Pillar Based on Historical and Dimensional Analysis. The formation of this layer confers the initial corrosion resistance to the pillar iron. identified by XRD. According to this model. Mixed Potential Theory Analysis of the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar. On the Presence of Lead in the Delhi Iron Pillar. Rust samples obtained from the region just below the decorative bell capital were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In that case. The characteristics of iron of the pillar and the possible reason for its high phosphorus content have been discussed. The theories of corrosion resistance of the pillar have been reviewed and the importance of the protective passive film mechanism has been highlighted. The XRD analysis proved the existence of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate. ---. This enrichment should be responsible for the precipitation of the insoluble phosphate. The usual corrosion products that are observed in the case of mild steels exposed to atmosphere are generated: α-FeOOH (goethite). Fe3−xO4 (magnetite) and X-ray amorphous matter. R. Current Science 76 (1999): 1428–30. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Studies and New Delhi: Aryan Books International. I References Anantharaman. On the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar. Delhi Iron Pillar – New Insights. which results in the formation of a compact layer of amorphous δ-FeOOH layer next to the metal-scale interface. T. ---. The role of the Delhi environment on the wetting and drying of the pillar has been mathematically modeled (Halder et al. New Delhi: Vigyan Prasar. 2002). ---.

I. Ramesh Kumar. G. I. V. M. is not restricted to eighteenth century India and has indeed found expression in a plethora of irrigation systems in Asia each designed to appropriate its own specific ecosystem potential. 1952. H. Udayagiri-Rise of a Sacred Hill. Estimation of the Original Erection Site of the Delhi Iron Pillar at Udayagiri. Current Science 86 (2004): 1134–42. But even this admittedly fragmentary picture that is emerging is . large-scale and smallscale embankments. and more laborious ingenuity displayed in it than in any other country. Balasubramaniam. M. Raven. Wranglen. G. On the Role of Environment on the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar. and R. Ed. Matsuda. E. Raychaudhuri’s An Advanced History of India. Leicestershire. Balasubramaniam. K. F. Shimodaira. The Long Term Growth of the Protective Rust Layer Formed on Weathering Steel by Atmospheric Corrosion During a Quarter of a Century. Nijhawan. and R. Ph. Corrosion Science 10 (1970): 761–70.. A. C. The Delhi Iron Pillar and Its Iron. Dass. Metallurgy and Inscriptions. R. E. Characterization of Protective Rust on Ancient Indian Iron using Microprobe Analyses. K. T. Kumar. Gupta. National Metallurgical Laboratory Technical Journal 5 (1963): 31–45. B. K. Preston. Ghosh.D. Majumdar and H. Balasubramaniam. and S. Misawa. Bardgett. Of these.. Further Notes on the Early Use of Iron in India. On The Origin of High Phosphorus Contents in Ancient Indian Iron. the one most easily recognized and debated was provided by Karl Wittfogel whose theories led to the idea of “hydraulic civilizations”. Yamashita. Miyuki. B. Halder. and M. Naturally. and T. and G. S. These are reflected in new literature specifically devoted to the subject. K. Sinhalese Iron and Steel of Ancient Origin. and A. innovations like the khazans on the west coast of India. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 210 (1963): 3–10.1136 Irrigation in India and Sri Lanka ---. Beranger. M. P. Joshi. Banerjee. They include schemes for taking water up a hill against gravity. Corrosion Science 36 (1994): 283–99. Hashimoto. There is evidence of large-scale irrigation works in several Asian countries including China and Sri Lanka. R. Dass On the Astronomical Significance of the Delhi Iron Pillar. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 85 (1912): 134–74. elaborate canal distribution networks. Current Science 84 (2003): 534–41. Balasubramaniam. Stanners Delhi Iron Pillar – A Study of the Corrosion Aspects. H. K... C. they have ranged from one extreme to the other. Thesis. T. Dillmann. The Rustless Iron Pillar at Delhi. Nagano. an English specialist who toured India in the eighteenth century. Architecture and Landscale – A Study. Misawa. However both views – fairly representative of the historiographical terrain – have had to be revised considerably because of the emergence of new historical materials and investigations. Story of the Delhi Iran Pillar. M. Lal. “The irrigation history of Indian has been studied only in fragments” (Sengupta 1993).. Corrosion Science 14 (1974): 279–89. and storage tanks with a bewildering variety of names. and R. G. Some Observations on Corrosion-Resistance of Ancient Delhi Iron Pillar and Present-Time Adivasi Iron Made by Primitive Methods. Graves. M. where unmanned wooden sluice gates control the sway of salt and sweet water in low-lying paddy fields adjoining the coastal or tidal rivers. Characterization of Delhi Iron Pillar Rust by X-ray Diffraction. Symbolic of this view is R. R. Indian Journal of History of Science 39 (2004): 177–203. in which the authors make a categorical statement on the “comparative absence of artificial irrigation” in eighteenth century India. Irrigation in India and Sri Lanka C LAUDE A LVARES Assessments by historians of Asia’s irrigation systems and irrigation-related civil engineering techniques have been based on the scantiest of historical or empirical data. Effect of Material Inhomogeneity on Protective Passive Film Formation on Delhi Iron Pillar. I. Illustrative of these materials is the report of Alexander Walker. and J. A diametrically opposite assessment has been provided by some Indian historians who have concluded that there was no significant irrigation technology in use at all. Indian Journal of History of Science 39 (2004): 54–71. Balasubramaniam. Note on Delhi Pillar. Dass. and diversion channels. I. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 85 (1912): 187–202. National Metallurgical Laboratory Technical Journal 5 (1963): 46–51. 2001. 2005. and Shankar Goyal. K. M. The Delhi Iron Pillar: Its Art. 22–58. Walker produced an elaborate treatise on Indian agriculture in which he drew the conclusion that: the practice of watering and irrigation is not peculiar to the husbandry of India. and M. Lahiri. but it has probably been carried there to a greater extent. Hadfield. R. and R. The Original Image atop the Delhi Iron Pillar. Its Art. W. New Delhi: Foundation Books. Sanyal. Balasubramaniam. R. This display of ingenuity. UK. Jodhpur: Kusumanjali Publications. Corrosion Science 42 (2000): 2085–101. ---. Balasubramaniam. and B. R. The systems studied on the subcontinent include gigantic artificial lakes. Gupta. DeMontfort University. Fourier Infrared Spectroscopy and Mössbauer Spectroscopy. 92–155. however. Current Science 86 (2004): 559–66. Y. Dass. 1996. Corrosion Science 44 (2002): 2231–42. B. V. H. International Journal of Metals Materials and Processes 14 (2002): 1–14. Asami. London: Chemical Research Laboratory. The Mechanism of Atmospheric Rusting and the Protective Amorphous Rust on Low Alloy Steel. S.

