2010 

Greening Newtown‐The Results  of USF’s  Environmental Science  and Policy Capstone Seminar
Authors: Jennifer Ascani Leslie Babiak Todd Bogner Alana Brasier Rebekah Brightbill Melissa Brogle Melanie Decesare Sara Giunta Justin Heller Garrett Hyzer Katrina Johnson Jason Kendall Christopher Klug Anna Leech Corey Leonard Scott Moore Lin Ozan Adrien Roth Matthew Torrence

Edited and Compiled by Robert Brinkmann  University of South Florida  12/1/2010 

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Table of Contents
Introduction Robert Brinkmann……………………………………………………………………………page 1 A Sustainable Urban Environment: the use of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ in Newtown, Sarasota Jennifer Ascani…………………………………………….…………………………………page 3 Green Roof Gardens for Enhancing Sustainable Development in Newtown Leslie Babiak………………………………………………………………………..………page 17 What a Greenway Park could mean socially and environmentally to a diverse population within Sarasota Todd L. Bogner………………………………………………………………………….…page 36 A Green Infrastructure Network to Sustainably Redevelop Newtown, Sarasota Alana Brasier………………………………………………………………………………page 52 Minority Business Creation in Newtown: Equalizing the Reach of Green Rebekah G. Brightbill……………………………………………………………….……page 68 Waste Reduction, Litter Prevention, and Litter Control in Newtown Melissa R. Brogle…………………………………………………………………………page 87 Newtown Residential Bus Stop Inventory Christopher Cochran……………………………………………………………………page 100 A Citizen’s Initiative for Sustainable Urban Living through Expanded Recycling and Conservation in the Home and Community Melanie M. DeCesare……………………………………………………………………page 117 Brownfields to Created Wetlands: A Project Initiative for Newtown, Sarasota Sara Giunta……………………………………………………………..…………………page 135 Benefits of Improved Street Lighting Using Energy Efficient LED Technology Justin Heller………………………………………………………………………………page 152

Sarasota’s Food Desert:A Case for Providing Newtown’s Residents Access to Healthy Foods Garrett Hyzer……………………………………………………………………………page 168 Sustainable Redevelopment within the Newtown Community of Sarasota, Florida: Green Streets Katrina Johnson…………………………………………………………………………page 183

Promoting Sustainable Redevelopment in Newtown with Urban Forestry Jason Kendall…………………………………………………………………………page 199 The Potential Effects of Rising Sea Levels on Sarasota and Newtown, and the Lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina. Christopher Klug………………………………………………………………………page 213 Bicycle Infrastructure in Newtown Anna Leech……………………………………………………………………………page 227 Assessing the Potential Benefits of Florida Friendly Municipal Landscaping in Newtown, Sarasota Corey Leonard…………………………………………….…………………………page 243 Noise Pollution and Environmental Justice Scott A. Moore…………………………………………………………………………page 258 The Benefits of On-Site Power Generation for Newtown Lin Allen Ozan…………………………………………………………………………page 272 A Natural History of Newtown, Sarasota, Florida: Including Geology, Hydrology and Soils Adrien Roth……………………………………………………………………………page 288

The Feasibility of Public Wi-Fi in Newtown, Sarasota: Investigating Community and Economic Development through Public Wireless Internet Access Matt Torrence…………………………………………………………………………page 307

Introduction Robert Brinkmann, Ph.D. Professor of Geography Months ago, I had my first encounter with Newtown. I drove from USF in Tampa to visit my friend and colleague, Ms. Lorna Alston. She just started her new position as the General Manager of the North Sarasota Redevelopment Division and I was anxious to see how she liked her new position. I was familiar with her impressive work in East Tampa and I knew she was going to make a big difference in the community and in the lives of its citizens. As I drove into Newtown’s main street, I was struck by its small-town charm. In many ways, the structure of Newtown is similar to that espoused by those who seek a “New Urbanism” in American cities. New Urbanists recommend developments with small downtowns within walking distance of homes and places of work, and with access to public transportation and parks. Indeed, Newtown has many things in place that make it a highly desirable place to live. It has a distinct neighborhood feel, parks, and easy access to transportation. Yet, there are also problems of underemployment, crime, environment, and economic development. Around the United States, there are many Newtowns. Many people are working to improve these communities and there are many success stories. I have no doubt that North Sarasota will be among the success stories. To many, Sarasota is considered one of the greenest cities in the United States. It was one of the first in Florida to embrace many of the key elements of the modern sustainability movement. Thus, it makes sense to think about Newtown and the North Sarasota region within the context of environmental sustainability. How can this part of Sarasota become a bigger part of Sarasota’s national and international reputation as an urban ecotopia? Each time I teach my graduate seminar called Capstone Seminar in Environmental Science and Policy, I try to give my students opportunities to work within a community on examining sustainability issues. To me and my students, environmental sustainability includes not just the environment, but also social and economic issues. Thus, I challenge my students to look at all aspects within a community to evaluate how to make improvements and to develop plans and ideas that are practical and that can assist others in making their communities a better place. In the past, my classes have done similar projects in Clearwater and Tampa. I am thrilled that I was given permission to work with Sarasota in examining the North Sarasota 1

Redevelopment area. I am grateful for the assistance of many who gave of their time to assist students in their efforts. Within this document are reports from 20 students. This is the largest group I have ever had in this course. The students include individuals working on masters degrees in Geography, Planning, or Environmental Science and Policy. In addition, some of the students are completing a Graduate Certificate Program in Environmental Management. The student projects vary considerably from green job training to green roof development. The nature of the reports very as well in that some are very applied programs with concrete suggestions, while others are more theoretical in nature. Regardless of the content, each student brings a unique perspective to the understanding of the North Sarasota area.

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A Sustainable Urban Environment: the use of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ in Newtown, Sarasota Jennifer Ascani

Abstract Urban Environments are commonly depicted by their man-made infrastructures skyscrapers, parking garages, roads, sidewalks, restaurants, and apartments. Often times, natural landscapes must be altered to accommodate a proposed structure. This can be done through a number of means: dredging, filling, clearing and flattening. Native vegetation and natural environments are more often than not altered, if not completely demolished, in the process of urban expansion. While destruction of these natural environments is harmful to inhabitants of these ecosystems, lack of green spaces in new urban environments can be just as harmful to its new residents. The implementation of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ is a proposed effective strategy to halt, replenish, and even prevent the loss of natural ecosystems in Florida’s urban environments. In urban neighborhoods, such as Newtown, Sarasota, implementation of native vegetation in residential yards yields a plethora of benefits to the neighborhoods’ wildlife as well as its residents.

Outline The following outline highlights the main sections of this technical report:
I. Newtown Sarasota A. B. C. II. A. B. History of the Newtown Community New Beginnings for Newtown Goals & Objectives of Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Newtown Boundaries Focus on Residential Yards 1. 2. 3. Newtown Gospel Church City of Sarasota Housing Authority Residential House 1

Current Conditions

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4. 5. III. Proposed Conditions A. B. C. D. IV. V. VI. VII.

Residential House 2 Residential House 3

“Curb Appeal” Smart Landscaping Be an Environmental Advocate Your Residence Could Look Like This

About The Florida-Friendly Landscaping Program™ Nine Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Education & Introduction of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ into the Newtown Community Benefits of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ for the Newtown Community A. B. C. D. E. Becoming a Sustainable Community Environmental Benefits Environmental Benefits Residential Benefits Communal Benefits

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Conclusion

Newtown, Sarasota

History of the Newtown Community: The town of Sarasota, originally platted in 1883, was founded in 1902 (History of the Newtown Community, 2008). In 1904, the Florida West Shore Railway was constructed in the region that is now considered Newtown, thus bringing the rail service to Sarasota. Newtown is considered the second historic African-American core district of Sarasota. The first African American core district, originally called Overtown and more recently known as the Rosemary District, boomed at the turn of the century and into the 20’s, demanding further growth north. Charles Thompson, a well-known circus manager, led the development of Newtown in 1914. Thompson’s motivation for development stemmed from his desire to better the quality of life for Sarasota’s African-American community. Around the same time, Sarasota’s Downtown was expanding, thus thrusting the African-American population northward. By 1960, Newtown was home to approximately 7,000 people, or about 6% of Sarasota County’s population.

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In the 1960’s, Newtown’s commercial community prospered. The community boasted many restaurants, grocery stores, service stations, a drug store, repair shops, beauty parlors, barbershops, and a doctor and dentist’s office (City of Sarasota, 2008). Sadly, decades of decreased investment and financial flight, along with creation of government subsidized housing and social services, have resulted in residential properties in disrepair alongside flourishing single-family homes. Additionally, many multifamily houses in the community have not received continued care, thus resulting in extensive community decomposition.

New Beginnings for Newtown: The city of Sarasota held a community-wide meeting with Newtown residents on February 11, 2010, requesting ideas on how to improve the quality of life of the Newtown community, particularly within the areas of Economic Development, Law Enforcement, Neighborhoods, Social Services, and Youth Services (New Beginnings for Newtown, 2008). The intended outcome of this meeting was to discover ideas and solutions that would assist, as well as equip, the residents of Newtown to bring about positive change within their community. On February 23, 2010, the city of Sarasota held another community-wide meeting with Newtown residents, where they presented the proposed changes and adopted a grass-roots effort to achieve these changes. The meeting attendees then broke into focus groups based on their area of interest and developed action plans to accomplish their goals.

Goals & Objectives of Newtown Community Redevelopment Area: The lists of assets and issues generated at the public meeting have been developed into a list of goals and objectives that provide the guidelines for redevelopment in the Newtown Community, referred to as the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020 (Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2010 Goals and Objectives, 2010). For the purpose of this technical report, the focus will be on the establishment of functional, aesthetically pleasing community development. The following is a list of objectives from Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020 in which the research of this technical paper will aid in achieving:
1. Administration (Redevelopment Administration and Policy): Goal III: Prevent the occurrence of slum and blight. Objective 2: Eliminate conditions that decrease property

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values and reduce the tax base. 2. Economic Development: Goal II: Re-establish old neighborhoods through redevelopment and revitalization of the housing stock. Establish a safe, functional, and aesthetically pleasing community environment. Objective 4: Work with the City to clean up vacant, unattended properties. 4. Land Use: Goal 1: Establish Land use pattern that reflects the redevelopment area as a community of diversified interests and activities while promoting compatibility and harmonious land-use relationships. Objective 4: Protect and enhance existing residential neighborhoods. 8. Urban Design/Parks: Goal I: Establish Parks, recreation, open space, and beautification efforts to an identifiable character for the redevelopment area, one which will reflect a pleasant, appealing atmosphere for working, shopping, touring, and residing in the district. Objective 3: Prepare landscaping, streetscaping and lighting plans for public to strengthen the historic character of the redevelopment area and encourage the use of these features when negotiating private sector development plans. Objective 8: Utilize a variety of beautification techniques to provide comfortable, pleasing, and healthful work, leisure, residential, and shopping environments. Objective 9: Develop urban site design, landscape design, and architectural design guidelines for new and redevelopment projects. create

Current Conditions

Newtown Boundaries According to the Geographic Boundary Map of Newtown (pg. 2 of Front Porch Florida Communities Newtown, 2007), the Newtown neighborhood boundaries are as follows: Old Bradenton Road to the west, US Hwy 301/North Washington Boulevard to the east, Myrtle Street to the north and 17th Street to the south.

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Focus on Residential Yards On October 30, 2010, photographs were taken of five random residential sites to illustrate current conditions of residential yards in Newtown. As the photographer was alone, observations cited in this paper are based on the photographer’s observations of the yards during a less than five-minute drive-by and observed from the photographs. Table 1.1 Name Newtown Gospel Church City of Sarasota Housing Authority Residential House 1 Residential House 2 Residential House 3 Newtown Gospel Church According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 1 is zoned as RMF2: Residential, Multi-Family (9 units/acre) with (land) use code 7100: Institutional- Churches. The Land Area of the parcel is 47,564 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 329,900.00 (Appendix A). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 is composed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie and Myakka fine sands (Appendix B). The current vegetation is mostly sparse, exposing many areas of soil. There are a fair number of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. The established deciduous and coniferous trees are located at the rear of the church (west) and provide shade for the building (Appendix C). There is a concrete sidewalk that perimeters the front of the site and an unpaved parking area is located to the right of the building (Appendix D). Location 1815 Gillespie Avenue Corner of 24th Street and Dixie Avenue 2831 Maple Avenue 2830 Goodrich Avenue 2728 Goodrich Avenue Site Name Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5

City of Sarasota Housing Authority According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 2 is zoned as G: Governmental Use with (land) use code 0390: Residential Multi-Family - 100 or more units. The Land Area of the 7

parcel is 586,811 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 2,059,000.00 (Appendix E). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 is composed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie and Myakka fine sands (Appendix F). The current vegetation is mostly turf grass. There are a fair number of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. The established deciduous and coniferous trees are located to the west and south of the Housing Complex and providing shade for few buildings (Appendix G). There are concrete sidewalks that perimeter each neighborhood block. Additionally, there are no paved or unpaved parking areas as all parking is street parking (Appendix H).

Residential House 1 According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 3 is zoned as RSF4: Residential, Single Family (5.5 units/acre) with (land) use code 0100: Residential - Single Family. The Land Area of the parcel is 5,000 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 39,100.00 (Appendix I). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 is composed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie and Myakka fine sands (Appendix J). The current vegetation is overgrown and unmanaged. There are a fair number of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. The established deciduous and coniferous trees are located at the rear of the residence (west) and provide shade for the building (Appendix K). There is a concrete sidewalk that perimeters the front of the site. Additionally, there are no paved or unpaved parking areas as parking for this residence is street parking (Appendix L).

Residential House 2 According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 4 is zoned as RSF4: Residential, Single Family (5.5 units/acre) with (land) use code 0100: Residential - Single Family. The Land Area of the parcel is 5,000 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 49,800.00 8

(Appendix M). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 is composed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 45.4% EauGallie and Myakka fine sands and 54.6% Holopaw fine sand, depressional (Appendix N). The current vegetation is mostly turf grass. There are a fair number of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. The established deciduous and coniferous trees are located at the rear of the residence (east) and provide shade for the building (Appendix O). There is a concrete sidewalk that perimeters the front of the site as well as a concrete driveway. Additionally, there is a chain-link fence that perimeters the property (Appendix P).

Residential House 3 According to the Sarasota Property Appraiser, Site 5 is zoned as RMF2: Residential, Multi-Family (9 units/acre) with (land) use code 0820: Multi-Family/less than 10 units/Duplex. The Land Area of the parcel is 5,000 square feet. The 2010 Assessed Value of the parcel is $ 64,500.00 (Appendix Q). According to the Natural Resources Conservation Service Web Soil Survey, Site 1 is composed (as a percentage of total area) of the following soil types: 100% EauGallie and Myakka fine sands (Appendix R). The current vegetation is mostly turf grass. There are a fair number of established deciduous and coniferous trees as well as a few palms on site. The established deciduous and coniferous trees are located at the rear of the residence (east) and provide shade for the building (Appendix S). There is a concrete sidewalk that perimeters the front of the site as well as a concrete driveway to the south (Appendix T).

Proposed Conditions

“Curb Appeal” One strategy used to raise aesthetic value of a residence is to improve “curb appeal.” Shows such as HGTV’s Curb Appeal take a less than aesthetically pleasing residential yard and transform it via new landscaping into an eye-catching, property with the potential to sell quickly. 9

As many of the objectives of the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020 include an aesthetically pleasing sector, creating “curb appeal” has been a supported strategy for achieving this.

Smart Landscaping While creating an aesthetically pleasing residential yard increases property value as well as meets objectives of the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020, when executed in a particular fashion this creation can also be environmentally sustainable. One of the 9 Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ (FFL) is “Right Plant, Right Place.” Unlike nutrient rich soil found in the north, central Florida boasts mostly xeric (dry) conditions (Appendix U). While many people want a lush, green lawn, they don’t realize that the soil conditions of Florida do no support that type of vegetation. Homeowners end up pumping excessive amounts of water and fertilizer into their lawns, believing if they add enough they will be rewarded with a lush, green lawn. Conversely, lawns that go unattended and unmanaged are a breeding ground for exotics species. The majority of people are unaware that excessive watering depletes Florida’s aquifer. While the aquifer does get replenished through rain, if the state experiences a drought, residential lawns suffer. This is not aesthetically pleasing, nor does it support a favorable ecosystem for wildlife. FFL offers a sustainable solution to this all too common problem. Choosing native plants capable of thriving in xeric conditions by adapting to periods of little to no water can keep residents’ lawns looking beautiful, while reducing irrigation demands and associated costs (McKinney, 2008). Introducing rain barrels (Appendix V) as an alternative means of watering, through the capture and re-use of rainwater, can also help to transform lawns into sustainable ecosystems (Bucklin, 1993). Native vegetation also attracts and supports wildlife that would not be found in turf grass (Doody et al, 2010). Wildlife displaced by urbanization can thrive in a residential lawn of native vegetation allowing residents to live in harmony with nature (Chen, 2009).

Be An Environmental Advocate In addition to residents misusing water to keep their lawns lush and green, over 10

fertilization is another environmental issue (Manning, 2008). Urban environments usually have high amounts of impermeable surfaces such as sidewalks, driveways, and roads where water does not filter through but runs across the surface. Natural rain, as well as sprinkler systems and self-watering that comes in contact with fertilized lawns, carries the fertilizer down storm drains and into wetlands, lakes, and ponds. While large amounts of fertilizer may be beneficial to plants, excessive nutrient loads have the opposite effect in water bodies (Erickson et al, 1999). Excessive amounts of nutrients feed algae blooms, making lake and pond management extremely difficult. Utilizing native plants that require little to no fertilizer will aid in reducing urban runoff as well as keep water bodies more biologically and aesthetically pleasing.

Your Residence Could Look Like This Go to http://www.floridayards.org/interactive/index.php to use Florida-Friendly Interactive Yard. This online interactive tool will give you step-by-step directions to transform a common turf yard into one dominated by FFL plants. The site is a copyrighted production of Fusionspark Media, Inc. so no part of the production can be copied and reproduced. Additionally found on the site is a Florida-Friendly Plant Database that can be utilized in FFL transformation. Black (2003) compiled a list of Florida’s native plants that he believes has the greatest potential landscape use. These plants are equally practical and attractive when utilized in rural and urban environments.

About The Florida-Friendly Landscaping Program™: The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ (FFL) Program is an extension of the University of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Environmental Horticulture Department. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) primarily funds the FFL program and as of 2009, has required that UF/IFAS use the term “Florida-Friendly Landscaping” in all of its research, publications, and associated materials to match the language that is used in Florida’s state legislation (citation*). FloridaYards.org is a project of the Florida Springs Initiative of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and is presented by UF/IFAS. The FFL program was created to include Florida Yards & Neighborhoods (FYN) program and the Florida-Friendly Best Management Practices for 11

Protection of Water Resources by the Green Industries (GIBMPs). The FYN program and the GIBMP program both promote the 9 Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Principles, which apply equally to homeowner and industry sanctions.

Nine Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: The University of Florida, Institute of Food & Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) created The Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Handbook that highlights nine principles that will aid residents in reaching their goal of a Florida-Friendly Yard. The nine principles are as follows: 1. Right Plant, Right Place 2. Water Efficiently 3. Fertilize Appropriately 4. Mulch 5. Attract Wildlife 6. Manage Yard Pests Responsibly 7. Recycle Yard Waste 8. Reduce Stormwater Runoff 9. Protect the Waterfront

Education & Introduction of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ into the Newtown Community While knowledge can be a powerful tool, many times it can go to waste if it is not shared and therefore does not have the opportunity to impact others. The following section highlights strategies to effectively educate and expose the Newtown community to the sustainable landscape approach of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™:  Display of Informative Posters at high traffic community areas such as community centers/schools /libraries/grocery stores. Colorful, eye-catching posters are visual tools that can attract the attention of passers-by and encourage them to learn more.  Creation of a website link to Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program (http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/) and Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ 12

(http://www.floridayards.org/) from Newtown’s website. A simple link that connects Newtown’s residents to the “How-To” of FFL (Naveh, 2007).  Presentations at schools/community centers of the Nine Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ (FFL) Principles. Children are sometimes the environment’s best advocates. FFL is an active, outdoor activity that many children would enjoy doing with a parent or guardian.  “Model FFL Yard” in the community. Many times a Model, able to be seen, touched, and observed can be a highly effective tool in motivating others to apply the same Model principles to their properties. Pick a parcel that is in a high community traffic area to maximize learning potential.  Creation of a Gardening Club that abides by the Nine FFL Principles. Creation of a Gardening Club to uphold FFL Principles as well as build community camaraderie can be offered through the community center.  Handouts/brochures: Creation and distribution of handouts/brochures of FFL is a nonspoken way of getting word out into the community. Handouts can supplement posters and presentations and can always be made available at the community center.

Benefits of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ for the Newtown Community: Becoming a Sustainable Community FFL has environmental, communal as well as economic benefits. In a community such as Newtown that is striving to become a more sustainable town, FFL is a simple strategy that supports the big picture idea of sustainable living. While it does not solve every environmental and economic issue, it is a small step that nearly every resident can take and will contribute toward the realization of Newtown’s goals in becoming a sustainable community (Kuo, 2003).

Environmental Benefits As mentioned in previous paragraphs, environmental benefits of FFL include a reduction in watering amounts and costs, minimizing urban run-off, and recruitment of native (plant and animal) species. Additionally, installing FFL trees increases CO2 uptake, which is quite plentiful in urban environments (Manning, 2008). Tress, if planted in particular locations, can shade residences, which in turn reduces the need to run air conditioning thus saving money and resources. 13

Residential Benefits Increasing green spaces in urban environments increases the quality of life of residents (Kuo, 2003). Residents who utilize FFL in their yards will most likely spend more time outside, enjoying the work of tending to their yards. This could lead to communal bonding and, as mentioned before, the creation of a Gardening Club. Native plants can be purchased from local nurseries, thus supporting sustainable business practices in Newtown. Enjoyment of such gardening activities may also lead to an interest of a career pursuit in landscape architecture; landscape ecology, botany, and many related fields, as well as small business opportunities.

Communal Benefits Lastly, general aesthetics of the community of Newtown would improve drastically if residents took part in the FFL program. The community as a whole would enjoy a newly founded cohesion through their unity of practicing the 9 Principles of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™. While aesthetics is beneficial to the community, it meets many objectives from Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2020 (Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2010 Goals and Objectives, 2010). FFL would increase property value as well. Very few people are interested in living in areas that are not aesthetically pleasing, with overgrown lawns and mismanaged vegetation. An entire community implementing FFL would only increase outsider’s interests in joining the community and willingness to pay the extra dollar to have a lowmaintenance, aesthetically pleasing lawn.

Conclusion Newtown is faced with a tremendous opportunity to transform a neglected neighborhood to a sustainable, model community for the entire city of Sarasota. Small changes that residents can accomplish on their own that will aid in helping their community become more sustainable while giving residents a sense of pride of ownership of their community. The implementation of FFL as an effective strategy to halt, replenish, and even prevent the loss of natural ecosystems in Florida’s urban environments will in turn create a sustainable ecosystem for wildlife as well as for residents. Most importantly, FFL is an opportunity for the citizens of Newtown to come 14

together and collectively make a positive difference within their community as well as the planet.

Works Cited: Black, RJ. (2003). Native Florida Plants for Home Landscapes. Retrieved from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep011. Bucklin, R. (1993). Cisterns To Collect Non-Potable Water For Domestic Use. Retrieved from: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ae029. Chen X, Wu J (2009) Sustainable landscape architecture: implications of the Chinese philosophy of “unity of man with nature” and beyond.” Landscape Ecol. 24: 10151026. City of Sarasota. (2010). Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan 2010. Goals Objectives. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA_G&O.pdf#page=1. City of Sarasota. (2008). New Beginnings for Newtown. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/newbeginnings.html. City of Sarasota. (2008). History of the Newtown Community. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/history.html. Doody, B., Sullivan, J., Meurk, C., Stewart, G., Perkins, H. (2010). Urban realities: the contribution of residential gardens to the conservation of urban forest remnants. Biodiversity and Conservation 19:1385-1400. Erickson, J., Volin, J., Cisar, J., Snyder, G. (1999). A Facility for Documenting the Effect of Urban Landscape Type on Fertilizer Nitrogen Runoff. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 112: 266-269. Florida Department of Community Affairs. (2007). Front Porch Florida Communities Newtown. Retrieved from: www.dca.state.fl.us. Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Program | UF Dept of Environmental Horticulture. These nine principles will help you reach the goal of a Florida-Friendly Yard. Retrieved from: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/homeowners/nine_principles.htm. Fushionspark Media Inc., (n.d.) Florida-Friendly Interactive Yards. Retrieved from: http://www.floridayards.org/interactive/index.php. Google Earth. Imagery Date December 15, 2008. Retrieved from: www.googleearth.com. (2010). and

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Haynes, J., Hunsberger, A., McLaughlin, J., Vasquez, L. (2001) Drought-Tolerant, LowMaintenance Plants for Southern “Florida Yards” and “Florida Landscapes.” Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 114:192-194. Kuo, F. (2003). The Role of Arboriculture in a Healthy Social Ecology. Journal of Arboriculture 29:148-155. Manning, W. (2008). Plants in urban ecosystems: Essential role of urban forests in urban metabolism and succession toward sustainability. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 15:362-370. McKinney, ML. (2008). Effects of urbanization on species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosyst. 11:161–176. Naveh, Z. (2007). Landscape ecology and sustainability. Landscape Ecol. 22:1437–1440.

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GREEN ROOF GARDENS FOR ENHANCING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NEWTOWN Prepared by Leslie Babiak

“Is it not against all logic when the upper surface of a whole town remains unused and reserved exclusively for a dialogue between the tiles and the stars.” Le Corbusier

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY An increased public awareness of the importance of maintaining ecological systems in an expanding built environment has led to the development and application of technologies that allow us to live more lightly on the planet, strengthen our connections between people, and create more sustainable communities. The concept of sustainability and sustainable development has evolved over time to incorporate various meanings; however, sustainability is usually associated with living within the earth’s means through the alteration of individual and collective human behavior in ways that improve the quality of life while preserving environmental potential for the future. The natural environmental elements of a community are essential, not only for human survival, but also for emotional and psychological health; thus, finding ways to build a stronger connection between community residents and natural landscapes enhances community sustainability. Green roofs, layered systems in which a vegetated area becomes part of the roof, offer the potential to provide a greater array of benefits to the built and natural environment, than any other sustainable building technology. The sustainable development of a community can be further enhanced by using green roofs as a viable solution for growing healthy food locally. The long distance production and transport of fresh foods, typically 1500 miles from field to table, arrives with environmental and social costs attached. Growing food locally on a green roof can 17

contribute to a community’s food security network, improve the nutrition of local residents, provide job skills training and other educational opportunities, and create opportunities for revenue. Underutilized rooftop space can be transformed into a new avenue for cultural expression and citizen involvement; hence, strengthening community ties. Though prevalent throughout many parts of the world, green roof technology has only recently received recognition in the United States and Canada. Public education of the value of green roofs and the ways in which they reduce environmental impacts and provide social, ecological, and economic benefits will help increase widespread awareness, remove institutional barriers, and strengthen the likelihood that local policy-making and incentives supporting green roof installations will become more of a reality. A green roof growing fruits and vegetables in Newtown would serve not only as a learning tool but would be a promising stride toward setting a community standard for sustainable development. This paper begins by offering an overview of the benefits of a green roof and of growing food closer to home. Secondly, an account of green roof garden design considerations and an illustrative case for successful green roof food production will be presented. This will be followed by a depiction of how this innovative approach in taking advantage of unused roof space can impact Newtown’s redevelopment in a sustainable way. WHAT IS A GREEN ROOF? While the modern day green roof originated in Germany over one hundred years ago, green roofs have existed for thousands of years in many different parts of the world. Although recently introduced within the past decade in the United States and Canada, robust growth in installation efforts and progress in policy-making are indicative of a strong likelihood that green roofs will become widespread throughout North America in the near future. Installed

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on top of the existing roofing membrane, the green roof system components are typically layered as follows: waterproof membrane protection layer, insulation or separation layer, root barrier, drainage layer, filter fabric aeration layer, growing medium (often referred to as substrate), and vegetation (figure 1). Modern green roof technology incorporates patented soil blends that are customarily composed of a mix of organic and inorganic ingredients including perlite, compost, peat moss, small stones, and expanded clay or shale.

FIGURE 1: SECTIONAL VIEW OF LAYERED GREEN ROOF COMPONENTS
practitiionerresources.org/document64941

Extensive green roofs, categorized as having a substrate depth of 2 to 6 inches and usually not accessible to the public, are less expensive to install as the building load rarely requires modification. Having a substrate depth of six inches or greater, intensive green roofs are usually more costly to construct and maintain, are designed to accommodate a wide range of

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plant and tree species, and may even contain public park-like areas. The goals of the green roof project and its intended usage will determine the type of green roof constructed. As the cultivation of food crops necessitates soil depths of 6-18 inches, an intensive green roof system engineered for adequate weight bearing capacity would be the type of green roof required for this project (Weiler & Scholz-Barth, 2009; Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008). WHY SHOULD WE PLANT GREEN ROOFS? Although green roofs are not a panacea for the problems brought about by urban and suburban development, green roofs provide a greater range of benefits than any other green building technology (Cantor, 2008). The proven environmental benefits from green roofs include: the capture and filtration of rainwater resulting in a decreased quantity of water entering storm drains and flowing into rivers and other water bodies, reduction of the urban-heat-island effect by cooling and cleaning the air, provision of natural habitat, and reclamation of green space previously lost to development. Benefits to the built environment, due to the insulating effects of the green roof system, include doubling the life span of the roof membrane and improving the thermal performance of buildings, thereby reducing energy consumption and lowering heating and cooling costs. Provision of space for local food production and other uses, potential sources of revenue, therapeutic and recreational outlets in caring for plants, and the strengthening of community ties in working together toward a common good are some of the cultural benefits that can be derived from green roofs. On the other hand, the drawbacks of green roofs pertain to the comparatively high initial costs and the necessary prerequisites for satisfying the additional weight load to the building (Oberndorfer et al., 2007). When a roof surface is transformed into useful space, the building becomes economically and functionally more efficient; however, the important point to consider

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accrue over the life of the roof, will outweigh the upfront capital costs. Even though intensive green roofs are typically more expensive to construct and maintain, the environmental and social benefits will be far more substantial than those of extensive, or shallow, green roofs. In a costbenefit analysis, it is important for full life-cycle costs, including the extended lifespan of the roofing membrane resulting from the protection provided by the green roof, to be considered. For example, a gravel-covered roof usually requires replacement after 25 years, in comparison to a green roof membrane which should not require repairs for 40-50 years (Ngan, 2004). GROWING FOOD CLOSER TO HOME Urban or peri-urban agriculture, the production of fruits and vegetables within city or suburban areas to provide the local population with access to high quality food, is an emerging industry in the United States, where the ingredients for an average meal travel for roughly 14 days and up to 1500 miles from farm to table (Pirog, 2003). This long-distance transport of produce increases the cost of the food, contributes to energy consumption and pollution, and is associated with a decline in the food’s nutritional value (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008). Roof surfaces offer a viable opportunity for growing healthy food in urban and suburban areas where garden space may be restricted, soil may be contaminated, or access to inexpensive, high quality fresh foods is often limited. In contrast to growing food in containers placed atop the roof, a green roof design is an integrated system which allows the growing medium, or soil, to cover the rooftop. Due to the greater surface area of greenery and its integration with the green roof components, the green roof yields more environmental, structural, and food security benefits than those obtained through growing food in containers (Garnham, 2002). The green roof garden would afford Newtown the opportunity to reap the social, economic, and environmental benefits derived from gardening, in combination with those

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provided by green roof technology. It has been conservatively estimated that if 6% of Toronto’s roofs were greened, jobs for 1,350 people per year would be created. If 10% of these green roofs were covered with food producing crops, the city could reap 10.4 million pounds of produce— with a market value of 4 to 5.5 million dollars per year (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008). DESIGNING THE GREEN ROOF GARDEN There are many interactive factors that need to be taken into account when designing a green roof for food production; hence, an outline of the considerations and constraints regarding design, safety, and maintenance is in order. When considering the suitability of an existing building, evaluation of the roof’s load bearing capacity, or weight load of the people, crops, and equipment that the roof is capable of supporting, will be the most important consideration (Snodgrass & Snodgrass, 2006). In consulting with a structural engineer, the type of green roof, depth of soil, total surface area, and intended use will be dictated by the structural support and load bearing capacity of the roof. The engineer will analyze the type of roofing construction (concrete, steel, wood) and roofing framework, identify obstacles such as roof vents and ducts, chimneys, electrical equipment and drains, as well as document potential solutions to designing around them, and verify the real load capacity of the roof. The water saturated weight of the green roof system, including vegetation, must be calculated as permanent load to the roof (Weiler & Scholz-Barth, 2009). Although the building standards that determine minimum load-bearing capacity will vary across the United States, the typical loadings of intensive green roofs range from 300-1000 kg/m2 (61-205 lb/ft2) or more (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008). The live load specifications for a roof will include water, wind and safety factors required for the building’s performance as well as human traffic and anything transient in nature such as furniture or maintenance equipment.

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Dead load includes the weight of the roof itself and any permanent structural elements including roofing layers, heating and cooling mechanical equipment, and projected wind and rain loads. The American Standard Testing Methods, (ASTM), a non-profit technical society that develops and publishes standards for materials, has published several standards for green roof systems, specifically related to the determination of roof loads for the weight of the green roof system and guidance in the selection, installation, and maintenance of plants for green roofs (Getter & Rowe, 2006; Weiler & Scholz-Barth, 2009; Dvorak & Volder, 2010). For further detail, these standards are featured in Appendix A. Final analysis should include a survey designating the feasible locations for the green roof or a proposed framework for reinforcement. Engineered reinforcements will result in added costs, possibly negating the viability of the site; hence, undergoing a structural analysis at the beginning of the project is highly recommended. In addition to the engineered survey, an analysis of the roof’s daily exposure to the natural elements-- - sun, wind, and rain-- will be necessary and can be conducted by a landscape architect or designer. Maximizing yields from food-producing plants mandates eight to ten hours of sunlight each day. Although roofs are elevated and the sun exposure on the roof is generally more ample than the sunlight at ground level, a study of daily sunlight exposure on the roof will prove useful in designing the layout of the garden to correspond with specific needs. For example, in areas that are exposed to a stronger amount of sunlight than is desirable for some plants, such as certain varieties of herbs, varying degrees of shade can be created by installing architectural features such as an arbor or small storage building, or by adding living features such as a grouping of tall plants. Allocating certain plants to areas of the roof that are shaded by neighboring buildings may be another viable option. When wind intensity proves to be stronger

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on the rooftop than at ground level, wind breakers can be designed to protect plants from the threat of wind damage. Water is another fundamental need for plants and installing a rainwater collection system, such as rerouting rooftop gutters to a cistern, (or holding tank), to store the water until needed, is a vital component to the green roof. Sarasota County’s Low Impact Development (LID) Manual of strategies for enhancing the local environment, protecting public health, and improving community livability is currently moving towards finalization (L. Ammeson, personal communication, Sept. 14, 2010). The green roof designer should refer to the LID Manual: Chapter 3.4: Green Roof Storm Water Treatment Systems, as it offers preliminary details for requirements and guidelines for the installation of green roofs and for cisterns enabling the storage and reuse of captured rainwater (LID, 2009). As overhead watering on a rooftop can quickly evaporate or be misdirected by wind, an irrigation system utilizing plastic drip lines should be installed with connections running to the cistern to allow for supplemental irrigation in a more sustainable fashion. Plans should include provision for an additional water source at the roof for backup irrigation and in case of fire (LID, 2009). Roof access and safety are other important considerations which will need to be addressed. Stairs or a working elevator will be necessary to transport people and materials to the green roof garden. In instances where the parapet does not meet local building codes for public access, safety features such as railings or a wall should be included (LID, 2009). An attractive safety wall can be created by installing chain link fencing, which can then be transformed into a wall of greenery in offering additional growing space for climbing or trailing plants needing vertical support. If within budgetary means, enclosed storage for equipment will provide

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protection from the outside elements and the convenience of having gardening tools close at hand; and, a designated area for compost production will prove worthwhile. A wide selection of proprietary green roof systems, also known as vegetated roof assemblies, are currently available for the design professional to choose from. The basic components of these systems support the basic requirements of a green roof: optimal water retention, drainage of excess water, and provisions for growing medium and airflow (Weiler & Scholz-Barth, 2009). The site chosen by Newtown for the green roof, the amount of capital available, and the community’s desired outcomes for the garden are some of the main factors that which will determine the specific requirements for the design, function and maintenance of the agricultural green roof. Successful realization of the project will require the integration and collaboration of professionals from varied disciplines, as well as owners and stakeholders who are willing to shoulder higher short-term costs to achieve long-term gains. As there are many factors influencing total costs, details regarding an approximation of costs involved with installing an intensive green roof on an existing building can be found in Appendix B, Table 1. SUCCESS IN GREEN ROOF FOOD PRODUCTION The production of an array of marketable fruits and vegetables atop roofs and balconies is common in other countries including Thailand, China, Japan, Australia, India, Russia, Columbia, and Haiti (Dunnett & Kingsbury, 2008; Joe, M. 2010). As urban agriculture continues to evolve into a full-fledged commercial industry, successful projects in North America are showing that rooftop agriculture combined with green roof systems is a viable method for producing food locally. The designs, activities, and outcomes of these projects vary and examining each project would be beyond the scope of this paper. The case featured here illustrates some of the ways in which a community can benefit from an agricultural green roof, and many of these ideas could

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be implemented by Newtown. A model for utilizing the benefits of a green roof in combination with providing fresh produce to the local community, Eagle Street Rooftop Farm is a 6000 square foot green roof organic vegetable farm located on a warehouse rooftop. The lightweight growing medium, a manufactured soil for green roof applications, is 5 to 9 inches in depth and consists of a blend of compost, rock particulates and shale. The medium can retain over 1.5” of rain, providing a marked reduction in storm water runoff. Sixteen north-to-south beds measuring a maximum of four feet in width are divided down the middle by a single aisle and all aisles are filled with mulched bark. Constructed in 2009, the cost was lower than most green roof installations, (approx. $10 per square foot), due to the existing structural details of the building and the use of recycled materials, including used rafters for edging.
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In its first season, Eagle Street yielded over 30 different kinds of produce, with the most successful plants being tomatoes, micro-greens, onions, garlic, and herbs, while production per square foot yielded highest on tomatoes, kale and chard. At market, mixed salad greens yielded the best overall price per foot planted. Eagle Farm sells its harvest through its own Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) program in which members provide the farm with seed money by paying a lump sum for a weekly supply of the season’s produce. In exchange, members enjoy fresh local produce and the benefits from a direct relationship with a trusted source. Produce is also sold at community based local markets and to several local restaurants. Brooklyn residents also enjoy the benefits of Eagle Street’s commitment to community outreach and environmental education. During the 2009 growing season, Eagle Street conducted _________________ 1.http:www.rooftopfarms.org/Eagle_Street_Rooftop_Farm_Fact_Sheet_2010.pdf rooftop workshops to over 30 different schools and groups who had the opportunity to learn

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about their food’s journey from the soil to the kitchen. On Sundays, volunteers—from beginner to green thumb—are invited to participate in exchange for learning how to maintain the green roof farm. Due to Florida’s mild weather and extended growing season, a green roof in Newtown can provide a sustainable environment for year-round cultivation. Varieties of beans, cabbages, endive, kale, lettuces, collard and mustard greens, spinach, peppers, squash, tomatoes, and herbs, as well as broccoli, cauliflower, celery, cucumbers, onions, radishes, strawberries, and small melons can be harvested at different times throughout the year (Stephens et al., 2009).

IMPLICATIONS FOR NEWTOWN The demand for fresh produce is apparent in Newtown, as residents participate in impromptu sales of fresh fruit and vegetables out of the backs of trucks that park near busy intersections lacking traffic safety and easy access. An outdoor market in Newtown featuring locally harvested produce would aid in keeping local dollars within the community while providing safe and reliable access to healthy food and opportunities for strengthening social ties. The green roof garden would be an important step in helping Newtown to overcome the challenge of forging stronger connections amongst Newtown residents and between those residents and the natural environment. Considered a leader in the state, Sarasota is known for its commitment to educate local citizens and other jurisdictions on sustainable technologies and green building policy (Ranwater & Martin, 2008). An edible green roof demonstration project located in Newtown offers the opportunity for Sarasota to extend its education and outreach to green roof applications. The city of Sarasota is a vibrant tourist magnet and the green roof has the potential to attract not only local interest but attention from national and international visitors as well. Opening the green roof to guests and conducting guided tours of this roof top food production system would be a 27

significant force toward the positioning of Newtown as a destination. Designated as one of Florida’s Enterprise Zones, Newtown, also referred to as North County, has been targeted for economic renewal. Available tax credits for real estate property, business equipment, and building materials, as well as other business assistance benefits can be utilized by locating the green roof in this Enterprise Zone. At the same time, the food producing green roof would help revitalize the Newtown Community by reducing unemployment through new and diverse job opportunities, and expanding the economic base through the attraction of outside businesses and the formation of partnerships between property owners and private and public sectors. If the decision is made to pursue large-scale marketing of the harvested produce, the Entrepreneur Center (slated for establishment in 2011), a part of Newtown’s Business Incubator Program, may be a valuable source of assistance and support during start-up. An investigation was conducted to determine potential sites for a green roof within the Enterprise Zone boundaries. Search criteria were limited to commercial or institutional buildings with flat to low pitched roofs and poured concrete load bearing frames. Roofs constructed with metal or shingles over wood were eliminated, as well as any buildings having a roof footprint of less than 1500 square feet. After mapping the sixteen candidate roofs, the average productivity per unit of area per month was calculated in order to obtain an annual estimated food yield for each candidate roof (figure 2). Estimated average yields ranged from 2400 to over 58,000 pounds of fresh produce. Atop the Fairmont Hotel in Vancouver, a 2100 square foot green roof garden has been thriving since 1991. Supplying the hotel’s restaurant with honey and sixty varieties of herbs, vegetables, and fruits, it saves the hotel nearly $30,000 per year in food costs. ____________ 2.http.www.fairmont.com/NR/rdonlyes/WFC_Herb_Garden_Dec01_pdf It is important to note that further structural analyses by qualified professionals is necessary to 28
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confirm the suitability of the candidate roofs identified within Newtown’s Enterprise Zone.

Figure2: POTENTIAL SITES FOR GREEN ROOF GARDENS IN NEWTOWN’S ENTERPISE ZONE WITH ESTIMATED ANNUAL FOOD YIELD
(Leslie Babiak)

Building upon Newtown’s sense of place, through the linkage of the neighborhood to the natural landscape, a food-producing green roof in the community would serve as a model of sustainability at the neighborhood scale. This green roof offers the potential for contributing to the fulfillment of the following goals and objectives, as set forth in Newtown’s Comprehensive 29

Redevelopment Plan-2020.

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:  Make Newtown a destination  Expand the economic base by creating new and diverse employment opportunities  Encourage the development of regionally competitive businesses to help retain Newtown consumer dollars in the community LAND USE:  Promote and locate land use activities of regional importance within the redevelopment area to attract visitors and capture additional market opportunities URBAN DESIGN/PARKS:  Establish parks, recreation, open space and beautification efforts to create an identifiable character for the redevelopment area

An edible garden green roof in Newtown would serve as an example of how a community can play a proactive role in enhancing its sustainability. Beyond food production, this project would provide the Newtown Community the potential for job skills training and local employment while increasing green space and promoting city pride. Additionally, the utilization of the untapped resource of rooftop space of multi-family, commercial, warehouse, and institutional buildings through the leasing of this unused space for agricultural production capabilities is a concept that is rapidly gaining attention in North America and would afford Newtown with a novel opportunity for income generation. This project presents unique learning opportunities that foster community empowerment. Seniors, youth and the under-employed can work side by side and learn from one another while overcoming social barriers and building understanding and respect. A program that teaches youth how to grow, harvest, and cook vegetables helps young people to learn that fruits ____________ 3.http.www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA_G&O.pdf#page=3 (pp11-19) and vegetables don’t simply come from the store, but require the effort of people working together in ways that respect and care for the environment. The rooftop garden can also serve as

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a place to host educational workshops and social events, thus promoting neighborhood cohesion.

CONCLUSION Greening efforts, such as street tree planting, brownfield redevelopment, and constructing green roofs enhance a region’s natural resources and quality of life. Communities that highlight and restore their natural environments will be places where people will want to live, work, and play. While green roofs hold promise for addressing a myriad of problems that have resulted from development, a green roof boasting a bountiful harvest of fresh fruit and vegetables reflects the harmonious efforts of a community and holds promise for building a stronger connection between community residents and the natural landscape. This paper has illustrated how green roof gardens would reflect the efforts of the community in taking control of food security and social ills while providing food, jobs, environmental enhancement, education, beautification, inspiration, and hope. The benefits and design considerations of green roofs and the advantages of growing food close to home have been depicted through a spotlight on how the implementation of a green roof for local food production affords the opportunity to enhance economic, environmental, and social sustainability. A green roof featuring an edible garden in Newtown would be a powerful agent for change in introducing an innovative environmental feature for the community to enjoy, profit, and learn from while providing a learning landscape for a vast audience.

Works Cited American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Book of International Standards. (2007). vol.4.12 Armstrong, Donna. (2000). A survey of community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health promotion and community development. Health and 31

Place, (6) 319-327. Berghage, R., Beattie, D., Jarrett, A., Thuring, C., & Razaei, F. (2009). Green roofs for stormwater runoff control. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cantor, S. L. (2008). Green roofs in sustainable landscape design. New York, NY: W.W.Norton Dvorak, B. & Volder, A. (2010) Green roof vegetation for North American ecoregions: A literature review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 96 (4), 197-213. Dunnett, N. & Kingsbury, N. Planting Green Roofs and Living Walls. (2008). Portland, OR. Timber Press Eagle Street Rooftop Farm. (2010) Farm Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http:www.rooftopfarms.org/Eagle_Street_Rooftop_Farm_Fact_Sheet_2010.pdf Fairmont (2001). How does our garden grow? Retrieved from http. www.fairmont.com/NR/rdonlyes/WFC_HerbGarden_Dec01.pdf Garnham, Luke. (2002) Green roofs and the promise of urban agriculture. The Green Roof Infrastructure Monitor 4(2), 17-19. Getter, K. & Rowe, D.B. (2006) The role of extensive green roofs in sustainable development. HortScience, 41 (5), 1276-1285. Joe, M. (2010). Urban Farming: Veggies with a view. Retrieved from http://www.cnngo.com/Tokyo/eat/urban-farming-veggies-view-958246. Le Corbusier, (1946). Towards a new architecture. London, UK: Architectural Press Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan-2020. Retrieved from http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA_G&O.pdf#page=3. Ngan, G. (2004). Green roof policies: Tools for encouraging sustainable design. Retrieved from http://www.lacf.ca/system/files/Policy%20report.pdf Oberndorfer, E., Lundholm, J., Bass, B., Coffman, R.R., Doshi, H., Dunnett, N., Gaffin, S., Kohler, M., Liu, K.K., & Rowe, B. (2007). Green roofs as urban ecosystems: Ecological structures, functions, and services. BioScience, 57 (10), 823-833. Peck, S. & Kuhn,M. (2001). Design guidelines for green roofs. Retrieved from http://www.cmhc.ca/en/inpr/bude/himu/coedar/loader.cfm?url=/getfile

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Pirog, R. (2003). Checking the food odometer. Iowa State University: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture. Retrieved from http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/pubs/staff/files/food_travel1072103.pdf Ranwater, B. & Martin, C. (2008). Florida counties pushing ahead. In American Institute of Architects Report, Local leaders in sustainability: Green counties (pp.36-37) Wash, DC: AIA Sarasota County (2009).Greenroof stormwater treatment systems. In: Sarasota county preliminary LID manual (chapter 3.4). Retrieved from http://www.scgov.net/Environmental/Services/Water/SurfaceWater/documents LIDManual_Changes_Aug_Sep09.pdf. Snodgrass, E.C. & Snodgrass, L.L. (2006). Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide. Portland, OR. Timber Press Stevens, J.M, Brown, S.P., Treadwell, D., Webb, S., Gevens, A., Dunn, R.A., Kidder, G., Short, D.,& Simone, G.W. (2009). Florida vegetable gardening guide.(pub#SP103) University of Florida: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.edis.ufl.edu/vh021. Wegscheid, C. (2009) Living with a green roof. Construction Specifier (14)1; 18-35 Weiler, S.K. & Scholz-Barth, K. (2009) Green roof systems: A guide to the planning, design, and construction of landscapes over structure. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley &Sons Wheeler, S. (2004) Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable, and Ecological Communities. New York, NY: Routledge.

APPENDIX A
National Green Roof Standards, as published in the Annual Book of ASTM International Standards, (2007),  Volume 04.12.  E2396 ,2005,      Standard Testing Method for Saturated Water Permeability of Granular Drainage Media [Falling‐ Head Method] for Green Roof Systems 

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E2397, 2005,      Standard Practice for Determination of Dead Loads and Live Loads Associated with Green Roof  Systems   E2398, 2005,      Standard Test Method for Water Capture and Media Retention of Geocomposite Drain Layers for  Green Roof Systems   E2399, 2005,      Standard Test Method for Maximum Media Density for Dead Load Analysis* of Green Roof  Systems  E2400, 2006,     Standard Guide for Selection, Installation, and Maintenance of Plants for Green Roof Systems  *Method E2399 includes tests to measure moisture retention potential and saturated water permeability of  media.   ASTM E2397 ‐ 05 Standard Practice for Determination of Dead Loads and Live Loads associated with Green Roof  Systems 1.2 The procedure addresses the loads associated with green roof systems. Components that are typically  encountered in green roof systems include: membranes, non‐absorptive plastic sheet components, metallic layers,  fabrics, geocomposite drain layers, synthetic reinforcing layers, cover/recover boards, insulation materials, growth  media, granular drainage media, and plant materials.  1.3 This procedure also addresses the weight of the green roof system under two conditions: (1) weight under  drained conditions after new water additions by rainfall or irrigation have ceased (this includes the weight of  retained water and captured water), and (2) weight when rainfall or irrigation is actively occurring and the  drainage layer is completely filled with water. The first condition is considered the dead load of the green roof  system. The difference in weight between the first and second conditions, approximated by the weight of transient  water in the drainage layer, is considered a live load.  ASTM E2399 ‐ 05 Standard Test Method for Maximum Media Density for Dead Load Analysis of Green Roof  Systems:  This is a standardized procedure for predicting the system weight of a green roof system.  The density of mixed media materials will vary depending on the degree to which they are subjected to  compaction and the length of time that the material is allowed to hydrate and subsequently drain. Most green roof  media materials have a large capacity to absorb and retain moisture. Furthermore, moisture will drain gradually  from the media following a hydration cycle. The maximum media density measured in this procedure approaches  the density at the theoretical saturation point.  The value of this test method to the green roof designer is that it provides an objective measure of maximum  probable media density (under drained conditions) for estimating structural loads. It also provides a method for  estimating the lower limit for the water permeability of the in‐place media. This latter value is important when  considering drainage conditions in green roofs. Finally, the maximum media water retention has been shown to be  a useful indicator of the moisture retention properties of green roof media.   1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the maximum media density for purposes of estimating  the maximum dead load for green roof assemblies. The method also provides a measure of the moisture content  and the water permeability measured at the maximum media density.  

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1.2 This procedure is suitable for green roof media that contain no more than 30% organic material as measured  using the loss on ignition procedure Test Methods F 1647, Method A.  1.3 The maximum media density and associated moisture content measured in this procedure applies to drained  conditions near the saturation point.  1.4 The test method is intended to emulate vertical percolation rates for water in green roofs.   ASTM E2400 ‐ 06 Standard Guide for Selection, Installation, and Maintenance of Plants for Green Roof Systems:  This guide addresses performance characteristics for green roof systems with respect to the planting. A rooftop is  an extreme environment with strong and variable wind patterns and little or no protection from the sun’s intense  heat and ultraviolet radiation. Selection of plant material can be crucial for success of the green roof system.   5.1.1 This guide provides general guidance only. It is important to consult with a professional horticulturist, green  roof consultant, or work with similar professionals that are knowledgeable, experienced, and acquainted with  green roof technology and plants.  (Determining these performance characteristics of green roof systems provides information to facilitate the  assessment of engineering aspects of the facility. Such aspects may include structural design requirements,  mechanical engineering and thermal design requirements, and fire and life safety requirements)  This guide covers the considerations for the selection, installation, and maintenance of plants for green roof  systems.  1.2 This guide is applicable to both extensive and intensive green roof systems 

APPENDIX B Table 1: Costs Associated with Installing an Intensive Green Roof on an Existing Building

Component Design & Specifications cost Project Administration & Site Review

Cost 5 - 10% of total roofing project depends on project size & complexity 2.5 - 5% of total roofing project cost.

Notes & Variables The number and type of consultants required The number and type of consultants required depends on project size & complexity Cost factors include type of new roofing system to be installed, ease of roof, nature of flashing required Cost factors include type & depth of growing medium, type & height of curbing, decking type, & project size Cost is completely dependent on the type and size of plant chosen, since virtually any type of plant suitable to local climate can be accommodated Cost factors include type of system used & size of project

Re-roofing with root-repelling membrane Green Roof System (curbing, drainage layer, filter cloth, growing medium, decking and walkways) Plants

($10.00 - $15.00 per ft2) ($15.00 - $30.00 per ft2)

($5.00 - $200.00 per ft2)

Irrigation System

($2.00 0 $4.00 per ft2)

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Guardrail/Fencing Installation/Labor

($20.00-$40.00 per ft.)

Cost factors include type of fencing, attachment to roof, size of project/length required Cost factors include equipment rental to move materials to and on roof, size of project, complexity of design, & planting techniques used Cost factors include size of project, irrigation system, and size and type of plants used

($8.00 - $18.00 per ft2)

Annual Maintenance

($1.25 - $2.00 per ft2)

Adapted from Peck & Kuhn.(2001). Design guidelines for green roofs (p.16)

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What a Greenway Park could mean socially and environmentally to a diverse population within Sarasota

Todd L. Bogner

Abstract Dividing Newtown and Ringling Art College in Sarasota is Whitaker Bayou. The bayou is currently used as a way to rid both populations of excess surface water complicating the ecology for Sarasota Bay. There is a proposal to build a Greenway Park on the Newtown side of the bayou. This paper discusses the ecological history of the watershed in which Whitaker bayou lies and management approaches to the watershed. Next, I will discuss what a greenway is and what a greenway park is. Finally, I will describe what this park can achieve through a multifunctional design for the environment as well as for the residents of Newtown and the surrounding areas.

Sarasota Bay Watershed Sarasota Bay, in central western Florida lies between Anna Maria Island to the north and Venice to the south. It is comprised of 52 square miles of open water and a watershed of approximately 150 square miles called the Sarasota Bay watershed, which is split between Sarasota and Manatee counties. The main source of freshwater to Sarasota Bay is Phillippi Creek, which accounts for 38% (57 square miles) of the watershed (SWFWMD, 2002). Other major tributaries include South Creek, Bowles Creek, and Whitaker Bayou. Whitaker Bayou accounts for only 5% (8 square miles) of the Sarasota Bay watershed, however along with

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Hudson Bayou and Cedar Hammock Creek, Whitaker Bayou has one of the highest levels of contaminant discharge into Sarasota Bay (EPA, 2007). Whitaker Bayou was chosen for this paper because it is the smallest of the major contributing sources of surface water to Sarasota Bay, has one of the highest sources of contaminants discharged into Sarasota Bay, and is a proposed site to build a greenway park in Newtown. This paper will examine the Sarasota Bay watershed, what a greenway park is, and what the social and ecological affects of a greenway park in Newtown could mean. Sarasota Bay was created about 5,000 years ago due to sea level rise and fall resulting in the formation of barrier islands which frame the westernmost part of the bay. People have lived in the Sarasota Bay area as far back as around 10,000 B.C. (Sarasota Bay SWIM Plan, 2002). The landscape was much different then than it is now mostly due to human influences shortly after Florida gained statehood in 1845. One hundred and fifty years ago the Sarasota Bay watershed had pockets of isolated wetlands, which played an important role in its hydrology and biodiversity (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). Early American Settlers found living in the Sarasota Bay watershed to be uninhabitable for most of the year due to the high mosquito populations. In order to combat the mosquito populations, a Mosquito Control District was established in the early 1900’s. This organization interconnected many of the isolated wetlands by ditches, severely altering the hydrology of the watershed (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). The assault on Sarasota Bay’s wetlands did not stop with the mosquitoes. Drainage Districts were created in the 1920’s under the Land Reclamation Act of 1913 to drain wetlands to be used for agriculture (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). The draining would continue until the early 1960’s under the pretenses that it was for the alleviation of flooding. It is

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estimated that there are some 800 miles of ditches in Sarasota County originating from this time. At the present time about half are now on privately owned lands (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). With the rise in population came the need for development, and with it came the filling in of wetlands for houses, roads, and other impervious surfaces (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). Prior to development, during extreme rain events, water would sheet flow and collect in the isolated wetlands. With the alterations in the natural hydrology, water from storm events would cause flooding if not directed elsewhere. The solution to directing water away from harming people and economic loss, was to direct it to the largest body of water as fast as possible. That body of water for the Sarasota Bay watershed was Sarasota Bay (and subsequently the Gulf of Mexico) via various bayous, creeks, and other tributaries. With redirected water comes the added hydrologic load of municipal wastewater and runoff from agriculture, residential, and commercial irrigation. Also, any contaminants on roads have a direct path to Sarasota Bay.

Management and Politics In 1987 Sarasota Bay became an Estuary of National Significance by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Sarasota Bay National Estuary Program (SBNEP), formed in 1989 to be the acting body which would care for the interests of Sarasota Bay and its natural resources (SWFWMD, 2002). In 1995 SBNEP issued a document called the “Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan” (CCMP). The Florida Legislature created the Surface Water Improvement and Management (SWIM) Act of 1987. This act gave the water management districts the ability to “protect the ecological, aesthetic, recreational, and economic

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value of the state’s surface waters…”, and stated that pollution sources can come from non-point as well as point sources (SWFWMD, 2002 pg.3). The Sarasota Bay SWIM plan was created in 1997 and focused on projects outlined in the CCMP, such as improvements in sediment and water quality, habitat losses, and recreational uses (SWFWMD, 2002). The projects on the SWIM plan are prioritized by the SBNEP. The Clean Water Act (CWA) requires states to identify waters which are “impaired”. Impaired waters are listed as “fair” or “poor” in the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) report. Through the CWA and the 1999 Florida Watershed Restoration Act, the FDEP sets Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL’s) of nutrients, bacteria, chemicals, sediments, or other pollutants that are causing the impairment through the Watershed Approach Initiative. The most notable efforts to improve surface water quality came with the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (FWPCAA), which gave the EPA deadlines to grant permits to water pollution sources, make wastewater guidelines, require water pollution sources to have water pollution control technology, and eliminate pollution discharges to make the nation’s waterways fishable and usable for recreational purposes (Switzer, 2004). It has been found that although the FWPCAA gave the government Command-andControl governance over point source pollution, it did little to nothing for a more pressing concern: non-point source pollution. Non-point source pollution includes agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and stormwater runoff and is the leading cause of impairment in the nation’s waterways. Pollution from these sources include: increased nitrogen, phosphates, heavy metals, sediments, and animal wastes. Non-point pollution not only affects surface-water, but can infiltrate to ground water sources as well, contaminating drinking water. Unfortunately, nonpoint sources are the hardest to identify, and even more difficult to regulate.

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Wetland restoration as a priority project Wetlands in the Sarasota Bay watershed include both inland freshwater ecosystems, as well as coastal freshwater and saltwater ecosystems. Mitsch et.al describes wetlands as “the kidneys of the landscape”. The reason for this designation is because they receive waste from upstream water sources, and cleanse it for sources downstream, shorelines, and for groundwater recharge (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). Wetlands also serve as reservoirs to hold water for flood protection in times of heavy rains and storm events. Biodiversity is often more varied in wetlands than they are in their adjacent ecosystems and provide a habitat which is conducive for a wide variety of flora and fauna. With the destruction of wetlands for agricultural and urban uses comes a decline in water quality downstream, increased chances of flooding, and a loss of biodiversity. For these reasons, the SBNEP lists wetland habitat restoration projects as a priority throughout the Sarasota Bay watershed. Other priority projects by the SBNEP include projects such as determining water quality, identifying toxic loads, determining nitrogen loading, updating the pollutant loading model, integrated water resource evaluation, and the evaluation and implementation of stormwater retrofit (SWFWMD, 2002).

Whitaker Bayou Like most coastal bayous and creeks in Florida, the creeks and bayous of Sarasota Bay were historically tidal extensions of the estuaries with most of the freshwater influxes coming from storm events and heavy rains. Whitaker Bayou is one such source for Sarasota Bay.

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Kathryn L. Meaux, classifies Whitaker Bayou as a “Tidal Creek” and quotes Holland et al., as saying “tidal creeks are sentinels that provide early warning of the degree to which land development affects coastal environmental quality” (Meaux). Tidal creeks link upland wetlands with coastal estuaries. In October, 2010 while kayaking Whitaker Bayou, I observed stormwater drains and other surface water runoff culverts draining unfiltered, directly into Whitaker Bayou. Some of the human artifacts observed were an innumerable amount of plastic bottles, bicycles, cans, various articles of clothing, every imaginable type of fast food container, and shopping carts, which Ann Riley describes as an “indicator organism” of the urban creek in her 1998 article, “What is Restoration” (Riley, 1998). This waste comes from both sides of the river. Ironically, the two sides could not be more different from each other. On the eastern bank is Newtown; on the western bank is the Ringling College of Art and Design. Newtown is a city within a city in Sarasota. It is the poorest area of Sarasota with over 30 percent unemployment and 40 percent transient residents. Ringling on the other hand, is a leading private not-for-profit art institute. Even with this stark dichotomy of cultures, each side’s trash and pollutants end up in Whitaker Bayou. Meaux’s data shows that Whitaker Bayou is the most impacted of the tidal creeks which extend into Sarasota Bay, one of the poorest in water and sediment quality, and the least in habitat richness (Meaux). The bayou itself, excluding the poor water quality, poor clarity, and lack of aquatic life, is a beautiful meandering waterway through an otherwise urban neighborhood. According to Rutherford Platt, there does not need to be a strict dichotomy between nature and city. An urban watershed (often first and second order streams under the Strahler

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classification system) should serve the same functions as any upstream tributary. The various parts of a watershed provide ecological services as well as recreational purposes such as fishing and canoeing (Platt, 2006). Negative impacts of urbanization will increase as the population grows unless measures are taken to control pollutants and bad management practices (Platt, 2006).

Greenways In its natural state, Whitaker Bayou would serve as a “greenway”. Although there is no absolute definition of a greenway, Jack Ahern defines greenways as,

“… networks of land containing linear elements that are planned, designed, and managed for multiple purposes including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic, or other purposes compatible with the concept of sustainable land use” (Ahern, 1995 pg 134).

A greenway by design is linear allowing biotic communities to migrate. Many greenways are situated along riparian corridors. These greenways act as a buffer to mitigate runoff from agriculture and stormwater for the health of water bodies downstream (Ahern, 1995).

Past management techniques for stormwater management and flood control have been to design catchment ponds. These catchment ponds only serve as “islands”. Without linear interconnections, the biodiversity and breeding populations are isolated (McGuckin and Brown, 1995). Restored wetlands should not only take into consideration flood control, and groundwater recharge, but the biotic community as well. This should be done through planning their

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interconnectivity thoughtfully to be a greenway, and not an isolated island. Robert Searns describes three generations of greenways. Originally greenways linked points of destination in an aesthetically pleasing way. Next, they took the traveler out of the city, not for the purpose of transportation, but for the journey itself. Now, we are in what he describes as the third generation. This is where attitudes change from what people want to do with the environment for their own pleasures, to environmental stewardship (Searns, 1995). In this phase of greenway development greenways are built not just for the human psyche, but for the betterment of the environment, taking into consideration other species, habitat conservation, health of the environment, and functioning environmental services (Searns, 1995). Environmental services are things the environment provides which would be costly for us to do mechanically, if it could be done at all. Examples of environmental services are water purification and flood control. According to the Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, protection and restoration of natural systems is an important part of Sarasota’s watershed management program (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). The amendment known as the “2050 plan,” includes Resource Management Areas (RMA’s), which are areas designed to protect contiguous greenways on waterways with ecological benefits (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006).

Greenway Parks A “greenway park” is a linear park which uses open spaces, often along a riparian corridor, to create an aesthetically pleasing environment which allows for biodiversity, and environmental services. This type of park is also built with the human residents in mind as well as the environment.

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Many people who live in urban areas do not experience green open spaces on a regular basis. Studies have shown that green open spaces are beneficial to an individual’s quality of life by reducing stress as well as other benefits for mental health and well being (Hartig et al., 1991; Conway, 2000). Along with reducing stress in individuals comes a reduction of violence and aggression in society. A greenway park, with its open green spaces, can also provide both social and economic benefits for the entire community in which it lies. It has long been established that green open spaces and parks are important for social gatherings, which in turn build social bonds. However, many factors must be considered in the planning of any park, especially an urban greenway park as urban environments typically have ethnically and culturally diverse populations. Research conducted by Paul H. Gobster at Chicago’s Lincoln Park showed that people of Caucasian origin are more likely to travel farther than minority groups, often travel alone or as a couple, and are more likely to participate in individual sports than minority groups surveyed. Minority groups would tend to use the park more for social activities, would come in larger groups, and participate in group sports. People of Latin American origin had the greatest amount of age-diversity and were the largest in terms of group sizes. People of African origin also used the park for social gatherings such as picnics; however they preferred more open, maintained landscapes than Caucasians (Gobster, 2002). Studies such as theses are important not for the reason of stereotyping, but to understand that people use parks in different ways, and have varying perceptions on how a park should function and be designed. Not all people will see or use a park in the same manner. Gobster considered four different “visions of nature” while studying Chicago’s Lincoln Park. These four visions are: as a designed landscape, for habitat, for recreation, and finally

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restorative to pre-European development (Gobster, 2001). In designing a greenway park, planners may each have their own view of what that park should be, and how it should function, from the view of the participant.

Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park There is a proposal to build a greenway park on the Newtown side of Whitaker Bayou. A project such as this could mean very different things to various stakeholders. Careful consideration should be taken to include all parties such as those living in Newtown, Ringling College of Art, as well as those who live downstream in Sarasota Bay. The design of the park itself should incorporate many different activities and services for people as well as the environment. A greenway park should be multifunctional in that it provides habitat as outlined by the SBNEP, protects ecological benefits as stated in the Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, and functions for the well being of the people who live in the area. It should embody parts of each “vision of nature” in that people can see their individual vision within the design of the park. It is impossible to restore an urban park to pre-European development, but aspects of the park can give the user the feeling of “wilderness”. There should be transitional places between the city and the park, designed by a landscape architect, as well as incorporating new design aspects of the park for added ecological services. In designing a park with different visions, a broad range of recreational activities can be enjoyed.

Boundary Parks and Green Magnets Solecki and Welch hypothesize that parks that lay between two adjacent communities and

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differ in socioeconomic status can act as a barrier in which case the park may not be used by either side and may fall into disrepair (Solecki and Welch, 1995). This type of park is considered a boundary park. The Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park, which is planned to be along Whitaker Bayou on the Newtown side just north of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Park, could be considered a boundary park. If a boundary park does become a barrier between neighborhoods, Solecki and Welch call this a “green wall”. Gobster states that there are examples of boundary parks which run counter to this. These boundary parks act as “green magnets” because they incorporate opportunities for ethnically and socially diverse groups to interact within the park (Gobster, 1998). Activities which draw residents from both sides of Whitaker Bayou would allow the new greenway park to act as a green magnet. This type of management starts with design. When designing the park it is important to include residents from both sides in the design process to share their visions and ideas. The Sarasota Comprehensive Plan states that the natural systems restoration has the intention to restore the natural systems water budget to “predevelopment” (Sarasota County Comprehensive Plan, 2006). In order to achieve a longer residence time, and thus restore the water budget to predevelopment, constructed wetlands can be made as part of the greenway park design whereby stormwater would enter the constructed wetland prior to entering a waterway such as Whitaker Bayou. Plants planted in the constructed wetlands would be of varieties which can take out harmful pollutants and nutrients before entering the waterway. In addition to taking out pollutants, the constructed wetland also has the benefit of being a sediment basin, lowering the amounts of sediments which are deposited into the bayou. Infiltration is the first step in stopping pollutants from reaching the waterway, and is the first process which takes out harmful metals. Devices which allow water to infiltrate quicker, called infiltration strips, can be

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incorporated in the greenway park design either before or after the constructed wetland. The design of a constructed wetland can be changed as the needs change, and the infiltration strips can be removed and replaced when they become impacted. This is much more economical than removing the same pollutants once dispersed in the waterway. Through smart design, both in the greenway park, as well as cooperation in private parks (such as Ringling), and other public parks along the bayou to build like designed parks, improvements can be made to adhere to the objectives of the CWA, the SBNEP, and SWFWMD.

Partnerships Government regulation has been mainly command and control and has worked well for specific point sources of pollution, but that same regulation can be expensive, laborious, and inefficient when dealing with non-point sources of pollution. This is where partnerships can emerge to deal with problems beyond local regulations using local knowledge, innovation, and problem solving solutions which are mutually beneficial to a wide range of stakeholders (Lubell et al, 2002). Partnerships offer solutions which are outside of regulation. They allow environmental, social, and economic interests to be addressed by all parties affected. Partnerships emerge when the benefits of a project exceed its transaction costs (Lubell et al, 2002). Benefits of a greenway park along Whitaker Bayou, which also has restored wetlands and an intermediary system for the collection and remediation of stormwater, include social and economic benefits as well as the environmental benefits. In the design of such projects as a Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park, local residents of Newtown should be involved as well as residents downstream and Ringling College. In some

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cases, it has been discovered, local residents are more aware of environmental concerns within their neighborhood than urban planners (Smith, 1976).

Conclusion

Watershed partnerships are an important part of ecosystem management. Through these partnerships, many voices can be heard, and many goals can be achieved. Collaborative management allows citizens, government, and private companies to work together on projects which are mutually beneficial to all parties. In the case of the proposed Whitaker Bayou Greenway Park there are social, economic, and environmental benefits which affect a wide range of stakeholders. Smart planning on the part of the SBNEP and a watershed partnership can ensure that the park is built in a way in which all of these benefits are served. A park without ecological service benefits is just a park. A properly planned greenway park can accomplish goals which have been set forth by the SBNEP, SWFWMD, and the EPA as well as to serve as a mitigation bank for future development in Sarasota County. A properly managed park must first start with a properly managed design. It must be a design which incorporates the neighborhoods who the designers hope to attract. This starts with listening to the visions of the citizens and allowing them to be a part of the overall design process. Science can show the health of Whitaker Bayou is in decline due to excessive nutrient and pollution loading. Observation shows that storm sewers and poor surface water retention practices have lead to these problems. However, it is people who are going to decide whether to take the data and observations described in this paper to make a difference in this community.

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Works Cited

Ahern, Jack (1995). Greenways as a Planning Strategy. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33 pp. 131-155 Conway, H., 2000. Parks and people: the social functions. In: Woudstra, J., Fieldhouse, K. (Eds.), The Regeneration of Public Parks. Chiesur, Anna A., (2004). The Role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City. Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 68, Issue 1 pp. 129-138 Environmental Protection Agency (2007). http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/nepccr/index.html Site accessed September 20, 2010 Gobster, Paul H. (1998). Urban Parks as Green Walls of Green Magnets? Interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks. Landscape and Urban Planning, 41 pp. 43-55 Gobster, Paul H. (2001). Visions of Nature: Conflict and Compatibility in Urban Park Restoration. Landscape and Urban Planning, 56 pp. 35-51 Gobster, Paul H. (2002). Managing Urban Parks for a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Clientele. Leisure Sciences, Volume 24 pp. 143–159 Gobster, Paul H., & Westphal, Lynne M. (2004). The Human Dimensions of Urban Greenways: Planning for Recreation and Related Experiences. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68 147-165 Hartig, T., Mang, M. and Evans, G., 1991. Restorative effects of natural environments experiences. Environ. Behav. 23, pp. 3–26. Full Text via CrossRef Lubell, Mark, Schneider Mark, Scholz John T., & Mihriye, Mete (2002). Watershed Partnerships and the Emergence of Collective Action Institutions. American Journal of Political Science, Volume 46, No. 1, pp. 148-163 McGuckin, Christopher P., & Brown, Robert D. (1995). A Landscape Ecological Model for Wildlife Enhancement of Stormwater Management Practices in Urban Greenways. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33 pp. 227-246 Meax, Katherine . Powerpoint presentation. www.chnep.org/Events/Summit08/ presentations/Meaux.ppt. Site accessed October 15, 2010 50

Mitch, William J., Gosselink, James G. Wetlands (3rd e.d.) 2000 Platt, Rutherford H. (2006). Urban Watershed Management: Sustainability, One Stream at a Time. Environment, Volume 48 No. 4 pp. 26-42 Riley, Ann L. (1998) What is Restoration? Restoring Streams in Cities Rosenbaum, Walter A. (2005). Environmental Politics and Policy (6th ed). Washington, D.C., CQ Press Searns, Robert M. (1995). The Evolution of Greenways as an Adaptive Urban Landscape Form. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33 pp. 65-80 Smith, Geoffrey C. (1976). Responses of Residents and Policy-Makers to Urban Environmental Hazards. Area, Volume 8, No. 4, pp. 279-283 Solecki, W.D., Welch, J.M., 1995. Urban parks: green spaces or green walls?. Landscape and Urban Planning 32, 93±106. SWFWMD. 2002. Sarasota Bay Surface Water Improvement Management (SWIM) Plan. Southwest Florida Water Management District. SWIM Section, Resource Management Department. Tampa, FL. http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/documents/plans/sarasota_bay_2002.pdf. Site accessed October 2, 2010 Switzer , Jacqueline Vaughn. (2004). Environmental Politics: Domestic and Global Dimensions (4th ed). Belmont, CA, Thompson/Wadsworth Tourbier, J. Toby. (1994). Open Space through Stormwater Management: Helping to structure growth on the urban fringe. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 49(1) pp. 14-21

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A Green Infrastructure Network to Sustainably Redevelop Newtown, Sarasota Alana Brasier Introduction For over a century, planners, doctors, scientists, and other academics and government officials have understood the importance of green, open spaces in urban areas for the health of people, the environment, and the economy. Famed landscape architects and planners, such as Ebenezer Howard and Frederick Law Olmstead, promoted the inclusion of natural areas within cities for the health of the environment and its inhabitants (Spirn, 1984). In the past several decades, there has been a growing awareness of the need to live in harmony with nature instead of attempting to control and shape it how we see fit. In doing so, we will receive countless benefits in return. Incorporating green, open spaces and trails within urban areas encompasses the three “E’s” of sustainability: environment, economics, and social equity (Campbell, 1996). Integrated networks of parks and greenway trails provide even greater results than parks in isolation and greenways that lead to nowhere. Creating an interconnected green infrastructure (GI) network of greenways and park space within the community of Newtown in Sarasota could help redevelop, reinvigorate, and reconnect the community. A GI network is defined as “an interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations” (Benedict and McMahon, 2002, 5). A GI network is comprised of “hubs” and “links.” Hubs serve as the anchors of the network and are destination points for people and wildlife, while links connect the hubs and tie together the whole GI network. In the case of Newtown, community park areas will serve as the hubs. The links are the linear areas that join

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together the hubs and allow the GI network to function (Benedict and McMahon, 2002). These typically come in the form of greenways. Greenways are defined as “networks of land that are planned, designed, and managed for multiple purposes including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic, or other purposes compatible with the concept of sustainable land use,” (Ahern, 2003, p. 35). Newtown has several opportunities to create greenways that link its parks, or “hubs.” A green infrastructure network in Newtown could promote economic development, environmental sustainability, and community engagement. Newtown would reap numerous benefits from a green infrastructure network. A GI network will preserve green, open spaces, provide additional recreation areas, draw new businesses, increase property values, give residents alternative transportation options, and involve residents in the planning process to foster a sense of pride and ownership of the parks and greenways system within their community (Benedict and McMahon, 2003).

Newtown, Sarasota The community of Newtown is a 1.5 square mile neighborhood located within Sarasota, Florida. It is in the midst of redeveloping from an economically struggling community to a thriving, integrated, and desirable place to live. Newtown is designated as both an Enterprise Zone and a Community Redevelopment Area. An Enterprise Zone is a state designated area that receives certain incentives to promote economic development, such as returning tax money generated with the area back to this area instead of elsewhere (City of Sarasota, Enterprise Zone). A Community Redevelopment Area (CRA) is designated as such because it meets criteria to be considered “blighted.” The purpose of a CRA is similar to that of an Enterprise Zone in

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that it creates and promotes incentives to draw private investors to the area to facilitate economic development (City of Sarasota, Newtown Redevelopment Area). The community of Newtown is working diligently towards redeveloping their community. The Newtown Redevelopment Office was created in 2002 with a focus on administration, economic development, housing, infrastructure, community health, safety and welfare, urban design and parks, transportation, and land use (Newtown Redevelopment Office, 2009). In a series of community meetings, Newtown residents agreed upon five key areas as necessary for bringing positive change to the community: economic development, law enforcement, neighborhoods, community health action team (CHAT), and youth services (City of Sarasota – Newtown, New Beginnings). In a section of the Newtown CRA Volume III Redevelopment Plan, it is stated that, “it is the City’s goal to provide a high quality, environmentally sensitive system of parks and open spaces for its residents” (City of Sarasota – Newtown, 2002, p. 27). The needs and desires of community residents and leaders can be addressed by the creation of a green infrastructure network and would support the environmental, economic, and social issues occurring in Newtown.

Green Infrastructure Networks Green infrastructure networks take a different approach to open space conservation and planning than typical methods, in that they work with development instead of in isolation from or opposed to development (Benedict and McMahon, 2002). Designating green, open spaces and trails as green infrastructure gives them the important connotation that they deserve. Referring to these areas as green spaces represents them as nice to have, but not essential, while the term green infrastructure represents these areas as vital to the efficient functioning of our

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communities, just like the importance of grey infrastructure such as roads, utilities, and sewers. Using this terminology also implies that these features need to be maintained and protected instead of viewing them as self-sustaining, as the term green spaces may imply (Benedict and McMahon, 2003). In the 1990’s, Florida created the Florida Greenways Program, with the help of the Conservation Fund of Washington, D.C. and 1000 Friends of Florida. The program was created to conserve critical components of Florida’s ecosystems, restore and maintain connectivity among diverse ecosystems, facilitate these diverse ecosystems to function as an integrated system, and to maintain the evolutionary potential of these ecosystems to adapt to future environmental change (Hoctor et al., 2003). While at the statewide level, a green infrastructure network has been identified; it is up to the communities of Florida that municipal and community-level green infrastructure networks are implemented.

Proposed Green Infrastructure Project This paper proposes that Newtown consider developing a green infrastructure network that creates an integrated system of parks and greenways within their community. Implementing more parks, recreational, and open space connected through greenways will bring numerous benefits to the community. Newtown already has a great base of park space with eleven parks or recreational areas within or near Newtown. A network of greenways and additional park space would link these areas together and further enhance the natural areas within the community.