it stands to reason that the primary design objective of irrigation engineers would be predominantly in the direction of a water storage system. store it. as in the khazans. where a reservoir was created above the ground through a fairly long embankment. bowari. unlike the case of temperate ecosystems. and there is considerable evidence of the spread of such technologies through the length and breadth of the subcontinent. with the pressure of the incoming tides and discharge water automatically when the tide has fallen. The bundhies were built generally in a series and therefore captured every possible drop of rainwater that fell. The second category involved below surface storage works. We shall restrict ourselves in this essay to a consideration of the irrigation and civil engineering techniques that arose in the Indian subcontinent including Sri Lanka and which were the result of a close interaction and adaptation between overall environmental situations and human ingenuity. Though the structures here were all designed for irrigation. The second category of storage technologies relates to irrigation. rain-fed rivers are diverted into channels. and pokhar. Some were reserved only for human beings. including for instance the Persian wheel. The third class comprised in situ techniques through which storage facilities were created to retain precipitation and ground water infiltration. The difference between classes 2 and 3 was that in the former. Over 90% of the annual runoff in the peninsular rivers and 80% in the Himalayan rivers occur during the 4 months of the monsoon. particularly the temperate zones. so that spatially it reaches areas where there is no water (diversion techniques) or temporally makes it available during the dry months (storage techniques). This is followed by a dry season during which there is no precipitation at all. A stambh or pillar would indicate the location of the sluice. it has taken some time for engineers and historians trained in other culture areas to appreciate their worth and function. cultivation followed drainage. or gravity irrigation. Irrigation Technologies In the circumstances related above. they also provided other useful functions of soil conservation and ground water percolation and recharge. and Kunta in South India and Ahar in Bihar (northern areas). through extractive or lift techniques or devices of some kind. beel. Thus. Important variations of these are the khadin and the johad in Rajasthan and the bundhies of Madhya Pradesh. and will not concern us here. Science and Civilisation in China. The irrigation experience of China is documented in Joseph Needham’s magnum opus. The most fundamental aspect of irrigation technology and civil engineering works to be noted is that almost all of them are related to monsoon precipitation in one way or another. under the force of gravity. these are made from wood. The corresponding structures were called Keri. which included dug ponds from which water was lifted by some means manual or mechanical: pokhar. irrigation becomes extremely crucial: in the wet season which stretches approximately 4 months. There were storage systems designed purely for drinking water: nadi. The following listing is given by Shankari and Shah. Eri. For this reason.) The crop which was grown in the bundhies after the water was drained did not require any irrigation until harvest. one would normally expect a much richer history of irrigation techniques in Asian conditions – where rice is a basic crop adapted to growing largely in water – than in any other part of the planet. If this is the scenario (and it is as valid today as it was in 3000 BCE). There was generally a sluice at the deepest part of the storage reservoir. Thus. These in turn were of two types: above surface storage works. in the latter it occurred simultaneously. there can be too much precipitation over intense bursts. Kalvai. In this context. These we shall ignore here. in several places less. the basic design of irrigation technology is intimately related to precipitation: how to save it. If there were a surplus. Cheruvu. tanks. others were for human beings and animals. Sluices could be of different types: pipe sluices or sluices made of masonry for the larger tanks. or river basins are interconnected. These were primarily above surface types or referred to (in India) as submergence tanks. Or the rainfall is directly collected in huge storage facilities on the land. and second. talab. Irrigation water stored in such storages was conveyed through two methods: first. The first comprised tank and pond irrigation systems. jhalara. and sagar. jhil. (Some sluices open. It would also follow that the irrigation designs evolved for coping with such situations would not readily be available in other ecosystems. and divert it. The result is predictable: periods of excess water followed by drought. The second class of irrigation systems comprised land inundation systems: the land was flooded and saturated before cultivation and then drained off prior to planting (another term used is flood irrigation). There were three main classes of such irrigation-related storage systems. The sizes of these storage tanks varied and the tanks themselves were generally known from the command I . a waste weir was provided.Irrigation in India and Sri Lanka 1137 far more fascinating than the simplistic or impressionistic scenarios of Wittfogel or later historians like Raychaudhuri and Majumdar.