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A greenway project is currently under development that would occur along Whitaker Bayou. The greenway will be an eight-acre linear park stretching from Martin Luther King, Jr. Park north to 49th Street. Sarasota Bay Estuary Program, a program created in June of 1989 to protect the health of Sarasota Bay, is leading the greenway project (Sarasota Bay Estuary Program, online). The greenway project seeks to improve the water quality of Whitaker Bayou, wildlife habitats, stormwater management, recreation opportunities, and community appreciation and engagement with the Bayou (Sarasota Bay Estuary Program, online). Whitaker Bayou was added to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection’s list of contaminated waters for exceeding allowable amounts of fecal matter, too low dissolved oxygen, and mercury in fish (Sword, February 10, 2010). The greenway will be created in conjunction with a blueway, which is a boating and kayaking trail along the bayou. The greenway will connect with the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Park, creating one linkage of a park and greenway within the community. 56

Two rail lines run through the community and represent additional opportunities for greenways. The rail lines stretch from the north to the south and pass on or near several community assets, such as existing park space, Booker High School, and the R.L. Taylor Community Center. Each of these potential or developing greenways run north and south, creating a need for greenway trails running in the east to west directions. Already existing bike lanes within the community could act as supportive or feeder routes to the parks and greenways. Many communities have converted rail lines into multi-use trails or greenways as part of a nationwide trend called Rails-to-Trails. The utilization of rails-to-trails programs is not a new concept to Sarasota. The Legacy Trail south of Newtown refurbished unused rail lines to create a multi-use trail. Opened in March of 2008, the trail connects with several trailheads and parks, offers rest areas, and recreational space (Sarasota County, The Legacy Trail). The City of Sarasota Parks and Connectivity Master Plan discusses the inclusion of greenways and trails within the city, and specifically recommends purchasing former railroad corridors to create a rails-to-trails network within the city. It describes two types of greenways and trails to be used in Sarasota: multi-use recreational trails (MURTs) that parallel a road, and rails-to-trails greenways (City of Sarasota, Parks and Connectivity Master Plan, 2002). Additional parks and open spaces could be placed on vacant land parcels within the community. One opportunity for creating a new park area is the Marion Anderson Brownfield located to the east of one of the rail lines. This area has been discussed as a site for many varying uses, such as a Super Wal-Mart. However, the community should also consider using part of the Brownfield for a beautiful park connected to the green infrastructure network. The park could be created in conjunction with other economic development endeavors. Turning an area that was once contaminated and an eye sore to the community into a beautiful area to be cherished could

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bring a sense of justification to the residents of Newtown and further connect them with nature. It is important for the community to choose the placement of new park areas, because they know better than anyone where these areas would be most beneficial to the community.

Benefits of a Green Infrastructure Network There is ample evidence of the numerous benefits that can occur in a community from incorporating green space and greenways. The many benefits span the categories of environmental sustainability, economic development, and community engagement. Developing this system of parks and greenways could help to address a number of the current challenges listed on the redevelopment agency’s website.

Environmental Sustainability Green infrastructure networks provide many opportunities for improved environmental sustainability. A GI network will preserve and promote the environmental character and health of Newtown. The GI network will preserve open space and recreational areas within Newtown as well as create new nature spaces by converting vacant and unused property into green areas. GI networks preserve and create natural areas, which is considered an important aspect of Smart Growth management. Additionally, greenways can define growth boundaries and protect communities from encroaching development, which is one of the current challenges listed by the Newtown Redevelopment Office (Randolph, 2004; City of Sarasota – Newtown, Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan Volume 1). Converting vacant land into green spaces will also help to provide cleaner air and water, while greenways will connect fragmented ecosystems for better flow of resources and species

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(Benedict and McMahon, 2003; Thorne, 1993). More greenery and trees help to reduce pollution in the air and water (Spirn, 1984). These areas also help to reduce flooding and facilitate stormwater management by absorbing a large amount of the water, which on impervious surfaces would flow into the community’s water system. This can help to reduce costs to the community (Schilling and Logan, 2008). Greenways will provide the community alternative modes of transportation, besides vehicles and public transportation. “The Rails-to-Trails Conservancy estimates that one-third of weekday trail users are commuting in major urban areas with trail systems, such as Washington, D.C., Seattle, and Tampa” (Benedict & McMahon, 2003, p.3). By making other forms of transportation more visible to the community and removing more vehicles from the streets, it is possible that drivers will reduce their speeds and be more aware of pedestrians and bicyclists, which is one of the current challenges listed in the Newtown CRA Plan (City of Sarasota – Newtown, Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan Volume 1).

Economic Development The creation of parks and greenways aids in the economic development of the communities in which they are implemented. These areas attract people for their intrinsic aesthetic and natural qualities. Because people are naturally drawn to these areas, it is more desirable to live in close proximity. A 2001 study done by the National Association of Realtors (NAR) found that 57 percent of voters would prefer a home closer to parks and open space than a home that was not (Lewis, 2003, p.4). Linked to this is the trend of homes nearer parks and greenways retaining more value than those further away. Many studies have shown that properties closer to park space and greenways are more valuable than those further away. One

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study of Pennypack Park in Philadelphia showed that property values increased from $1,000 per acre at 2,500 feet from the park to $11,500 per acre at 40 feet from the park (Walker, 2004, 1). Parks and greenways also can attract new or relocating businesses to take advantage of the popularity of these areas (Hellmund and Smith, 2006). These new businesses within the community can help generate municipal revenue from taxes that can be put back into the community (Lewis, 2003). These benefits can help to address the goals of the Newtown Redevelopment Office and community residents and several of the current challenges as listed in the Newtown CRA Plan (City of Sarasota – Newtown, Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan Volume 1). However, it is important to ensure that these economic benefits do not begin to exclude members of the community because increased property values mean they can no longer afford to live near these green spaces.

Community Engagement A green infrastructure network will bring a number of social benefits to the community of Newtown. Increased parks and greenway areas in the community will provide more opportunities for gathering places where Newtown residents can form stronger social bonds and a stronger neighborhood (University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, 2003). Involving the community in the planning, development, and implementation of parks and greenways will ensure that these spaces reflect the needs and desires of the community, which will allow for a greater chance of acceptance by Newtown residents. Also, through the participation process, the community can learn of the benefits of a network of open, green spaces and how this network reflects community goals (Randolph, 2004). Additionally, participation in the creation of the GI

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network will instill a sense of pride and ownership of these facilities in residents. Bringing people together through the creation of a GI network can bring “more effective and responsive management, stronger social ties and collaboration, and the cultivation of civic interaction and democratic participation” (Hellmund and Smith, 2006, 19). A GI network will also facilitate greater contact with nature for Newtown residents. Connecting with nature provides a range of health benefits including lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, enhanced survival after a heart attack, faster recovery from surgery, reduced minor-medical disorders, and lower self-reported stress levels (Frumkin and Eysenbach, 2003). Increasing opportunities for recreation in Newtown can also lead to improved fitness and reduced obesity. Study after study shows that physical activity reduces a number of physical ailments including diabetes, heart disease, and obesity (Frumkin and Eysenbach, 2003). More recreational areas in the community will additionally benefit youth in Newtown and give them a wider array of activities, which is one of the current challenges listed by the Newtown Redevelopment Office (City of Sarasota – Newtown, Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan Volume 1). A green infrastructure network in Newtown can also lead to a safer neighborhood and reduced crime. As stated earlier, open spaces and greenways can help a community form strong social ties. When the community is connected with one another, they feel more empowered to protect and help each other. Turning vacant or unused land into landscaped parks or greenways can help prevent crime, if planned and designed properly, with appropriate lighting and visibility to the surrounding neighbors. Studies have shown that urban residents living near green spaces endure fewer quality-of-life crimes and feel safer (University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, 2003).

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Implementing a Green Infrastructure Network Implementing a green infrastructure network will require the commitment of the community and its leaders in seeing this project through. Luckily for Newtown, it has a wide base of support from the Newtown Redevelopment Office and the City of Sarasota. The City of Sarasota Parks and Connectivity Master Plan demonstrates that green infrastructure is supported and already a work in progress. A green infrastructure network plan could include the following steps. Preparation is the first of three steps to a green infrastructure network. This is done by assessing and evaluating existing conditions within the community. This includes identifying possible sources of funding, identifying any legal barriers, evaluate current demographic and economic trends, and inventory and map parks, trails, and vacant land and note underserved areas. One source of funding to consider is the Recreational Trails Program, a federally funded competitive grant program. The grant provides a maximum of $250,000 for the creation, renovation, or maintenance of recreational trails, trailheads, and trailside facilities. It requires awards to be matched with local funds. Applications are sent through the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, who then provides a recommended priority list to the Federal Highway Administration (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2010). The second step is the plan and design phase. In this phase, planners should involve all members of the community for a collaborative process. Steps include developing design solutions to social, economic, and environmental factors in the community, and identify greenway routes and areas for parks (Schilling and Logan, 2008). What can also be done during this step is to gather information on the community’s opinion of existing parks. Questions to be asked should include: who uses the park, how do people use the park, why residents do or do not

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use a park, and what features residents wish to have in a park (Walker, 2004). This should be done to ensure that parks and greenways are designed and built to the needs of the residents who will be using the facilities, not the planners and urban designers who will only be creating the facilities. The third step in the green infrastructure implementation process is action, which is the final stage in which creation of the green infrastructure network. This final phase includes acquiring necessary land and identifying potential partners, whether from the local government, federal government, private sector, civic associations, or universities (Schilling and Logan, 2008). As outlined in the previous section, it is important to involve the community throughout the entire planning, design, implementation, and management process. Doing so will instill a sense of ownership and pride in the final product of the green infrastructure network. Educational or artistic elements displaying the rich culture of Newtown should be included along the greenway trails and in the parks to further connect Newtown residents to nature and their community. The planning of the GI network will need to be flexible in order to address the varying needs of diverse stakeholders involved in the project (Schilling and Logan, 2008). The GI network does not need to be created all at once, but can be created in stages that will eventually lead to a completely connected green infrastructure network. However, green infrastructure networks must be created for the long term in order for them to bring the most benefits. Because of this, GI networks need to be included in long-range planning and management documents (Benedict and McMahon, 2003).

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Implementation Steps Step 1: Preparation           Step 3: Action    Assess and evaluate current conditions in community Identify sources of funding Identify legal barriers Evaluate current demographic and economic trends in community Inventory and map existing parks and trails, and vacant land Note underserved areas Involve community Develop design solutions to social, economic and environmental factors Identify greenway routes and park areas Gather community opinion on existing park system Acquire necessary land Identify possible partners Implement GI network

Step 2: Plan and Design

Conclusion This paper has defined green infrastructure, described the multiple benefits it can produce, and the methods to implement these networks. Newtown would greatly benefit from creating an interconnected system of parks and greenways. A GI network fits with the goals of the Newtown Redevelopment Office and the needs and desires of Newtown residents, particularly the economic development, community health, safety and welfare, urban design and parks, and transportation goals. Including the residents of Newtown in the planning and implementation of the GI network will aid in its acceptance by the community. Providing the residents a sense of ownership of these spaces will help to preserve the GI network and instill a sense of pride in their community. The health of the local environment, economy, and community will all be improved with the creation of a green infrastructure network in Newtown. 64

References Ahern, Jack. (2003). “Greenways in the USA: theory, trends and prospects.” In Rob Jongman and Gloria Pungetti (Eds.), Ecological Networks and Greenways: Concept, Design, and Implementation (pp. 34-53). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Baker, Chris, Mahe, Richard, and Wiseman, Kaeley. (2009). “New Ways to Look at Old Spaces: A vision for green infrastructure networks.” Department of City Planning, University of Manitoba. Proposal for the 2009 TD Friends of the Environment Foundation Go Green Challenge. Benedict, Mark and McMahon, Edward. (2003). “How to use parks for Green Infrastructure.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/greeninfrastructure.htm Benedict, Mark and McMahon, Edward. (2002). “Green Infrastructure: Smart Conservation for the 21st Century. The Conservation Fund: Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse Monograph Series. Campbell, Scott. (1996). “Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities?: Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development.” Journal of the American Planning Association, 62: 3, 296 — 312 City of Sarasota – Newtown. Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan: Volume 1. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown%20CRA%20Plan%20Volume%20I.pdf City of Sarasota – Newtown. (2002) Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan Through 2020: Volume 3 Background Data. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown%20Vol%20III.pdf City of Sarasota. (2002). Parks and Connectivity Master Plan. Accessed on October 12, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/nds/Neighborhoods%20Redev%20Spec%20Projects_files/P arks%20%2B%20Connectivity%20Master%20Plan.pdf City of Sarasota – Newtown (online). Enterprise Zone. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/ez.html City of Sarasota – Newtown (online). Newtown Redevelopment Area. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/CRA.html City of Sarasota – Newtown (online). New Beginnings for Newtown. Accessed on November 8, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/Newtown/newbeginnings.html

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Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Greenways and Trails. (2010). The Recreational Trails Program. Accessed on November 16, 2010 from: Http://www.dep.state.fl.us/gwt/grants/ Frumkin, Howard and Eysenbach, Mary E. (2003). “How cities use parks to improve public health.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/pdf/physicalactivity.pdf Hellmund, Paul and Smith, Daniel Somers. (2006). Designing Greenways: Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People. Island Press: Washington, D.C. Hoctor, Thomas S., Margaret H. Carr, Paul D. Zwick, and David S. Maehr. (2003). “The Florida Statewide Greenways Project: its realization and political context.” In Rob Jongman and Gloria Pungetti (Eds.), Ecological Networks and Greenways: Concept, Design, Implementation (pp. 222-250). United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Lewis, Megan (2003). How to use city parks for economic development.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/pdf/economicdevelopment.pdf Newtown Redevelopment Office (September 2009). Quarterly Newsletter, volume 1: issue 1 Randolph, John. (2004). Environmental Land Use Planning and Management. Island Press: Washington, D.C. Sarasota Bay Estuary Program. Accessed on November 7 from: http://www.sarasotabay.org/aboutsbep.html Sarasota County (online). The Legacy Trail. Accessed on October 29, 2010 from: http://www.scgov.net/LegacyTrail/default.asp Schilling, Joseph and Logan, Jonathan. (2008). “Greening the Rust Belt: A green infrastructure model for right sizing America’s shrinking cities.” Journal of the American Planning Association, 74: 4, 451-466. Spirn, Anne Whiston. (1984). The Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design. BasicBooks. Sword, Doug. “Waterway blacklist updated.” Herald-Tribune, February 10, 2010. http://www.heraldtribune.com/article/20100210/ARTICLE/2101040/2066/NEWS?Title= Waterway-blacklist-updated Thorne, James F. (1993). “Landscape ecology: a foundation for greenway design.” In Daniel S. Smith and Paul Cawood Hellmund (Eds.), Ecology of Greenways (pp. 23-42). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 66

University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign. (2003). “How cities use parks to create safer neighborhoods.” American Planning Association, City Parks Forum Briefing Papers. Accessed on October 15, 2010 from: http://www.planning.org/cityparks/briefingpapers/pdf/saferneighborhoods.pdf U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (online). Sustainable Housing and Communities. Accessed on November 9, 2010 from: http://portal.hud.gov/portal/page/portal/HUD/program_offices/sustainable_housing_com munities Walker, Chris. (2004). “The public value of urban parks.” Beyond Recreation: A Broader View of Parks. The Urban Institute and The Wallace Foundation.

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Minority Business Creation in Newtown: Equalizing the Reach of Green By Rebekah G. Brightbill

Introduction This project will look at ways for the Newtown community to grow income and wealth through opportunities that are available in green construction industries. This is appropriate in the context of current trends in the environmental and microenterprise industries, and the construction microenterprise development possibilities that exist in Newtown. Newtown has a history of creative entrepreneurial thinking. The growth and development of a sustainable economy in Newtown has been identified in the master plan goals of the Newtown Community Redevelopment Agency, and the CRA has done a great deal of work to establish entrepreneurial development programming. With the growth of green jobs and green industry nationally and locally, an absence of training in green industry can exclude the residents of Newtown from these high growth industries that have demonstrated great potential for both employment and business growth. Sustainable, green thinking was integrated into virtually every facet of American consciousness as authors such as Leopold, 1949; McKibben, 1989; and WCED, 1987 elevated the importance of taking care of the earth in order to sustain it for continuing generations. Over time, the term urban sustainability has grown to encompass environmental, economic, and social dimensions of the concept (Campbell, 1996; Curwell and Cooper, 1998; Cummings, 2002; While, Jonas, and Gibbs, 2004; Hopwood, Mellor, and O’Brien, 2005; and Roseland and Soots, 2007). Beginning in the 1990s, academics and practitioners began to extend this earth care ethic to low income communities, as they explored the relationship of sustainability to economic and social equity—the earth must be preserved for future generations, but the current generations

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must have an economic livelihood to maintain as well (United Nations, 1992a). True sustainable development achieves the three goals of environmental protection, economic justice, and social equity (Campbell, 1996). A pure market-based approach to community revitalization has failed to develop the economic infrastructure and resources of low-income urban communities. More appropriate strategies connect low-income community members to business and job opportunities in local markets. Rather than relying on market forces to bring economic benefits to low income communities, these resources should actively be brought to these neighborhoods (Cummings, 2002). The growth of green industry also brought a growth of economic profit potential and innovative ways to do business while sustaining the environment (Roarty, 1997; Schaper, 2002; Walley and Taylor, 2002; Beveridge and Guy, 2005). Sarasota has not been exempt from the growth of green industry or the growth of green consciousness. Sarasota identifies itself as a green city through the measures it has taken to comply with the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement signed by Mayor LouAnn Palmer in 2007. The Green Business Partnership (GBP), in conjunction with Sarasota County Government, maintains comprehensive information on green businesses in the county, and established benchmarks for businesses to help make their behavior “green.” As the first local Florida government to obtain LEED certification, Sarasota County established “Sustainability and Energy Independence and Community Building” as one of its four legislative priorities in 2009 (Sarasota County, 2009). Sarasota County was selected by the Florida State Legislature as one of two communities in the state to create an Energy Economic Zone, which will create special economic incentives for businesses in green energy industries (White, 2010). According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), green jobs are positions in

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“businesses that produce goods and provide services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources. These goods and services are sold to customers, and include research and development, installation, and maintenance services (BLS, 2010). Thus, any job or business that reduces the use of natural resources, and promotes long-term sustainability of these resources, is considered a green job or industry. Microenterprise development has been a standard tool in the economic developer’s toolkit for U.S. low-income urban neighborhoods since the mid-1980s. The target for microenterprise development is not large-scale corporations, but rather individuals who operate very small scale businesses and seek to expand them in order to increase their income and wealth. A microenterprise is defined as a business with five or fewer employees (Servon, 2006). Minority microenterprise development is also a tool for job creation because minority firms are more likely to employ other minorities and develop other minority firms (Grown and Bates, 1991; Bates, 2002). Thus, business growth can also be seen as an engine for both business and job generation for other minority and low income individuals. Green entrepreneurship provides a vast niche market potential for entrepreneurs. Green entrepreneurs can serve as trendsetters for the business community by providing examples of economically profitable, sustainable business to others in the community (Schaper, 2002). Research has shown green building practices are demonstrated to have positive environmental, economic, and social impact on both businesses and individuals (United States Green Building Council, 2006). Green industry and low income microentreprise have seldom been packaged together, however. Blending a proven strategy for poverty alleviation and wealth creation with an innovative, niche market development strategy provides low income entrepreneurs with

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opportunities to become economically sustainable and distinguish themselves in the market, while providing an ecologically sustainable future for Newtown. The following sections will provide detailed discussion about sound microentreprise practice for low income and minority populations, small business development programs in the construction industry, the green trends in Sarasota that Newtown contractors can benefit from, and an implementation plan for these suggestions. Microenterprise Development Economic development researchers often identify small business development as an important means of income generation and wealth-building in low-income communities. Small business development programs nation-wide have made significant progress in building the economic capacity of low income neighborhoods through microenterprise development. With the specific economic development goals identified in the Newtown plan, the growth of green industry in Sarasota, and community interest in the growth of construction businesses, green contractor development is a good microenterprise niche to pursue. Low income and minority entrepreneurs are most successful when they participate in business development programming that covers a wide range of topics. The success of construction entrepreneurs is dependent upon construction industry specific trainings that build upon trainings in business basics. Microenterprise Development for Low Income Entrepreneurs In low income, urban communities where there has not always been investment in economic assets by outside capital, microenterprise development is a good way to affirm the business contributions of low-income individuals in their communities. It views new and existing entrepreneurs as having skills, interests, and experience, by valuing and supporting their business ideas by providing them with credit and training that will make their business

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successful. Microenterprise programs can choose to either be credit led, training led, or, grouplending oriented (a more common model in international contexts) (Edgcomb, Klein, and Clark, 1996). This is crucial for communities like Newtown that need economic and social capital development to facilitate economic growth. Microenterprise development can be a good poverty alleviation strategy when lowincome entrepreneurs are equipped with sufficient resources. Low-income entrepreneurs are more likely to succeed when they have the skills, resources, support networks, and sufficient capitalization (both human and financial) in the first two years of business. Low income entrepreneurs are also more successful when they provide services for the mainstream economy, and do not provide personal services or small-scale retailing (Servon and Bates, 1998). Nelson (2004) noted that networking should be a crucial element of entrepreneurial training. If businesses are pursuing opportunities to integrate into mainstream markets, the social capital built through networking reduces their isolation from these markets. It is important to note that the absence of any of these success factors does not mean that a business will fail. Rather, it points to the need for good training and technical assistance programs that equip entrepreneurs for the full range of skills necessary for successful business ownership. This also points to the importance of developing the construction trades so that entrepreneurs have good, consistent opportunities to serve mainstream markets that will have a greater capacity to increase their incomes over time. Microentreprenurs generally identify capital as their primary felt need, and identify training and technical assistance as secondary felt needs. Low-income entrepreneurs lack access to all of these things: knowledge, networks, support, and capital. Thus, core microentreprise curriculum should provide training in the areas of business skills, economic literacy, and

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personal effectiveness. Training is defined as assistance to groups of entrepreneurs, whereas technical assistance is defined as one-on-one assistance tailored to an individual. A wellrounded program will deliver information to entrepreneurs through both mechanisms. Training and technical assistance should be provided during the initial start-up or expansion phase, but microenterprise programs should make these services available beyond the initial trainings. Successful microenterprise support requires ongoing technical assistance to the entrepreneur beyond the completion of trainings (Association for Enterprise Opportunity, 2000). In fact, Edgecomb and Malm (2002) identify business consulting, coaching, and mentoring as critical to assisting low income entrepreneurs achieve success. The custom, personal approach of a program with strong coaching and mentoring can help new microentrepreneurs navigate the challenging first phases of their business start-up or expansion. Microenterprise Development for Minority Entrepreneurs Although each individual business owner has the autonomy and freedom to determine which business is appropriate for their individual skills, interests, and talents, it is important to promote a wide variety of small businesses in order to promote the maximum economic growth of the community. According to Suggs (1995), for meaningful economic growth to take place in African-American communities, business growth should move beyond professional services, which do not generate income on the scale that other business sectors do. The development of businesses in the construction trades is a good mechanism to overcome this barrier to income and wealth generation described by Suggs. All small scale construction firms have challenges being competitive with larger, more experienced firms, but these issues are even more acute for minority construction firms. Barriers to market entry for minority firms include lack of firm experience, lack of relationships with

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prime contractors, lack of scale, and capitalization (Suggs, 1990). Overall, larger, older firms are more likely to receive government contracts than small firms, and the race of the firm was found to be irrelevant when firm size was compared in the analysis. The declining barriers to minority firm development and procurement have facilitated their capacity to procure government contracts, which has spurred the attainment of additional contracts, as well as the growth and development of additional minority firms (Bates, 2002). One significant barrier, however, is lack of access to capital that can aid company growth. Black-owned firms are less likely to receive loans than White-owned firms. Furthermore, Black-owned construction firms receive smaller start-up loan amounts than Whiteowned construction firms when they do receive loans. This study associates the smaller start-up capital rates of Black-owned firms with the higher failure rates of Black-owned firms. This is important because Black-owned firms employ largely minority employees from an employmentchallenged segment, and they demonstrate reach into markets untapped by Black-owned businesses. The study recommends that the barriers to Black-owned business start-up and expansion be addressed by the development of strategies to provide capital to these businesses (Grown and Bates, 1991). Research indicates indicate that the supportive services provided by small business training and technical assistance, construction specific training, mentoring, access to capital, and access to government markets are all crucial to the development of businesses and the increase of wealth in African-American communities. A program that provides these services to construction businesses could be a key part of Newtown’s economic development strategy. Green Construction The national economic downturn has hurt the construction industry, but it has not hurt

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green builders. The National Association of Minority Contractors, in fact, cited a 20 percent increase in the green building sector, where the construction industry overall saw a 40 percent downturn in 2009 (NAMC, 2010). The Bureau of Labor Statistics research shows that of all green industry sectors, construction is the strongest sector of the national market, with the largest number of establishments and a 38.1 percent market share (BLS, 2009). There is no comprehensive data on the status of green construction in Florida—the Agency for Workforce Innovation (AWI) recently began a survey of Florida green businesses in 2010 to assess the reach of green industries in the state (AWI, 2009). A 2008 AWI fact sheet identified 17 different subfields of the construction industry that have opportunities for involvement in green, or energy efficient, building and retrofitting. Ten of these industries— electrician, plumber, HVAC systems, insulation installation, hazardous materials removal, to name a few—have been identified by the Department of Labor as high growth industries (White and Walsh, 2008). Furthermore, they identify the need for apprenticeship programs and governmental participation in training skilled workers to prevent shortages in these industries. These subfields of green industry show great growth potential for Newtown businesses in the construction trades. The U.S. Green Building Council has developed a rating system of green building techniques in residential, commercial, and neighborhood development. The LEED building system sets ratings and benchmarks in the areas of energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions reductions, improved indoor environmental quality, and reduced environmental footprint, through green building design, construction, and operations management solutions (USGBC, 2010). LEED certification can either be given to a project for its use of green technology, or to an individual for their understanding of green technologies. The requirements

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to become LEED certified as an individual are extensive, and require either project experience on LEED certified projects, work experience in sustainable industry, or completion of 30 hours of education in the chosen LEED specialty area (GBCI, 2010; USGBC, 2010a). Another alternative to LEED certification is the Green Advantage ® certification. Available for both commercial and residential projects, the Green Advantage® certification is geared towards project managers, superintendents, field workers, and foremen. The certification provides proof that recipients have knowledge of current green building principles, materials, and techniques (Green Advantage, 2010). Because of the complexity involved in achieving LEED certification, NAMC recommends that small-scale, start-up minority contractors pursue the Green Advantage® certification, rather than LEED certification, which NAMC identifies as more appropriate for architects, engineers, planners, and executive level builders because of the collegiate level of difficulty of the preparation and exams (NAMC, 2010). The Green Advantage® certification is also nationally recognized, and it can bring additional LEED credits to a project when members of the project team have the certification (Green Advantage, 2010). Because most of the construction firms in Newtown are small scale firms, this Green Advantage® certification would be a good for these entrepreneurs to consider. Examples of Low Income, Minority, and Construction Enterprise Training Programs Across the board, successful microenterprise and minority construction training programs contain similar modules which have been proven to result in the development of thriving businesses. The Newtown CRA already provides a number of useful entrepreneurial supports. From the 12-week CEO Business Training, technical assistance and referral system; to the planned expansion of the one-on-one technical assistance, workshops, and mentoring; to the planned development of the business incubator in 2011, a good foundation is in place to assist

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construction entrepreneurs in achieving success. There are several programs that provide good examples of construction specific training that include all the elements of sound entrepreneurial training programs, which Newtown can look to as a model to expand on existing programming. Turner Construction Since 1969, Turner Construction has been providing an 8-week construction training course to minority and woman owned construction firms in thirty cities. The course covers risk management, construction estimating, safety, and effective management. Firms who complete the trainings have a strong record of success either working with Turner or on other major contracts, or creating partnerships with each other. Turner also created a K-12 youth mentoring and exposure program designed to introduce K-12 students to the construction trades. They also have a four year internship and scholarship program to provide experience and funding to high school seniors majoring in civil, electrical, occupational, or mechanical engineering; construction management; and architecture fields (Turner Construction Company, 2010). Although the Turner construction training program does not have a component that addresses green building, the elements of the training program have been very successful in preparing entrepreneurs for large scale construction jobs. A total of 40,000 contracts valued at $14 billion have been awarded to woman and minority owned construction businesses working with Turner, who have been trained through the program (Turner Construction Company, 2010). This is significant because the success of this program indicates that linking minority contractors to training opportunities and real bid opportunities results in business growth and contract procurement, as other research also indicates. St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center (BAC) The St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center (BAC) has a partnership based model of

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entrepreneur training that delivers training and support services through workshops and one-onone technical assistance. BAC workshops address the needs of a variety of entrepreneurs, and topics include marketing and advertising, business plan development, pricing, bonding, legal structure, and doing business within the city, just to name a few. The BAC also provides entrepreneurs with the necessary link to capital through a revolving loan fund that serves the Tampa Bay are exclusively. Specifically targeted to businesses under 25 employees with sales volumes under $3 and $5 million per year (depending on the industry), their Small Business Enterprise (SBE) Program certifies businesses for contracting and procurement opportunities in construction, good and services, and professional services and supplies. Benefits to SBE’s include project specific assistance, sheltered market benefits (such as set-asides for participants in the program), discounts such as bond waivers, payment assistance, expedited payments for city projects, training and financial assistance, workshops, and reduced plan fees (St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center, 2010). National Association of Minority Contractors – South Florida Chapter The South Florida Chapter of the National Association for Minority Contractors (NAMCSFC) is a business network of minority contractors that serves as a training and advocacy organization, both facilitating training and business development opportunities, and lobbying for opportunities for minority contractors to bid. Trainings include classes on worker’s comp insurance and bonding, workshops on the development of construction contracts by local lawyers, and workshops on construction management. The chapter also facilitates access to construction specific CPA’s to prepare the financials for construction firms. The chapter has also facilitated access financing through local partnerships (K. Crockett, Personal Communication. November 3, 2010).

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NYC School Construction Authority The New York City Department of Education School Construction Authority (SCA) established a Business Development Division with a comprehensive minority construction business development program. This program assists minority and woman construction entrepreneurs with the practical aspects of the construction trades, contracting with the New York School Construction Authority, and the practical matters of business ownership and operations, while connecting them to real construction bid opportunities. Support areas include Contract Compliance; Minority Business Certification / Recertification; Minority Business Outreach; Minority Business Development & Training; and High School and College Internship Programs. These business development divisions help interested contractors meet the requirements of the SCA (who is required to hire certain percentages of minority contractors). They also play an active role in recruiting potential candidates for business development, provide technical assistance, facilitate loans through a partner bank, provide assistance with procuring bonding from a partner bonding company upon completion of requirements, and provide construction specific business training. The Mentor Program of the NY SCA is designed to assist contractors who are small scale and need assistance increasing their capacity for participation in large scale government contracts. Participants in the mentoring program receive experience on SCA projects; technical assistance and training; general business, marketing and business development assistance; fast track payments for projects; and access to working capital and bonding (as participants in other programs do as well). The SCA also provides high school and college internships in construction, engineering and architecture (NYC DOE, 2010). Newtown Green Construction Entrepreneur Development Plan The proposed program model for Newtown/North Sarasota green construction

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entrepreneur training is multi-phased. Not all entrepreneurs will need to participate in every phase of the training, but mastery of each of these elements will contribute to their success as a green entrepreneur. If an entrepreneur does not already show a core competency or mastery of one of the areas, it would be valuable for them to receive training or technical assistance in that area. The use of business coaches is vital in assessing the needs of each entrepreneur and assisting them with the development of each business area. To provide easy accessibility to information, an ideal location for this training and technical assistance would be the Robert L. Taylor Community Complex, the SCTI Newtown location, the Newtown Redevelopment Office, or the proposed business incubator.
Newtown Green Construction Entrepreneur Development Plan Training Credit Education Purpose Poor or non-existent credit leaves entrepreneurs unprepared for mainstream capital markets. The goal of microenterprise development programming is to integrate business owners into traditional credit markets, and this is an important first step. Provider - First Bank employees are trained in FDIC Money smart curriculum and provide financial and credit education free of charge. Barbara Kreuser (941) 345-1435 barbara.kreuser@fbol.com - CredAbility is a local affiliate of a national organization, providing financial and credit education. Sandee Rains (941) 256-8132 sandra.rains@cccsinc.org -Continued use of the CEO Program. -Manasota SCORE provides mentoring and workshops. www.score-suncoast.org (941) 955-1029 -State College of Florida SBDC provides business workshops on many topics. Carolyn Griffin (941) 408-1413 griffic2@scf.edu -Sarasota County Technical Institute (SCTI) has a construction

Small Business Development

The construction industry is as much about business acumen as it is about knowing the trade.

Construction Specific Training and/or

The approach for construction training will vary depending on the skill and business

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Certification Construction Business Development Training

stage of the entrepreneur. Some contractors may know their field, but not have the appropriate licenses necessary to expand their business. Other contractors may have a trade specific training (such as masonry), but they may be well served by the acquisition of a general contractor’s license. Or, they may know their trade but not know the nuances of it as prime contractor, experienced subcontractor, or project manager would. There are specific business practices related to the construction trades that could be taught in a class format. Many contractors desiring to increase their scale need assistance with pricing large jobs, negotiating contracts.

apprenticeship program. www.scti.edu -Manatee County Technical Institute (SCTI) has a number of programs in the architecture and construction fields. www.manateetechnicalinstitute.org -State College of Florida has a B.A. in Energy Technology Management. www.scf.edu - Seminar on working with local government by City and County purchasing departments. -Seminar on City and County code requirements by the City and County building departments. -Pursue relationships with local construction firms and industry trade associations who can can provide trainings. The Sarasota Chamber of Commerce may be a good resource for this. www.sarasotachamber.com -Pursue relationships with large local construction firms or industry trade associations that can provide mentors and/or project experience to small firms. The Sarasota Chamber of Commerce may be a good resource for this. www.sarasotachamber.com -State College of Florida SBDC provides workshops on women and minority contractor certification and has staff available to assist with it on a one-on-one basis. Carolyn Griffin (941) 408-1413 griffic2@scf.edu - The bonding and insurance amounts required by large projects can be cost prohibitive. Facilitating a matched savings program, a contract mobilization loan, or promoting relationships with bonding companies could help contractors secure these important items. - LEED certification is offered through the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). Local USGBC chapters, such as the Florida

Contractor Mentoring Program

Small scale contractors seeking to navigate the new arena of government and large scale projects could be paired with an experienced contractor can help them to understand nuances of the industry.

Minority Contractor Certification

If a contract has racial set-asides, this certification can facilitate selection, and show that the business owner has been proactive in branding and operations by pursuing designations that make the business distinctive. In order to submit a bid on the large projects that most small contractors seek to procure, they need to have adequate bonding and insurance.

Bonding and Insurance

Green Building Training and Certification

Contractors seeking to gain a competitive edge on a niche market can pursue a number of opportunities for training and certification in this growing industry.

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Gulf Coast USGBC and their local branch, the Myakka River Green Building Council could provide general information and workshops. www.sustainabletampabay.org (727) 372-3814 -LEED certification courses are also offered through State College of Florida. www.scf.edu/ccd -Green Advantage® Certification www.greenadvantage.org - State College of Florida – B.A. in Energy Technology Management or non-credit green building continuing education courses through the Corporate and Community Development Department. www.scf.edu www.scf.edu/ccd - Develop relationships with banks who will accept referrals of credit ready clients. -Participate in a revolving loan fund.

Introduction to Capital

The capital needed to acquire additional equipment for expansion to facilitate contract expansion often serves as a barrier to small firms.

Youth Environmental and Entrepreneurship Programs It is also recommended to create youth exposure programs for green industries; the science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) fields; and entrepreneurship. There are multiple levels of involvement in sustainability through green technology. It is important to provide youth with a general awareness of environmental issues as part of their career planning, in order to keep them ahead of their peers by exposing them to advanced careers in the STEM fields, as well as entrepreneur training at an early age.
Potential Green Industry Youth Exposure Program Partners Provider State College of Florida Training Provided -Workshops on green innovations and jobs of the future. -Flexible and customized training available. Requires external Contact Dr. Idelia Phillips Director of Career & Technical Education 7131 Professional Pkwy East Sarasota, FL 34240

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funding to implement. Newtown Front Porch Revitalization Council -Use the framework of the existing YELDA program to introduce youth to green technology/industries. -Use the framework of the YELDA program to develop a youth entrepreneurship exposure program.

(941) 363-7230 phillii@scf.edu 1782 Dr. M.L. King, Jr. Way Sarasota, FL 34234 (941) 954-4137 x3223

The economic and environmental benefits to the community from investments in youth programming will accrue over a longer time period because educational development is a longterm commitment, particularly in career pathways associated with high-level green industry and green technology. The benefits this brings to the community, however, will promote long-term economic and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, the youth of the community are likely to invest the knowledge, products, and skills of their entrepreneurial and environmental innovations back into the Newtown community. Conclusion Although microenterprise development and construction trades training have both been used to promote economic growth in Newtown, green industry has not been used yet as an economic development tool. Through the expansion of existing microenterprise development programming targeted to Newtown construction businesses, green industry has great potential to increase the income and wealth of Newtown residents in this expanding niche market. Green will reach both Newtown industries, and Newtown pockets, helping the community to achieve the triple bottom line of environmental, economic, and social sustainability.

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References Agency for Workforce Innovation. (2008). Want to Go Green? A Sample of Jobs in a Green Economy. Tallahassee, FL: Agency for Workforce Innovation Agency for Workforce Innovation (AWI). (2009). Florida Begins Green Jobs Survey. Tallahassee, FL: Agency for Workforce Innovation Association for Enterprise Opportunity. (2000). Fostering Entrepreneurship Through Training and Technical Assistance. Arlington, VA: Association for Enterprise Opportunity Bates, T. (2002). Minority Business Access to Mainstream Markets. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23:1, 41-56 Beveridge, R. and Guy, S. (2005). The rise of the eco-preneur and the messy world of environmental innovation. Local Environment, 10: 6, 665-676 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). (2009). Overview of the BLS Green Jobs Initiative. Retrieved from www.bls.gov/green Campbell, S. (1996). Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities? Urban Planning and the Contradictions of Sustainable Development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62:3, 296-312 Cummings, S. (2002). Community Economic Development as Progressive Politics: Towards a Grassroots Movement for Economic Justice. Stanford Law Review, 54:3, 399-493 Curwell, W. and Cooper, I. (1998). The implications of urban sustainability. Building Research & Information, 26: 1, 17-28 Edgcomb, E., Klein, J. and Clark, P. (1996). The Practice of Microenterprise in the U.S: Strategies, Costs, and Effectiveness. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute Edgecomb, E., and Malm, E. (2002). Keeping It Personalized: Consulting, Coaching and Mentoring for Microentrepreneurs. FIELD Best Practice Guide Volume 4. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute Green Building Certification Institute. (2010). LEED Professional Credentials. Washington, DC: Retrieved from http://www.gbci.org/main-nav/professional-credentials/credentials.aspx# Grown, C. and Bates, T. (1991). Commercial Bank Lending Practices and the Development of Black-Owned Construction Companies. Center for Economic Studies, CES 91-9

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Hopwood, B., Mellor, M., and O’Brien, G. (2005). Sustainable Development: Mapping Different Approaches. Sustainable Development, Vol. 13:1, 38-52 Leopold, A. (1949). The Land Ethic” from A Sand County Almanac. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 24-32), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: Routledge McKibben, B. (1989). The End of Nature. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 64-71), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: Routledge National Association of Minority Contractors. (2010). Green Initiatives Topics of Interest. Washington, DC: National Association of Minority Contractors Nelson, C. (2004). Staying Connected: Building Entrepreneurial Networks. FIELD Best Practice Guide Volume 6. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute New York City Department of Education (NYC DOE). 2010. Mentor Programs. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/Offices/SCA/Programs/MentorProgram/default.htm New York City Department of Education (NYC DOE). 2010. Business Development Division. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/Offices/SCA/Programs/BDU/default.htm Roarty, M. (1997). Greening business in a market economy. European Business Review, 97:5, 244-254 Roseland, M. and Soots, M. (2007). Strengthening Local Economies. From State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 241-251), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: Routledge Sarasota County, (2009). 2009 Sarasota County Legislative Priorities. Sarasota, FL: Sarasota County Schaper, M. (2002). The Essence of Ecopreneurship.[Special Issue on Environmental Entrepreneurship]. Greener Management Institute, 38, 26-30 Servon, L., and Bates, T. (1998). Microenterprise as an Exit Route from Poverty: Recommendations for Programs and Policy Makers. Center for Economic Studies, CES 98-17 Servon, L. (2006). Microenterprise Development in the United States: Current Challenges and New Directions. Economic Development Quarterly, 20: 4, 351-367 St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center. (2010). Small Business Enterprise Program. Retrieved from www.stpete.org/bac St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center. (2010). It’s Your Business. St. Petersburg, FL: St. Petersburg Business Assistance Center 85

Suggs, R. (1990). Rethinking Minority Business Development Strategies. Harvard Civil Rights Liberties Law Review, 25, 101-145 Suggs, R. (1995). Bringing Small Business Development to Urban Neighborhoods. Harvard Civil Rights Civil Liberties Law Review, 30, 487-506 Turner Construction Company. (2010). In The Community. Retrieved from www.turnerconstruction.com United States Green Building Council. (2006). The LEED ® Green Building System from New Construction and Major Renovation, Version 2.2. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 273-278), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: Routledge United States Green Building Council. (2010). What LEED Is. Retrieved from http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=1988 United States Green Building Council. (2010a). Prescriptive Path for LEED APs Without Specialty. Retrieved from http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=2209 Walley, E., and Taylor, D. (2002). Opportunists, Champions, Mavericks…? [Special Issue on Environmental Entrepreneurship]. Greener Management Institute, 38, 31-43 While, A., Jonas, A, and Gibbs, D. (2004). The Environment and the Entrepreneurial City: Searching for the Urban Sustainability Fix’ in Manchester and Leeds. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 28: 3, 549-69 White, D. (2010). Board hitting brakes on green development zone. Herald Tribune. Retrieved from www.heraldtribune.com White, S. and Walsh, J. (2008). Greener Pathways: Jobs and Workforce Development in the Clean Energy Economy. Madison, WI: Center on Wisconsin Strategy World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). (1987). Our Common Future. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 59-63), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: Routledge United Nations. (1992a). The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. In S. Wheeler & T. Beatley (Eds.), (pp. 72-76), The Sustainable Urban Development Reader, New York: Routledge

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Waste Reduction, Litter Prevention, and Litter Control In Newtown Melissa R Brogle  Introduction Sustainable development (SD) is a term often used in the field of environmental science, and now more frequently in everyday lives, but what does it really mean? The Brundtland Report, published in 1987, defines SD as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (United Nations, 1987, Sect 3). When worded this way the concept of SD becomes much more approachable and easier to understand. But how do we meet the needs of our generation and still ensure that our children and grandchildren can have enough resources without harming the global environment? One possible path is adopting the land ethic outlined by Aldo Leopold; to step back from our position of land conqueror and embrace land and humans as part of a larger community. Treat the land with respect, and “preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.” (Leopold, 2009, p. 23). If the global population began to live by this land ethic, sustainability may very well be a positive side effect of sorts. Instead of adopting the land ethic, humankind could simply strive to live by the classic phrase reduce, reuse, recycle (the three R’s). Reduce our consumption, reuse what we can, and recycle what we can’t reuse. In reality, both the land ethic and the three R’s should be employed in tandem by the global community to help achieve global SD. Global sustainability can start with local sustainability, but how can a large goal like global SD be achieved at the local level? Moving from the industrial revolution era, where consumption and waste was rampant, to a sustainable society, requires changes at the global, country, state, county, regional, and city and town levels. By reducing, reusing, and recycling, a community can begin to work towards global and local urban sustainable development. First, reducing consumption by changing buying habits, and simply buying less would help to reduce raw material usage. Second, reducing packaging of consumer goods can have a direct impact on raw material usage and waste management costs (Dewees, 1998, p. 457). Third, implementing educational sources to promote reusing and recycling at global and local levels to achieve sustainability (Miller, 1991). Sustainable waste management at the local level is a crucial part of global and local urban 87

sustainable development. Effective waste management can not only reduce raw material usage, but also reduce litter. Litter, which is essentially misplaced solid waste, can have detrimental effects on the surrounding social, economic, and natural environment, including creating unsightly streets and neighborhoods, promoting crime, and harming wildlife and ecosystems. Litter can create the illusion that the community does not care about their neighborhoods, and that can indirectly encourage crime (Hope, 1995, p. 37). In addition, litter is simply unattractive, and can lead to a lack of pride in the community, which can have a negative effect on other community features such as the appearance of commercial and residential properties (Chavis, 1990, p. 61). Litter can also effect the natural environment by clogging waterways, releasing potentially harmful chemicals into the environment, being ingested by wildlife, and many more negative effects (Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1995). To combat the effects of litter, a community, such as Newtown, needs to have access to recycling programs, public (covered) trash cans, public ashtrays, educational programs, effective enforcement of littering laws, and most importantly, the citizens must take pride in their community and the surrounding natural environment in order to foster community stewardship. Implementing, and maintaining, proper solid waste management, litter control, and litter prevention in an urban community can be difficult and time consuming. It requires the cooperation of city and state officials, and most importantly community residents. However, proper solid waste management, and litter control and prevention can be done, with the positive outcome of local, and ultimately global, sustainability, a healthier natural environment, and a more cohesive local community.

Background on Waste and the Effects of Litter and Other Waste:

A Brief History of Waste and Litter 
Excessive waste and litter are two very impactful side effects of our throw away society. According to the EPA, in 2008 the average American produced four and a half pounds of trash per day (that’s over 16,000 pounds per person per year), with about one and a half pounds of that being diverted for recycling and composting. The amount of waste produced per person has increased almost 70% since 1960, from 2.68 pounds per person to the current 4.5 pounds per person per day. Over 30 percent of discarded waste is containers and packaging, a waste type 88

that could be easily reduced and/or recycled. Recycling has also increased, from 10 percent to 33 percent from 1980 to 2008. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2009) While this increase in recycling is very important, it is equally important to realize how the increase in waste generated per person can effect the natural and social environments and the economy. Waste, or trash, does not just disappear with the garbage collection truck. Waste needs to be hauled away to an incinerator or landfill where it is either burned to create energy (releasing some toxic chemicals and green house gases in the process), or buried in a landfill. This process of hauling and disposing of solid waste is a costly activity that state and local governments, and individuals, pay for as part of a solid waste management plan. Some estimates show that the average American household spends over $100/ton of disposed waste, which equates to almost $100 per person per year. The cost of disposal comes in the form of taxes and fees, such as local sewage and waste fees charged to residents, fees to bring waste to the dump or landfill directly, and other local and state fees. However, this cost that is paid by each household is not the true cost of waste disposal. There is a gap between what residents pay and what it actually costs to dispose of waste. This gap between what is charged to residents and what it actually costs to manage solid waste is therefore paid, sometimes, by the state, but more often by local governments. (Zero Waste) Two ways to reduce the costs and effects of waste at the source is to reduce packaging of products and reduce consumption in general. While these activities may seem too large for even governments to tackle, each individual can make a difference in contributing to the reduction in consumption. Buying products that are made from recycled materials, and have recycled and recyclable packaging is one way to reduce waste. In addition, buying products that have minimal packaging also helps to reduce waste. These steps help create and maintain a market for recycled and recyclable products and packaging, and for products that have minimal packaging (Dewees, 1998, 465-469). In addition, using reusable to-go containers and reusable shopping bags are great ways to reduce package-type waste. Aside from packaging reduction and recycling, consumers can directly effect waste and litter amounts by refraining from purchasing excess or frivolous products. The purchasing of unneeded products produces a large amount of unnecessary waste. Reducing consumption is the most direct route to reducing waste, but it also saves money and time (Spindler, 1989). Saving money and time is something that every individual can appreciate, Newtown residents included. 89

  Effects of Litter and Excessive Waste 
Litter is a direct effect of the consumption of products and goods and the production of waste from those products and goods. Litter is generated by motorists, pedestrians, and uncovered trucks. Litter prevention and control is a crucial part of an effective solid waste management plan because litter has environmental, economic, and social effects on global, state, and local communities like Newtown. Visible litter gives the illusion that it’s okay to litter, and will therefore lead to more littering, creating an endless cycle of increasing visible litter. Environmental effects of litter include dangers to wildlife, ecosystem disruption, water pollution and waterway obstruction/blockage, and soil pollution. Litter poses dangers to wildlife through injury and ingestion. Small litter items such as plastic pieces, cigarette butts, and plastic bags can be ingested by many animals from small birds to sea turtles, causing airway obstruction, difficulty feeding, intestinal blockage, poisoning, and even death. Large litter items such as tires, pizza boxes, and coolers can disrupt natural animal behaviors such as burrowing, and increase the potential for physical injury to animals. Large and small items can also disrupt the natural ecosystem processes by interrupting plant growth or becoming breeding grounds for bacteria and parasites, which negatively impact the ecosystem, and could also pose a public health hazard for humans. Litter can also lead to water pollution and clogged waterways and storm drains. Moreover, chemicals from plastics, cigarettes, or cleaning product packages can leach into the waterways and soils. Furthermore, the solid waste can get caught in storm drains and narrow parts of rivers and streams, causing a disruption of the natural water flow, disrupting the ecosystem, and sometimes causing flooding. Overall, litter has the potential to greatly impact the natural environment, which will ultimately lead to impacts on wildlife and humans. (Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1995) In addition to environmental effects, litter also has social and economic effects on communities of all sizes. Litter is unsightly, and as a result can decrease community pride and community cohesiveness, raise concern about crime and public safety, negatively impact business, and cost local economies money to clean up litter. If a neighborhood has an abundance of visible litter, residents are less likely to take pride in their community, and as a result are less likely to participate in community based activities. This lack of pride and participation can lead 90

to a decline in the general cohesiveness and strength of the neighborhood (Clarke, 1995). Community and neighborhood cohesiveness is something Newtown residents have expressed concern about and would like to improve upon. It has been shown that neighborhood cohesiveness and strength directly impacts residents’ feeling of belongings and safety (Shonholtz, 1987). Additionally, decreased community pride and cohesiveness can breed an environment that tolerates crime. If residents are unlikely to work toward a cohesive neighborhood, there becomes more opportunity for crime, and not just the obvious crime of litter begets more litter. Crimes such as car theft, muggings, breaking and entering, drug dealing, and in some cases more violent crimes such as rape and murder, tend to increase with a decrease in neighborhood cohesiveness (Shonholtz, 1987). Litter also impacts social dynamics of neighborhoods, which has indirect and direct effects on the community economy. Visible litter can indirectly influence the community’s economy by discouraging residents to shop within their own community (Clarke, 1995). Litter directly impacts Florida’s economy by decreasing tourism. In Florida, tourism is a substantial portion of the state’s economy, with approximately 600 million visitors traveling to Florida each year. According to the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (1998), tourists find litter to be the “least acceptable form of interference with individuals’ recreation experience.” (Pg 18) Tourists that travel to Florida for wilderness focused vacations were even less tolerant of litter, and many that were interviewed by the Center said they might choose to go somewhere else on their next vacation because of litter in Florida. While Newtown may not be a tourist destination in and of itself, Sarasota does benefit from tourism, and as a result Newtown indirectly benefits from tourism. Thus, litter can directly impact tourism, indirectly impacting the Florida economy, which could potentially lead to job loss, even in Newtown. What about the direct cost of cleaning up litter? In 1993, roadside litter maintenance cost the United States over $131 million, and that number has likely increased over time (Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1998). The collection and disposal of litter necessitates the use of road maintenance employees, diverting them from other important road maintenance activities. State transportation agencies spend approximately 3% of their road maintenance budgets on roadside litter (Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1998). This is money and manpower that could be used for other road maintenance and transportation activities, such as filling potholes, fixing street signs and lights, 91

and other crucial transportation related repairs. In Newtown, effective litter control and prevention could free up road crews to actually maintain the roads in the community. Maintaining roads can lead to an increase in the overall appearance of Newtown, which may also lead to increased community pride and likelihood of residents to shop within the community.

Best Practices for Newtown to Implement Litter Prevention and Control, and Waste Reduction: Newtown is an urban community with a large number of children and teenagers, but also some residents that have been in the community for most of their lives. The community consists of largely residential buildings, but also has a number of businesses, an elementary school, high school, college, and public library; and while there are neighborhood streets, the community is bordered by the very busy state road 301. Because the community is so diverse with regards to age groups, development types, and lengths of residence, the approach to litter prevention and control, and waste reduction, needs to also be diverse. To approach the problem of litter and waste, and to improve the community of Newtown, there needs to be involvement from the city of Sarasota, local law enforcement and environmental organizations, and most importantly, Newtown residents themselves.

Help from the City of Sarasota 
The city of Sarasota can help Newtown with litter prevention and control and waste reduction by installing more public covered trash cans, increasing access to public recycling bins, installing public ashtrays, and increasing participation in curbside recycling. According to The Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (2002), increased access to public trashcans, recycling bins, and ashtrays, decreases visible litter, particularly in residential areas. The city of Sarasota, which is a green city, should include Newtown in their green practices, and a great way to start is to provide Newtown with more trashcans, recycling bins, and ashtrays. The most economical way to start would be to install more of these three receptacles (or if existing receptacles are in place, installing covers on all receptacles) in very public locations. Public locations include the library, schools, parks, the community center, bus stops, and areas with a high concentration of businesses. If and when the installation of these 92

receptacles in public locations is seen to have a positive impact on litter amounts, the city could move forward with more receptacles in other areas of Newtown such as parking lots, apartment complexes, neighborhood streets, etc. In addition to public receptacles for waste, the city can also help to increase participation in curbside recycling. Newtown, as part of the City of Sarasota, has garbage and recycling curbside pickup once per week, on either Monday or Thursday. There are blue and green bins for recycling, and detailed instructions on the city website as to what items are recyclable, as well as a detailed map so residents and businesses can see what day they have pickup. In addition, the city website also has information on how a resident can request recycling bins and begin recycling at home. The recycling goal of Sarasota is 75% by 2020 (the same as Florida’s state wide goal), and as of January 2010, Floridians only recycled 28% of their waste (City of Sarasota, 2010). The city of Sarasota, as part of Newtown’s redevelopment, should ensure that each household in Newtown has both recycling bins and is aware of the recycling schedule and rules, and the environmental and economic benefits of recycling. By increasing curbside recycling participation, Newtown can help reduce their overall waste, reduce energy consumption, help control litter by ensuring recyclables get recycled, and become a more sustainable community. Participating in curbside recycling also has the benefit of educating the children of the community, which ensures Newtown will continue on a path to sustainability.

Help from Local Law Enforcement and Environmental Organizations 
Local law enforcement can help prevent and control litter by enforcing Florida’s litter law. If law enforcement officers witness littering (including cigarette butts thrown by pedestrians and/or motorists) they have the authority to give out citations starting at $50. In addition to the fine, the court may require the litterer to perform community service, and may also add three points to the offender’s license if the litter is thrown from a vehicle (Department of Environmental Protection, 2002). The involvement of local law enforcement is important for two main reasons. One, Newtown is bordered by state road 301, which means that many vehicles drive through Newtown, and most of those motorists are not residents. Therefore, increasing community pride and local participation in waste and litter reduction will not prevent transient individuals from throwing litter from their car (especially cigarette butts)-that is where 93

law enforcement comes in. Two, when local law enforcement enforces litter laws, it will increase the presence of law enforcement in the community and therefore has the potential to decrease other crimes, such as theft that was discussed earlier, that take place in Newtown. Local environmental organizations, such as Keep Sarasota County Beautiful (KSCB), can also help Newtown prevent and control litter in two ways. One is to help the community organize cleanups, which will be discussed in the next section. The second way that organizations like KSCB can help, is to facilitate the adopt-a-highway program, and help to install road signs warning motorists about litter penalties. If there is a presence of volunteers on roads such as 301, then motorists may be less likely to throw litter from their car in the Newtown community. Also, road signs with litter penalties, even though it may be minimal, do have an impact on the amount of roadside litter found in communities (Miller, 1991). The community, working with local environmental organizations and local law enforcement, can have these sign installed on 301 and surrounding roads to help create awareness about litter penalties, and show motorists that there is a law enforcement presence in the community.

Residents of Newtown Helping Themselves 
Perhaps the most crucial group, the group that can have the most impact, involved in litter prevention and control is Newtown residents themselves. The city of Sarasota, law enforcement officers, and environmental organizations cannot reduce waste, or prevent and control litter without the participation of Newtown residents. The three greatest ways that residents can reduce litter and waste are reducing consumption and buying reusable items, volunteer community cleanups, and public education. Reducing consumption and buying reusable items will help to reduce the waste generated in Newtown, reduce litter, and help residents save money. Buying non-essential items directly contributes to unnecessary waste, which will harm the environment in a myriad of ways, even aside from litter. Moreover, buying non-essential items means less money available to individuals and families to use on essential items and activities. This is perhaps the most important aspect of reduced consumption to the residents of Newtown. Residents have expressed a concern about unemployment. With proper planning, and reduced buying, residents can be better prepared for unexpected events such as sudden job loss. In addition to reducing 94

consumption, individuals can make the decision to buy reusable items such as grocery bags, food containers, to-go type coffee/beverage cups, etc. These items help to reduce packaging, which will reduce waste and litter. In addition, personal choices such as carrying portable ashtrays and signing up for paperless bills/statements (meaning getting bills and statements electronically) can add up to make a substantial impact on waste reduction. Volunteer community cleanups help to remove existing litter from the community, as is evident by the amount of litter that has been removed in past cleanups. From March to May of 2010, the Great American Cleanup mobilized almost 4 million volunteers nationwide that helped to remove 76 million pounds of litter from the environment (Keep America Beautiful, 2010). Volunteer cleanups also help to increase community involvement, something that Newtown residents are interested in improving. Community involvement increases community cohesiveness and community pride as discussed previously, which also has the benefit of fostering a safer and stronger community (socially, economically, and environmentally). The community strength that builds with community involvement is something that can be shared within and between generations. The lack of concern of the younger generations is also something Newtown residents have expressed concern about, and improving the strength and cohesiveness of the community across all generations can be done through community activities such as cleanups. This will ensure that Newtown becomes, and continues to be, a strong, sustainable community, in all aspects of community life (social, economic, and environmental). Public education is also an important step that Newtown residents can take to help prevent and control litter. Litter education can be done, in part, by cleanup leaders giving a short information session about the impacts of litter prior to cleanups. In addition, schoolteachers can create lesson plans that educate students about the impacts of litter, and how best to prevent and control litter. Children often bring home what they have learned, which will pass the knowledge onto the parents and caregivers, increasing the community awareness and knowledge of litter. In addition, schoolteachers and community leaders can establish an educational campaign on the benefits of product reuse and community donations. This would reduce overall waste and save residents money, as discussed previously. Additionally, donations would help other residents in need and foster community strength. Finally, community leaders can educate business owners and residents on the impacts litter has on the economy. By educating the workers and the business owners about litter’s negative impacts on their business, the business owners and 95

employees may take it upon themselves to keep their business area clean (by sweeping parking lots, sidewalks, and entry ways, and by requesting receptacles from the city for outside of their business). According to the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management (1998), public education is the single most effective way to reduce litter, and should be a major part of any litter reduction campaign.

Costs and Benefits of Implementation: Best practices for Newtown to prevent and control litter, and reduce waste, have costs related to implementation. The city of Sarasota will be the main bearer of the monetary costs, and Newtown residents will be the main bearer of the time costs. Installing trash, recyclable, and cigarette receptacles, as well as increasing curbside recycling participation will all have a monetary cost to the city. Installing street signs and enforcing litter laws will also have a monetary cost to the city and a time cost to law enforcement officers. However, the benefits of receptacles, increased recycling, street signs, and enforced litter laws may out-weigh the costs. Having access to public receptacles decreases litter. Decreased litter will decrease environmental degradation, and make for stronger natural ecosystems. In addition, reducing litter can increase community cohesiveness, decrease negative impacts on the economy, and decrease the cost of collecting roadside litter for local and state governments. Moreover, increasing curbside recycling participation decreases the overall waste of the community, which saves energy and landfill space, and decreases overall costs of extracting raw materials for products and packaging (such as making plastics from raw materials). Additionally, enforcing litter laws has the benefit of, over time, preventing litter through the additional police presence and potentially preventing other crimes because of a noticeable law enforcement presence. Connecting with local organizations will have an indirect cost to the city and state because many non-profit organizations such as KSCB receive government grants to help with their costs. However, the primary cost associated with Newtown residents connecting with local environmental organizations, is time spent during public education and cleanup events. This is time donated by community volunteers, which has no monetary costs, but is the simple act of individuals taking the time to lend a hand. Public education can be done as part of cleanup projects, and part of lesson plans in schools. Therefore, cleanups and education are done mainly through community volunteers donating time, and the cost of time spent during education and 96

cleanups is much less than the benefits to the community. These benefits include a healthier environment, stronger economy, stronger and safer community, and an overall increase in community pride that can be shared between and among generations. In addition, because Sarasota and Newtown are working together for redevelopment in Newtown, there is the possibility of Sarasota providing grants for Newtown community beautification. Beautification includes such things as planting trees, painting buildings, renovating old structures, installing benches and paths in parks, and more. However, this beautification money may also be spent on cleaning up litter before any other beautification activities like planting trees can take place. But, if the community takes litter control seriously and tackles the problem on their own, they would have more money for beautification, making their community an even better place to live. An easy to read table has been provided in Appendix A to quickly reference suggested activities, primary responsible parties, their costs and benefits, and in some cases, possible timelines for implementation.

Important Contacts: For community redevelopment to be successful, there needs to be a concerted effort from many different groups of people. The city, law enforcement, department of transportation, Department of Parks and Recreation, local organizations, community educators, and most importantly community residents, need to work together toward a stronger, more sustainable community. Therefore, it is important for the community to have contact information of key government offices, organizations, and individuals that can help with redevelopment. Appendix B contains a table of important contact information for the community of Newtown to help them with their redevelopment.

Conclusion: The impacts of litter and solid waste are far-reaching and can be detrimental to residents, businesses, and the environment. However, litter and solid waste can be managed by bringing together residents, business owners, environmental organizations, law enforcement, and local and state governments. While this management has costs, it also has far-reaching benefits that generally out way the costs of litter prevention and control and waste reduction. Litter prevention and control, and waste reduction, will benefit residents and business owners, in the 97

form of environmental and social benefits, and economic growth and health. Moreover, if litter control is maintained, and ultimately litter is prevented, the benefits will also be seen by future Newtown generations, making the community stronger, prouder, and more sustainable.

References: Chavis, D.M., Wandersman, A. (1990). Sense of Community in the Urban Environment: A Catalyst for Participation and Community Development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18 (1): 55-81. City of Sarasota. Solid waste and recycling. Updated November 7th, 2010. Retrieved November 7th 2010 from http://www.sarasotagov.com/SGC/YGC/SolidWasteRecycling.htm. Clarke, Ronald. (1995). Situational crime prevention. Crime and Justice, 19: 91-150. Retrieved September 21st, 2010 from JSTOR database from USF Libraries. Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Law Enforcement. Environmental Crimes: A Handbook to State Environmental Crime for Patrol Officers, Investigators, and Regulatory Specialist. Florida: Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2002. Dewees, Donald, & Hare, Michael. (1998). Economic analysis of packaging waste reduction. Canadian Public Policy, 24 (4): 453-470. Retrieved September 21st, 2010 from JSTOR database from USF Libraries website. Environmental Protection Agency. Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, and disposal in the United States: Facts and figures for 2008 (Fact Sheet). Updated November 23rd, 2009. Retrieved November 7th, 2010 from: http://www.epa.gov/wastes/nonhaz/municipal/msw99.htm Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. (1995). The Florida litter study: 1994. Gainesville, FL. Produced for the Florida Dept of Environmental Protection. Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. (1998). The Florida litter study: 1998. Gainesville, FL. Produced for the Florida Dept of Environmental Protection. Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management. (2002). The Florida litter study: 2002. Gainesville, FL. Produced for the Florida Dept of Environmental Protection. Hope, Tim. (1995). Community crime prevention. Crime and Justice, 19: 21-89. 98

Retrieved September 19th, 2010 from JSTOR database from USF Libraries website. Keep America Beautiful. Great American Cleanup Results. Updated 2010. Retrieved November 1st, 2010 from http://www.kab.org/site/PageServer?pagename=GAC_2010Results. Leopold, Aldo. (2009). Land Ethic. In Wheeler, S.M., & Beatley, T (Editors), The sustainable urban development reader (pp 24-32). New York: Routledge. Miller, W.L., Townsend, T.G. Creating Public Education and Information Programs for Recycling: A Manual and Guide. Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, State University System of Florida, 1991. Shonholtz, Raymond. (1987). The Citizens Role in Justice: Building a Primary Justice and Prevention System at the Neighborhood Level. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 94, 42-53. Retrieved September 16th, 2010 from JSTOR database on USF Libraries website. Spindler, Charles J. The Effects of Commercial Products Packaging on the Management of Solid Waste in Florida. Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, 1989. United Nations. (1987). Report of the world commission on environment and development: Our common future. Part I, Section 3. http://www.un-documents.net/ocfov.htm#I.3 Zero Waste. Economics of Waste. Retrieved November 7th, 2010 from http://www.zerowasteamerica.org/EconomicsOfWaste.htm

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Newtown Residential Bus Stop Inventory Christopher Cochran

Introduction The “broken window theory” was first introduced in 1982 by Dr. James Q. Wilson and George Keiling. This theory suggests that “…signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. (Keizer, et al. 2008). The broken window theory has been widely debated since its inception and social scientists have conflicting views on the validity of the theory. Despite this conflicting view, the resounding success of New York City’s “Quality of Life” campaign has given a significant boost to the legitimacy of the theory. The Quality of Life campaign took an extremely aggressive approach to cleaning up crime throughout New York City. The campaign focused on addressing all signs of disorder. If graffiti was present, it was identified and painted over, no matter if it needed to be done every day. If litter was present, it was constantly picked up. Homeless people were forced to take advantage of shelter amenities and taken off the streets at night. If a building had a broken window, that window was fixed. No matter what the case, disorder was aggressively addressed and the result was a resounding decrease in crime in one of the world’s most crime prone cities. Recent studies have shown that violent crime, while on the decline in the United States, remains a major fear in the eyes of the public. “It holds the elderly hostage in their own homes, prevents people from using public transportation, forces merchants to close their shops early, discourages investment, thereby increasing the cost of living, working, or operating a business” (Loukaitou-Sideris, 1999). The following study takes this above concept and addresses the concerns of safety and accessibility in regards to public transit in the immediate vicinity of the

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Newtown neighborhood. In taking a broken window approach to addressing bus stop safety and accessibility, the following study aims to present the Administrators of the Newtown Redevelopment Plan with a comprehensive overview of the conditions of bus stop amenities and their surroundings within the residential neighborhood of Newtown. The study aims to identify attributes that may be associated with increased crime activity, decreased safety, and poor accessibility. Transit Crime The role of environmental attributes in transit related crime has been a relatively wellstudied topic. It can be argued that the broken window theory fits well with the idea that the built environmental lends itself to contributing factors associated with accessibility and transit crime. Loukaitou-Sideris’s 1999 study analyzed 10 high-crime bus stops within the Los Angeles public transit system and identified distinguishing factor that contributed to the associated criminal activity. It was found that 70% of the “high-crime” bus stops were not visible from the surrounding stops, lacked adequate lighting, were adjacent to empty lots and vacant buildings, near alleyways, and were not near any police substations (Loukaitou-Sideris, 1999). In comparing these contributing factors with the “broken window theory,” empty lots, dilapidated buildings, poor lighting, and lack of authority are consistent with factors that would contribute to ongoing crime. Identifying and addressing these issues in turn can be a contributing factor to decreasing or preventing both safety and accessibility concerns of neighborhood riders. Newtown Redevelopment Plan The neighborhood of Newtown, located in Sarasota, Florida consists of a historically low-income minority neighborhood. Low-income levels and devastating unemployment have

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contributed to the need for the $11.4 million redevelopment plan. The Newtown Redevelopment Plan has eight primary categories: • • • • • • • • Administration Economic Development Housing Land Use Transportation Community Health, Safety & Welfare Infrastructure Urban Design/Parks

The goals and objectives within each category are challenging, yet reasonable. One of the biggest challenges of the redevelopment plan revolves around the allocation of funds in meeting the expectations of the planners and residents of the neighborhood. The following study is focused on developing a practical approach for administrators to allocate transportation dollars designated for the Newtown Redevelopment Plan. The overall goal of the Transportation effort is to, “Create a safe, efficient traffic circulation system, one in which provides sufficient access by all modes of transportation between activity centers within the redevelopment area and the balance of the community” (Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment). In meeting the expectations of the transportation goals and objectives, the goal is to develop a comprehensive bus stop inventory within the residential areas of the Newtown Redevelopment Plan boundary. In developing the bus stop inventory for Newtown, an existing hybrid of the Easter Seals Project Action Bus Stop Checklist was used to collect the Bus Stop Inventory data. At the Center for Transportation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida (USF), the Citrus Connection of Polk County used a similar hybrid that was successful in providing an economic, demographic and GIS analysis of their bus stop inventory. Two visits were made over a threeweek period to collect data on-site. 102

A Microsoft Access database was developed to collect, maintain, and analyze the 32 residential area bus stops. Attributes of five different categories were collected and analyzed: • • • • • Location Amenities Land Use Infrastructure Safety and Security Features

Within each of these categories, domain attributes were collected that primarily focused on safety and accessibility of each bus stop. Factors such as street lighting, the presence of shelters and benches, sidewalk conditions, landing area conditions, wheelchair accessibility (curb cuts, etc.), and in-road features were considered. GPS Data was collected in conjunction with site inventory data. Having GPS locations allows the data to have a linked geographic component that can be easily mapped to assist in visualizing problem areas. The maps show areas with poor sidewalk conditions, far side bus stops, wheelchair inaccessibility, lack of street lighting, poor conditioned benches, recommended shelter locations, and recommended route locations. The above attributes mapped were chosen as primary problem issues best addressed by available funding sources. In all, the access database, accompanying spreadsheets and maps can be valuable in identifying problem stops and addressing how to best allocate funds in improving ridership, accessibility, and safety within the Newtown area. Findings Overview Map (figure 1)

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Wheelchair Accessibility: • • 26 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had uneven/grass landings that pose potential hazards to wheelchair bound riders. 6 of the 32 bus stops inventoried has concrete landing areas, however, 4 of the 6 concrete landings were uneven and/or had cracked sidewalks that pose potential hazards to wheelchair bound riders. 13 of the 32 bus stop inventoried had obstacles located in the landing area that have the potential to limit the mobility of a wheelchair: o Heavy un-mowed grass and deep sand (StopID 3) o Residential mailbox in the landing area (StopID 7 and StopID 25) o Stop sign in the immediate vicinity of the landing area (StopID 10) o Broken underground utility cover at the immediate landing pad area (StopID 12) o Stop sign potentially in the way (StopID 15) o Bench placed on sidewalk (StopID 30)   Reduces the width of the sidewalk from 4’ across to 2’ across. This has the potential to force a wheelchair bound rider to the uneven grass surface to get to the other side of the bench.

o Sidewalk edge is exposed in a 6” drop off between the grass right of way and the sidewalk edge. This is right at the bus stop and runs parallel to the sidewalk for roughly 10’. (StopID 24) o Tree(StopID 26) o Utility Pole (StopID 28) o Fire hydrant (StopID 29) o Residential mailbox bank that is no longer used with exposed rusted nails at the bus stop site. (StopID 32) o 5 of the 32 bus stops inventoried did not have any accessible ramp to the landing pad  StopID 10  StopID 11 104

  

StopID 13 StopID 14 StopID 16

(figure 2) • 6 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had “Poor” or “Hazardous” sidewalk conditions at or approaching the bus stop site that have the potential to limit wheelchair mobility to and from the bus stop area: o Score of 2: o Score of 1:       In poor shape though not hazardous – very, some root uplifting, cracks, breaks. Hazardous – large breaks, cracks, root uplifting, someone could get hurt from the normal use or use of a wheelchair would be difficult. (Score of 2) (Score of 2) (Score of 1) (Score of 2) (Score of 2) (Score of 2)

StopID 18 StopID 8 StopID 12 StopID 22 StopID 24 StopID 25

(figure 3) • Sidewalk widths at all bus stops are adequate for wheelchair accessibility

Lighting • 9 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had adequate street lighting within 10 feet of the bus stop o StopID 5 o StopID 18 o StopID 9 o StopID 10 o StopID 11 o StopID 16 o StopID 23 o StopID 28 o StopID 32

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1 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had street lighting within 15 feet of the bus stop o StopID 19

22 of the 32 bus stops inventoried did not have any lighting at the bus stop site (figure 4)

Shelter • 1 of the 32 stops had a shelter at the bus stop site o StopID 21 Benches • 5 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had benches at the bus stop site o o o o o • StopID 19 StopID 21 StopID 23 StopID 29 StopID 30

4 of the 5 benches had potentially hazardous conditions associated with them o StopID 19  Broken pieces, bolts exposed

o StopID 23  Loose slats

o StopID 29  Broken pieces, loose bolts, loose slats

o StopID 30  Missing slats, broken pieces, loose bolts

2 of the 5 benches had “poor” or “hazardous” conditions associated with them:

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o Score of 2: o Score of 1:  

In poor shape though not hazardous Hazardous – broken, someone could get hurt from normal use. (Score of 2) (Score of 1)

StopID 19 StopID 30

(figure 5) Miscellaneous Observations and Recommendations • • • All bus stops inventoried had adequate signage with no visibility issues. Only 10 of the 32 bus stops inventoried had additional route/schedule information posted along with the bus stop signage. At the Whittaker Bayou Park (Cocoanut/MLK intersection) it is recommended that the board considering petitioning for a full shelter with trash receptacles and benches to attract more riders to the area. o Appropriate lighting is needed • Observed a lack of any bus stops along the Central Avenue corridor around the existing and new low-cost housing lots. o This area should have a high accessibility to public transit as low-income areas trend higher ridership. (figure 6)

Safety Considerations • 26 of the 32 bus stops inventoried do not have crosswalk access to the bus stop site o StopID 9 is at a school and there is no crosswalk at that site  Should consider allocating resources to put one in place at all school and high ridership intersections.

2 of the 32 bus stops inventoried have “far side” intersection stop sites

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o There are disadvantages and advantages to both  Safety concern issue   Stopping on the far side of the intersections increases the possibility of a rear-end accident Exposes the exiting rider to danger if they cross in front of the bus o Limited site to oncoming traffic o Drops passenger passed the intersection crosswalk  Most advantages are associated with traffic flow o In these residential areas, high traffic volume would not out weight any immediate rider safety benefit (figure 7)

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Figure5.

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Figure6.

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Figure7.

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References Keizer, Kees, Lindenberg, Siegwart, and Steg, Linda. (2008). “The Spreading of Disorder.” Science, Accessed on November 19, 2010 from: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/322/5908/1681.full. Loukaitou-sideris, Anastasia. (1999). “Hot Spots of Bus Stop Crime: The Importance of Environmental Attributes.” Journal of American Planning Association, 65: 4, 395 – 411. Easter Seals Project Action. 2010. “Quick Bus Stop Checklist.” Accessed October, 5, 2010 from http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit. Paul, Brian. (2010). “How ‘Transit-Oriented Development’ Will Put More New Yorkers in Cars.” Transportation, Accessed November 15, 2010 from: http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/transportation/20100421/16/3247 Newtown Community Redevelopment Website. (2008). Accessed from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/CRA.html Preston, J., & Raje, F. (2007). Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusion☆. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(3), 151-160. European Conference of Ministers of Transport, (1991). TRANSPORT FOR PEOPLE WITH Holzer, H. J., Quigley, J. M., & Raphael, S. (2003). Public transit and the spatial distribution of minority employment: Evidence from a natural experiment. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22(3), 415-441. Pfeiffer, D. (1990). Public Transit Access for Disabled Persons in the United States. Disability & Society, 5(2), 153-166.