by the patient industry of its inhabitants been brought under the tank system. The Kuhls or Guls in the Himalayan areas. Others could be extremely large-scale and it is the reports of the latter that probably gave Wittfogel material for his speculations. these are new in terms of function. and destruction of wildlife. After the tank was emptied. O. The large tanks were clearly impressive in scale. The tank at the higher level released its surplus water as runoff to tanks at a lower level and the next in turn. and the major ones 500 and above.1138 Irrigation in India and Sri Lanka areas they irrigated: the smallest ones irrigated around 50 acres. There is archeological evidence of artificial irrigation from pre-Harappan and Harappan times (ca. Some diversions were accomplished without a check or embankment across the river. Some of these schemes were fairly small.” writes D. the flood waters of the river were drained through a natural diversion. According to Major T. Sankey. Water Conveyance Apart from the storage works. They are now considered unsuited to tropical ecosystems. of which over 8000 are in working condition today. The profusion of such tanks was not a feature of Karnataka alone. H. the dongs of the Northeastern states. The answer seems obvious: while more complex technological mechanisms did emerge as time passed. The water was retained in the belly of the curve from where it was drawn and directed through channels to irrigate plots at lower levels through gravity irrigation. wrote: Of the 27.000 submergence tanks. the tank bed itself could be used temporarily for raising a crop utilizing residual moisture. The only major new innovation seems to be the idea of dams.” Historical Development of Irrigation Techniques The interesting question that is now being asked is whether one can talk in terms of an evolution of irrigation technologies and civil engineering techniques from the earliest times to the present? The question is important in view of the fact that many of these storage systems. Unless under exceptional circumstances. “The one-mile to an inch topographical maps of the island. Tradition has it that some 30. the subcontinent witnessed the emergence of competent and impressive water conveyance systems designed to divert waters of rivers and flowing streams. vast embankments and drainage channels equal to ordinary English rivers in capacity. or Bihar. none of the drainage of these 16. it is possible still to identify certain periods as distinct historical events in a possible history of irrigation and civil engineering on the subcontinent. an earthen embankment. nearly 60% has.000 of these. In Mysore in 1866 Major R. and the pynes of Bihar all reflect this feature. and embankments are largely intact and still in use. like those in the hilly areas. submergence of smaller functioning reservoirs. diversion channels. The second category involved check dams as a basic feature: the river bed was first raised and the resulting raised water diverted into a channel as was the case with the band-haras. since the generation of hydropower was not intended in earlier times. The construction of tanks was a widely dispersed skill. In one district of Rajasthan alone. The idea of large dams. Many of the tanks in an area were interlinked and functioned as parts of an integrated system. To such an extent the principle of storage has been followed. Tanks and storage vessels are once again being made functional and weirs continue to be constructed. These were called chain tanks.000 of these small tanks had been constructed down the ages and there is a reference in the chronicles to 20. The Gangaikonda Cholapuram tank. since the reservoirs invariably lead to displacement of large numbers of people. Greenway. the medium ones about 100. usually curved. has taken a severe beating in recent years. these were works of “truly gigantic magnitude. L. was constructed by a Chola king from AD 1012 to 1044 and survives even today with a 25 km embankment.269 square miles covered by Mysore. To create a tank reservoir. Chain tanks were generally created in the upper reaches of the river basin and river-fed tanks in the lower reaches. and in places like Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka. This being said. that it would now require some ingenuity to discover a site within this great area suitable for a new tank. Goa. the earlier and the later techniques have continued to coexist. Mendis: show nearly 15. in such instances.000 in the ancient province alone in the 12th century. was erected in a concave form across the flow of water. also in Tamil Nadu. The area north of the Vindhya mountain range in middle India for instance had more than 8. Their construction would have required detailed cooperation among several communities in the region. dry areas were populated with what are known as “tank villages”. 5500– 3500 BCE): this took the form of a large number . Experience was similar in Tamil Nadu. The Veeranam Tank in Tamil Nadu has a bund (embankment) 16 km in length. Chief Engineer. There were also tanks which were fed by canals from a river. submergence of forests. once considered the temples of modern India.287 square miles is allowed to escape. There are still parts of the country where Persian wheels are operated. there were more than 500 khadins.