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A Citizen’s Initiative for Sustainable Urban Living through Expanded Recycling and Conservation in the Home and Community Melanie M. DeCesare Sustainability can be described as social equity, economy, and environment. At the international and national level, it can be observed that access to all three components of sustainability may be contingent on socio-economic status and political influence. Since social equity is often limited in low-income housing and with the working poor, the impacts of economy and environment can be seen at their greatest in these areas. Such groups are often silently suffering from not having their voices heard by the local government. In return, this subjects them to the further depletion of living conditions. From this depletion of living conditions, a sense of community must arise. A group that comes together may have greater influence on their surroundings. The voice of many can hold tremendous power and with this magnitude, the community has the ability to improve their opportunities for equality. However, this must start at the community level. Only at this scale, will economy improve in a given area. Such an example is the Newtown area of Sarasota. The community of Newtown recognizes that there is a need to improve the quality of life of its citizens. Community improvements may be possible through the use of community programs. When looking at housing, pride of ownership exists; this is a good indictor that the people of Newtown also have a sense of community pride and will want to improve their neighborhood accordingly. Community programs may be able to assist areas like in Newtown in implementing a way to improve and clean up local neighborhoods. It is proposed that Newtown can expand its recycling programs to implement water recycling, education and the use of home -growing programs. Furthermore, a community composting project may also reduce the strain on local landfills and feed local community gardens. Newtown will have the ability to further reduce 117

waste, engage in conservation measures and become self subsidized in growing the best local produce available to them. The implementation of the expanded recycling program shall provide a foundation for a community initiative to reduce each family’s carbon footprint by reducing rates of consumption. The proposed plan of implementation will improve the well being of the environment, while producing long, happy, meaningful lives. Innovative solutions can challenge mainstream thinking but its ending result forms partnerships with people and puts the planet first (The Happy Planet Index, May, 2010). Recycling programs are both beneficial for the environment and may develop educational opportunities that could lead to economically sustainable behaviors. Through expansion efforts of current municipal recycling programs to include community specific initiatives, residents can assist in improving environmental conditions and develop behaviors that will contribute to implementing cost saving behaviors. The expansion of current recycling programs to include water conservation measures, deepening home growing programs, and establishing a municipal composting program will provide a three pronged approach to sustainability, providing environmentally based benefits which are rewarded with financial incentives. Present grant money will be utilized to establish infrastructure for new recycling initiatives and for a citizen educational campaign that can assist residents in understanding the economic rewards and supporting such community programming. Water conservation measures include a multi-faceted approach. Flushing toilets accounts for twenty six percent of all indoor water use (Pasco County Utility Board, 2010.) Pasco County currently administers a toilet rebate program, which is administered though an outside contractor. Applicants are reimbursed one hundred dollars for the first high flow toilet and eighty for a second high flow toilet which is replaced with proof of purchase of 1.6 gallon ultra low flow 118

toilets. The toilets are inspected and removed by the contractor where they are moved to a facility in Spring Hill, Florida for ceramic recycling. Pinellas County also once administered a high flow toilet replacement program on a county wide basis, which has ended. The program provided a rebate of up to $100 for replacement of a high flow toilet with an ultra low flow toilet. The program was cooperatively funded by Pinellas County and the Pinellas-Anclote River Basin Board of the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Sarasota County also discontinued its low flow toilet rebate program. Newtown Community Development initiatives could reimplement this program specifically for its residents within Sarasota. With the installation of low flow toilets, thirteen percent of a resident’s bill could be reduced. For a family that utilizes 8,000 gallons of water each month at a rate of $8.62 for water and sewer, this represents a water bill savings of $8.97 per month (scgov.net, 2010). Approximately forty percent of water used in summer is used outdoors which is when most areas face water shortages and endure water restrictions (Garden Rainwater Saver, November, 2, 2010). This water shortage period is when plants and trees require water the most. As populations grow, water shortages occur. Saving rain water saves money and helps the environment. The more rainwater is used, the less the need to use chlorinated or other chemically treated tap water, making healthier vegetation as well. Using more rainwater also means that less that will go into storm water drains, where it is mixed with oil and other toxic residues from streets and parking lots. Rain barrels are covered barrels that have a whole or screen top to collect rainwater from gutter downspouts and other run off areas and from precipitation directly. Although commercial rain barrels are available at most home supply retailers, they are easy to make and can be fashioned to be very presentable in a residential landscape. At the bottom they have a spigot to release the water for use in lawn maintenance and for other non-potable water 119

usage. Some states currently offer incentives for water collecting. Detailed instructions are included in Appendix A. If interested in implementing this project, the Southwest Florida Water Management District recommends checking the Yellow Pages under listings for drums, barrels and containers (http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us, 2010). Plastic food- grade containers are most adequate for local rain barrel builders and readily available. The city of Sarasota does not require permits for rain barrels (http://www.scgov.net, 2010). Drywell systems are another source of relieving strain on the sewer system. They enable water to be returned naturally to the environment without being processed through municipal septic systems. In rainy seasons, drywell systems are capable of collecting runoff water from impervious surfaces such as patios and roofs and returning them to sub surface ground layers for natural distribution back into the environment. Florida’s sand grained subsurface provides ample absorption for dry well systems, where soil percolation takes place. Drywells expedite the process of transferring water back to the subsurface terrain. Most buildings are engineered so that water naturally drains away from the contour of our homes. Having a plan in place to naturally avert the excess water away from the public storm drain systems remedies the need for large scale water processing in the wet season which bypasses processing standards and results in elevated toxins in the Tampa Bay watershed. Installation of dry well systems is relatively easy and inexpensive. The system consists of a buried pipe and a filtration unit, such as a trash barrels with holes in it. It is never emptied as it drains itself. The trash barrel is filled with rocks, gravel or crushed stone so that is does not rise from the ground, nor does it crush under the pressure of the earthen overlay. A trench must be dug from the location where water will be moved from to the location of the well itself. This trench must be about eighteen inches deep so that it can accommodate a 120

perforated pipeline. The drain pipe should slope downward as it leaves the starting location until it reaches the containing unit. This creates a steady flowing drain which uses gravity as its conductor. By surrounding the containing unit with landscape fabric, one will avoid soil from filling the containers drains and clogging it. The drain pipe should be inserted into one of the holes in the trash barrel. Appendix B demonstrates a diagram of all components and processes. For Newtown residents that would like to integrate the use of rain barrels and dry well drains, integration is possible. To utilize both programs, locations which have rain barrels that surpass the usage patterns of the rain collected in the barrel, the barrel can be placed on a drainage pan. The pan collects the overflow from the rain barrel and contains a drain, which is connected into the drain pipe. When this happens the overflow from the rain barrel is added to the excess water being re-deposited into the ground, also bypassing the public storm water drainage system. This system becomes a multi-faceted approach to optimization of water reclamation and the direct ground deposit of water which is not needed (Onthehouse.com/wp20000508. November, 6, 2010). In unison, these three innovations can significantly decrease dependence on Florida’s aquifer, especially draw down in the dry season and in growing seasons in Florida. Grass roots efforts on the part of citizens become a measurable and noteworthy savings on water usage, while providing measurable differences to water and septic bills. In addition to water conservation, composting is another way in which citizens can reduce their impact on the environment. Composting has occurred since vegetation first existed on the earth. As leaves and fruit fall from trees and die, they enrich the soil through the process of natural decomposition. Humans have been composting for decades, as well. Agricultural communities have used composting as a way to enrich their gardens for years. Now, a much 121

larger movement for composting in urban areas has begun. Composting has taken on its own popularity as a new way to go “green”. City dwellers are becoming more aware of the benefits of compost in their gardens and they are realizing that it is best to recycle natural products back to the earth. Municipalities have had a major influence in this movement with programs to dispose of recyclable waste. Until recent years, this generally has included only yard wastes. These programs vary in operational format but all the same goal of recycling natural material for the earth's benefit. In many cases, after the material has been composted, the city sells the compost back to citizens who wish to purchase it for their yards or gardens. In this way, city composting programs provide two services: they allow city dwellers to compost their organic waste, and they also make compost material available for sale at reasonable prices. A municipal composting program may seem simple or complex. The inclusion of food products can be a large project to manage, but has proven successful in several cities, administered in a variety of ways. First, the citizens of the municipality must be educated about what types of products can be collected and how they are to be contained. Citizen outreach campaigns are necessary to broaden the understanding of the benefits of participating. Second, the city must decide how they wish collect the waste. Some municipalities use bulk collection, where leaves and waste are piled in the street or yard and trucks come collect the debris. Another way to collect the waste is through drop off sites where citizens can take their waste to a central collection area (Sullivan and Goldstein, July 2009). After trucks have picked up the organic waste, the material must be transported to a central composting site to be processed and composted. Several months later, the waste thrown out will be available again for resale to

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citizens as premium compost. Compost can be used in many ways, enriching crop yield. Twenty four percent of the United States' solid waste is made up of yard trimmings and food scraps (US Environmental Protection Agency, November 08, 2010). With the ability to convert all this waste into premium compost and return it to the earth, these programs are hugely beneficial. Several options for the implementation of composting efforts can be explored for Newtown. The complexity and level of involvement from the citizen, community, and municipality vary greatly. Backyard composting programs are the most basic and involve the least amount of municipal involvement. These programs are implemented by using citizens who participate on a voluntary basis. These programs however, are greatly beneficially to the municipality and costs associated with trash collection. For this reason, it is in the best interest of local government to provide subsidies to local composters. The national average for governments which cost share with citizens is $12 per ton for backyard composting. The trash collection savings is $23 per ton and $32 for disposal. The net gain for governments which have backyard composting programs is about $43-$44 per ton (Sherman-Huntoon, 2005). For citizens, they are able to have more fertile yards. Yards which use compost are known to withstand droughts and freezes more readily, as the root system is stronger and it assists in maintaining soil from erosion. Sherman-Huntoon, 2005, states in most communities which implement compost programs, there is generally one paid person who is responsible for the program efforts. This person implements its inception and maintains the program. This person, however, can provide other functions in his/her municipal employment. In order to establish such a program, the most productive efforts were to subsidize bin distribution or provide them at cost, establish variable 123

refuse fees for those that decided to participate (in communities who charge for trash collection), train volunteers and establish outreach programs, implement school composting programs, host workshops and demonstration days, distribute booklets and literature, print inserts for utility bills and purchase newspaper advertisements. A second approach to establishing a composting program is from a community administered approach. In New York City, for example, The Ecology Center’s community composting program has been in effect since 1990 where it originally existed at the community garden. Overtime, the demand grew and an additional location at Union Square Green Market was added for kitchen scrap drop off, accommodating drops offs five days per week, including both weekend days. The materials are collected and transported to the East River Park in-vessel composting system, where it is processed and returned to the marketplace to be sold in about three months time. An in-vessel system is comprised of 16 one cubic yard containers. For this reason, brownfield sites become a viable location for in-vessel facilities as it freestanding of the natural earth. “The first step of this process begins by layering nitrogen rich food waste with a carbon source in the form of high-grade sawdust, another waste-product, collected from various local wood shops, into the ‘in-vessel’ composting system. Once a container is filled the lid is sealed, and the decomposition process begins. The containers are designed to facilitate an 'aerobic' decomposition process, by allowing air to pass through vents on the bottom and the top of the bins. During a retention time of 10 -15 days, the materials in the bins are reduced by one fifth of their original volume and reach temperatures of 150 degrees Fahrenheit, to ensure pathogen destruction.” (NYC Compost Project in Manhattan, 2010). At that time, the compost is moved to

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windrows for curing where red wriggler worms are able to digest microorganism during the cooling process. When complete, the compost is screened to remove any large rocks and sticks (NYC Compost Project in Manhattan, 2010).

Municipal compost programs have been implemented in some areas as an extension of the recycling program. Citizens are provided with a durable compost container. Organic household scraps and yard waste can be combined in this container and intermittently it is picked up. In areas such as Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, composted soil is even returned to the citizens at a later time (community composting.ca, 2010). Twenty miles south of Philadelphia, Wilmington, Delaware is home to Wilmington Organics Recycling Center. This is perhaps the most successful composting programs in the United States and is not municipally owned. Ideally located, the composting facility is adjacent to the Port of Wilmington which receives shiploads of fresh produce on a daily basis. It opened in May of 2009, after the local landfill ban yard trimmings at the facility. At its inception in December 2009, the facility was accepting 300 tons of waste each day. By Earth Day 2010, the facility was fully operational. As of June, the amount had grown to 550 tons per day but maximum capacity is 700 tons per day (Sullivan and Goldstein, 2010). Southbridge is a neighborhood which borders the facility. Southbridge is a predominantly minority neighborhood that has been prone to living near the local landfill, traffic and noise for 125

many years. The municipal composting complex was built with extreme community support including the surrounding neighbors, which include Southbridge, as the result of educating the neighbours about its need, use, and benefits. With the support of the community, the 27 acre former brownfield site was designated as the future home of the composting facility. A community benefits agreement which provided jobs for the surrounding residents also assisted the facility in obtaining expedited permitting to move forward. The initial pledge was that at least twenty percent of all jobs would be given to the local community. As of June 2010, the figure was sixty percent (Sullivan and Goldstein, 2010). The composting facility is set up to quickly move the intake process forward. The trucks come into the facility for a weighing in process. Then the materials move to the tipping area, windrowing area, screening area and to the outtake yard. The weigh-in process takes place in a 18,000 square foot building which is kept under negative pressure to mitigate odor. Trained workers determine the loads need for carbon and nitrogen exposure depending on the load’s moisture content. Materials are also fed into a slow speed shredder where it moves to a picking station where workers remove non-organic contaminates. Any leachate and excess waters are sent to a sanitary sewer which feeds an aerated retention pond (Sullivan and Goldstein, 2010). Wilmington Organic Recycling Center contains sixty-four 200 foot long windrows. Each windrow is large enough to contain one days recycling from the municipality as the waste starts its eight week windrowing process. Fifty-six are covered and the remaining eight are open for the final stage of the composting process. After windrowing has taken place, the compost is screened. Retail sales only accounts for one percent of the compost sold. Most compost is trucked out for bulk usage. Because composting facilities are able to operate on previous brownfields, Newtown has the

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space and location to house a composting facility. The Marion Anderson Brownfield, located at the edge of town with natural isolation barriers from housing, could meet this composting need. Citizens should be informed and outreach programs exist to rally local citizens to support such measures in an effort to decrease waste and restore jobs. Local composting programs also provide the tools needed for local citizens to engage in growing programs at the residential, community and commercial levels. In addition to the benefits of growing, a longitudinal St. Louis study of impacts of community gardens indicated that evidence supported the presence of positive economic indicators. In areas where community gardens existed, home values increased, as did owner occupancy rates (Broadway, 2009). Cities including Milwaukee, Detroit and Seattle actively promote the process of rebuilding links between local food production and consumption by promoting urban agriculture and farmers markets (Broadway, 2009). Farmers markets are a great resource to educate consumers and to allow citizens who want locally grown food but can not grow their own to acquire local vegetation. By using local resources, as a community, we eliminate natural resource imports from other areas which cause pollution acquired during transit. Additionally, the freshest produce is highest in nutrients as some nutrients diminish with age in the transit process. Even in places where soils are less poor, gardens are possible. In Syracuse, New York, a group of Somali immigrants had wanted to grow some community gardens. The soil was poor from years of industrial use that had rendered the soils useless from lead and arsenic problems in much of the area. With the assistance of Filtrexx Gardens Sacks, compost from the Onengada County Resource Recovery Agency, and the seedlings fm local nurseries a surface garden was established. Local university experts were sceptical of the gardens ability to survive. In subsequent visits, they were amazed at the success. The garden also acted as a community

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builder. Speculation by university experts about the community’s low interest level was also unfounded (Sullivan 2010). Opportunities to broaden the scope of community gardens and residential gardens should further be explored. Use of current technologies enables Newtown residents the ability to reduce their carbon footprint by growing locally instead of buying imported vegetation. As the result, each resident can expect to subsidize their grocery bill accordingly. With creativity and vision, options are available to the residents of Newtown to protect the urban environment, restore nature and prosper economically as the result of self supportive measures which save money and the potential job creation of some of the programs suggested to become involved in working as a community for a sustainable Newtown community.

Appendix A - : Automatic Rainwater Collection System : Courtesy of http://www.gardenwatersaver.com/9.html

How to Make Rainbarrels There are three methods described here for MAKING RAINBARRELS. These instructions are all designed for totally enclosed rainbarrel systems thus avoiding mosquito problems. 1. OPEN TOP CONTAINERS WITH LIDS This is the most simple type for those who have access to open top barrels. Trash cans can be used; however, for the back pressure to occur completely, the top should be sealed with duct tape. Instructions: 1. Drill a 1” hole near the bottom of the container 2. Attach “Spigot for open top container" 3. Drill a 3/4" hole in the top for the diverter hose to fit in

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2. PLASTIC BARREL PLACED HORIZONTALLY This is just as easy and takes only 10 minutes to make. Instructions: 1. Drill a 1/2 to max 3/4” hole in the center of the bung that is threaded. This will leave a small collar which will act as a washer. 2. Attach "Spigot for Barrels (Horizontal)" 3. Drill a 3/4” hole on the side of the barrel that is opposite to the drilled bung. Have a look at menu item 'How to make Rain Barrels' to get a better understanding plus ideas for horizontal barrels

3. PLASTIC BARRELS USED VERTICALLY The third way while a bit more complicated is probably the most favorable in that recycled closed top barrels which are the most common and readily available are used in the vertical position. Here are the steps in Picture form:

STEP 1

STEP 2

Drill a 15/16” hole near the bottom or file about 1/64th " of a 1 inch drill bit STEP 3

Heat the area (To soften the plastic) STEP 4

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Spigot for Barrel (vertical) Tighten hard (if no washer used)

STEP 6 STEP 5

Drill 3/4” hole (in Threaded Bung)

Attach hose to Garden Watersaver Diverter unit

HINTS 1. For drilling for the spigot - file 1/64" off the blade drill bit ( a little off each side ) and do not use a washer and tighten the Spigot hard. If it will not tighten hard then use the washer ( and if necessry teflon tape ) 2. If the plan is to link barrels then do not file the 1” blade bit until you drill the holes for the Connector kit. as it needs a full 1 “ hole 3. Do not use barrels that contained chemicals and do not drink the rainwater without purifying. Barrels that contained food products or soap type products are available in most cities. Go to http://www.google.com and write in plastic barrels and your city 130

Appendix B

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Bibliography Agyeman, Julian. Sustainable Communities and the Challenge of Environmental Justice. New York, NY: New York University Press, 2005. Ageyman, J., Bullard, R., Evans, B. Just Sustainabilities: Development in and Unequal World. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. Boschmann, Eric. “Metropolitan Area Job Accessibility and the Working Poor: Exploring Local Spatial Variations of Geographic Context.” Urban Geography May 16-June 30 2010. 498-522 Broadway, Michael. “Growing Urban Agriculture in North American Towns: The example of Milwaukee.” Focus on Geography. Winter 2009. 23-30. “Building Your Own Dry Well System.” Onthehouse.com/wp20000508. November, 6, 2010. Web. www.onethhouse.com/wp20000508 Bullard, Robert. Growing Smarter: Achieving Livable Communities, Environmental Justice. And Regional Equity. Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 2007. Bullard, Robert. “People-of-Color Environmentalism.” Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview. 1990. Bullard, Robert. The Black Metropolis in the Twenty-first Century: Race, Power and Politics of Place. Lanham, Md: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007. Bullard, R., Johnson, S., Torres, A. Sprawl City: Race, Politics and Planning in Atlanta. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000. Camacho, David. Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles: Race, Class and the 132

Environment. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1993. Curley, Alexander. “Relocating the Poor: Social Capital and Neighborhood Resources.” Journal of Urban Affairs 1/2010. 79-103. Daly, Herman. “The Happy Planet Index 2.0.” The New Economics Foundation. Report. May 2009. Eisenberg, D. and Yost, P. “Sustainability in Building Codes.” Environmental Building News. 10.9.2001, 8-15. Frail, T.A, “Farms Will go to Town.” Smithsonian Magazine, July/August 2010. 56. Fraser, Rebekah. “Composting for Urbanite.” Vegetarian Times July/August 2010, 20-21. “Garden Rainwater Saver.” http://www.gardenwatersaver.com/1.html, November, 2, 2010. Web. Giuliani, F., and Wiesenfeld, E. “Promoting Sustainable Communities: Theory, Research and Action.” Community, Work & Family, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2003. 159-180. Hayden, Dolores. “ Domesticating Urban Space.” Redesigning the America Dream: The Future of Housing. Work and Family Life. New York, NY: Norton, 1984. Hoffman, Melody K. “The Urban Farmer: Revitalizing Lives, Communities.” Jet April 19-26 2010. 34-6. Ilieva, P. and Pao Lian, K. “Learning from Informal Cities, Building for Communities.” The Futurist. September/October 2010. 24-26. “Improvement in Toto: Commemorating Achievement in Community Revitalization.” Journal of Housing and Community Development. July/August 2007. 34-38 Learner, Michael. “A Progressive Politics of Meaning.” The Politics of Meaning: Restoring Hope and Possibility in an Age of Cynicism. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Press, 1993. Maclaren, Virginia. “Urban Sustainability Reporting. “ Journal of the American Planning Association. 1996. McDonald, William. “Design, Ecology, Ethics and the Making of Things.” New York: 1993. “NYC East Side Composting Program.” http://www.lesecologycenter.org/#. October, 28, 2009. Web. Ohmer, M., Meadowcroft, P., Freed, K., and Lewis, E. “Community Gardening and Community Development: Individual, Social and Community Benefits.” Journal of Community Practice Oct-Dec 2009, 377-399. “Pasco County Utilities-Toilet Rebate.” Portal.pascocountyfl.net, November 8, 2010. Web. 133

Perlman, J. and O’meara Sheehan, M. “Fighting Poverty and Environmental Injustice in Cities.” State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future. Worldwatch Institute, 2007. Phillips, I., Opatrny, M,. Bennett, S. and Ordner D. “Homeownership Impact on Habitat for Humanity Partner Families.” Social Development. March 2009, 48-65. Price, Tom. “Corporate Social Responsibility: Is Good Citizenship Good For Bottom Line?” CQ Researcher. August 3, 2007. 649-672. Roseland, M. and Soots, L. “Stregnthening Our Local Economy.” State of the World 2007: Our Urban Future. Worldwatch Institute, 2007. Rypkema, Donovan. “The Rest of the Sustainability Story.” Planning May/June 2010, 56. Sherman-Huntoon. Community Backyard Composting Programs . North Carolina Extension Service. Raleigh: North Carolina. 2005. Small, M., Harding, D., and Lamont, M. “Reconsidering Culture and Poverty.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science May 2010. 6-27 Sullivan, Dan. “Compost-Based Growing System Sprouts Innovation.” BioCycle July 2010. Sullivan, D. and Goldstein, N. “Urban Facility Delivers Food Waste Composting Capacity.” Biocycle. June 2010. 16-20. Vale, B. and R. “Principles of Green Architecture.” Green Architecture. Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1991. Wenz, Philip S. “How Green Is Their Valley?” Planning. February 2009. 32-35

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Brownfields to Created Wetlands: A Project Initiative for Newtown, Sarasota Sara Giunta Introduction As the world’s population continues to expand, researchers, governmental leaders and communities are looking for solutions to help sustain growing populations. Within the past few decades urban sprawl has been directly responsible for the increase in cost-of-living expenses, traffic congestion, as well as a decrease in quality of life (Fan et al., 2005). Zovanyi (2004) suggests that controlling urban growth within specified boundaries may lower the cost of providing public amenities, while at the same time conserving rural lands and protecting environmentally-fragile areas, such as wetlands, from urban sprawl. More and more greenspace is being converted to feed and house the growing population. As a result, fragile environments, including wetlands, are being destroyed in the process. In addition, contaminated areas such as brownfields are being used to house lower-income families. These residents are being evicted out of their current communities so that developers may revitalize these areas to be more appealing to middle-class families. Fan et al. (2005) lists several factors which may be of concern to communities if urban sprawl continues to increase; these include: environmental impacts, loss of farmland, loss of open space, traffic problems, urban decline, loss of communities and loss of historic site. Recently, researchers have identified a phenomenon called sustainable development, which can be used to alleviate some of these environmental problems and community concerns. Dorsey (2003) identifies sustainable development as the symbiotic relationship among people, the environment and natural resources. As society desperately seeks to find resolutions for a more sustainable future, such solutions will need to address the demands of the present without

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compromising the needs of the future (Dorsey, 2003). For example, solutions to the growing problem of environmental degradation need to be sustainable for all future generations. Sustainable development provides guidance on how a growing society will be able to efficiently utilize and manage their natural resources (Dorsey, 2003). In the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the sustainability movement began to take off, little emphasis was placed on growth management (Zovanyi, 2004). Scholars of the sustainable development movement hypothesize that a sustainable community needs to balance social equity, economic prosperity and environmental integrity (Zovanyi, 2004) so that future generations can be less dependent on the environment. Finally, Dorsey (2003) suggests that the current interest and investment in brownfields that have occurred during the past few decades may be strongly correlated to the idea of sustainable development. Wetlands The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), one of the leading state agencies responsible for protecting Florida’s wetlands, defines wetlands as “those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or ground water at a frequency and a duration sufficient to support, and under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soils” (Gilbert et al., 1995, pgs 1-2). The wetland boundary line often lies within an ecotone, which is an area where two or more communities overlap one another (Gilbert et al., 1995). Kivaisi et al. (2001) further defines wetlands as transitional areas between land and water that can be distinguished by wet soils, plants that are adapted to wet soils and a water table depth that maintains these characteristics. Wetlands support a rich diversity of wildlife and fisheries by serving as nesting areas for migratory birds and spawning grounds for fish and shellfish (Kivaisi et al., 2001). Wetland ecosystems make up only 6% of the global land

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area and are considered the most threatened of all environmental resources (Turner et al, 1991). According to Mitsch and Gosselink (2000), wetlands are considered the “kidneys of a landscape”, in that they function as downstream receivers of both water and waste from natural and anthropogenic sources. Wetlands are beneficial in that they serve as sources, sinks, and transformers of a great number of chemical, biological and genetic materials (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). Wetlands have been known to provide the following functions: flood protection, wildlife habitats, nutrient recycling, and storage (Turner et al., 1991), as well as cleansing polluted waters, protecting shorelines and helping to recharge groundwater aquifers (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). Wetlands are categorized into three groups: salt/freshwater swamps, marshes and bogs; each group is based on the dominance of particular vegetative plant species (Kivaisi et al., 2001). Wetland classification aids environmental scientists in understanding the relationship between the different types of wetlands, including their soil characteristics, which are dependent on the accumulation of organic matter (Richardson and Vepraskas, 2001). The dominant plants types found in wetlands include woody plants and trees found in swamps, soft-stemmed plants found in marshes and mosses and acid-loving plants found in bogs (Kivaisi, et al., 2001). A fourth type of wetland class not usually included with the other three groups, are the estuarine wetlands. Mangroves are the dominant plant species found in these systems, which are located along tropical and subtropical shorelines and occupy areas dominated by salt, brackish and freshwater tidal marshes (Richardson and Vepraskas, 2001). Wetland Regulations Wetlands began to suffer from degradation and pollution as a result from population expansion and industry growth. Urban sprawl and development is suspected as one of the leading causes of

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habitat degradation and species endangerment in the United States (Fan et al., 2005). Turner et al. (1991) noted that wetlands became exploited due to their open accessibility and lack of regulatory enforcement. Prior to the mid-1970s, destruction and drainage of wetlands was an acceptable practice and was often encouraged by governmental policies (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). Until the middle of the 20th century, governmental programs enticed landowners to drain wetlands in order to create more land suitable for farming and agriculture (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). As a result certain methodologies such as dredging and filling, used to develop suitable land, severely degraded many of the fragile ecosystems (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). The lack of appreciation and knowledge of the value and sustainability of these ecosystems has significantly contributed to permanent wetland loss (Turner, 1991). As communities and neighborhoods began to express interest in the environment around them, people started to realize the importance that wetlands have on the environment. As a result, environmental laws were enacted in order to eliminate harmful activities that destroy natural resources and wetlands (Tiner, 1999). Wetlands are regulated by three levels of government, including local, state, and federal and various environmental professionals. These agencies and organizations strive to preserve the production of natural resources and improve the aesthetics of the fragile ecosystem (Mitsch and Gosselink, 2000). The U.S. federal government protects wetlands under two laws: the Rivers and Harbors Act and the Clean Water Act (Tiner, 1999). The Rivers and Harbor Act focuses on protecting navigable waters and involves the disposal of dredged material and removal of potential hazards to navigations, while the Clean Water Act regulates the deposition of fill in waters of the state (Tiner, 1999). Environmental agencies, including the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) and the Environmental Protection Commission

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(EPC), use the Clean Water Act as guidelines to regulate and enforce activities occurring in wetlands areas. Created Wetlands The creation and/or restoration of wetlands are usually part of the mitigation process required as a result of wetland loss by land development (shopping centers, highways, suburban development, etc) (Mitsch et al., 1998). Mitigation is the process in which a wetland is created in order to offset the impacts caused to the original wetland. The success of a created wetland is often determined when the newly created wetland fully replaces the function of the destroyed wetland (Mitsch et al., 1996). However, not all wetland creation or restoration projects are considered successful. Natural environmental impacts, such as fluctuating hydrology, wash-outs, scouring, planting failure and the infiltration of other animal and plant species, can decrease biodiversity and exhaust water quality function (Mitsch et al., 1996). Mitsch et al. (1998) offers several suggestions for the successful creation of a wetland. These include (1) multiple-seeding to increase the chance of vegetative growth, (2) multiple-transplanting to create an even distribution of plant germination, (3) establishing open systems to allow the natural environment to influence wetland design and (4) initiate proper training of wetland restorationists to create functional wetland systems. In addition, wetland mitigation projects should be given at least 15 years to determine if the new ecosystem is successful (Mitsch et al., 1996). Because these systems are fragile, a sufficient amount of time is needed to achieve full wetland characteristics (wetland plant dominance, soil characteristics, etc) in order to classify the project as a success. Brownfields Siikamaki et al. (2008) defines brownfields as properties that at one time housed abandoned or used industrial facilities, where current expansion and redevelopment efforts have

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been hampered by fear of potential contamination. Furthermore, the Virginia Natural Resource Institute defines brownfield sites as underused or abandoned industrial/commercial property where future development is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination (Virginia Natural Resource Institute website). Brownfield sites are often situated within urban residential communities or other areas of high ecological value, such as rivers and streams (Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007). Some of these abandoned facilities may be over 100 years old and therefore, years of harmful chemicals, materials, and debris may have penetrated the brownfield site (Siikamaki et al., 2008). Examples of existing brownfield sites may include old and/or closed factories, railyards, landfills, dry cleaners and housing projects (Virginia Natural Resource Institute website). Strategies to redevelop brownfield sites have been devised in recent years and focuses on the sustainability, quality and functionality of the site, with respect towards the historic, socioeconomic and cultural features (Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007). In 1993, the ClintonGore administration established the Brownfield Initiative which strived to clean up abandoned lightly contaminated sites and restore them to community use standards (Dorsey, 2003). In 2002, the Bush administration passed the Small Business Liability Act, which authorized up to $250 million per year to support brownfield redevelopment efforts and clarified the process by which new purchasers and users of brownfield properties can reduce their liability (Siikamaki et al., 2008). In addition, the law provided liability protection for prospective buyers, neighboring property owners and innocent landowners (Dorsey, 2003). Brownfield sites are attractive to people interested in the economic viability of older urban areas. Once brownfields are made productive again, they can create jobs, create tax revenues and attract economic activity back into these developed areas (Dorsey, 2003). Appendix B, from the Florida Department of

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Environmental Protection’s website, illustrates some of the incentives that may be available when a community cleans up a brownfield site. The Virginia Natural Resource Institute lists a variety of future uses for redeveloped brownfield sites including public parks, hospitals, new businesses, and even wetland creation (Virginia Natural Resource Institute website). Brownfield Redevelopment Brownfield redevelopment projects can drastically improve urban neighborhoods. In the 1990s, interest in brownfield redevelopment dramatically increased as many older urban areas continued to deteriorate and suburban sprawl consumed more and more land (O’Reilly and Brink, 2006). Hopfensperger et al. (2006) suggests that gathering historical and current information about a brownfield site may be important in determining appropriate restoration goals and in identifying what information could still be needed. In addition, knowing the hazard and exposure potential of a brownfield may also be important in planning redevelopment efforts. The hazard potential indicates the toxicity and the amount of contaminant present, while the exposure potential calculates the contaminant’s location, physical property and duration of exposure (O’Reilly and Brink, 2006). This information is especially important if a particular brownfield site is being developed into new housing projects or other community facilities. Brownfield redevelopment can have many benefits including, revitalization of contaminated areas, promotion of “smart growth” development, reduction of development pressure on greenfields, reduction of risk to public health and economic growth (Wedding and Crawford-Brown, 2007). However, Siikamaki et al. (2008) identifies four obstacles in converting brownfields into urban development projects; these include high costs and lack of funding for conversions, remediation issues, land acquisition problems and redevelopment and long-term maintenance issues. Overall, brownfield redevelopment projects improve public

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health and the natural environment. Site cleanups can reduce exposure to hazardous substances and can heighten economic activity by creating jobs, increasing incomes, and improving sales of off-site properties (Siikamaki et al., 2008). Brownfield redevelopment involves large-scale efforts to revitalize new business and continued community development (Dorsey, 2003). Efforts must be directed at clearly defining the types of redevelopments that can occur at a particular site, which may include housing, community centers or other facilities (Wedding and Crawford-Brown, 2007). Choosing an appropriate redevelopment project will vary with each brownfield site. As opposed to treating brownfield sites as problematic areas, some cities  and communities have recognized that there are advantages to redeveloping these  abandoned sites (Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007). Restoration The desire for successful habitat restoration is rapidly growing. Environmental scientists and urban planners need to figure how to successfully restore an ecosystem, rather than rely on maps, surveys or other computer technology, which predict vegetative growth or other indicators of ecosystem development (Miller, 2007). Every restoration project will be different and not necessarily follow the “textbook” criteria of how to restore a wetland ecosystem. Restoration projects often focus on cleaning up contaminated lands, replanting native vegetation and restoring streams, wetlands or other surface waters (Riley, 1998). The goal of ecological restoration, for example, is to model the structure, function and diversity of the original ecosystem (Riley, 1998). Unfortunately, restoration projects may face many problems. In the United States, urban development is the leading cause of species endangerment, followed by the dissemination of invasive species, such as Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) (Czech, 2005). As a result of urbanization, habitats are often agitated, allowing invasive species to take

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over and shade out native vegetation (Czech, 2005). Therefore, biodiversity is often at a loss as focus is usually emphasized on economic growth, resulting in urbanization (Czech, 2005). In order to address these issues ecologists need to address what is historical and indigenous to the site being restored (Riley, 1998). In addition developing effective monitoring tools for evaluating the restoration project is important in achieving success (Hopfensperger, 2006). Hopfensperger et al. (2006) further points out that establishing public support for restoration projects, as well as building strong relationships between government and nongovernment agencies, is important for a successful collaboration effort. Proposed project solution As part of Newtown’s revitalization/redevelopment initiative this project proposes to create a wetland ecosystem from the community’s existing brownfield sites. Newtown has at least two brownfield sites, one being located in the heart of city called the Marion Anderson Place brownfield site, consisting of approximately 18 acres. The proposed project foresees an aesthetic landscape where Newtown can enjoy the sights and sounds of a natural ecosystem rather than the pollution and hustle of a busy city. If one could draw a comparison that the site would potentially be similar to Central Park in New York City or Golden Gate Park in San Francisco. The Marion Anderson Place Urbaculture site was designated as a brownfield on April 19, 2004. The site is located at 2046 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way in Sarasota. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection currently oversees the remediation and cleanup of the site as a result of Phase I and II Environmental Contamination Testing results. Although information regarding the contaminants and pollutants located on the site could not be obtained, additional information regarding current regulations and future rehabilitation of the site can be

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found in Appendix A. Understanding the historical and cultural significance of a project site will be important in successfully restoring the Marion Anderson brownfield site. Loures and Panagopoulos (2007) point out that appreciating the landscape ecology as well as the relationships between people and places is important. They also explain that developers and urban planners must realize that such restoration projects are about landscape creation and not a quick fix to an existing problem. The wetland creation project should incorporate several factors, which include:  Performance: the created ecosystem should function well  Adaptability: the ecosystem should be long-lasting and be able to adapt to a new environment  Surrounding: the ecosystem should be able to successfully function with the surrounding environment  Aesthetics: the ecosystem should be a place for communities to enjoy and  Sustainability: the ecosystem should have minimal environmental impacts and be economically efficient (Loures and Panagopoulos, 2007). Mitsch and Gosselink (2000) offer several tips on how to successfully create and restore wetlands. These include designing the system for minimal maintenance, utilizing natural energies (e.g. potential energy of streams) to “feed” the system, designing the system with the ideal hydrologic conditions and ecological landscape needed to support vegetative life, and designing the system to fulfill multiple goals. These goals do not necessarily have to be environmental goals, but may also include community redevelopment goals as well. When designing a wetland creation project, developers need to pay close attention to the hydrology and elevation of a system (Hopfensperger, 2006). These two factors are important in wetland creation success as both control surface water flow in a ecosystem. Frequent data collection and monitoring is important in comparing pre-restoration to post-restoration vegetation growth and soil characteristics; this information can help environmental scientists access the function of the newly created ecosystem (Hopfensperger, 2006). Newtown may be able to initiate a middle or high school program where students can actively monitor the ecosystem. The benefits could be 144

twofold: educating and encouraging students to take care of the environment around them and ensuring the continued success of the created wetland. Case Studies A former gas station in Kansas City was redeveloped into an open space area, which paid tribute to the history of the neighborhood and a local professional baseball player (Northeast Midwest Institute website). City, state and federal grants as well as community involvement were able to transform the brownfield site into an enjoyable area. Discussions began in 1999 to begin the redevelopment process. Initially, a new gas station was to be built, but the community did not feel comfortable with this idea and voiced their concerns at a community meeting (Northeast Midwest Institute website). The City negotiated with the property owner and was able to acquire the site. The community pleaded with the City to use the site that would greatly reflect the history of the neighborhood. After obtaining approval, work began to clean up the former brownfield site. Today, the site has landscaping designed like a baseball diamond to honor their hometown baseball hero, as well as beautiful planters, murals and a children’s play area (Northeast Midwest Institute).

Chevy Place, located in downtown Rochester, was a former 2.2 acre Chevrolet automobile dealership and service garage. The site was one of the largest dealerships in Rochester from 1930 until 1990 (Northeast Midwest Institute website). The dealership served as a service and repair garage, as well as a gas station. Approximately $10.6 million was invested to redevelop the site for residential housing, including 77 townhomes and apartments (Northeast Midwest Institute website). The redevelopment project took five years to complete, as the project had to overcome many challenges, including fluctuating development plans, historic

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preservation restrictions, street reconstruction and funding issues (Northeast Midwest Institute website). Today, in addition to the housing, Chevy Place features an Art Deco showroom and 24-hr coffee shop. The location of Chevy Place is ideal in that it is located in the city’s theatre district. Additional private development has been initiated due to the Chevy Place redevelopment project (Northeast Midwest Research Institute). In a research study by Siikamaki et al (2008), results showed that even when projected cleanup costs are accounted for in a prospective conversion project, local officials, particularly those less familiar with redeveloping contaminated land, appear leery of taking on higher risks associated with a contaminated property. As a lower-income community, Newtown may be able to apply for funding or other means of financial assistance to help pay for clean up costs associated in creating wetlands. Furthermore, the study also showed that greenspace conversion projects (ex. recreational facilities) are more likely to be developed and gain community support than nature parks without developed facilities for recreation (Siikamaki et al., 2008). In the future, Newtown may be able to construct a visitor center that will be able to educate people about the importance of wetlands and how they can help protect them. O’Reilly et al. (2006) points out that the redevelopment of brownfields decreases further environmental degradation since contamination already exists. It is also derived that ignoring these sites ensures the contaminants will exist for decades to come and cause more problems down the road. Westphal et al (2005) illustrates a brownfield redevelopment project plan in the Calumet region located between Northwest Indiana and Northeast Illinois. The plan highlights the importance of ecological and economic growth by redeveloping abandoned brownfield sites (Westphal et al., 2005). This particular brownfield site in the Calumet region was redesigned using input from over 160 organizations and individuals with experience in plant vegetation,

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sediment testing, toxin exposure and community development (Westphal et al., 2005). Developers and planners outlined what was known about the site as well as what was not known and tried to fill the gap in between (Westphal et al., 2005). In redeveloping a brownfield site, it is important to include people with specialties in wetland hydrology, ornithology, planning and recreation (Westphal et al., 2005) as all of these specialty areas are important in designing a wetland. Community Involvement The citizens of Newtown can be very active in creating their wetland ecosystem. With educational assistance from environmental scientists and arborists, Newtown can help prepare the land, plant wetland vegetation and maintain and monitor the system to ensure its successfulness. Once the wetland develops into a fully functional ecosystem, Newtown may be able to provide recreational and educational activities within the wetland. For example, a walking tour through parts of the wetland which features wetland plants would be interesting and educational for people of all ages. Furthermore, conducting eco-tours through the use of kayaks, canoes, etc would also be fun as well as educational. The following case studies are examples of community involvement and can show the people of Newtown the importance of being involved in their neighborhood. Research studies in Atlanta and Philadelphia by Elmendorf et al. (2005) explored the inter-ethnic differences in the use of, preference for, and attitudes about metropolitan parks. The study used several factors such as differences between whites and blacks in their frequency of park visitation, the extent to which they viewed parks as beneficial to their communities, the types of activities (solitary or group), their preference in park landscapes and facilities and their expressed willingness to participate in park maintenance (Elmendorf et al., 2005). Research

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showed that the black population in both Atlanta and Philadelphia were more likely to plant trees, clean up trash, help prevent crime and work with others to improve the quality of their parks than their white counterparts (Elmendorf, 2005). Volunteerism is a critical element in community development and stability in many black neighborhoods (Elmendorf, 2005). Furthermore, results of study by Sugiyama et al. (2008) indicate the quality of and access to, open, green spaces in a neighborhood promoted outdoor activities, such as walking, hiking, biking, etc. Findings suggest that improvements in the quality of and access to neighborhood natural spaces could contribute to the increase in the amount of outdoor activity for all people in a given population, regardless of race, age or gender (Sugiyama, 2008). This may suggest that the citizens of Newtown may greatly benefit from wetland creation as it could encourage community social interaction. Conclusion Newtown holds great promise in developing a wetland from a brownfield site to increase community development. Collaboration with local, state and federal agencies will enable Newtown to utilize existing brownfield sites and create a sustainable and productive wetland. One can envision that this restoration project will open the doors for many future community projects to help revitalize the neighborhood. Brownfield redevelopment can help revitalize communities such as Newtown by preserving greenspace (or in this case, creating it) and preventing urban sprawl. In addition, the potential for job growth and better housing conditions can be enormous. Success starts first with gaining the interest of neighborhoods to welcome a restoration project and be involved in implementing it. The citizens of Newtown will also need to be active in helping to participate in the creation project(s). Although one realizes that not every person living in Newtown may be a wetland ecologist, citizens may be able to

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assist in designing, planting, monitoring, and maintenance of the wetland ecosystem. Involving the residents of Newtown in cleaning up brownfields can inform them about the hazardous chemicals that may be in their community and can provide them with the opportunity of being actively involved in making important decisions in their own community.