London: Mansell. Tank Irrigation in Karnataka: A Historical Survey. S. H. C. one finds evidence of a major diversion scheme reflected in a massive embankment 240 m by 2. and H. He wrote: There are a multitude of old native works in various parts of India… These are noble works. and so on. is linked to a Chola king of the second century AD. what we learnt from them made the difference between financial success and failure. for the Madras river irrigations executed by our engineers have been from the first the greatest financial successes of any engineering works in the world. Social Arrangements/Religious Sanction A significant feature of these irrigation works related to their construction and maintenance. Though large systems were often sponsored by the state – to include . these revenues were appropriated by the colonial power and consequently the maintenance of such irrigation works fell into bad times leading to declines in efficiency. G. 1993. A. Accordingly Singayya Bhatta conducted a channel to the Siruvara tank and gave the channel the name Pratapa Bukka Raya Mandalanda Kaluve. The anicut (weir) technique is probably older than the eri or tank. In many areas. maintenance. C. the major irrigation find is Inamgaon on the west coast of India where under the influence of the Jorwa culture (ca. 1988. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993. Post-Harappa. D. production from certain lands was set aside specifically to meet the maintenance costs of tanks. R. queens. However. L. the Hoysalas. Sir Arthur Cotton paid eloquent testimony to the engineering talent involved in the large-scale irrigation works. In fact. An Advanced History of India. Delhi: Impex India. R. 317. sources of funds for maintenance. The Revenge of Athena: Science. local chieftains.2 m wide to divert the river into a channel. According to it. and every kind of hydraulic work… we are thus deeply indebted to the native engineers… kings. The most famous of the anicuts. weirs. Lessons from Traditional Irrigation and Eco-Systems. Thus a public park in Pondicherry bears an inscription recording a tank built by a dasi – a temple dancer/ courtesan – while another inscription in Karnataka (AD 1100) records a tank and shrine constructed by a village watchman. Ziauddin Sardar. K.Irrigation in India and Sri Lanka 1139 of wells. Hereafter. Bangalore: Gandhi Sahitya Sangha. since the anicut technique itself bears a strong resemblance to the Sri Lankan technique of massive stone dams and sluices. The word eri also comes into circulation by the seventh century as a term for tanks. The day-to-day operation and maintenance of both large and small works were mostly in the hands of local communities and of special professionals like the nirkattis of Tamil Nadu. Indian Science and Technology in the 18th Century. O. All the major dynasties including the Mauryas (Sudarshan Lake near Kathiawar). Of these. and show both boldness and engineering talent. They have stood for hundreds of years… it was from them that we learnt how to secure a foundation in loose sand of unmeasured depth. One well found had a brick lining going down 12 m. Mendis. temples. and even individuals are associated with their construction. Raychaudhuri. and the Vijayanagar Kings and Muslim Sultans were associated with irrigation works. Science and Civilisation in China. Dikshit records the performance of one such engineer in the fourteenth century: The Kalludi (Gauribidanur taluk) inscription of 1388 AD is well known. the Cholas. and S. Majumdar. according to Sri Lankan historian R. a technique which developed. when Vira Harihara Raya’s son Sri Pratapa Bukkaraya was in Penugonda city in order that all the subjects might be in happiness – water being the life of the living beings – Bukkaraya in open court gave an order to the master of ten sciences. Gunawardene. N. these kings depended upon a cadre of skilled hydraulic engineers. there are increasing references in literary works of both Sanskrit and Tamil up to the Gupta (AD 350) period. solely because we learnt from them… With this lesson about foundations. 1967. New Delhi: Sage Publications.. Since water availability could be problematic with monsoon failure. only in the seventh century AD. we built bridges. zamindars (landowners) – village communities. It involved a dam on the river Kaveri 300 m long and 12–18 m wide and 5 m deep. The channel itself was 200 m long and 4 m wide. 1983. aqueducts. There is a dispute about the age of the anicut. London: Macmillan. L. 3rd ed. Needham. User-Friendly Irrigation Designs. those associated with the emergence of these works could gain religious merit for their deed. 3400–3000 BCE). Ed. G. Sengupta. During the installation of the colonial regime. The first storage tanks in their rudimentary form appear around 2500 BCE – also in Sri Lanka – with the invention of iron tools. Joseph. Dikshit. the most impressive schemes are associated with the Cholas. Exploitation and the Third World. the Kaveri Anicut on the river Kaveri. the hydraulic engineer (Jalasutra) Singayya Bhatta that he must bring the Henne (Pennar) river to Penugonda. Mohan. 1954. There are tank-related inscriptions which give details of tank construction. Kuppuswamy. I References Dharampal.

which in the 1000s gave information on preIslamic Mesopotamia and Abbasidian Iraq. following the season and the species being cultivated. The water for religious ablutions at the center of the courtyard facing every mosque is the symbolic echo of a physical fact. Iraqi. The fiqh Islamic juris. and explained the elements relating to the history of that environment. or wells bringing water up to the surface from deep beds. a cistern of rain water. Lastly. made up of groups of rush huts or houses of stone. and a stable political and administrative system (except in time of war). Persian. mountainous soil which is predominant in the Mediterranean basin. in the south of the Arabian peninsula. along with southern Africa and California. is also the word for center. Cordoba. 1991. Irrigation was linked to a social time. Where no great rivers existed. Irrigation in the Islamic World L UCIE B OLENS From Andalusia to the Far East. In certain historical cases. the torrential spring and autumn rains create a major risk for the thin. Shah. This link between the climate and the soil in Andalusia entailed three inseparable factors: an extremely fragile ecology at risk of erosion. al-Nabat iyyah (Nabataean Agriculture. pasture. Water Management Traditions in India. Baghdad. in Yemen. Wittfogel. Mā˒. like that of Andalusia. or Yemenite – insist meticulously on the deployment of equipment and on the control of water. all the small villages. The Nile. such as torrential rains in the autumn and the spring. In Islamic law ownership of land is always linked to ownership of waters. all of the Kitāb-al-Filāhat (Books of Agriculture) – . date palms. financial writings integrate the agrarian dependence on water into the framework of the whole political and social evolution of Islamic history. jurisprudence provided historians with precise details of daily life and ecological behavior. The rains follow two dominant climatological patterns: one Mediterranean. New Haven. humid season in its tillage phase. written documentation is inseparable from the latest results of rural archeology. Islamic irrigation recovered pre-Islamic purviews while at the same time developing and expanding them. or concrete were organized around a water source: a mountain fed by a living spring. Madras: PPST Foundation. human societies dug wells and prospected deep lying aquifer beds. as well as in the Sudan. has the only climate which has rain in the winter and maximum heat in the summer. The historical record describes a vast network of canals from hot climatic zones to cold. Cairo. a tropical agriculture (coffee trees. one of the oldest calendars of irrigation was found in the Filāhat . following necessities of nature but also following the social rank of the users. U. and tamarind trees) served as a point of departure for those tropical plant species to Mediterranean regions. 