References Czech, B. (2005). Urbanization as a Threat to Biodiversity: Trophic Theory, Economic Geography and implications for conservation land acquisition. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 8-13 Dorsey, J. W. (2003). Brownfields and Greenfields: The Intersection of Sustainable Development and Environmental Stewardship. Environmental Practice, 5(1), 69- 76. Elmendorf, W. F., Willits, F. K., Sasidharan, V., and Godbey, G. (2005). Urban Park and Forest Participation and Landscape Preference: A Comparison Between Blacks and Whites in Philadelphia and Atlanta, U.S. Journal of Arboriculture, 31(6), 318-326. Fan, D. P.; Bengston, D. N.; Potts, R. S.; Goetz, E. G. 2005. The rise and fall of concern about urban sprawl in the United States: an updated analysis. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 1-7. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (2004). Brownfield Designation for Marion Anderson Place Urbaculture Site-2046 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Way. Tampa, FL. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (2008). Florida Brownfields Redevelopment Program-Transferring Communities. Accessed on November 10, 2010 from http://www.dep.state.fl.us/waste/quick_topics/publications/wc/brownfields/bp/one_page_ handout2008.pdf Gibert, K. M., Tobe, J. D., Cantrell, R. W., Sweeley, M. E., Cooper, J. R. (1995). The Florida Wetlands Delineation Manual: Tallahassee: Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Hopfensperger, K. N., Engelhardt, K. A. and Seagle, S. W. (2006). The Use of Case Studies in Establishing Feasibility for Wetland Restoration. Restoration Ecology, 14(4), 578-586. Loures L., Panagopoulos T. Sustainable reclamation of industrial areas in urban landscapes. In: 149

Kungolas, A, Brebbia, C.A. and Beriatos, E. (eds) Sustainable Development and Planning III, WIT Press, 2007, pp. 791-800. Kivalsi, A. K. (2001). The Potential for Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Developing Countries: A Review. Ecological Engineering, 16(4), 545-560. Miller, J. R. and Hobbs, R. J. (2007). Habitat Restoration—Do We Know What We’re Doing? Restoration Ecology, 15(3), 382-390. Mitsch, W. J. and Gosselink, J. G. (2000). Wetlands, 3rd edition: New York: Sons, Inc. John Wiley &

Mitsch, W. J. and Wilson, R. F. (1996). Improving the Success of Wetland Creation and Restoration with Know-how, Time and Self Design. Ecological Applications, 6(1), 7783. Mitsch, W. J., Wu, X., Nairn, R. W., Weihe, P. E., Wang, N., Deal, R. and Boucher, C. E. (1998). Creating and Restoring Wetlands. Bioscience, 48(12), 1019-1027; 1029-1030. Northeast Midwest Institute. From Rags to Riches: Innovations in Petroleum Brownfields. Accessed on November 28, 2010 from http://www.occ.state.ok.us/divisions/og/newweb/brownfields/rags%20to%20riches%20p etroleum%20brownfields.pdf O’ Reilly, M. and Brink, R. (2006). Initial Risk-Based Screening of Potential Brownfield Development Sites. Soil and Sediment Contamination : An International Journal, 15(5), 463-470. Richardson, J.L. and Vepraskas, M. J. (2001). Wetlands Soils: Genesis, Hydrology, Landscapes and Classification. London: Lewis Publishers. Riley, Ann L. (1998). What is Restoration from Restoring Streams in Cities, Wheeler, S. M. and Beatley, T (ed.). New York: Routledge. Siikamäki, J. and Wernstedt, K. (2008). Turning Brownfields into Greenspaces: Examining Incentives and Barriers to Revitalization. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 33(3), 559-593. Sugiyama, T. and Thompson, C.W. (2008). Associations Between Characteristics of Neighborhood Open Space and Older People's Walking. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 7(1), 41-51. Virginia Natural Resources Institute. Superfund and Brownfield Reclaimation: Revitalizing and Reusing Contaminated Lands. Accessed on November 10, 2010 from http://www.virginia.edu/ien/new/vnrli/docs/superfund%202006.pdf

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Turner, K. (1991). Economics and Wetland Management. Environmental Economics, 20(2), 5963. Tiner, R.W. (1999). Wetland Indicators: A Guide to Wetland Identification, Deliniation, Classification and Mapping: London: Lewis Publishers. Wedding, G. C. and Crawford-Brown, D. (2007). Measuring Site- level Success in Brownfield Redevelopments: A Focus on Sustainability and Green Building. Journal of Environmental Management, 85(2), 483-495. Westphal, L. M.; Levengood, J. M.; Wali, A.; Soucek, D.; Stotz, D. F. 2005. Brownfield redevelopment: a hidden opportunity for conservation biology. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 21-26 Zovanyi, G (2005). Urban Growth in Management and Ecological Sustainability: Confronting the “Smart Growth” Fallacy. In: Bengston, David N., tech. ed. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-265. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Research Station. 35-44.

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Benefits of Improved Street Lighting Using Energy Efficient LED Technology By Justin Heller Introduction Worldwide energy consumption is growing exponentially and depleting our natural resources at an alarming rate. Currently, the majority of our energy needs comes from the consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels. These are limited resources which have the potential to run out in the near future. The combination of population growth and increased economic development will further speed up this process (Dincer and Rosen, 1999). Environmental impacts are often associated with the utilization of energy resources. The use of fossil fuels for energy creates air pollution, including the release of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, released from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, are the leading cause of global warming (Houghton, 2005). These gases trap infrared radiation in the earth’s atmosphere, resulting in an increase in global temperatures. This process is known as the greenhouse effect. Impacts resulting from global warming may include sea level rise from melting glaciers and climate change. Flooding from sea level rise could have severe impacts on human populations along coastal areas. Climate change can disrupt ecosystems and negatively impact those people and animals that rely on them for survival (Houghton, 2005). In order to mitigate global warming, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) must be reduced. A push towards cleaner, more sustainable energies is needed (Omer, 2008). The concept of sustainable energy development means that energy resources can be maintained long into the future while simultaneously minimizing impacts to the environment. Sustainable development also requires that energy resources be used as efficiently as possible (Afgan et al. 1998; Dincer and Rosen, 1999; Dincer, 2000). One way of reducing GHGE is to switch to clean, renewable and sustainable energy resources. Examples of these include wind, 152

hydroelectric, geothermal, and solar energy. These energy sources contribute little to no GHGE and can be sustained well into the future (Rubin et al 1992; Lior, 2010). Renewable energies alone however, are not enough to bring about changes in energy consumption. The higher cost of renewable energies as compared to fossil fuel resources, make most societies reluctant to implement them. Renewable energy sources can be restricted to certain geographic locations where they are abundant, and the construction of new infrastructure may be required to move that energy to other areas. A more effective way to reduce global energy use and ultimately reduce GHGE is to increase energy efficiency in current and future technologies (Rubin et al. 1992; Dincer and Rosen, 1999; Lior, 2010). One important area for increased energy efficiency is in new lighting technologies. Lighting accounts for a significant portion of energy consumption throughout the world. Much of the world’s population, particularly in developing nations, is still reliant on fuel based lighting such as kerosene lamps. Fuel based lighting consumes large amounts of energy and produces equal amounts of pollution and GHGE. A switch to more energy efficient forms of lighting in these areas is needed. (Mills, 2002; Adkins et al. 2010). In the United States, Lighting accounts for approximately 25% of all electricity consumed. The economic cost associated with this adds up to over 37 billion dollars annually (DOE, 1995). With new, more efficient lighting technologies entering the market, there is great potential for significant energy savings. New technologies may also improve lighting quality and reduce associated environmental impacts (DOE, 1995). There are many forms of electric lighting systems available in today’s market including incandescent, fluorescent or high-intensity discharge lamps. A new lighting technology being considered for many lighting applications is the light-emitting diode or LED. With new

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improvements in energy efficiency, LEDs have the potential to revolutionize the lighting market. Though still moderately expensive compared to other lighting technologies, they offer significant savings in the form of very low energy consumption and little to no maintenance costs. Other benefits include long operating life, reduced light pollution, adjustable color, optical controllability, and many others (Shur & Zukauskas, 2005; DOE, 2008; Khan and Abas, 2010). Street lighting accounts for a significant portion of total energy demand from lighting (Mills, 2002). Conventional roadway lighting using traditional lamps consumes an average of 200 watts per lamp in order to meet current roadway lighting standards (Wu et al, 2009). The LED could be an effective way of lowering energy consumption and reducing energy and maintenance costs of street lighting. Many studies have shown significant energy and cost savings over the lifetime of the lights (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2006, 2008; Colon, 2010). Importance of Street Lighting The main goal of street lights is to illuminate roadways in order to enhance visibility at night time for drivers and pedestrians. Improved visibility helps people to navigate safely and ultimately avoid collisions. Another key benefit of street lighting is a safer nighttime environment. In many neighborhoods, crime can be a big problem, especially in the cover of night. Many studies have examined the effects of street lighting on crime (Painter, 1996; Painter and Farrington, 1999, 2001; Farrington and Welsh, 2007). The majority of these studies showed a significant decrease in the amount of crime with improved street lighting. Not only did the number of crimes decrease, but fear of crime was also lowered, resulting in a greater number of people using lighted streets at night (Painter, 1996). A Study by Painter and Farrington (2001) examined the effects of improved street lighting on crime and found that crimes decreased by 41% and 43% in the two experimental research areas. A cost-benefit analysis found that

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financial savings from reduced crimes exceeded the financial costs of street light improvements by between 2.4 and 10 times after just the first year. The financial savings from prevented crimes more than paid for the cost of the improved street lighting within one year. They concluded that improved street lighting can be extremely cost effective (Painter and Farrington, 2001). Current Street Lighting Technologies The lighting industry produces about 14,000 different types of lamps, which are classified into three basic categories: incandescent, florescent and high density discharge. Each distinct category holds characteristics that make them suited for different types of lighting applications. High density discharge (HID) lamps are predominantly used in street lighting applications. HID lamps produce light by discharging an electric arc through a gas filled arc tube thereby exciting atoms and ions of different gases sealed within the tube. All HID lamps require the use of a lighting ballast which is a piece of equipment needed to supply sufficient starting voltage to ionize the gas in the arc tube and to regulate current during operation (DOE, 1995; DPPEA, 2010). Metal Halide (MH) and High Pressure Sodium (HPS) are the two most common HID lamps currently being used in street lighting applications. Background information on these two types of HID lighting is provided below followed by a brief summary on some of the disadvantages of HID lighting. Metal Halide Metal halide lamps were created in the 1960s to improve the color rendering capability of mercury vapor lamps. Different metals were added to improve color and increase efficiency. They produce a blue-white light by passing an electric current through a mixture of gases that include halide metals and mercury (DOE, 1995). Because they produce a whiter light they are

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useful where a more natural color representation is needed. Metal halide street lights have a life span ranging between 6,000 and 20,000 hours depending on the lamp and use between 32-1500 watts with an efficacy of approximately 80-100 lumens per watt (DPPEA, 2010). Efficacy, which is measured in lumens per watt, refers to the amount of light produced by a lamp as a ratio to the power needed to produce that light (Colon, 2010). The lamps provide a non-temperature sensitive, concentrated, controllable source of light with good color uniformity. There can be significant lamp to lamp wattage variation of approximately twenty percent in Metal Halide lamps, and they take up to five minutes to reach full luminosity (DPPEA, 2010). High Pressure Sodium High Pressure Sodium (HPS) is the most common street lighting lamp type in current use and has been around since the 1970’s. They have poor color rendering and produce the yellowish-orange light that many of us have become familiar with. They are more energy efficient than metal halide and are preferred when true color rendering is not critical such as in street or parking lot lighting applications (DPPEA, 2010). The HPS lamps produce light by passing an electrical current through an arc tube filled with vaporized sodium under pressure at high temperature. The physical shape, electrical, and photometric characteristics are different from metal halide lamps to maximize efficiency (DPPEA, 2010). HPS lamps are readily available and come in a variety of sizes from 35 to 1,000 watts. They have a life span of approximately 12,000 to 24,000 hours and have an efficacy of 45 to 150 lumens per watt (DPPEA, 2010; Colon, 2010). Disadvantages of HID Lights There are several drawbacks associated with HID lighting including light pollution, high energy inputs, slow start up times and mercury pollution. One common problem associated with

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HID lamps is their considerable light pollution. This can come in the form of sky glow or light trespass. Sky glow is when light is projected upwards into the sky causing the glow of cities that can be seen at night from afar. Light trespass is when the light is projected into unwelcomed areas such as someone’s home (NYSERDA, 2002; Colon, 2010). The light coming from HID lamps is projected 360 degrees out from the lamp and the use of reflectors is required to direct the light towards the street. The light however, is often scattered in many directions due to their use of a drop lens. This scattered light is also what produces glare which can be a distraction to many drivers (Colon, 2010). Most HID lamps have a light efficiency of 40-60% meaning that only about half of the light produced reaches the street below (Tetra Tech, 2003). Furthermore, they require the use of a ballast which is required to supply the large amount of energy needed to start. They can take up to several minutes to warm up to full luminosity and if there is an interruption in the power supply they must first cool down before they can restart (DOE, 1995; DPPEA, 2010). All HID lamps also contain some amount of mercury which classifies them as hazardous waste. This can creates disposal problems and leads to environmental pollution (Colon, 2010). Light-Emitting Diodes The light-emitting diode (LED) was first created back in the 1950’s. LEDs emit light from a small semiconducting chip when a current is applied to it, whereas traditional light sources produce light by heating a filament or creating an electrical arc through a gas mixture (Colon, 2010). They are powered by a low direct-current voltage which is converted from alternating-current in the power lines. They also do not require the use of a ballast like HID lamps (Tetra Tech, 2003). The most recent LED lamps can produce over 100 lumens per watt, and have a life span of 50,000 to 100,000 hours (DOE, 2008). A brief summary on some of the

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advantages and disadvantages of LED lighting is provided in the sections below. Advantages of LED Lighting There are many advantages of LEDs over traditional electric lighting. These include long lamp lifetimes, low power requirements, good color rendering, optical controllability high efficiency, durability, and other improved features (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2008). LED lamps have a very long operating life and can last up to 5 times longer than HID lamps and up to 25 times longer than incandescent. Substantial savings can come from reduced maintenance cost and fewer lamp replacements over time. The lower power requirements of LEDs allow them to operate on low direct current voltage. They also do not need a ballast in order to operate. This makes them compatible with solar power and battery backups for off grid lighting applications (DOE, 2008; Pode, 2009; Wu et al, 2009). The color rendering ability of LEDs is very accurate. The color rendering index (CRI) is a measure of a lights ability to depict the natural color of an illuminated object. White LEDs have a CRI score of around 80-90 out of 100 which is very good compared to most HID lamps. The yellow-orange light of most HPS lamps have poor color rendering and score on the low end with a CRI around 20-30 (Tetra Tech, 2003). The optical controllability of LED lamps allows a more directed light with an 80-90% efficiency compared to 40-60% for HID lamps. This higher efficiency means that more light reaches the road surface below thereby allowing a lower output LED lamp to achieve the same effect as a higher output HID lamp while also minimizing light pollution and glare (Tetra Tech, 2003). The LED lights are very durable as a result of their solid-state construction, making them much more resistant to damage. An LED lamp is comprised of many individual LEDs meaning

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that several LEDs could be damaged without complete failure of the lamp. LED lights do not fail or cycle on and off like HID lamps at the end of their life, but rather dim and do not cause any disruption in service (Tetra Tech, 2003). There are several other characteristics that favor LEDs over HID lamps. LED lights are mercury free, making them much more environmentally friendly than HID lights. They do not require a warm-up time and they can instantly turn on or off unlike HID lights. They are also dimmable which means lighting brightness can be decreased during off peak times for further energy savings (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2008). Disadvantages of LED Lighting Two main disadvantages of LED lighting are the high initial investment cost and lower efficacy. The high initial cost of LEDs can be several times greater than traditional HID lamps. This high initial cost may deter people from switching over to the new technology. The true cost savings of LED lamps comes from reductions in energy and maintenance cost over the lifetime of the product (DOE, 2008). The efficacy of LED lamps is currently lower than some HPS lamps. The best LED lamps can produce around 100 lumens per watt whereas the best HPS lamps produce around 150 lumens per watt. Fortunately both of these factors are predicted to decrease in upcoming years as the technology continues to advance and LEDs make up more of the lighting market (Tetra Tech, 2003).

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Table 1

LED
Good color rendering Long lamp life Controllable/Dimmable

Metal Halide

High Pressure Sodium

Good color rendering Lower cost Readily available

Lowest cost Readily available Highest Efficacy

Advantages

No ballast needed Instant on/off Mercury free Low light pollution High durability

Contain Mercury High initial cost Require a ballast Shorter lamp life Slow start-up time High light pollution Low durability

Poor color rendering Contain Mercury Require a ballast Shorter lamp life Slow start-up time High light pollution Low durability

Disadvantages

Lower efficacy Less available

Pilot Study Examples Since LEDs are new to the street lighting market, there have been many pilot studies to test LED lighting in real world applications. The majority of these have found significant energy savings with the use of new LED technologies. Below are summaries from three of these pilot studies and their results. A study done by Colon (2010) compared LED and induction lighting technologies with high pressure sodium (HPS) lighting at 56 Air Force installations. He found that LED lighting showed moderate economic savings and less environmental impact when compared to HPS lights. An overall economic life-cycle analysis found LED costs were 21% less than HPS lighting, while an environmental life-cycle assessment showed a 45% reduction for LED lighting. HPS lights were found to be more costly on average to operate than LED lights. The 160

LED lights consumed 48% less energy and had an estimated payback of seven years (Colon, 2010). Ann Arbor, Michigan conducted a pilot LED study by replacing 25 of its downtown pedestrian globe lights. The LED lights used were 48 watts and lasted up to 10 years. These replaced HPS lamps that used greater than 100 watts and lasted only 2 years. Each LED replacement lamp was estimated to pay for itself in only 3.3 years and have a savings of $1,111 in energy and maintenance costs over its 10 year lifespan (Relume Tech., 2009). The planned second phase of the project will use cobra head street light fixtures in a residential neighborhood. The fixtures have wattages varying from 50 to 80 watts and will be used to replace 250 watt fixtures. These fixtures have a higher initial cost but based on preliminary testing, should provide greater savings than the replacement globe lights (Relume Tech., 2009). Palo Alto California conducted a pilot LED roadway lighting project in which they replaced 14 HPS fixtures with 9 LED and 5 induction street light fixtures. The LED lighting systems used the least amount of energy of the three, with a 44% reduction compared to HPS. Estimated payback was 12 years for a LED luminaire retrofit and 10 years for new installations (DOE, 2010). LED Street Lighting in Sarasota, FL Sarasota is doing their part to help conserve energy. In November 2009, Sarasota County decided to install LED street lighting along one of its main roadways. A company named Sunovia Energy Technologies, Inc., a locally based company in Sarasota, won the bid for a contract with Sarasota County to provide 148 LED street light fixtures which will be placed along Fruitville Road in Sarasota. The company markets its products under the brand name EvoLucia. They are providing 120 watt EvoLucia brand LED cobra head-style street lights

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which are suitable for direct replacement of the current HPS cobra head street lights. This means that Sarasota can install them on existing poles with no needed adjustments in pole spacing. The energy efficient lights produce more than 50 lumens per watt and are expected to last more than 10 years without maintenance. The LED lights are expected to save Sarasota County approximately $14,000 each year in energy and maintenance costs, and will reduce carbon emissions by approximately 355 tons over the next 10 years. If Sarasota were to complete a city wide LED street light replacement of 62,000 fixtures, it could save the county over $5.28 million yearly in energy and maintenance costs and would reduce carbon emissions by 111,500 tons over 10 years (Sunovia Energy Technologies, 2009). Newtown Assessment An assessment of current street lighting conditions was conducted for major, secondary, and local roadways in the Newtown Community Redevelopment Area in order to determine if sufficient lighting conditions were being met based on recommended street light spacing. Major roads were defined as primary thoroughfares for traffic flow. Collector roads served traffic between major and local roadways, and local roadways gave direct access to residential or commercial properties but did not serve through traffic (City of San Diego, 2002). The recommended street light spacing is approximately 75 meters, however in high crime areas 50 meter spacing is preferred (FDOT, 1999; City of San Diego, 2002). Based on these criteria, a street should have about 21 lights per mile on average, or 32 lights per mile in high crime areas. For each road type, four miles of randomly selected roadway were surveyed, and all street lights were counted for each stretch of road. The average number of street lights per mile was then calculated for each road type. These were then compared to the recommended lighting conditions. 162

Results Table 2 Average # street lights per mile Recommended 21 Standard 32 High Crime Areas Newtown Major Roads 51 Newtown Collector roads 18 Newtown Local roads 12

The results of the assessment on Newtown street lighting found that recommended lighting conditions were only met on major roadways. Major roadways on average exceeded both standard and high crime area recommendations. Surveyed roads included parts of Martin Luther King Way, 41 and 301. Collector roadways had acceptable lighting conditions on some of the roads surveyed but were on average below both standard and high crime area recommendations. Roads surveyed included parts of Cocoanut Ave, Central Ave, N. Orange Ave, and Old Bradenton Rd. Local roadways had poor lighting conditions and had well below the recommended number of street lights for standard and high crime areas. Many sections of different local roads were examined. Examples of some of the roads surveyed included Winton Ave, Maple Ave, Church Ave, and 29th - 32nd Street. Recommendations for Newtown Improving street lighting conditions in Newtown will help meet several of the goals and objectives set forth in the Newtown Community Redevelopment Plan (City of Sarasota. 2002). Improvements in street lighting using LED technology can have many benefits to the community. These include improved nighttime visibility and safety, reductions in crime, enhanced aesthetics, and significant energy and costs savings. One of the criteria that qualified Newtown as a Community Redevelopment Area was its high incidence of crime compared to other parts of Sarasota. Based on the survey of Newtown streets, sufficient lighting was lacking on most collector and local roadways. Studies have shown that improved street lighting can make for safer nighttime conditions and significant reductions 163

in crime (Painter, 1996; Painter and Farrington, 1999, 2001; Farrington and Welsh, 2007). Adding additional street lighting to these areas is recommended. The cost of these lights could potentially pay for themselves in only a few years based on reductions in crime alone (Painter and Farrington, 2001) and further savings could come from lower energy usage and reduced maintenance if the new fixtures use LED lighting (Tetra Tech, 2003; DOE, 2008). The addition of new street lights could first focus on areas where crime rates are the highest and at all street intersections. Using already existing electrical poles will help reduce instillation costs. Current HID fixtures could be replaced systematically or one at a time as they fail. LED lights have a whiter more efficient light that directs more light towards the street below thereby minimizing light trespass into unwanted areas. White LED’s render colors closer to their natural color and are aesthetically more pleasing than the yellowish glow of an HPS light and are ideal for lighting historic buildings and storefronts. Smaller LED lamps can be placed in decorative globe light fixtures such as those recently installed on Martin Luther King Way. The addition of high quality lighting may increase nighttime use of streets by pedestrians in Newtown. Providing high levels of lighting is critical for revitalizing downtown urban areas and is needed to encourage pedestrian shopping and other activities at night (FDOT, 1999). Led lighting fixtures can be purchased through previously contracted Sunovia Lighting Technologies Inc. or products from additional companies could be explored. Newtown could also work with the city of Sarasota to become a pilot study for LED lighting. If street lighting applications are successful, additional LED lighting in parks, parking lots, and around public buildings could be considered. The addition of LED street lighting will ultimately have a number of benefits and a positive impact on the Newtown Community.

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References Adkins, Edwin, Sandy Eapen, Flora Kaluwile, Gautam Nair, and Vijay Modi. 2010. Off-grid energy services for the poor: Introducing LED lighting in the Millennium Villages Project in Malawi. Energy Policy 38, no. 2: 1087-1097. Afgan, Naim H., Darwish Al Gobaisib, Maurizio Cumo, and Maria G. Carvalho. 1998. Sustainable energy development. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2, no. 3: 235-286. Carlos J. Colon Jr. 2010. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Impacts Associated with Currently Available Street Lighting Technologies. Master’s Thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology. City of San Diego. 2002. The City of San Diego Street Design Manual. Prepared by: City of San Diego Street Design Manual Advisory Committee and the City of San Diego Planning Department. City of Sarasota. 2002. Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan Through 2020, Volume III Background Data. Prepared by: A. A. Baker and Associates. Dincer, Ibrahim., Marc A. Rosen. 1999. Energy, environment and sustainable development. Applied Energy 64, no. 1-4: 427-440. Dincer, Ibrahim. 2000. Renewable energy and sustainable development: a crucial review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 4, no. 2: 157-175. DOE, 1995. Energy-Efficient Lighting. Prepared by The National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. DOE, 2006. Energy Savings Potential of Solid State Lighting in General Lighting Applications. Final Report, prepared by Navigant Consulting Inc., Inc. for U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C. DOE, 2008. Energy Savings Potential of Solid State Lighting in Niche Lighting Applications. Final Report, prepared by Navigant Consulting Inc., Inc. for U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C. DOE, 2010. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting on Residential and Commercial Streets in Palo Alto, California. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. DPPEA, Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance. 2010. Fundementals of Energy Efficient Lighting. Accessed Nov. 2010 from: www.p2pays.org/ref/32/31148.pdf Farrington, David P., and Brandon C Welsh. 2007. Improved Street Lighting. In Preventing Crime: What Works for Children, Offenders, Victims, and Places, 209-224.

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FDOT, Florida Department of Transportation. 1999. Florida Pedestrian Planning and Design Handbook. Prepared by: The University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center www.dot.state.fl.us/safety/ped_bike/handbooks_and_research/ped16_e.pdf Houghton, John. 2005. Global warming. Reports on Progress in Physics 68, no. 6: 1343-1403. Khan, N., and N. Abas. 2010. Comparative study of energy saving light sources. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Lior, Noam. 2010. Sustainable energy development: The present (2009) situation and possible paths to the future. Energy 35, no. 10: 3976-3994. Mills, Evan. 2002. The $ 230-billion Global Lighting Energy Bill. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting. NYSERDA. 2002. How-to Guide to Effective Energy-Efficient Street Lighting for Municipal Planners and Engineers. Albany, New York: New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Omer, Abdeen M. 2008. Green energies and the environment. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 12, no. 7: 1789-1821. Painter, K. 1996. The influence of street lighting improvements on crime, fear and pedestrian street use, after dark. Landscape and Urban Planning 35, no. 2-3: 193-201. Painter, K. A. and Farrington, D. P. 1999. Improved street lighting: crime reducing effects and cost-benefit analyses. Security Journal 12: 17-32. Painter, K., and D. P Farrington. 2001. The financial benefits of improved street lighting, based on crime reduction. Lighting Research and Technology 33, no. 1: 3-12. Pode, Ramchandra. 2010. Solution to enhance the acceptability of solar-powered LED lighting technology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, no. 3: 1096-1103. Relume Technologies Inc. 2009. Case Study: Ann Arbor, Michigan. Accessed Nov. 1st from: http://www.relume.com/docs/pdf/rt_cs_aa_20090506.pdf Rubin, E. S., R. N. Cooper, R. A. Frosch, T. H. Lee, G. Marland, A. H. Rosenfeld, and D. D. Stine. 1992. Realistic mitigation options for global warming. Science 257: 148-149, 261-266. Shur, M.S., and R. Zukauskas. 2005. Solid-State Lighting: Toward Superior Illumination. Proceedings of the IEEE 93, no. 10: 1691-1703. Sunovia Energy Technologies. 2009. Sunovia Energy Wins LED Street Lighting Contract From Sarasota County. Press Release. Retrieved Oct. 29th 2010 from: 166

http://sunoviaenergy.com/archives/2009/11/18/sunovia-energy-wins-led-street-lighting-contractfrom-sarasota-county/ Tetra Tech EM Inc. 2003. Technology Assessment of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) for Street and Parking Lot Lighting Applications. Report for San Diego Regional Energy Office, San Diego, CA. Wu, M.S., H.H. Huang, B.J. Huang, C.W. Tang, and C.W. Cheng. 2009. Economic feasibility of solar-powered led roadway lighting. Renewable Energy 34, no. 8: 1934-1938.

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Sarasota’s Food Desert: A Case for Providing Newtown’s Residents Access to Healthy Foods Garrett Hyzer

Introduction Obesity and diabetes are two of the most serious epidemics endangering the health of Americans today. The prevalence of both has been on the rise for the past two decades (Mokdad et al., 2001). Since 1994, the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. has increased 7% (Flegal et al., 2002). Diet is one of the most important factors in controlling one’s weight or preventing the onset of Type II Diabetes and also plays an enormous role in managing Type II Diabetes after it is onset (Horowitz et al., 2004). Recent research has begun to suggest that in addition to individual choices, environmental variables can greatly influence the type of diet one practices (Eisenhauer, 2001). Studies have been conducted that show that people with low socioeconomic status typically practice poorer, unhealthier eating habits (Turrell et al., 2002), but some of these studies have failed to consider environmental factors---those factors outside of an individual’s control---that contribute to these poor diets. Urban areas with poor, ethnic communities have faced diminishing food shopping options over the past two decades (Eisenhauer, 2001). Many of these urban areas face a dearth of larger supermarkets (Morland & Filomena, 2007) and have to rely on smaller, independent grocers for their shopping needs. While large supermarkets are lacking in these communities, studies have shown that fast food restaurant density is higher in poorer, urban areas than it is in wealthier suburban areas

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(Block et al., 2004). Considering the lack of larger supermarkets and the abundance of fast food restaurants, it is not surprising that studies suggest that poor, urban communities do not have many food options that pass USDA recommendations for a healthy diet in the small food establishments that are common in their communities(Baker et al., 2006). It seems that of all communities, African American communities have the least access to supermarkets. In one study, among the most impoverished communities studied, those that had the greatest number of African Americans were, on average, further from the nearest supermarket than those with a greater number of White residents (Zenk, Schulz, Israel et al., 2005). A significant number of African Americans in poorer communities travel less than a mile to their primary grocery store (Powell et al., 2007), so the absence of large supermarkets in urban environments places a larger importance on the inventory of smaller food stores especially when it comes to healthy eating options. Children’s diets can be especially susceptible to these factors as described by Timperio et al. and Edmonds et al(2008 & 2001). Timperio et al. shows that there is an inverse relationship between the proximity of fast food restaurants and convenience stores to children’s homes and the amount of fruits and vegetables they were likely to eat. Edmonds et al. suggests that restaurant juice availability in a child’s community, and to a lesser extent vegetable availability, have a direct relationship with the amount of juice and vegetables that child will consume. Pregnant women’s health is also in jeopardy when access to fresh foods is limited (Laraia et al., 2004). Pregnant women living more than four miles from a supermarket have lower diet quality indexes than pregnant women who live within four miles of a grocery store. In addition to a lack of healthy foods in poor, urban environments, other studies have shown that as community wealth decreases, the number of establishments that sell and/or serve alcohol increases (Morland,

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Wing et al., 2002). Increased alcohol availability is yet another factor contributing to the number of unhealthy diet options in poor communities. Not all research conducted on this topic agrees with the above conclusions. A study from England (Pearson et al., 2005) found that socioeconomic status in communities and distance between supermarkets and communities did not significantly affect fruit and vegetable consumption. Another study in Edmonton, Canada did not find that socioeconomic status was a factor that contributed to the distribution of supermarkets like it is in the U.S. (Smoyer-Tomic et al., 2008). However, most of the studies that conflict with the assessments above took place

outside of the United States. It seems that most research using study sites in the United States do find factors such as race and income to be significant factors when it comes to the distribution of grocery stores and the access of healthy foods. Even if fresh food options are available in poor, ethnic communities, Chung et al. (1999) and Cummins et al. (2006) show that it can sometimes be financially out of reach. Their research suggests that poorer communities may be charged more for goods than residents in wealthier communities. This could potentially mean that even if healthy food items are available (which can be expensive to begin with) their prices put them out of reach of poorer consumers. This price discrepancy may be attributed to the business risk some owners feel they are taking when operating in poorer areas. When the demand for certain items, such as fresh produce, is less dependable than it is in other areas, the grocers may feel a need to increase the price on those items in order to ensure a profit. That so many residents of food scarce areas have to travel great distances to find access to healthy food choices only compounds the problem of cost. The additional expenditure of transportation for residents to travel to these grocers becomes added on to the total cost of the items they purchase.

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Background on Food Deserts According to statistics from the Florida Department of Agriculture (FDA, 2010), Florida is an agricultural powerhouse among states. Florida ranks first in the nation in production of many varieties of produce, including oranges, grapefruit, sweet corn and tomatoes. In 2008, Florida accounted for 70% of the United State’s citrus production. In terms of exports, Florida ranks 3rd for fruit and 5th for vegetables among states, with fruits generating over $771 million a year and vegetables generating over $214 million a year. Sarasota County alone produces $31 million a year in agricultural products. With all of this agricultural activity, it is perplexing that any part of Florida could be facing fresh fruit and vegetable shortages. Food deserts are areas where access to foods needed to maintain a healthy diet is restricted (Zenk et al., 2005). These areas aren’t necessarily lacking in food----they often have plenty of fast food restaurants and convenience stores offering unhealthy choices----but they do tend to lack healthy varieties of food (Cummins, 2006). For years, America’s major supermarket chains have been criticized for abandoning densely populated, minority communities (Gray, 2009). This abandonment originated with urban white flight; as white, middle-class residents fled certain parts of cities, many of the larger, chain grocers followed, leaving food deserts in their wake (Gallagher, 2006). Although food deserts can be located in urban, suburban and rural areas, urban food deserts and their public health implications, have been studied most. Because Newtown, the subject of this paper, lies in an urban area, urban food deserts are the variation that will be referred to in this paper. The term food desert was popularized in a study by Mari Gallagher on the public health effects of fresh food scarcity on certain neighborhoods in Chicago (Gallagher, 2006). She

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created a metric used to measure the food environment in particular communities, which involves the distance between a residence and the nearest fast food restaurant, as well as the distance between a residence and the nearest grocer. Gallagher determined that a typical African American residence block is twice as far from the nearest grocer as they are from the nearest fast food restaurant. Based on the results of this metric, she discovered a statistically significant correlation between out of balance food environments and higher rates of residents dying from diabetes. Michelle Obama has recently drawn attention to the health risks food deserts pose to people who reside inside their confines. Shortly after Barack Obama took office, Michelle Obama created her “Let’s Move” program, which targets the United States growing epidemic of childhood obesity (White House, 2010). In addition to installing a community garden at the White House and conducting healthy eating campaigns in schools, Mrs. Obama has also focused on eliminating food deserts in both urban and rural areas. The Let’s Move program has invested $400 million in creating healthy eating options in these areas, and they hope that the success of this initial investment will leverage an even greater effort to eradicate this problem. Financially, it is in the United States government’s best interest to invest in eliminating these food scarce areas and bringing in healthy eating options. Food deserts have been shown to contribute to the health crises America is facing, including obesity, heart disease and diabetes (Powell, 2007). Many of the costs of these diseases are borne by government agencies such as Medicaid and Medicare, which treat a significant percentage of the lower-income residents within these food deserts. Though $400 million may sound like too much government money to fight food deserts, it could pay dividends in the long term, with reduced treatment costs billed to Medicaid and Medicare.

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Food Scarcity in Newtown Newtown is a poor, largely African American community in Sarasota, FL that is surrounded by wealthier, whiter neighborhoods. 37.4% of Newtown’s population sits below the poverty level whereas only 16.7% of Sarasota’s population is below the poverty level (City Data, 2008). Its borders coincide roughly with Myrtle St. to the north, 17th St. to the south, Bradenton Rd. to the west and N. Washington Blvd to the east. Mokdad et al. (2001) found that African Americans have the highest rate of obesity among all races, at 29.3% as well as the highest rates of diabetes at 11.1%. Within Sarasota County, Newtown included, the number of children and adults with these problems has increased as well (CHIP, 2008). Sarasota has seen a 4.1% increase in the number of overweight children and a 3.0% increase in obese adults between 2006 and 2008. Type II diabetes prevalence in adults has also increased by 0.7% in the same period of time. It is evident that Newtown is dealing with concerns over fresh food availability due to the current lack of a grocer within the community. In August of 2010, Anthony Cormier of the Herald-Tribune wrote an article titled Loss of Winn-Dixie a ‘Slap in the Face’, which notes the closing of a Winn-Dixie grocery store that had been located in Newtown for forty years. For three decades of the Winn Dixie’s existence, a Publix grocer was located in the same vicinity as the Winn-Dixie, providing Newtown residents with two large grocer options. In 1996, the Publix grocer closed down, leaving Newtown with just the one grocer. Now that the Winn-Dixie has recently closed down, a Publix grocer two miles outside of Newtown is now the nearest major grocer available. Winn-Dixie executives cite poor performance as the reason for the store’s closure. Local officials in Newtown are now looking at the possibility of putting in a

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smaller grocery store in the spot vacated by Winn-Dixie. Currently Newtown has no major grocer within its community limits as noted above, and has only three small grocers/convenience stores with limited or no fresh produce available. Most of these small grocers lie along Martin Luther King Jr. Rd. which roughly bisects Newtown from east to west. Newtown does have a number of fast food restaurants near the edges of its community, especially in its southeast corner at the 17th St. and N. Washington Blvd crossing. There is also a Walgreens, offering limited shopping options, located on N. Tamiami Trail Rd., adjacent to the old Winn-Dixie location. After considering all of the shopping options discussed above, it appears that Newtown is experiencing a lack of healthy food ----particularly fresh produce----in its community. This seems to suggest that Newtown is a food desert, putting its residents at an increased risk for obesity, heart disease and diabetes. Options for Combating Food Scarcity in Newtown Needs Assessment Before any direct actions take place, it is important to collect some data from community members on what their food needs are. A brief survey could be conducted on a random group of residents. Important questions to address are: 1) How many fruit and vegetable servings do they consume a day? 2) Would they prefer to consume more, and if so, what is preventing them from doing so (not sold where they shop, price, don’t know how to cook them)? 3) Where do they shop for groceries? 4) Does anyone in the household suffer from a weight related disease such as type II diabetes? If so, are they aware of how diet can contribute to its onset?

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Once a survey has been conducted, a better understanding of the community’s needs could be determined. If Newtown residents are happy not consuming fruits and vegetables, or if they would like to but don’t know how to cook them, then different educational programs could be initiated. Pertinent topics of these educational programs could be the importance of these items in one’s diet and easy ways to cook with them. This survey could also generate important data on just where Newtown residents buy their groceries, which would help in determining the best way to provide healthy food access to Newtown’s residents. Working with Local Grocers The most sensible approach to bringing healthy foods to Newtown is to work with the existing grocers in the community. If they could fill the healthy food void, then they may stand to profit as well. The first step is to speak with the grocer owners in Newtown and discover why they do not already carry a wider selection of fresh produce. Perhaps they feel there is no market for it, which would indicate a greater need for an educational program within the community. It is also possible they would like to carry a wider array of fresh foods, but it can often be difficult for small grocers to find suppliers who are willing to work with them and their small inventory. If this is the case, then efforts to find produce suppliers for these small grocers are necessary. Finally, it may be possible that local grocers do want to carry a wider variety of produce in their stores and the suppliers are even in line, but the start-up cost of maintaining this inventory is cost prohibitive. Fresh foods are not as easy to keep as are non-perishables. Fruits and vegetables often require refrigeration units which can be expensive to buy and require lots of energy to run. Perhaps Newtown, or the city of Sarasota, could offer grocers willing to fill this need, credits for the initial investment in this machinery, or subsidize the cost of energy required to run these units.