1993. the Tigris and Euphrates. For classical Islam. Maghrebian. In the current state of research. and natural resources in the environment. the shifting of waterholes. A Tribunal of Waters looks at legal cases. 1957. In other respects. Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power. from the Sudan to Afghanistan. and E. The vegetation there needs a hot. there existed a true ecological pattern which lasted for several centuries and which served as a real ecological laboratory for eastern and western Islamic . a system of a complementary nature between field. and that of the Islamic writer Valence has lasted from the time of the Christian Reconquista in 1248 until today. inherent to the fiqh. A negative quality can thus indeed have positive effects. For western Islam. banana. and complaints from the owners of cultivated estates which had been deprived of water from one day to another. had to regulate any unexpected events from case to case. What are examined are the means of water distribution. irrigation in Islamic countries is the basis of all agriculture and the source of all life. and Fez. This association between seminomadic grazing and intensive irrigated agriculture is a distinctive characteristic of Islamic irrigation. on the borders of agricultural zones stretched vast steppes with winter rainfalls varying from 50 to 150 mm per year. The Arabic word for water. The first were developed in the river valleys of semiarid and arid regions. and in Hadramawt. by Ibn Wah . rainy ones. Karl A. confronted the fact of the capriciousness of nature: the agrarian weather of microclimates really was the final law. The Mediterranean basin. in spite of the fluctuating tides of conquest and reconquest. Connecticut: Yale University Press. a highly organized and detailed system of irrigation which was adapted to regional conditions. After the Roman empire. R. seminomadic lands which had been used for thousands of years. . Bangalore: Prarambha. shiyyah). where the effects of Indian monsoons are often felt. Animal husbandry and intensive agriculture at oasis sites have for centuries contributed to the economic base of Yemenites and Maghreb tribes. There. Somashekhar. the classical Islamic empires relied on the great cities like Damascus. a means of providing refreshment and nourishment. Egyptian. and the Guadalquivir have offered rural and urban communities from earliest times both water and silt. the other tropical and subtropical. Andalusian. Lastly. In the countryside. Forfeited Treasure: A Study on the Status of Irrigation Tanks in Karnataka. Irrigation is the crucial element of agriculture in Islamic lands. wood.1140 Irrigation in the Islamic world Shankari. The joint purchase of land and water.

Irrigation and Hydraulic Technology in Islamic Spain: Methodological Considerations. ethnic. 1981. The device which allowed the flowing of water into the ditches across fields. a number of well-known urban cultures (e. T. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Irrigated plantings used water stored in deep beds. and botany. based on a high level of natural science. Some were over 16 km long. the most profitable procedure was the traditional system of qanats. and D. the surface of the land was hot and irrigated and was worked in squares irrigated by ditches or acequias. and cotton were cultivated.g. Y. 277–326. ways to raise water from wells that are too deep. The earliest descriptions are Iranian. Lima) undertook the construction and expansion . In the development of the countryside irrigation allowed plant species which became the basis of the popular diet – e. L. In Andalusia. its city courtyards and domestic patios. rice. Iran) where aquifer beds were deep. Persia nel Medioevo. in order to define various qualities of water. and its mosques. 1983. The science of the qanats. ▶Agriculture in the Islamic World. Such systems delivered water to hundreds of hectares of potentially fertile land along a dry desert coast. A. Agronomes andalous du Moyen Age.Irrigation in South America 1141 statutes. and their deep tunnel was dug from the outlet up to the motherwell. a political encouragement of individual appropriation. This success was built on the very controlled work of the fellahs. The gradient incline of the aquifer bed can range from almost zero to very steep. Later they were developed on the Castilian Meseta (Madrid) and in Morocco (in Marrakesh). This multisecular. The rich agronomical and administrative literature of Arabic Islam divided cultivatable land into rainy land and irrigated land. ---. with water from wells whose volume was increased through a process described by Ibn al-˓Awwām in the Kitāb al-Filāthat and in Nabatean . grape vines. Genève: Droz. Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World (700–1100). The detailed observation of the earth or of its vegetation. The former were those lands which received enough winter rain to permit the cultivation of olive trees. Relatively late in prehistory. Moche. was based on empirical knowledge and was passed down by gesture or through oral tradition. Paris: UNESCO. Empiricism was able to bring about the creation of an irrigated. and religious differences aside. squares. sugar cane. climatology. Cambridge. ▶Dams in Arabia I References al-Hassan. In between the canals of flowing water and the system of qanats the Islamic world watered its gardens and fields. La . . as well as the empirical nature of the investigation to sample the earth. Irrigation and Society in Medieval Valencia. integrated system was the reason behind the development of numerous plant species crucial to the existence of civilization. from 300 BCE onward.. ed. or brackish and bitter. productive agriculture area. 1986. 69–95. T.g. traditionally. Fahd. 1971. More simply. Agriculture. Irrigation in South America G RAY G RAFFAM Large-scale irrigation systems (canal irrigation) went hand-in-hand with the rise of cities and truly complex societies on the coast of Peru during pre-Hispanic times. one can see them in Central America. in order to identify the presence of water. 1989. It was water which governed the classification of land types. and on a high level of applied knowledge. ---. R. Morocco. such as neutral. Chapters relevant to finding the underground water level and sinking wells are followed by considerations on ways to increase the volume of water stored. Well sites were marked and were used for ventilation and disposition of debris from land clearing. The qanats were deep drainage tunnels which directed water to springs or artesian wells. Glick.. L’irrigation en Andalusia. In plateau regions (Meseta. the Mediterranean trilogy. Un traité des eaux dans al-Filāha an-Nabat iyya. Today. The plan of irrigated water brought about a kind of intensive horticulture comparable to that achieved in the great Asiatic deltas. on river banks and along the shore a system of scales and counterweights called shaduf was used. The extensive spread of theoretical and technical knowledge made of the Andalusian model a precedent which could be applied to all societies. ▶Qanat. Watson. rice and legumes rich in protein – to become acclimated to the Muslim west. 1970. systematically mobilized the senses. Almeria: Instituto de Estudios Almerienses de la Diputaciòn de Almerìa. or gardens was a wheel of variable dimension called a noria. F. which were trying to understand the environment in its historical dimension. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. they are the oil-qanats. salty. El Agua en Zonas Aridas: Arqueologìa e Historia. Journal of the History of Arabic Science 11 (1997): 3–19. and ways to modify the taste of brackish or salty water. Hill. A. Bolens. Islamic Technology. and citrus trees. Roma: Academia dei Lincei. See also: ▶Technology in the Islamic World.