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Recruiting Outside Grocers It may be decided that it is not possible to work with local grocers to fill this fresh food niche. In this case, recruiting other grocers who can survive, financially, in Newtown is an option. As food deserts are now common in many cities across the United States, many innovative approaches have been developed to provide residents of these areas with access to healthy foods. These are approaches, implemented elsewhere, that may work well for Newtown. Aldi is a supermarket company that has found recent success in penetrating urban markets (Gray S, 2008). Aldi first launched stores in the United States in 1976, hoping to replicate the profitability they achieved in certain countries in Europe. Their business model has certain characteristics that allow them to out-compete larger, American grocers. Aldi’s stores typically have a smaller footprint than American grocers-----10,000 sq. ft. on average for an Aldi store vs. an 80,000 sq. ft. average for a typical American grocer like Winn-Dixie or Publix. This smaller footprint allows them to move into urban markets where real estate is usually more expensive. Aldi’s stores have eliminated many of the frills found in American grocers, such as delis and fancy displays. There stores also offer fewer choices between brands of the same item. All of these things allow Aldi to undercut their competitors and make profits in areas where other grocers have failed. Aldi may be the kind of grocer with a business model tailored to succeed in an area such as Newtown. If making healthy eating items available in the existing Newtown grocers is deemed not possible, then encouraging a company such as Aldi, who has had success in similar urban environments, to place a store in Newtown may be a good option. Perhaps they can flourish where others, such as Winn-Dixie, have failed. In Chicago it is estimated that nearly 600,000 residents---1/6th of the city’s population---

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live in areas lacking a conventional grocery store (Gray, 2009). Some Walgreens locations there have decided to expand food selection in their stores, in an effort to combat the food scarcity in the area in which these stores are located (Byrne, 2010). These stores now offer over 750 food items, including fresh fruit and vegetables, frozen meats, and fish. Walgreens is the most accessible retailer in Chicago and due to this accessibility, it can play an important role in the eradication of food deserts in Chicago. Newtown currently has a Walgreens on its far northwestern corner. It seems possible that if Walgreens could be convinced that there is a profit to be made, then they could be persuaded to revamp its store in Newtown, providing the same healthy food options it now has in its Chicago locations. In addition to their improved food selection, certain Walgreens in Chicago have also partnered with Northwestern Medicine to pilot a program designed to educate residents of the food deserts on healthy eating habits (Progressive Grocer, 2010). Food “prescriptions” are offered to these residents at local health clinics, with a focus on residents dealing with health issues such as diabetes and heart disease. This seems like an education program that would be beneficial to Newtown as well. Even if Walgreens could not expand their nearby store to offer additional food items, it’s conceivable that this food “prescription” program could be initiated through a local health clinic. Syracuse, NY has found yet a different method for serving residents in their food scarce areas. Wegmans Food Markets, a local grocer, is bringing produce to food desert locations via a truck, dubbed the “farm fresh mobile market” (Garry, 2010). This truck makes multiple stops each week in urban, food scarce areas, and sells produce to those residents who are interested. Wegmans also has developed a relationship with local farmers and is able to buy produce directly from them, which in turn lowers the prices for customers of the farm fresh mobile

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market. This program could be discussed with outside grocers such as Publix or Whole Foods. If they saw a potential profit in the program, they may be convinced to implement it. Bringing Newtown Residents to Outside Grocers In Madison, WI, Fresh Madison Market, a local grocer, has begun offering free bus rides to its stores, two days a week (FMM, 2010). Customers are given one hour to shop before the bus returns the customers to their neighborhood. This is a mutualistic relationship, where the Fresh Madison Market benefits from the new business and the food desert residents benefit from the access to greater food choices. This is an interesting option that may work well for residents of Newtown who don’t shop at grocers outside of the community because it is cost prohibitive. Perhaps new business many appeal to grocers outside of Newtown, like Winn-Dixie, Publix, or Whole Foods. If the new business creates enough revenue to offset the bus service cost, these grocers may be persuaded to initiate a similar program. Online Grocery Shopping Baltimore, Maryland has developed an innovative approach to dealing with the food deserts throughout the city. The Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) has created a Virtual Supermarket project which partners local churches and community centers, located in food deserts, with Santoni’s, a Baltimore grocery chain (BCHD, 2010). Residents of these food deserts can use computers located in these various churches and community centers to order their groceries online. Groceries are then shortly delivered to the location they were ordered from, where customers can pick them up, saving these residents a long, expensive cab fares or a long ride via public transportation. Purchases by different customers are pooled for a single delivery to a location, reducing the transportation cost. The BCHD subsidizes the delivery program as well. Current internet grocery shopping, with a company such as Peapod, is typically used for

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convenience by financially secure people who value their time more than the cost of having groceries delivered. However, this internet shopping business model translates effectively as a way to make healthy foods more accessible in certain areas. If a community center, church, or even the library could be outfitted to serve as a hub for online grocery shopping, this could be an effective, cheap way for residents to find access to healthy foods. Conclusion The health of food desert residents, like those of Newtown, are in significantly more jeopardy than those with access to healthy foods (Morland et al., 2002). Given that African American’s have the highest obesity and diabetes rates in the United States, it should be a priority of Newtown’s community leaders to look for ways to make healthy foods more available to residents as well as providing residents with the necessary education on why these foods should be integrated into their diets. The sounder strategy when combating health afflictions such as diabetes and obesity is to be proactive rather than reactive. Even if there is a significant cost involved in introducing healthy eating options to Newtown, it is almost certain that the health benefits and reduction in health care costs for residents will greatly outweigh the initial investment of providing these foods. Determining the desire of accessible, healthy foods among Newtown residents is critical prior to installing vendors. If the desire among Newtown residents exists, then working with existing, local grocers to provide these foods should be the first priority. If this kind of relationship cannot be accomplished, then recruiting outside vendors who can fill this healthy food void is the next step. The case studies discussed previously provide good starting points as to how healthy foods can be made accessible from sources outside the community. Working to transform Newtown from a food desert into a community with healthy eating options is paramount to the overall wellbeing of the residents.

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Fresh Madison Market (FMM). Retrieved on October 18, 2010 from: http://www.freshmadisonmarket.com/our-store/in-the-news/fresh-madison-market-offers-freebus-rides-to-store/ Front Porch Initiative Florida. 2010. Retrieved on October 31, 2010 from: http://www.dca.state.fl.us/fhcd/fpf/index.cfm Garry M. Wegmans Supports Produce Truck Delivering to Underserved. SuperMarket News. June 30, 2010. Retrieved on October 18, 2010 from: http://supermarketnews.com/news/wegmans_truck_0630/ Giang T, Karpyn A, Laurison HB, Hillier A, Perry RD. Closing the Grocery Gap in Underserved Communities: The Creation of the Pennsylvania Fresh Food Financing Initiative. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2008; 14(3): 272-279. Glanz K, Yaroch AL. Strategies for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Grocery Stores and Communities: Policy, Pricing, and Environmental Change. Preventive Medicine. 2004; 39: S75S80. Gray S. October 28, 2008. Aldi: A Grocer for the Recession. Time Magazine. Retrieved on October 17, 2010 from: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1854348,00.html Gray S. May 26, 2009. Can America’s Urban Food Deserts Bloom? Time Magazine. Retrieved on October 17, 2010 from: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1900947,00.html Horowitz CR, Colson KA, Hebert PL, Lancaster K. Barriers to Buying Healthy Foods for People with Diabetes: Evidence of Environmental Disparities. American Journal of Public Health. 2004; 94(9): 1549-1554. Laraia Ba, Siega-Riz AM, Kaufman JS, Jones SJ. Proximity of Supermarkets is Positively Associated with Diet Quality Index for Pregnancy. Preventive Medicine. 2004; 39: 869-875. Mokdad A, Bowman B, Ford E, Vinicor F, Marks J, Koplan J. The Continuing Epidemics of Obesity and Diabetes in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2001; 286(10): 1195-1200. Morland K, Filomena S. Disparities in the Availability of Fruits and Vegetables Between Racially Segregated Urban Neighbourhoods. Public Health Nutrition. 2007; 10(12): 1481-1489. Morland K, Wing S, Diez Roux A, Poole C. Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Location of Food Stores and Food Service Places. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2002; 22(1): 23-29.

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Newtown CRA. 2010. Retrieved on October 31, 2010 from: http://www.sarasotagov.com/Newtown/CRA.html Pearson T, Russell J, Campbell MJ, Barker ME. Do 'Food Deserts' Influence Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?--A Cross-Sectional Study. Appetite. 2005; 45: 195-197. Powell LM, Auld MC, Chaloupka FJ, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD. Associations Between Access to Food Stores and Adolescent Body Mass Index. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2007; 33(4S): S301-S307. Powell LM, Slater S, Mirtcheva D, Bao Y, Chaloupka FJ. Food Store Availability and Neighborhood Characteristics in the United States. Preventive Medicine. 2007; 44: 189-195. Progressive Grocer. Walgreens Expands Food Selection at 10 Chicago Stores. August 11, 2010. Retrieved on October 20, 2010 from: http://www.progressivegrocer.com/top-storywalgreens_expands_food_selection_at_10_chicago_stores-30219.html Sarasota Enterprise Zone. 2010. Retrieved on October 31, 2010 from: www.floridaenterprisezones.com Smoyer-Tomic KE, Spence JC, Raine KD, Amrhein C, Cameron N, Yasenovskiv V, Cutumisu N, Hemphill E, Healy J. The Association Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets. Health & Place. 2008; 14: 740-754. Timperio A, Ball K, Roberts R, Campbell K, Andrianopoulos N, Crawford D. Children's Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with the Neighbourhood Food Environment. Preventive Medicine. 2008; 46: 331-335. Turrell G, Hewitt B, Patterson C, Oldenburg B, Gould T. Socioeconomic Differences in Food Purchasing Behaviour and Suggested Implications for Diet-Related Health Promotion. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2002; 15: 355-364. White House. Retrieved on October 18, 2010 from: www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2010/02/24/taking-food-deserts Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Hollis-Neely T, Campbell RT, Holmes N, Watkins G, Nwankwo, R, Odoms-Young A. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in African Americans; Income and Store Characteristics. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2005; 29(1): 1-9. Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, Sherman JA, Bao S, Wilson ML. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Neighborhood Poverty, and the Spatial Accessibility of Supermarkets in Metropolitan Detroit. American Journal of Public Health. 2005; 95(4): 660-667.

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Sustainable Redevelopment within the Newtown Community of Sarasota, Florida: Green Streets By Katrina Johnson Introduction “Green streets” are a type of best management practice (BMP) that utilizes low impact development techniques to manage the effects of urban stormwater runoff, benefiting not only the environment but the people within it. The construction of impervious surfaces in urban areas disrupts the natural hydrologic cycle. Traditional development practices handled runoff with drainage systems that discharged untreated stormwater into nearby water ways. As stormwater passes over impervious surfaces it picks up pollutants such as fertilizers, heavy metals and sediments created by human activities becoming a non-point source pollutant that contributes to the degradation of local water bodies in and around urban areas (Jartun, 2008; Hood, Clausen & Warner, 2007; Elliott & Trowsdale, 2007; Brun & Band, 2000). Contaminated stormwater that reaches water bodies can negatively impact ground water flow and the water quality, aquatic life, and structure of streams, (Jartun, 2008; Dietz, & Clausen, 2007). The use of low-impact development (LID) techniques has been shown to help in managing stormwater runoff by reducing runoff volume and speed, and the level of contamination that makes its way into nearby waterways (Elliott & Trowsdale, 2007; Hood, Clausen & Warner, 2007; USEPA, 2000). LID practices accomplish this with techniques that return the local hydrologic cycle back to predevelopment levels and filters the water as it permeates through the soil. This recharges ground water and base flow, as well as slows down and disrupts the rush of water into rivers, lakes and streams (Dietz & Clausen, 2008; Dietz, 2007; Walsh, Fletcher, & Ladson, 2005). Green streets accomplish this goal with bioretention systems and permeable pavements which create a more porous surface to allow for infiltration of runoff.

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What makes a green street? Bioretention Systems Bioretention systems, also known as biofiltration systems, are built alongside roadways to help intercept runoff before it reaches stormwater drainage systems. This is accomplished by

constructing these systems at a lower elevation than the roadway, allowing the stormwater to run down into the bioretention area and accumulate before being absorbed into the ground. Bioretention systems are also built to manage the pollutants that are washed off of impervious surfaces in what is called the “first flush” of water (Jartun, 2008; Davis et al., 2001; US EPA, 2000). Bioretention systems manage runoff through their use of carefully selected permeable drainage media and cover vegetation (Cho et al., 2009). Many current BMPs such as vegetated swales and rain gardens can be considered types of bioretention systems. Vegetated swales collect stormwater runoff in low lying features such as ditches that run alongside roadways. Rain gardens reduce runoff and recharge groundwater by redirecting stormwater into low lying depressions planted with an assortment of vegetation and covered with mulch. Roads without curbs allow easy access to the bioretention systems,

while other areas may need to have sections of curbs removed to create a flow path for the runoff. Vegetated swales allow some filtration of the runoff, but they are primarily used to slow down the runoff velocity and channel it into a connecting drainage system, with only limited infiltration into the soil. Typical vegetation utilized in swales is grass for absorbing and trapping contaminates within the runoff, but other types of plants can also be planted to increase absorption rates. Vegetated swales are a less expensive form of managing stormwater then other types of stormwater management practices (Deletic & Fletcher, 2005; USEPA, 2000). However, a study conducted by Ana Deletic and Tim D. Fletcher observed that this type of biofiltration

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system removes large sediment particulates more efficiently then it does nutrients (Deletic & Fletcher, 2005). The rain gardens collect the stormwater runoff and allow it to quickly infiltrate into the ground, avoiding the accumulation of stagnant water and the need for a traditional drainage system. The filtration that occurs as water permeates through the soil can allow for greater removal of nutrients than vegetated swales, but researchers Michael E. Dietz and John C. Clausen feel that much still needs to be studied about the “retention and infiltration abilities” of rain gardens. In a field study conducted by these researchers, they observed 98.8% of the stormwater runoff being absorbed. Unfortunately, their tests revealed that the rain gardens were only able to significantly remove ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) from the runoff, with phosphorus and other forms of nitrogen poorly filtered (Dietz & Clausen, 2005). Bioretention areas in general however, have had more in-depth studies conducted recently to help in understanding the mechanics of media filtration and plant absorption in removing runoff and pollutants. Careful attention should be paid to the local soil when constructing a bioretention system; unlike typical retention ponds the soil within this system should be highly porous with a high percentage of sand. This allows for quick infiltration of stormwater into the media so that more water can enter into the system and be removed from quickly and efficiently from the roadway. Studies showed that as the runoff passes through the media, it also helps in removing pollutants such as heavy metals, suspended solids and nutrients. At times, perforated piping is buried under the layer of media to encourage the water to be pulled in, and carried to another location for a more rapid removal of runoff (US EPA, 2000). What also makes these bioretention systems different from traditional retention ponds is the use of flora to assist in the absorption processes and the removal of pollutants. Ideally, the

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flora used in these systems is native, however this is not always possible when looking for plants that can withstand extreme wet and dry conditions, absorb large amounts of water, and handle pollutants such as heavy metals and high levels of nutrients (Read et al., 2008; US EPA, 2000). However, proper selection of plant species can affect how pollutants are treated by bioretention systems, as different species vary in their ability to remove pollutants from stormwater runoff (Read et al., 2008). Overall, the structure of a bioretention pond has a layer of mulch over the media with a variety of flora from trees to shrubs planted within. This combination is very efficient at absorbing stormwater runoff and removing pollutants such as suspended solids and heavy metals (Hatt et al., 2008; Hsieh et al., 2007; Davis et al., 2003). Tests have shown that the bioretention systems were able to sink these pollutants, stopping them from exiting the system and reducing the chances of groundwater contamination. However, soluble nutrients removal has had varying results. At times it has been observed that phosphorous has exited the bioretention system at higher levels than was introduced through runoff, possibly because of high preexisting levels of fertilizer within the mulch or media (Bratieres et al., 2008; Hsieh et al., 2007). Caution should be taken when constructing a bioretention that no fertilizer already exists within the media or will be added during the maintenance of the system. Nitrate and ammonia were also found

within the effluent as it exited the system during lab tests. Researchers did possibly find a solution for dealing with phosphorous as well as nitrates and ammonia by creating special layering within the media to remove the pollutants. The media layering that was most efficient at removing phosphorous was one that had a top layer of higher permeability and a second layer underneath of a less porous media. The initial rapid absorption and then slowing down throuh the second media layer allowed enough time for the system to remove the phosphorous (Hsieh et

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al., 2007). The removal of nitrates and ammonia followed a similar pattern of a top media that promoted rapid infiltration using mulch and soil mixture. However the second layer of sand also is a highly permeable layer and wold not detain the runoff as long as the phosphorous media mixture would (Hsieh et al., 2007). Another concern regarding bioretention systems and other permeable surfaces is the chance for groundwater contamination. By creating a more permeable surface that encourages runoff to filter through, there is a fear of some contaminates reaching the water table below and compromising the quality of the groundwater. Some researchers are concerned that more soluble pollutants may not be able sink into the bioretention system as they pass through (Yang et al., 2010), whereas other studies conducted using dissolved pollutants found that after filtrating down 25 cm into a bioretention system, 90% of the pollutants were removed from the runoff (Sun & Davis, 2007). Lastly, bioretention systems and other pervious enhanced surfaces should only be built in urban residential areas where pollutant build up is small. Business districts are not considered adequate locations due to the larger concentration of pollutants that may accumulate on top of the impervious surfaces. There is a concern that due to high levels of contaminates within the industrial runoff, the bioretention system may not be able to remove all of the pollutants, potentially leading to ground water contamination. Permeable pavements (porous asphalt/concrete, pavers, grids) The use of traditional concrete and asphalt when developing homes, roadways, sidewalks, parking lots and many other structures has lead to the problem we are facing today of impervious surfaces disrupting the natural infiltration of stormwater into the ground. The hydrologic cycle is renewed by taking impervious asphalt and concrete and replacing it with asphalt or concrete that is more porous and allows water to filter through. This may be as simple as replacing the 187

traditional binding agents or particulates within the material to leave voids and openings between grains that allow water to permeate. Blocks or grids can also be laid down to make surfaces more pervious, with either turf or crushed rock placed between the pavers to further help with water filtration (Dietz, 2007). Under these permeable top layers is another highly pervious layer of mixed aggregate used to aid in filtration and stability of the road above. This layer of aggregate has larger spaces between its particles, drawing the water through the first porous layer and into the larger spaces of the crushed aggregate. Depending on the crushed aggregate used, a highly pemeable layer would allow for a quicker movement of water through the system (Scholz & Grabowiecki, 2007). Within this layer, the stormwater can infiltrate into the soil away from the surface to reduce flooding and interrupt the flow of unfiltered runoff into waterways. Studies have shown the effectiveness of permeable pavers in removing suspended solids, hydrocarbons, and heavy metals (Scholz & Graboiecki, 2007). Tested both in a controled laboratory setting and out in the field, the results were possitive in both situations. Of the four pavers tested (non-permeable pavers with small gaps between pavers, permeable pavers without gaps between the pavers, and two types of porous pavers with green spaces) the porous paver with green spaces looking similar to latice work allowed for infiltration to occur quickest. The second best at filtering runoff was the other type of porous paver that used green spaces between the edges/joints of the paver. Not only were the porous pavers with green spaces efficient at absorbing runoff, but also at removing hydrocarbons and heavy metals. Both the laboratory and field tests concluded that there are no concerns for groundwater contamination when using permeable pavers. The studies also showed that it may be at least 50 years before concerns would need to be addressed regarding ground water contamination, and 15 when using porous pavers in low impact areas such a playground (Dierkes et al., 2002).

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An obstacle to the use of pervious pavements is the tendency for the pores to become clogged, which means maintenance of permeable pavement is recommended to keep the system running efficiently. The use of a high powered vacuum or power pressure washing is thought to be the best way of removing the clogs. In a study conducted in Germany, a new device was built that both power pressure washed and used a high powered vacuum to remove clogging material and contaminates that were not absobing. The results of the study showed that after utilizing the cleaner, the pores of the pavers was cleared and the efficiency of the system was greatly increased (Dierkes et al., 2002). Maintenance however, can be time consuming and expensive to keep up with, and it may be in the best interest of the city to only use the permeable pavers on sidewalks and bike paths where less traffic occurs and a slower rate of clogging may occur. Use of green streets in Seattle, WA Seattle has already begun the process of utilizing LID designs to build green streets in a program called Green Stormwater Infrastructures (GSIs). The drive to build GSIs arose after it became apparent that Puget Sound and other rivers, lakes and streams were suffering from pollutants being washed into waterways through stormwater drainage pipes. Sediments and high levels of nutrients along with other environmental contaminants were creating a habitat unsuitable for salmon spawning as well as negatively affecting other wildlife (SPU, 2010). Using GSI

techniques the government came up with the idea of the Natural Drainage Projects (NDPs), whose goals were reduce the amount and speed of runoff, reduce flooding, improve water quality, and return the hydrologic cycle back to levels closer to predevelopment standards naturally (SPU, 2010). In 2001 Seattle’s pilot project called the Street Edge Alternatives (SEA) took root and grew. It utilized vegetated swales and rain gardens as natural and aesthetically appealing BMPs for slowing down and filtering stormwater runoff. Whenever possible, existing trees (especially 189

old growth) and other natural features to preserve the native landscape.

Construction of the

NDPs brought awareness to the community of what a watershed is, how their actions were affecting the environment around them and what could be done to lessen these harmful effects of stormwater runoff. The goal of the city is to ultimately reconstruct all roadways running from north to south using GSI. NDPs must fullfill stormwater management criteria as well as

maintaining an aesthetically appealing landscape so that residents and other pedestrians will be able to enjoy walking along the sidewalks under the shade of old and young trees. It also presents the opportunity to educate others who see the beautiful landscaping and want to know more about what it is and what it does. Other benefits of GSI that do not include stormwater control is their ability to assist with filtering air pollution and reducing the heat island effect (SPU, 2010). An example of an NDP from Seattle can be seen in the Figure 1 below.

Figure 1. Natural Drainage Project (NDP), Seattle, WA (SPU, 2010) Newtown, Sarasota Located in northern Sarasota County, FL near the Gulf coast, Newtown is a community that could benefit from the construction of green streets. The Environmental Protection Agency has listed the Whitaker Bayou that runs through the community as impaired due to high levels of nutrients within the water (USEPA, 2010). This is a sign that traditional methods of stormwater management are discharging pollutants into the Whitaker Bayou, which leads into the Gulf of 190

Mexico. By redeveloping the current streets in Newtown, the community could not only help reduce the amount of nutrients discharging directly into the Whitaker Bayou, but also improve the community pride and knowledge of their actions towards the environment. An example of how stormwater in Newtown is being handled currently is shown in Figures 2 and 3 below, where traditional stormwater management practices have pipes leading directly to the nearest water to discharge.

Figure 2. Newtown Sarasota, FL traditional stormwater drainage system

Figure 3. Newtown Sarasota, FL stormwater drainage system discharge

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Figure 4. Newtown Sarasota, FL ideal location for a green street Roads such as the one in Figure 4 have potential to make ideal green streets. The grassy easement seen on the left hand side of the picture would make an ideal location for a vegetated swale. For this to occur the elevation of the easement would have to be lowered and an opening in the curb would have to be created to direct the runoff into the swale. If no curb was present the downward slope of the easement would be enough to redirect the flow. Within these bioretention areas a variety of shrubs and trees should be planted to allow for efficient absorption of the runoff and removal of pollutants from the system (Reed et al., 2008). Ideally, evergreens would be used to allow for evapotraspiration year round, and more mature trees would have a greater absorpion and storage capacity for runoff. Also an older tree would usually have a larger canopy that could interrupt rainfall and allow for the water to evaporate from the leaves before reaching the ground below (SPU, 2010).

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Figure 5. Newtown Sarasota, FL potential location for permeable pavement Other features that could be utilized by Newtown to make its streets greener would include the use of permeable pavement on areas where there are sidewalks or bike lanes. In Figure 5 you can see a bike lane that is not very well defined and a sidewalk. By using pavers or pervious pavement with a different texture than the main street, you not only create an area where runoff can be absorbed, but also better define the bike lane. This can be accomplished without the use of lines and symbols painted on the road which wear away over time, and need to be reapplied. Sidewalks could also be made more aesthetically appealing by using pavers that make the sidewalk more permeable and stand out from the rest of the roadway. However, not all roadways in Newtown can be considered adequate for redeveloping into green streets. Areas that would not benefit from the use of green streets would be narrow roads where the easement already contains a lot of large old growth trees that do not leave enough room to construct a bioretention area. In some cases wider roads would allow the bioretention area to be built into the street, narrowing the road and creating a traffic calming structure where vehicles slow down to move around bioretention areas. The construction of such features should be done carefully so as not to make the road too narrow and obstruct the movement of fire rescue vehicles, making sure the roads the current regulations for streets is

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maintained. Access by a fire truck however, has been noted to be possible within streets that are 24 feet wide (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999). These features are constructed using curbs to define the boarders of the system, leaving open sections of the curb alongside to allow for runoff to enter. These bioretention areas could be built alternating each side of the road

traveling down the street, creating a meandering pattern to the roadway which also helps slow down runoff as well as vehicle traffic. With slower traffic the road can potentially become a safer location for children to spend time outside enjoying the weather and the aesthetics of the new landscape design. Not only would children benefit from slower traffic, but also pedestrians and bicyclists would feel safer, and encourage healthy outdoor activities. Increased time spent outdoors also helps to strengthen community relationships. Neighbors will watch out for one another and help to reduce crime rates within their community. Another benefit of green streets slowing traffic and creating more aesthetically enhanced areas is that they may also help entice businesses to come build within a community which would help the local economy (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999).

Figure 6. Newtown Sarasota, FL not an ideal location for a green street Another area in Newtown that would not be ideal for the construction of green street features is the large factory district as seen in Figure 6. The roads around this area are wide and constructed

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in the manner of traditional practices that could normally benefit from the use of permeable surfaces to reestablish the hydrologic cycle. However, there is potential for large amounts of

toxic pollutants to accumulate on the impervious surfaces and wash into the bioretention areas and contaminate the groundwater. It is the goal of these systems to facilitate the infiltration of contaminated runoff into the soil, which works well in urban residential locations where pollutant levels are small and manageable. Factories create a wider range and larger volume of contaminants, which bioretention areas may not be able to remove before the pollutants reach the groundwater (Dietz, 2007). Although green streets could help return the hydrologic cycle of the area, the potential for contamination of the groundwater is too great of a risk to take. The water from around and on the land of these factories should be processed separately at another location where special attention could be made toward removing the pollutants from the runoff without risk to the surrounding environment. Conclusion In conclusion Newtown would greatly benefit from the construction of green streets. Construction of green streets uses a variety of different tree and shrub species, that when professionally planted can add an aesthetic appeal that homeowners can enjoy while spending time outside. Spending more time outside enjoying the beautiful landscape, neighbors could start to form friendships that could lead to social events such as neighborhood barbecues. These relationships could then lead to the neighborhood coming together and forming neighborhood watches to help create a safe place to live and raise children (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999). The construction of vegetated swales/bioretention areas could also help entice potential buyers to purchase property within Newtown. Beautiful, environmentally conscious landscaping has an aesthetic appeal that could help to catch the eye of a person looking to purchase a home near the Gulf coast. Seeing people outside and children playing would appeal to younger families 195

looking to find a place to start a family that wanted the feel of a close-knit community which would watch out for each other. The concept of going green is also becoming very popular, so the construction of a green street, and being a part of helping the environment may also appeal to those who want to live a more sustainable lifestyle. In the end, these green streets will ultimately help Whitaker Bayou recover from the effects of stormwater runoff. By constructing bioretention areas throughout the community, the amount of nutrients and other pollutants discharged into the waterway would be greatly reduced, helping to preserve the Whitaker Bayou for future generations to enjoy. The community could also take pride not only in the aesthetics of their environmentally sustainable roadways, but also in their contribution towards maintaining the rain gardens by removing litter and helping keep their streets clean. At the same time as enjoying the beauty of their streets and contributing to the maintenance of the system, the community becomes educated about the impact of humans to the environment and how small contributions by individuals and a community can help to reduce the impact (SPU, 2010). References Brun, S.E., & Band, L.E. (2000). Simulating runoff behavior in an urbanizing watershed. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 24, 5-22. Cho, K.W., Song, K.G., Cho, J.W., Kim, T.G., & Ahn, K.H. (2009). Removal of nitrogen by a layered soil infiltration system during intermittent storm events. Chemosphere, 76, 690696. Davis, A.P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H. & Minami, C. (2001). Laboratory Study of Biological Retention for Urban Stormwater Management. Water Environment Research, 73, 1:5-14. Davis, A.P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H., Minami, C., & Winogradoff, D. (2003). Water Quality Improvement through Bioretention: Lead, Copper, and Zinc Removal. Water Environment Research, 75, 1:73-82. Deletic, A. & Fletcher, T.D. (2005). Performance of grass filters used for stormwater treatment – a field and modeling study. Journal of Hydrology. 317, 261-275. 196

Dierkes, C., Kuhlmann, L., Kandasamy, J., & Angelis, G. Pollution Retention Capability and Maintenance ofPermeable Pavements. 9th International Conference on Urban Drainage, Portland, Oregon. 8-13 September 2002. Dietz, M.E. (2007). Low Impact Development Practices: A review of Current Research and Recommendations for Future Directions. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 186, 351-363. Dietz, M.E. & Clausen, J.C. (2005). A field evaluation of rain garden flow and pollutant treatment. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 167, 123-138. Dietz, M.E. & Clausen, J.C. (2008). Stormwater runoff and export changes with development in a traditional and low impact subdivision. Journal of Environmental Management, 87, 560-566. Elliott, A.H., & Trowsdale, S.A. (2007). A review of models for low impact urban stormwater drainage. Envionmental Modelling & Software, 22, 394-405. Hatt, B.E., Fletcher, T.D. & Deletic, A. (2008). Hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of stormwater biofiltration systems at the field scale. Journal of Hydrology. 365, 310-321. Hsieh, C., Davis, A.P., & Needelman, B.A. (2007). Bioretention Column Studies of Phosphorous Removal from Urban Stormwater Runoff. Water Environment Research, 79, 2:177-184. Hsieh, C., Davis, A.P., & Needelman, B.A. (2007). Nitrogen Removal from Urban Stormwater Runoff Through Layered Bioretention Columns. Water Environment Research, 79, 12:2404-2411. Hood, M., Clausen, J., & Warner, G. (2007). Comparison of stormwater lag times for low impact and traditional residential development. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43, 1036-1046. Jartun, M., Ottesen, R.T., Steinnes, E., & Volden, T. (2008). Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps. Science of the Total Environment, 396, 147-163. Newman, P., & Kenworthy, J. (1999). Traffic calming. In S. & T. Wheeler & Beatley (Ed.), The Sustainable Urban Development (pp. 123-129). New York: Routledge. Read, J., Wevill, T., Fletcher, T. & Deletic, A. (2007). Variation among plant species in pollutant removal from stormwater in biofiltration systems. Water Research. 42, 893-902. Seattle Public Utilities. (2010). Natrual Drainage Projects. Retrieved November 9, 2010. From http://www.seattle.gov/util/About_SPU/Drainage_&_Sewer_System/GreenStormwaterIn frastructure/NaturalDrainageProjects/index.htm

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Scholz, M., & Grabowiecki, P. (2007). Review of permeable pavement systems. Building and Environment, 42, 3830-3836. Sun, X. & Davis, A.P. (2007). Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems. Chemosphere, 66, 1601-1609. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2000). Low Impact Development (LID): A Literature Review. Retrieved March 12, 2010. From http://www.eqa.gov/owow/nps/lid/lid.pdf United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Total Maximum Daily Loads. Retrieved on November 8, 2010, From http://iaspub.epa.gov/tmdl_waters10/enviro.control?p_list_id=FL-1936&p_cycle= Walsh, C.T., Fletcher, T.D., & Ladson, A.R. (2005). Stream Restoration in Urban Catchments through Redesigning Stormwater Systems: Looking to the Catchment to Save the Stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24, 3:690-705.

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Promoting Sustainable Redevelopment in Newtown with Urban Forestry by Jason Kendall Abstract

The Newtown Community Redevelopment Area Plan (NRAP) begins by discussing the need of African-American community revitalization projects to go beyond just local cleanup and streetscaping. The plan calls for a combination of these beautification efforts with specific social and economic gains, in order to reach the full potential of project goals. Although the NRAP calls for going beyond beautification, the need is clearly important to redevelopment in Newtown as the terms trees, landscaping and streetscaping are discussed twenty-six times in the document. In this paper I will discuss how a healthy urban forest will promote sustainable redevelopment in Newtown by discussing some of the environmental, social, and economic benefits to the community. I will also discuss the current state of Newtown’s urban forest and potential areas for improvement.

Introduction The 1969 enacted Community Redevelopment Agency (CRA) first listed objective was to address the physical, social and economic problems associated with distressed areas such as Newtown. Development or redevelopment that addresses these three issues has been coined “sustainable development” in the 1987 Brundtland Report. The Brundtland Report was the product of a global commission that convened with the purpose of discovering a solution to some of the problems associated with worldwide urbanization. The commission defined sustainable development as “development that meets the needs of the present without jeopardizing the ability

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of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environmental Development, 1987).” This report has been widely accepted as the beginning of sustainable development practices across the globe, although the definition has been the subject of some amount of scrutiny. The major discussions about the validity of the definition focus on the term “needs of the present,” and the question of what exactly are those needs, and who is to determine what those needs are (Redclift, 1992). Regardless of the questioning of the definition, it is important that Newtown use sustainable development as a guideline for the revitalization process that is currently underway. One of the leading problems determined in the report is poverty, as the poor typically live in degraded environments. It is easy to determine from this report that as economies decline, then environments, society and quality of life are soon to follow. The environment, society and economy of a community are closely related in many aspects. There are also many methods in which to address the problems associated with them. One subject that is commonly overlooked in previously developed spaces is the urban forest. The urban forest is overlooked for many reasons, but one major reason is simply the lack of trees due to maximization of building space and roadways. Street-side trees often come secondary to the progress of development in urban areas as their many benefits were not recognized in the past. It is also necessary to manage street trees with urban forestry programs which can be an immediate cost to some communities (although the benefits far exceed the cost). “Urban forestry is often defined as the cultivation and management of trees for their present and potential contribution to the physiological, sociological and economic well-being of the urban society (Falck and Rydberg, 2000).” Urban street trees and forested parks provide many benefits, some of which are widely known and others that are not so easily observed. In fact, many of the social and economic benefits of trees were not studied until recently. Simply providing and

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maintaining street trees in urban areas can cover all three pillars of sustainable development (economy, society and environment) if managed properly.

Benefits of Trees in Urban Spaces Environmental The environmental benefits of urban trees have been more widely studied and accepted than the social and economical benefits. Urban areas are typically made up of dark surfaces such as asphalt and roof tops that create a “heat island effect,” where local temperature are much higher than surrounding areas. Streets trees provide shade which lowers the surrounding building temperatures and directly lowers cooling cost for the owners. According to a study by Akbari et al. (2001) “electricity demands in cities increases by 2-4% for each 1.8°F rise in temperature.” The same study also determined that on a typical summer afternoon urban air temperatures are as much as 4.5°F warmer than the surrounding rural areas. The decreased building temperatures also indirectly reduce air pollution and energy use by lowering airconditioning usage. The reduced energy consumption lowers the amount of pollutants emitted to the atmosphere from coal fired power plants. The shade provided by trees can also lower temperatures over time by reducing the amounts of greenhouse gas being emitted to the atmosphere through these plants. Air pollution is also directly reduced by the trees themselves by the filtration of particulates such as pollen, dust smoke and ash. The leaves, bark and roots of trees also store smog-causing carbon dioxide (CO2) for use in photosynthesis. In a study by Nowak and Crane (2002), they found that “large trees store approximately 1000 times more carbon than small trees.” This fact combined with increased shading of larger trees show the importance of preserving large historic trees in urban areas.

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Street trees also help to reduce water pollution and peak flooding by increasing filtration and decreasing discharge. In urban areas, 60% of the rainwater is discharged to waterways through storm drains carrying pollutants from roadways and parking lots with it (Bolund and Hunhammar, 1999). This percentage is greatly reduced in vegetated landscapes as only 5-15% of rainwater runs off the ground in these areas (Bolund and Hunhammar, 1999). As rainwater hits and stays in the canopy of the tree, peak runoff rates are reduced. Lower runoff rates mean the rainwater that does hit the ground typically infiltrates or evaporates instead of discharging as flood waters. Infiltration also filters pollutants that remain in the soil where they are used up by the tree as nutrients instead of discharged into local waterways. Social Benefits While the environmental benefits of trees alone are enough reason to preserve and plant trees in urban areas it can be hard to gain public support for urban forestry programs for just these reasons. The people-tree relationship has become another major reason to promote urban forestry programs. There are many of us who have childhood memories of playing around a particular tree or have watched a tree grow as we did. There are many people who plant trees as memorials for a loved one’s death or a child’s birth. As a result, people hold very strong ties to trees, with some attachments approaching a spiritual level (Dwyer et al. 1991). There is also the widely known aesthetic benefit of trees and landscapes. Too many people, there is nothing more relaxing than a walk in the park or around the block to get some fresh air and take in nature. In a study by Dwyer et al. (1991), the authors surveyed people outside the Morton Arboretum in Chicago to try and understand some of these emotional ties we have with trees. Four-fifths of the people studied described the park as “serene,” “peaceful,” and “restful.” The venue for rest or relaxation does not need to be a park as it can be any canopy

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covered street where any type of recreation can take place. Recreation can be explained as an “activity that is engaged in for pleasure, which includes among other things, exercise, relaxation, social contacts, natural studies and aesthetic pleasure (Falck and Rydberg, 2000).” In a study by Wolf (2010), she found that people are more inclined to walk to task destinations (work, shopping, school, etc.) if there are natural features such as street trees. As the number of obese Americans and cars on the road grow by the second, making cities more friendly to walking should be a top priority in every community. Tree plantings can also be a good way for people of a community to come together for a common goal. This can be done through churches, schools, community clean-ups, Earth Day celebrations and so on. Tree plantings are not only a way for people to socialize but also provides the community with a sense of accomplishment, as they feel they are improving their environment and creating something for future generations to enjoy. Trees also help to establish a sense of place; that is a feeling of identification and belonging that is important to people’s enjoyment and well-being and to the process of community (Elmendorf, 2008). Another important social benefit of street trees and perhaps the most important benefit to Newtown at this early stage in the redevelopment process can be crime prevention. Streetscaped environments have proven to reduce both the fear of crime and the potential for committing crimes. The theory of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) involves the design and management of the physical environment to reduce the opportunities for crime, and is based upon the assumption that the offender enters into a rational decision making process before committing a crime (Cozens, 2002). Cozens (2002) explains that CPTED is based upon four strategies, which are: territoriality, natural surveillance, activity support and access control. Trees and landscaping (among other strategies) can establish well defined spaces and create

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territoriality. Natural surveillance can be provided by designing for the right landscaping in the right place, such planting trees and other landscaping away from building entrances so people might be seen from the inside and outside. Activity support is accomplished by encouraging public gatherings to occur in central locations such as city parks where large amounts of people typically go. Access control can be accomplished by Newtown’s front porch initiative. If entrances are landscaped to provide one way in and out and there is a neighbor on the front porch, then criminals would likely think twice before committing a crime. These principles should also be adhered to on city wide level. Key entranceways into Newtown such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way could be accentuated with landscaping to mark the boundaries of the town limits. Economic Benefits Perhaps the most important benefit of trees to Newtown at this time will be the economic ones. The increased shade provided by large tree canopies can lower cooling cost for residents and business owners alike. There are however, many other benefits that are not as easily recognized, such as increased shopper traffic in tree covered versus non-tree covered business districts. In a detailed study by Wolf (2005), she looked beyond the typical marketing studies of aesthetics and consumer responses inside the stores, and looked at the streetscapes outside the store. Data from her study indicated that stores on tree covered streets were much more desirable than quality designed buildings with small sidewalks and no trees. In fact “images having well-tended, large trees received the highest preference ratings of all examples, even though the large trees obscured other elements (such as historic buildings) that often are the targets of business improvement programs (Wolf, 2002).” In the same study by Wolf (2002) she found that patrons spent longer times and spent more money in business district with trees versus

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barren landscapes. Many of the benefits an urban forest has on a community are closely intertwined. There is also evidence that most of the benefits increase in proportion to increased size of the trees (Schroeder et al. 2009). Tree lined streets in business districts make them more appealing and physically comfortable. As a result, more people visit the area and more money is spent. When trees are planted or preserved in residential areas, property values rise and make the area more attractive to outsiders, eventually inviting more people to the area. When more money is spent and more people move into the area, tax revenues increase and more money can be spent in the community to improve parks, streets and so on. More people then walk the streets and social interactions increase, along with a feeling of pride about their community. Trees of Newtown I wanted to search Newtown for the locations of historic trees, tree covered roadways and areas for opportunity. The main priority of my study was first to examine the major roadways through and around Newtown since they mainly represent the business districts. To do this I traveled the perimeter streets: US 41, HWY 301, Myrtle Street and 17th Street and then Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Way by car. Secondly, I wanted to see the majority of the Central Cocoanut Historic District and the surrounding residential areas within the Newtown CRA. To do this I parked at Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Park and biked the entire Central Cocoanut Historic District and as many of the north south residential streets within the CRA area as possible over one afternoon. Although US 41 has been constructed, Hwy 301 is currently under construction and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way has been master planned, it was important to see how these business districts connected to the residential areas of Newtown. I was able to drive the entire perimeter and central streets stopping at several locations, bike the

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entire area northeast of US 41 and 17th Street to Orange Avenue to the east and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way to the north, and approximately 20% of the north/south streets east to US Hwy 301. It was found that the streetscape was more established and diverse the closer to US 41 you are. The Ringling College had been constructed around many large trees that provided canopy covered access around the school. The main thoroughfare of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Way was surprisingly lacking of any large historic street trees. The area containing the largest amount of historic trees was found to be the Central Cocoanut Historic District located south of Whitaker Bayou. Discussion As Newtown moves forward there are many opportunities that need to be taken advantage of in the subject of urban forestry. Newtown is a historic community with a proud past, and its historic trees should be honored and protected, just as its historic buildings are. It was obvious through talking to several members of the community that many important events have happened around these trees. The community could start a campaign to find the most historic tree in Newtown by asking the public for pictures of trees that are still here today and in good condition. Stands could be set up by these trees with the old pictures and stories about whom the tree was important placed in each. This would be a way to educate the youth about the history of the community, and promote awareness of urban forestry at the same time. Trees such as the 51” diameter live oak (Appendix A; Fig. 1) at the corner of 18th Avenue and Cocoanut Drive in the Central Cocoanut Historic District could be added to historic tours throughout the area.