water was a valuable commodity. including an intervalley canal of impressive proportions from the Rio Chicama. Irrigation may not have given rise to civilization and urban life in the Andes. These works made it possible for a population of some 25. (b) terraces along the highland slopes. incorporating the management of labor mobilization (a form of taxation) on a regional basis. According to Patricia Netherly. By AD 600. Not everyone agrees. and groups benefited from a hierarchically organized social structure. the construction and maintenance of irrigation systems are portrayed in the archaeological literature as a powerful force leading to the rise of civilization and urban life. It is noted that highland communities often attempt to maintain their rights to water use and management. A strong maritime economy typified subsistence strategy along the coast during preceramic times. and such systems are documented for the Inca. had in this developmental process. short canals would have been sufficient to water desired areas. The Peruvian data do not support the “Hydraulic Hypothesis” of civilization’s emergence. and there are national laws and regulations that govern its use. which can allow for double cropping in some settings. especially those who regard themselves as . and others. on the one hand through kinship organization. These include (a) sunken gardens on the desert coast. Slope irrigation can deliver a supply of water to terraced fields. Because of the steep slope. which can make sunken fields possible in otherwise very dry areas. According to Michael Moseley. the matter of irrigation’s impact on society is a topic of central concern. Rio Seco.g. but it seems quite clear that irrigation agriculture played little part and certainly not to the scale of later times. This process culminated around AD 1000 in the construction of exceptionally large and sophisticated works by the Chimu. canal irrigation brought hundreds of hectares of otherwise unusable land into production in the Ayacucho valley of south-central Peru. rather than its cause. from which centralized authority and state-level government emerge. There is an active debate on the role that crops. where plots of land were dug down to the water table and then planted. El Paraiso. This theory is based upon the view expressed by Karl Wittfogel. All water belongs to the Peruvian state. that water management plays a key role in crystallizing political authority. Irrigation technology did not bring them about. For the north coast of Peru.. Irrigation agriculture took hold around 1800–900 BCE in the prehistoric sequence for Peruvian cultures. spring water can be run into the swales of raised field systems. as an extension of hunter–gatherer practices. such as Michael Moseley. Irrigation plays a role in other agricultural systems of the Andes. Such a scenario is thought to have led inevitably to the formation of stratified society and subsequently state bureaucracy. which is situated at an elevation of some 3. it is also referred to as the “Hydraulic Hypothesis. and for elsewhere in South America. such as Robert Adams. e. a sophisticated irrigation technology developed. and over the course of a millennium or more. e. Political power is seen as a direct outgrowth of the struggle for water.. Similar irrigation systems in the Andean highlands are also of note. Highlanders. Aspects of irrigation technology theoretically come into play with each. systems of native irrigation management are under study. All of these agricultural systems were geared toward intensive production.1142 Irrigation in South America of irrigation works. Bolin 1990). and subsequently anthropologists such as Julian Steward. which served to retain moisture and enhance production. Playa Culebras. have argued forcefully that irrigation is the consequence of political power. Today. the sociopolitical organization that accompanied these settlements was highly evolved. and (c) raised or drained fields along lake margins and in the Amazon basin. capable of resolving conflict when it occurred. as are the impacts of modern attempts to improve them (Mitchell 1991. authority figures and labor taxation systems had already emerged. Some researchers. highland peoples came to control a scarce resource of high value – water – which led to a hierarchical system for its management and distribution. Irrigation agriculture played a primary role in sustaining urban communities near the coast. as a means for dense human adaptation to the Andean environment. During the dry season.g. Upland irrigation tends to create a higher water table downslope. which served to reclaim inundated wetland.” According to this theory. where large irrigable plains of potentially fertile land were brought into production. which supported dense populations. Together both views provide a clear understanding of how irrigation was carried out. believe that irrigation agriculture developed here. Michael Moseley adds the perspective that large-scale irrigation projects were designed and engineered by rulers in these settings. Huaca Prieta. By this time. These networks helped support a population of some 20.000 or more at the urban site of Huari. and on the other through government intervention in laborintensive projects. although in Peru such rights no longer exist in the legal sense. and large agglutinated settlements that housed hundreds of people were built along the coast between 2500 and 1800 BCE. and some scholars. Lake Titicaca. it has been argued that irrigation technology went handin-hand with hierarchical social organization during late pre-Hispanic times.000 to reside at the capital city of Chan Chan.000 m. above any substantial acreage of arable land. In general. Other agricultural systems are also known for the Andes. including maize. Still. but it clearly evolved within the power structure of subsequent developments. but vice versa.

was a Nestorian Arab from Syria. 1992. as well as its geographical and chronological position. and Crisis in the Andes. These were studied by staff members at the Muslim Astronomical Bureau in Beijing. The Evolution of Urban Society. Beijing: Zhonghua. Therefore. Christine A. The Management of Late Andean Irrigation Systems on the North Coast of Peru. Lian. In 1263 Kublai Khan appointed Isa the director of the Muslim Astronomical Bureau and Medical and Pharmaceutical Bureau. Song. Human Organization 49. Robert M. Meanwhile. He was skilled as a mathematician and astronomer as well as in medicine and pharmacy. Hastorf. 1991. Isa Tarjaman. and the competition between and within villages for access to irrigation water.Ishango bone 1143 “Owners of the Water. Joseph. Isa made a great contribution to the history of the Sino-Arabian scientific exchange. Competition. During this time he suggested that Kublai prepare a new calendar in the Arabian style which he finished in 1267 in cooperation with a Persian astronomer Zhama Ludin References Needham. Biography of Aixue (Isa Tarjaman). Ishango Bone A NNE H AUZEUR The engraved bone drew international attention as soon as it was described by J. Its uniqueness. Inge. Book 11. An important Arabian medical work entitled Huihui Yaofang (Collection of Muslim Prescriptions) was compiled under his leadership. 1991. there is a great need for agricultural and government agencies to investigate the indigenous patterns of water use. He came to China in about 1247. and Conflict Along an Andean Irrigation System. District of Columbia: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Peasants on the Edge: Crop. Shanghai: People’s Publishing House. Yuan Shi (History of the Yuan Dynasty. Isbell. Chap. There he visited the famous Maraghā Observatory and worked together with some Arabian and even Chinese astronomers who were working there for a time. Science and Civilisation in China. References Adams. After his death the Mongol court made him the Fuolin Prince. McEwen. As the director of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Bureau. sometimes called Isa the Interpreter or Isa the Mongol. He was the only Arab to attain such a high official position in China. Michael E. Agriculture and the Onset of Political Inequality Before the Inca. 1966. bringing in stimulating outside influences which were then incorporated and synthesized into Chinese mathematics. Cult. 1370). and Gordon F. at the mouth of Lake Edward/Rutanzige. 3. they made seven kinds of Arabian astronomical instruments for the Huihui (Muslim) Observatory. was a remarkable example. Moseley. then worked for the Mongol Khans till his death in 1308. Vol. ▶Maraghā I Isa Tarjaman S UN X IAOLI During the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) the Arabs played a role in Chinese science and technology similar to that of the Indians in the Tang. London: Thames and Hudson. Washington. such patterns of water rights are likely to be deeply embedded within kinship organization and indigenous social structure. See also: ▶Guo Shoujing. Zong Xi Wenhua Jiaoliu Shi (History of Sino-Western Cultural Exchange). Isa was sent to Il-khan as a member of a delegation. and medicine. Upsetting the Power Balance: Cooperation. Chicago: Aldine. American Antiquity 49. Austin: University of Texas Press. Netherly. . 1985. Ishango is located on the top of a fossil terrace of the Semliki River. and he thus was praised by the Mongol Khans. were astonishing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. It is interesting that some of the contents of this work were taken from Ibn Sīnā’s Canon. 1959. William H. This was called the Wan-nian (ten thousand years) calendar. Fuwei.” fall into conflict with people in the lowland valleys. Shen. Isa Tarjaman established a Capital Hospital to introduce Arabian medicine to China.2 (1984): 227–54. astronomy. his wife Sara also worked there. All of these exerted some influence on the Chinese astronomer Guo Shoujing (1231–1316) and his work. According to Bolin. Patricia J. 1979. After returning from Il-Khan he rose to be a Hanlin Academician. Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government. Bolin. Mitchell. or Jamāl al-Dīn. The Incas and Their Ancestors: The Archaeology of Peru. then the minister of State in 1297. 134. de Heinzelin in 1957. As revealed by Mitchell and Netherly. From 1283 to 1286. William P. 1993. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.2 (1990): 140–8. Then he brought some of these astronomical and mathematical works back to China. who was working in China too. Isa Tarjaman (1227–1308) or Aixue in Chinese.

6 (1962): 105–16. i. A. As with the other tools. Archaeological facts demonstrate the wide spread of the harpoon tradition. Traditional scholars teached that the first mathematics came from the Ptolemaic period and the Golden Age of Alexandria. See also: ▶Mathematics in Africa References Brooks. in the Democratic Republic of Congo.. Without any archaeological evidence the function is unknown. de Heinzelin J. Originally. Scientific American. with a quartz at the tip (photo and ©RBINS). 1957). some 20. when the volcano Katwe erupted. Alexander Marshack. A diaphysis [the mid-section of a long bone] from an unidentified animal was prepared and worked. When adding all the groups of each row. the Ishango bone could be considered as the oldest computing machine. but most of all by numerous bone harpoons. it was made on the settlement. 2). the sum is 48 or 60. It could illustrate a numerical converter system of base 10/base 12. from Central Africa to the Nile basin.000 till 5000 BC. Rainfall was increasing during this time. Les Fouilles d’Ishango. New York: McGrew-Hill Book Company. In such a case. There were several prehistoric occupations from 20. whose pattern would have been widespread from the Great Lakes region towards Western Africa and the North in Sudan and Egypt. . Fig. or numbers multiplied by 2. the antiquity of the piece was questioned. ---. perhaps it was used to incise or engrave. It is the only piece among the whole artefacts assemblage to have a series of notches engraved in a very ordered rhythm (Fig. The Mesolithic Bone: Ishango.1144 Ishango bone Ishango Bone. displayed in three rows on its periphery. Ed. Each group of notches sums either prime numbers between 10 and 20. used during the times of the hunter-gatherer nomads. 1).e. Marshack. and C. The “shaft wears” groups of notches. Those latter evolved from a one-barbed sided to a two-barbed sided type. The settlement of Ishango would illustrate an old step of this harpoon production. The Roots of Civilization. The different levels of human occupation are characterised either by a great amount of small-sized tools in a translucent white quartz. Ishango Revisited: New Age Determinations and Cultural Interpretations. The African Archaeological Review 5 (1987): 65–78. Ishango. The engraved bone has several points of interest. a multiple of 12 (Fig. A. or 10 Æ 1. At one end a little piece of white quartz was shafted to be used as a tool. Ishango Bone. S. 1 The engraved bone from Ishango. Fig. Smith. 2 Uurolled sketch of the Ishango bone. It would be the oldest transcribed testimony of the mathematical intelligence of our ancestors. 1957. Bruxelles: Institut des Parcs nationaux du Congo belge. This fishing tradition went on after sedentarisation and the introduction of animal breeding. 1972: 27–32. and number in each group of notches (after de Heinzelin. 206. right in Central Africa. but new dating has proved its age. so that the way of life was more devoted to fishing.000 years ago.

. As a translator. I References De Young. These include Euclid's Elements. 1970–1981. On Generation and Corruption. important Greek mathematical treatises into Arabic. especially the works of Aristotle. In addition to Aristotle's works. and the . we do not yet know. 1145 Ishaq Ibn Hunayn . . Ed. these seem not to have survived. al-Hajjāj . he translated Galen's Number of the Syllogism and part of his On Demonstration. Rather than translate mechanically word-by-word. He also rendered the Categories. Ishāq was also instrumental in translating several . P. Folkerts and U. All extant Arabic manuscript copies of Euclid seem to reflect some aspects of this editing process. . Whether any other editing was involved. In addition to his work in the translation institute founded for his father. C. as well as some logical and philosophical works by Alexander of Aphrodias. Arabo-Latin). De Young. version of Euclid to the earlier transmission attributed to al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Matar is difficult to establish . Kunitzsch. See also: ▶Hunayn ibn Ishāq. the Spherics of Menelaus. both philosophical and mathematical..) Ishāq's greatest contributions lay in his translations . . . Der Almagest: Die Syntaxis Mathematica des Claudius Ptolemaius in arabisch-lateinischer Überlieferung. Ishāq followed the scientific approach . 1985. Historia Mathematica 19 (1992): 188–99. His Tārīkh al-At t ibā˒ (History of Physicians). however. N. Themistius. the paucity of Syriac translations among extant manuscripts remains puzzling to historians. Dictionary of . New York: Scribner. This work has been helpful to historians of both medicine and philosophy. Thābit ibn Qurra. Qurra. Hunayn ibn Ishāq. Mathemata: Festschrift für Helmuth Gericke. an extended version of a Greek book of the same title by John Philoponus. he served as a physician to the court under caliphs al-Mu˓atamid and al-Mu˓atadid. because the earlier version has disappeared. Ishāq also produced a number of original works on . Shehaby. . that Ishāq converted to Islam. .Ishāq Ibn Hunayn .¯ . The relationship of Ishāq's . 115–28. G. . names of philosophers active during the lifetime of each physician mentioned. Ishāq ibn Hunayn. allowing some conjectures to be made concerning the translation principles applied by both men. parts of the Metaphysics. Physics. Kunitzsch. Porphyry. Ishāq ibn Hunayn. ▶Thābit ibn . Apparently. Findings in Some Texts of Euclid's Elements (Medieval Tranmission. Thābit compared the Arabic version with additional Greek manuscripts which he had at his disposal and noted differences between the Arabic and Greek versions. although no manuscript contains the complete set of known comments attributed to Thābit. On the Sphere and Cylinder by Archimedes. . The Arabic Textual Traditions of Euclid's Elements. only later producing an Arabic version based on the Syriac. (Both Ishāq and his father are said to . Assuming such reports to be true. some sources imply . as well as the Almagest of Claudius Ptolemy. C. Weisbaden: Harrassowitz. and the Nichomachean Ethics into Arabic. Euclid and Ptolemy were revised by the mathematician. He produced Syriac versions of a part of the Prior Analytics and all of the Posterior Analytics and the Topics. 1974. On Interpretation. In the case of the Almagest. G REGG D E Y OUNG Ishāq ibn Hunayn (215–298 AH/AD 830–910) is best . developed and applied by his father with such success to the Galenic corpus. 7. Optics. ▶Almagest. . Hunayn ibn Ishāq (193–263 AH/AD . and Proclus. and Data. Although Hunayn was a Nestorian Christian. Third Arabic Translation of Euclid's Elements. P. . Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. he attempted to capture the meaning of each Greek thought unit in an appropriate form in the target language. medicine. into Arabic. does survive. Lindgren. M. Unfortunately. 24–6. G. . Gillispie. of Greek philosophical texts. Ishāq has added the . known for his role in the translation of Greek texts. Vol. have preferred to translate first from Greek into their native Syriac. Historia Mathematica 11 (1984): 147–60. Scientific Biography. 809–877). both Arabic versions appear to be extant. He may also have translated the Rhetoric and the Poetics. and minor works by Autolycus and Hypsicles. On the Soul. Ed. It is reported that Ishāq's translations of . Abū Ya˓qūb.

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