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Some of the important areas to Newtown’s redevelopment are already under construction or have already been master planned. Phase II of the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way Economic Development Plan calls for buildings to be placed towards the street with parking in the rear. This is evident in the Market Place at Janie’s Garden development that is currently under construction, where little room has been left for street trees to provide patrons with shade during summer months (Appendix A; Fig. 2). It is important that planners and developers reflect on the Visual Preference Survey from the same development plan. It is clear to see by the first choice of those surveyed, the desired look of the corridor is one with landscaped areas and trees. For those areas not in these two categories, Newtown could designate certain scenic corridors that lead to key locations such as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way, the Robert L. Taylor Community Complex or parks throughout the neighborhoods. These scenic corridors could be implemented into code or constructed as public works projects. Emphasis could be put on developing a continuous tree cover from the neighborhoods to business districts to provide shade and protection for residents such as Bradenton Road south of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way (Appendix A Fig. 3) or 23rd Street (Appendix A, Fig. 4) do now. In areas where there are power lines or other limited space obstacles, silviculture plans could be put in place now for the harvesting of street trees for production of mulch and lumber in the community, and then replanting the area with trees again. A perfect area to start this might be 21st Street on the way to the Boys and Girls Club where there is little to no canopy cover. Another opportunity might be Myrtle Street across from Booker Middle school where there is a large open ditch located in the median that could be planted with Cypress Trees to filter pollutants and reduce runoff. There are many funding opportunities available for street tree programs and Newtown redevelopment officials should work closely with the Sarasota Environmental Services

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Department to access these possibilities. The City of Sarasota and Sarasota County have been designated Tree City USA Communities by the Arbor Day Foundation, which provides financial assistance for forestry programs. The City of Sarasota also requires people who remove trees without permits to replace the trees or pay into a tree fund. Newtown officials could request that these trees and/or funds be placed in their area for a time in specific areas of importance. Lastly the Florida Chapter of the International Society of Arboriculture in located in Sarasota and is always available for support. One other key area of opportunity is the establishment and management of city parks in Newtown. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Park is situated perfectly as a natural area located centrally in town for residents to enjoy. Parks multiply the many environmental, social and economical benefits trees provide mentioned above, and provide a meeting place for city residents. Additionally, planners should look at vacant properties to see if any other opportunities exist to convert these areas to parks. Several studies have shown that resident’s feelings of insecurity associated with vandalism and crime increases around vacant buildings (Chiesura, 2004).

Conclusion With the unique opportunity that has been provided to this community, it is important that the Newtown Community Area Advisory Board address urban forestry issues to aide in sustainable redevelopment practices. Focusing on urban forestry and sustainable development will provide for the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations by harnessing the environmental, social and economic benefits of street trees. Special emphasis should also be put on preserving the historic trees in the community, as they have provided such

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an important meaning to some of Newtown’s residents. Urban planners and developers should work together to design streetscapes that promote walkability and natural crime prevention. Increased walkability and crime prevention would bring more business and residents to the area and ultimately increase tax revenues. The community would benefit greatly if social organizations such as churches became involved in tree plantings to promote civic awareness and pride in the area. While this report focused on the large historic trees and canopy covered streets, it is important that Newtown considers the entire urban forest of small and large trees. The practice of “right tree, right place” must be implemented by planners and developers, as Newtown moves forward.

References Akbari, et al. (2001). Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Areas, 70(3), 295-301. Bolund, P. and Hunhammar, S. (1999). Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecological Economics, 29, 293-301. Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning, 68, 129-138. Cozens, P. (2002). Sustainable urban development and crime prevention through environmental design for the british city. Towards and effective urban environmentalism for the 21st century.Cities, 19(2), 129-137. Crane, D. and Nowak, D. (2002). Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution, 116, 381-389. Dwyer et al. (1991). The significance of urban trees and forest: Toward a deeper understanding of values. Journal of Arboriculture, 17(10), 276-284. Elmendorf, W. (2008). The importance of trees and nature in community: A review of the relative literature. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry, 34(3): 152-156. Falck, J. and Rydberg, D. (2000). Urban forestry in Sweden from a silvicultural perspective: a review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 47, 1-18. 209

Redclift, M. (1992). The meaning of sustainable development. Geoforum, 23, No.3, 395-435 Schroeder et al. (2009). Big trees in the urban forest: An endangered resource worth sustaining. Arborist News, 18(2): 60-62. Wolf, K. (2005). Business district streetscapes, trees, and consumer response. Journal of Forestry, (103)8, 396-400. Wolf, K. (2010). City tree, nature and physical activity. Facility Management Journal, 20(1), 50-54. World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press

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Appendix A

Figure 1: A 51” diameter live oak with large spreading canopy on 18th Street just west of Cocoanut Drive

Figure 2: The Market Place at Janie’s Garden along Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way under construction with little room left for street trees. 211

Figure 3: Bradenton Road just south of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Way. From left to right a 46” oak, 27” pine, 30” oak and a 31” oak.

Figure 4: Canopy cover of 23rd Street west of Orange Avenue. 212

The Potential Effects of Rising Sea Levels on Sarasota and Newtown, and the Lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina. Christopher Klug Sea Level Rise is Real There is no dispute that sea levels are rising due to climate change. Although various factions disagree on the causes of said climate changes, almost none in the business of climate study denies the observable and measurable phenomenon of global warming.(Anderegg, 2010) In a recent survey, 97.5% of climatologists that actively publish research on climate change agreed that global warming is occurring, and that human activities have a significant impact on climate change.(Cook, 2010) Global warming is melting the polar ice caps and sea levels are measurably rising. (Vermeer, Dec 22 2009) As coastal Floridians, we will be among the first Americans impacted by these rising waters. Because we make our home in Florida, we are subject to seasonal hurricanes and the accompanying tidal surges. Florida is a naturally low lying State, with virtually no high ground to speak of. Can the Sarasota and Newtown area survive a class 5 hurricane if sea levels rise 4 feet? What kind of storm surge can the area expect if sea levels change dramatically? The following illustration Figure 1 is from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and shows a 2100 sea level rise prediction of 60cm due to rising temperature, but does not take into account recent measurements of accelerated ice pack melt.(Nicholls, 2010) It should also be noted that sea level rise is not uniform, and that it is generally observed to be accelerating. (Ibid) Courtesy: Science, Vol 328, June 2010

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Scientific Geographical Examination This study focuses on the redrawing of flood maps due to rising sea levels, a measurable feature of our landscape. The case will be made that sea levels will rise, and that upper level estimates are in the neighborhood of a rise of 4 feet by the year 2100. Parts of Sarasota County are very low lying, and the potential for property loss due to the rising sea level is great. Human activity such as agriculture and the drawdown of underground water supplies contribute to subsistence, the phenomena of sinking land. Currently, the elevation reported at Sarasota-Bradenton airport 214

is 21.9 feet above sea level; Venice airport, representing the southern half of Sarasota County is reported to be at 12.2 feet above sea level. (AirNav, 2009) What will happen during a Category 5 hurricane, when the storm surge can exceed 60 feet? (Scales-Wikipedia, 2010) Current Federal flood maps of the Sarasota area are out of date, and are being updated with a completion date of Nov 2011. The Geologic Survey data used to determine land elevation derives from National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929, and was only accurate that year to within 1 meter.(Frazier T. G., 2010) The latter makes forecasting storm surge less accurate, but even with these shortcomings the projections are ominous. The modeling was done using data from Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes, or SLOSH. This data was obtained from the National Hurricane Center and NOAA, who rely on the same data for their modeling and projections. (Frazier T. G., 2010) Researchers took the data from this model and using GIS, created overlays of the land use map of Sarasota County 2050 Comprehensive Plan. The researchers presented this data during a one day workshop in Sarasota to “Workshop participants (who) reflected various political agendas and socioeconomic interests of five local knowledge domains: business, environment, emergency management and infrastructure, government, and planning.”(Frazier T. G., 2010 (30)) This assembly absorbed the science, and remarkably “Despite different agendas, interests, and proposed adaptation strategies, there was common agreement among participants for the need to increase community resilience to contemporary hurricane storm-surge hazards and to explore adaptation strategies to combat the projected, enlarged storm-surge hazard zones.” (Frazier T. G., 2010 (30)) It is common knowledge in planning circles that comprehensive land-use planning is the most effective method for reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience to natural hazards.

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Sarasota’s population has grown by 17% in the last ten years (US Census 2000), and City and County planners have had to consider a host of socioeconomic pressures as well as hazards imminent and far into the future. To grapple with population increase is hard enough, but if elements enter the equation that dramatically reduce the land area and can radically affect power distribution networks, sewer and water line placement, storm-water control and rezoning of residential neighborhoods based on newly drawn flood plain maps, the job becomes extremely difficult. This is especially true if these elements are due to a volatile subject like the effects of climate change. Historical Weather and the Future Sarasota’s history of hurricanes is documented from 1858, and shows storms in 1878, 1901, 1903, 1925, 1944, 1983, 1988, 2001, and 2004. The last severe hurricane to hit Sarasota County directly was in 1944. The Pinar del Rio hurricane was a Category 3, and caused nine deaths and severe damage to the citrus industry. It has been estimated that this storm damage would approach $40 billion by today’s standards. (Barnes, 2007) Hurricane Charlie just brushed the unincorporated and mostly uninhabited part of southern Sarasota County, and yet this category 4 storm caused 19 deaths and $25 billion in damages. Some experts argue that climate change will increase the number of hurricanes each year, and some argue against it. (Knutson, May 5 2010) A consensus is building that hurricanes will increase in intensity and strength, even as the numbers of events decrease.(Frazier T. G., 2010) The danger is amplified by the high numbers of new residents moving into coastal zones, which are already crowded and overbuilt. Local Impact To be in compliance with the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000, cities and counties have been encouraged to inventory their assets located in hazard zones. It is also important to know how

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many critical and essential facilities lay within these hazard zones. By critical and essential, we are speaking of clinics, doctor’s offices, hospitals, government offices, fire stations, police stations, first responder locations, grocery stores, fueling stations, etc, etc. Electricity distribution infrastructure is also considered critical and essential, as substations can take months to bring back online once flooded, delaying recovery. Municipal water wells, septic treatment plants and sewer infrastructure are also subject to outages and damage from flooding, as well as salt infiltration and pollution of drinking water supplies and networks. All of these facilities are needed for normalcy in living conditions, and great deals of these are now in new hazard zones, capable of being functionally wiped out by storm surge flooding.

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The increased size of the projected hazard zones is apparent in these illustrations. The number of critical and essential facilities within the flood zone also increases, from 1% in a Category 1 storm to 9% and from 5% in a Category 2 event to 20%. Affected population also follows this trend, with 8% affected in a Category 1 event to 16%, or 51,000 people now living within the hazard zone. The Category 4 and 5 increases were not as dramatic, as 69% of Sarasota County’s 232,000 people would be affected in this scenario from storm surge flooding with a 120cm rise in sea level. In the unincorporated area, just over 50% of the county’s population is in the exposed area while about 40% of the city of Sarasota’s population, almost all of Venice’s population, and just over half of North Port’s residents are exposed. The smaller municipalities 218

of Longboat Key, Siesta Key, Nokomis, Plantation, Englewood, Laurel, and Warm Mineral Springs all have a smaller number of residents exposed than the four bigger communities but have 100% of their total population in the hazard zone. There are several smaller communities that are entirely in the storm-surge hazard zones and several more that are almost entirely in the hazard zones when sea level rise is added. (Frazier T. G., 2010 (30)) One can see that this changes the character of storm-water management dramatically, and raises the problem of effective land planning strategy with regard to the new flood hazard boundaries. Planning and Regulation In looking at Sarasota’s 2050 Comprehensive Plan, the trend is followed in future land use for residential use; double the land currently classified as in the hazard zone will fall in the new hazard zone accounting for sea level rise. Commercial and transportation property fared far worse, with four times the area falling into the new hazard areas. Truly, this will take some creative engineering and flood control to allow for safe development for Sarasota County’s newly arriving population. On the bright side, Sarasota County has a comprehensive land use plan, and a coordinated effort by Federal, State, County and local officials to solve these problems before they become disasters. One of the first things to come to light in post-Katrina New Orleans was the fact that the city and parish had no comprehensive plan for development, and instead had allowed communities, private flood control contractors and local governments to develop willy-nilly, without control or zoning.(Cigler, Dec 2007) Florida requires a comprehensive plan by mandate, and the Florida Department of Community Affairs reviews all proposed changes to the plan. In this regard, Florida is miles ahead of Louisiana in regards to public safety. The Local Government Comprehensive Planning and Land Development Regulation Act

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requires all of Florida's 67 counties and 410 municipalities to adopt Local Government Comprehensive Plans that guide future growth and development. Comprehensive plans contain chapters that address future land use, coastal management, conservation, recreation and open space, intergovernmental coordination housing, transportation, infrastructure, and capital improvements.(Florida Statutes Chapter 163, part II) This is absolutely vital for storm-water and flood control, and New Orleans had nothing like it. Their Federal flood maps were out of date, too. Environmental Impact of Wetlands Destruction New Orleans also had something in common with Florida; Big Oil had cast its eye on the oil reserves off the Gulf coast. Louisiana, long time friend of the oilman, welcomed the oil exploration and production that made billionaires of several of the State’s citizens and politicians. The oil companies dredged and cut canals through most of Louisiana’s wetlands for heavy equipment access, opening up “hurricane highways” through the buffering wetlands. Katrina’s storm surge was funneled up these channels, intensifying the pressure against New Orleans’ levees and floodgates with predictable and terrifying results. Florida must guard against damage to wetlands, as they are the first line of defense against storm surge and flooding. In the years leading up to Katrina, The Corps of Engineers received $2 billion for New Orleans levee projects, but the money was diverted to politically lucrative development projects, instead of overdue levee repair.(Cigler, Dec 2007) No comprehensive plan, no zoning in coastal areas, monies diverted from levee repair and “hurricane highways” all contributed to the horrible flooding, loss of life and national tragedy that was the effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans. (ibid) The extreme vulnerability of the human populace also came to light, and has lessons for all who live in the potential path of hurricanes.

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Newtown’s Vulnerability In Newtown, human vulnerability to extreme climatic events is perhaps greater for some residents than others. It is clear that some people are more likely to be affected by a disastrous event than others. In New Orleans, people that were able to flee the hurricane did so, but the great majority of people trapped in the city did not evacuate because they either had no specific place to flee to, or because they did not have the motivation, ability or finances to flee. (Cigler, Dec 2007) Reasons vary, but lack of access to an automobile, lack of funds to flee and survive while evacuation is in effect can affect the ability and will of people to evacuate when ordered to do so. Some people will refuse to evacuate because of the natural reluctance to leave one’s home and neighborhood, or the fear of looters pilferage. Some are disabled, perhaps unwilling to leave pets or unable to take them, or unsure of what to do or where to go. Different human characteristics, including demographic and socioeconomic ones, lead to different vulnerabilities for a population at risk. (Tobin, 2009) Many of these vulnerabilities can be addressed by the community leaders, churches and citizens prior to events. Vulnerability can be ameliorated by planning and dissemination of knowledge. For those of us that live on the sea coast, it is imperative that evacuation plans be discussed and mapped out before the event is imminent. Local government can determine the at-risk groups of citizens, and make plans for their evacuation. Local churches can provide buses and an out of town haven for vulnerable residents by making evacuation compacts within parishes and fellow religious organizations. Many churches do outreach service to the community on a regular basis, and can be invaluable to city planning staff in identifying and briefing at-risk citizens. Arrangements can be made for the safety and transportation of pets. Newtown has a strong community identity and spirit, this is key to the sustainability of Newtown’s people.

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Sarasota maintains a very good website with information on hazard planning, and access to the Internet is provided free from public libraries. (www.sarasota.gov) Evacuation, securing of property, stockpiling of food and water are just a few of the topics covered on this website. The new Robert L. Taylor Community Center can be an ideal place for stockpiling of emergency supplies, foodstuffs and water, and for conducting an educational program regarding hurricane preparedness. In a few very significant ways, Newtown is in a better position to provide for its residents than other communities in Sarasota County, and this position will only strengthen with time. North Sarasota County is of higher elevation than the southern portion of the county, and therefore will not be as affected by sea level rise. With a projected sea level rise of 120 cm or 4 feet, Longboat Key and most of the City of Venice will be completely flooded. The most severe flooding could occur in the areas of offshore barrier islands, coastal properties and rural south Sarasota County.(Frazier T. G., 2010) The following chart is representative of the number of residents exposed to flooding after the anticipated sea level change. It is plain to see that the northern portion of Sarasota County will fare much better relative to sea level rise, and as the federal flood maps are updated property values could reflect the relative safety of higher ground. Plainly speaking, Newtown is in a good geographical position, and represents an excellent staging area for assisting the rest of the county in times of future high water. Figure 2 The gray bars represent pre-sea level rise storm surge, the black area of the bars represent post sea level rise storm surge. (Frazier T. G., 2010)

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Sarasota Urban Service Boundary Sarasota County has sought to restrict urban sprawl by designating an urban service boundary. This restricts development from occurring east of the service boundary, and allows for development west of I-75. Unfortunately, this boundary restricts development to areas prone to storm surge. Much of the county’s utility infrastructure also is in this area, and with increased development, it is to be expected that increased utility infrastructure will follow. It is important for utility companies to evaluate the potential damage from immersion in flood waters, and to plan accordingly. Although sprawl may be controlled by the urban service boundary, it is certain that is a tradeoff for increased hurricane vulnerability in coastal developments. (Frazier T. G., 2010) Newtown is well within this urban service boundary, and is experiencing the pressures of growth

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of the community around it. Road widening, utility construction and more and more close-by developments increase the demand on flood control measures. More development means more pavement and buildings, increasing runoff and exacerbating flood control. Newtown city leaders should pay close attention to flood control improvements aimed at providing relief to neighboring developments, in the event that some of these could adversely affect the citizens of Newtown in the future. Sarasota County planners are under pressure from many directions and interests, and Newtown should make its voice heard on any proposed “improvements” before permanent changes to the Comprehensive Plan are made. It is much easier to voice objections and concerns at scheduled public hearings and forums before undesirable changes are adopted and made part of the Comprehensive land use plan. Conclusions and Recommendations In conclusion, the studies done on sea level rise were done scientifically using National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration models. The rise of 120 cm, or four feet are at the high range of estimated rise by 2100. It is prudent to plan for the worst, and to carefully watch developments in measurements and data. Newtown’s Booker Elementary School shelter is at an elevation of 34 feet above sea level. (Sarasota) Newtown is fortunate to be on higher ground than most of Sarasota County, and is in the portion of the county least likely to suffer an extreme shift of hazard zones. It would be prudent for property owners and City officials to keep abreast of changes in sea level and to mark changes in the 2050 Comprehensive Plan and future updates that could affect storm-water management in their neighborhoods. Newtown’s population needs to be prepared for severe weather by utilizing Sarasota’s excellent hazard planning resources, by making plans for evacuation before the need arises, and by supporting local government, local churches and community groups in hurricane preparedness outreach efforts.

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In terms of potential property damage and loss of life due to flooding, Newtown is much better situated than more affluent areas such as Longboat Key and the expensive high-rise developments of the Florida Coast. Areas directly on the Sarasota coast will be affected by rising sea levels first, with a direct impact on wealthy homeowners and condominiums. This is in sharp contrast to the damage inflicted by Hurricane Katrina, which primarily affected those citizens without the means to flee, and who lived in those neighborhoods of New Orleans with lower elevations and high proximity to weak Mississippi River levees. (Cigler, Dec 2007) Newtown still faces vulnerability to flood damage to utilities, water delivery systems, sewer systems and communications because these systems exist largely outside of the Newtown area. In the event of significant flooding in southern and coastal Sarasota County, power and other utilities could be disrupted for weeks. However, the Newtown Community Redevelopment Area is situated on some of the highest ground in Sarasota County, and the value of high ground in this area and should not be underestimated. Potentially, this area could have the highest commercial and residential value in the county in the next century.

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Frazier, Tim G., Nathan Wood, Brent Yarnal. "Stakeholder perspectives on land-use strategies for adapting to Climate change-enhanced Coastal Hazards:Sarasota, Florida." Applied Geography (2010 (30)): 506-517. Frazier, Tim G., Nathan Wood, Brent Yarnal, Denise Bauer. "Influence of Potential sea level rise on Societal Vulnerability to Hurricane storm surge hazards:Sarasota, Florida." Applied Geography (2010): 490-505. Knutson, Thomas R. Has Global Warming Affected Atlantic Hurricane Activity? Scientific. Princeton, NJ: General Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, May 5 2010. Nicholls, Robert J., Annie Cazanave. "Sea Level Rise and its Impact on Coastal Zones." Science (2010): 328: 1517. Sarasota, City of. http://maps.scgov.net/evacinfo/evacinfo.aspx. 26 Nov 2010 <http://maps.scgov.net/evacinfo/evacinfo.aspx>. Scales-Wikipedia, Tropical Cyclone. Tropical_Cyclone_Scales. 20 Oct 2010. 1 Nov 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_cyclone_scales>. Tobin, G.A. and T.E. Montz. "Environmental Hazards." 2009. Vermeer, Matin and Stefan Rahmstorf. "Global Sea Level linked to Global Temperature." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ofthe United States of America (Dec 22 2009).

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Bicycle Infrastructure in Newtown Anna Leech Introduction Sustainable development has been defined as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Sustainable Development, 1987). Basic needs generally refer to food, shelter, jobs and clothing. In the United States, it seems like they would be quite easy to meet due to widespread availability, but transportation is generally necessary to meet these needs. Transportation also needs to be sustainable, and it is not currently due to the dependence on automobiles, and the pollution and noise that they spew (Black, 1996). Fortunately, with research from Europe, and changes in policies, it is possible to create more sustainable transportation that is less environmentally damaging, and potentially could increase transportation availability (Green and Wegener, 1997). A possible way to increase the sustainability of transportation and decrease congestion and environmental problems due to automobiles is to increase the use of walking and bicycling for transportation. Options for this include traffic calming, which creates an environment more conducive to alternative forms of transportation, and the addition of bicycle friendly infrastructure (Newman and Kenworth, 1999; Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). The purpose of this project is to understand transportation in low income communities, and with this information, look specifically at Newtown. This will include an investigation into the current bicycle infrastructure in Newtown, and a proposal for improvements such as bicycle lanes and traffic calming. The traffic calming program in West Palm Beach, Florida, will be discussed in order to better understand how it works, and how it can impact Newtown.

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Transportation in Low-Income Households Lower-income households are less likely than others to own a vehicle (Schimek, 1996; Murikami and Young, 1997; Pucher and Renne, 2005). A city that is designed to increase walkability and bicycle usage will have a higher rate of walking and cycling than most other cities; however, income is an even bigger influence on vehicle ownership and use than the walkability and density of an area (Saelens et al, 2003; Schimek, 1996). Twenty six percent of low-income households do not own a car, and are dependent on other forms of transportation (Murikami and Young, 1997; Pucher and Renne, 2005). Unfortunately, the lack of a car can make everyday life difficult for low-income individuals in their everyday life. Low income mothers are more likely to walk than their higher income counterparts, and although this is good exercise, it can also increase stress levels and exhaustion (Bostock, 2001). The reliance on walking makes it difficult to travel any great distance to reach food, medical care, and other important locations (Bostock, 2001; Yang et al, 2006). A lack of personal transportation also makes it difficult for low-income individuals to find and keep jobs (Ong and Blumenberg, 1998). Mass transit can be helpful for getting to work; however, these routes often lack flexibility and do not always stop in a close proximity to the place of employment (Wachs and Taylor, 1998). Bicycles can increase the flexibility of public transportation, because many busses can hold bicycles on the front, allowing individuals to bring their bikes for use at either end of the bus route (Wachs and Taylor, 1998). Additionally, the cost of public transportation can sometimes be a large portion of a person’s income, making it almost impossible to make a decent wage (Wachs and Taylor, 1998; Ong and Blumenberg, 1998). Children in low income households are also impacted by transportation, and are more likely to ride bicycles or walk to school than higher income children (McDonalds, 2008; Martin

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et al, 2007). Despite the fact that more children of low income households ride bikes to school, and those with no cars are more likely to use bicycles to make trips, there may be a lack of necessary infrastructure in important locations, such as bike racks at libraries, to accommodate these travelers (Pucher and Renne, 2005; Thompson, 2006). In addition, a study from Florida suggests that motor vehicle-bicycle collisions are more likely to occur in areas of low income, potentially due to an increased use of bicycles (Epperson, 1995; Dill and Carr, 2003).

Traffic Calming A potential method of increasing the safety of bicycling is through traffic calming. Traffic calming is part of New Urbanism, which aims to move away from single-use suburban neighborhoods, and more towards the mixed-use communities that were built prior to the explosion of the automobile. New Urbanism principles include the following: neighborhoods should be diverse in use and population; communities should be designed for the pedestrian and transit as well as the car; cities and towns should be shaped by physically defined and universally accessible public spaces and community institutions; urban places should be framed by architecture and landscape design that celebrate local history, climate, ecology, and building practice (Congress for the New Urbanism, 1996). Since Newtown is an older community, many of these aspects are incorporated because it was built before residential suburbanism was the norm. However, like many communities, Newtown’s roads were developed for automobile traffic, and in many cases, bicycles and pedestrians have lost out. This can be rectified in some cases through the use of traffic calming. The purpose of traffic calming is “to slow auto traffic and create more urban humane environments better suited to other transportation modes” such as bicycles and pedestrians

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(Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). It began in the early 1920s with the automobile boom, and has continued to be used across the world. The main method used for traffic calming is physically changing the street. Some of the possibilities include adding S-shaped diverters and neckdowns, which change the geometry of the road, as well as adding speed bumps or tables, which force the driver to slow down. Adding more landscaping and pedestrian/bicycle friendly design, such as wide sidewalks and bicycle lanes, also slows drivers, because the road is no longer a clear asphalt path. With these changes, drivers will realize that there are more pedestrians and bicycles, so they must be more aware (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). An example of a successful road calming project is in West Palm Beach, Florida. This project was part of a larger New Urbanism project that was designed to revitalize the city in many aspects (Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). Similarly to Sarasota, West Palm Beach has the reputation that its residents are all wealthy; however, there are sections of the city that are low and middle income (Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). A great deal of West Palm Beach’s early traffic calming was based on main roads. For example, Clematis Street is a main through road, and the city added on street parking, wider sidewalks, clearer crosswalks, a raised intersection, and landscaping and furniture that were pedestrian friendly (Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). Following several other traffic calming projects, residents are generally supportive of the measures, and pedestrians and cyclists feel safer moving through the area (Stillings and Lockwood, 2000). An important aspect of the traffic calming projects is to gain community support, and take a close look at the area to understand what traffic calming measures will work in the area.

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Bicycle Infrastructure and Safety In addition to traffic calming, there are bicycle infrastructure options that can make cycling safer. This is imperative for those that depend on cycling for transportation. AllenMunley et al (2004) found that roads without shoulders, regardless of lane width, were more likely to have accidents involving bicyclists. Numerous studies have been done to determine how to increase the comfort of cyclists, safety and motorist’s awareness( Van Houten and Seiderman, 2005). These showed that regardless of the type of markings, from just adding an undesignated lane on a wide road (Hunter et al, 2005), to adding signage and blue road markings at motor vehicle-bicycle crossings (Jensen, 2008; Hunter et al, 2000), cyclist safety and comfort increased. The most common form of bicycle infrastructure on a road is a bicycle lane – a good bicycle lane is at least four feet wide, but substandard lanes can be as narrow as 3 feet (Florida Bicycle Associate, 2010). Bicycle lanes include bicycle markings on the road as well as bicycle lane signs that alert drivers to the presence of the bicycle lane (Florida Bicycle Association, 2010). However, it is important to take into consideration how to end these markings, and doing so abruptly mid-block has been found to be quite dangerous (Krizek and Roland, 2005). When roads are not wide enough for bicycle lanes, a road marking known as a bicycle sharrow can be Figure 1: Bicycle sharrow located in the automobile travel lane.
From: http://www.flickr.com/photos/litlnemo/3615826903/sizes/o/in/photostream/

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used (Figure 1). These markings are located in the middle of the lane, and consist of a bicycle outline and two arrows. This indicates to automobile operators that bicycles may be travelling in the lane, and to be aware. Sharrows have been used in several locations in Florida, including 30th Avenue North, St Petersburg (personal experience). Since Newtown is a low-income area with high rates of unemployment, it is possible that alternative forms of transportation can help decrease unemployment. Even with mass transportation, it can be less expensive to ride a bicycle, and a bicycle can increase the distances that can be travelled vs. walking. This can increase access to not only jobs, but to medical care and food. Since children may be more likely to ride bikes to school, and cars may not be widely available, cycling is potentially a great option for transportation, and should be made as safe as possible. This brings up the question of what bicycle infrastructure already exists in Newtown, and how can it be further developed to increase safety?

Current Bicycle Infrastructure in Newtown The town of Newtown has some bicycle infrastructure currently in place. Bicycle lanes of varying degrees of signage and marking exist on several of the main roads through the town (Figure 2). Old Bradenton Road is considered by the City of Sarasota to be a fair bicycle route, as it has moderate to high speed limits and traffic levels (Alliance for Responsible Transportation, 2009). The bicycle lane on Old Bradenton Road has very worn painted road markings and bicycle lane signs from Myrtle Street south to Dr Martin Luther King Way. In some areas it is difficult to see the remnant of the paint on the road, which can create problems at night since the reflectivity of the paint has deteriorated. Cocoanut Avenue and Central Avenue both have bicycle lanes from Dr Martin Luther King Way south, past 17th Street and are also 232

considered to be fair bicycle routes (Alliance for Responsible Transportation, 2009). These avenues both have bicycle lane signs and street markings, however, the markings and signs are few, and there are great distances between them. Cocoanut Avenue also has no parking signs, which can help with reducing parking in the bike lanes, which appears to be a problem in several parts of the community. North Orange Avenue has a bicycle lane complete with road markings and signs. Unfortunately, since the bicycle lanes were added after the roads were built, they disappear at several intersections. Finally, North Washington Blvd is currently under construction; however, the plans include bicycle lanes in both directions, including the section that borders Newtown, from Myrtle Street, south to 17th Street. There are currently two east-west bicycle lanes in Newtown. The first is a small section of Dr Martin Luther King Way. This bicycle lane is part of the Sarasota Recreational Trail. The 233

section of bicycle lane enters Newtown from the west side of US 41(N Tamiami Trail), and is an undesignated lane up to Old Bradenton Road. In the roadway between N Tamiami Trail and Old Bradenton Road, there are speed tables to calm the traffic. East of Old Bradenton Road to Cocoanut Avenue, the bicycle lane is marked on the road and with signs. At Cocoanut Avenue, there is a small sign that indicates that the bicycle trail turns south onto Cocoanut Avenue; however, the bicycle lane is on the left of the right turn lane, indicating that bicyclists can safely continue travelling east, even though there is no bicycle lane. The other east-west bicycle lane is on 17th Street between North Orange Avenue and US 301 (North Washington Blvd). This bicycle lane has on-street markings and signs, however, it ends mid-block, just before N Washington Blvd, and there is no sign to indicate the end of the bicycle lane. As is evident in Figure 2, there is a lack of east-west bicycle lane connectivity. Despite this, based on current road widths and parking needs, it appears that Newtown has done a very good job in adding bike lanes where it is possible. There are several changes that can be made to increase bicycle infrastructure and encourage the use of bicycles within the community, which will be discussed throughout the next sections.

Suggestions for Bicycle Infrastructure Improvement Many of the roads through Newtown have low speed limits (35 mph and below), and are narrow. The low speed limit makes cycling safer than higher speed limits, but the narrow roads make it difficult to add bicycle lanes. Looking at the map, it is clear that many of the main north-south roads have bicycle lanes. Even though the roads are painted with lines and the bicycle symbol, and have signs, there are a few improvements that could be made. To begin,

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Old Bradenton Road has very worn road markings, and could benefit from being re-marked. This will increase the visibility of the bicycle lanes, and potentially make drivers more aware of its presence. On both Cocoanut and Central Avenues, it would be beneficial to add more bicycle lane markings on the road. Since there are a lot of side streets, this would make it clear to drivers turning onto these avenues that they need to be aware of bicycles. North Orange Avenue has safety issues based on the fact that the bicycle lanes disappear around intersections. The long term goals could be to slightly widen the road to add a bicycle lane all the way through; however, this is not a practical short term solution. In the mean time, the addition of signs to indicate that the bicycle lane ends can make drivers more aware of cyclists. North Tamiami Trail runs along the western border of Newtown, and does not currently have a bicycle lane in the Newtown area. This road is currently labeled as unsafe for bicycles by the city of Sarasota due to a lack of bicycle lane, high speeds and a lot of motor vehicle traffic. The Bicycle/Pedestrian Advocates (BPA) have proposed that the road be restriped to include a bicycle lane. There are two twelve feet wide lanes in each direction, and BPA proposes changing it to two ten foot wide automobile lanes and one four foot bike line in each direction. This can make it safer for bicycles, while still maintaining the same number of lanes for motor vehicles (Bicycle/Pedestrian Advocates, 2009). This is a well researched proposal, and would increase the bicycle accessibility of Newtown residents. The only other north-south road that is wide enough to have traffic lanes and bicycle lanes is North Osprey Avenue from Myrtle Street to Dr Martin Luther King Way. An issue arises here in that there is on street parking in the vicinity of several churches along this road. This could be accommodated for by warning that the bicycle lane is going to end near those locations, and allowing parking. Safety could be improved in the parking area by adding “Share

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the Road” signs, and decreasing the speed limit. Starting at the northern boarder of Newtown, Myrtle Street does not have a bicycle lane. Unfortunately, due to the narrow width of this road, adding a bicycle lane or a narrower, undesignated lane is not possible. Widening this road is also not a feasible long term goal, because both sides have drainage ditches and buildings. A potential short term safety feature that could be added would be “Share the Road” or similar signs (Figure 3), as well as adding bicycle sharrows. The speed limit on this road is low, and traffic was not observed to be heavy, so this could sufficiently increase safety. In the longer term, adding other traffic calming measures such as speed bumps or tables can help reduce speeding. Since this road runs next to the high school, it could potentially increase the safety for drivers coming and going from the school, especially during high traffic times. Again, the drainage ditch makes it difficult to widen sidewalks, but this green area could have increased landscaping to calm the road. Figure 3: Several of the Florida Department of Transportation approved signs that could be used in Newtown to alert drivers to the presence of bicycles, and remind them of the law.
Images from: http://flbikelaw.org/2010/01/riderightdrive-rightcampaign/ and http://www.ckwheelmen.org/images/Share_the_Roa d.gif

Dr Martin Luther King Way has a short distance of bicycle lane, but is mainly void of them. This particular road presents a problem because of the parking on both sides. Cars parked on a street present a special problem, because drivers can open their doors without checking for bicycles and cause serious injury. Because of this, it is recommended that automobile traffic should flow no closer than 14 feet from the curb for parked cars and bicycles, and bicycles ride at least 4 feet away from parked cars (Florida Bicycle Association, 2010). Currently, it is not 236

feasible for Dr Martin Luther King Way to have marked bicycle lanes next to the parked cars because the road is not wide enough. Unfortunately, because there are buildings close to the street, it is not going to be possible in the long term to widen the road to accommodate parked cars and a bicycle lane. A suggested way to increase safety in this area is to add “Share the Road” signs and bicycle sharrows. Traffic calming measures can also be added. The on-street parking and trees already in place are traffic calming measures. Adding speed bumps or tables in some locations can also calm the road. Potentially improving crosswalks to be more visible, such as adding a new color similar to the bicycle lanes mentioned previously can make drivers more aware of a change. Like Myrtle Avenue, traffic calming could potentially greatly increase safety on Dr Martin Luther King Way. Also, although it is not generally encouraged, according to state statute 316.2065(10) bicycles are legally allowed on the sidewalk in Florida as long as they follow pedestrian laws, do not ride at high speeds, and yield to pedestrians (Florida Bicycle Association, 2010). Sidewalk riding can at times be a safe alternative as long as the bicycles respect the sidewalk riding rules. An alternative route for those trying to travel east-west on Dr Martin Luther King Way would be using either 21st or 24th Street. Although both of these have parking down each side, they are quiet roads that already have traffic-calming speed bumps in place to keep the speed limit low. Although adding bicycle lanes is not an option for these roads, it would potentially be safer to encourage bicycles to use these roads instead of Dr Martin Luther King Way when possible. Again, the addition of “Share the Road” or similar signs, as well as bicycle sharrows, can increase driver awareness on these roads. On many of the roads throughout the community, cars have been observed parking in bicycle lanes. This can create hazardous conditions for bicyclists, and should be avoided. 237

Parking needs can be taken into account when looking at bicycle lane placement; however, in the areas that this was observed, there generally appeared to be sufficient driveway parking available. In these areas, it is suggested that no-parking signs be added and enforced. However, it is suggested that some community input is taken into account when making changes, because there could be potential conflicts.

Bicycle Parking Research suggests that even when bicycle lanes are in place, it is difficult to use bicycles because there is not always a place to secure them once a rider is at a destination (Thompson, 2006). Throughout Newtown, it appears that bicycle racks have been included in many of the newer facilities, such as the library and the park on the corner of Washington and Dr Martin Luther King Way. There are still many places that lack this basic facility. Bicycle racks make people more comfortable using bicycles and make public places look neater, as the bicycles are all in the same place and not just attached to whatever looks secure. Bicycle racks are recommended at several locations throughout the community. The Newtown Redevelopment Office, the health clinic on Dr Martin Luther King Way, and the Robert L. Taylor Community Complex are all important places within the community that provide valuable services, yet they do not have bicycle racks. Businesses and churches are also encouraged to add bicycle racks whenever possible. Businesses and churches can benefit by appearing to be welcoming to those on bicycles, which could potentially increase the number of customers/followers.

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Conclusion Overall, the bicycle infrastructure currently in place in Newtown is a very good beginning. Almost all of the roads that are wide enough for bicycle lanes have them, although there are some parking issues that can potentially be taken care of by the addition of no parking signs. Now is the time for the more difficult bicycle infrastructure and safety steps to be taken. These projects include traffic calming and signs indicating that bicycles are sharing the roads. It is critical that bicycle friendly infrastructure is present in the community. This infrastructure will potentially increase the sustainability of the community by reducing vehicle emissions, and can create a better environment for the numerous residents that can be seen riding bicycles throughout the community. Getting to work, the grocery store and the health clinic can all be easier, safer, and more comfortable with access to safe bicycle routes. Despite the numerous benefits that come from adding bicycle infrastructure and traffic calming, it is imperative that the community is involved in the decision making process. There could be underlying reasons that are not visible to an ‘outsider’ that would make changes such as adding no parking signs and reducing speeds difficult to digest. However, with community education and discussion, these community improvements can most likely occur with community support.

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References Alliance for Responsible Transportation. (2009). Bike Facilities. Accessed 9 Oct 2010 from < www.sarasotagov.com/sgc/YGC/pdfs/bike_suitability_map.pdf> Allen-Munley, C., Daniel, J., & Dhar, S. (2004). Logistic Model for Rating Urban Bicycle Route Safety. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1878, 107-115. Bicycle/Pedestrian Advocates of Sarasota. (2009). Accessed 8 Oct 2010 from < http://www.bikeped-sarasota.org/index.html> Black, W.R. (1996). Sustainable Transportation: A US Perspective. Journal of Transport Geography, 4:3, 151-159. Bostock, L. (2001). Pathways of Disadvantage? Walking as a Mode of Transport Among LowIncome Mothers. Health and Social Care in the Community, 9:1, 11-18. Congress for the New Urbanism. (1996). Charter of the New Urbanism. Accessed 5 Oct 2010 from < http://www.cnu.org/charter> Dill, J., & Carr, T. (2003). Bicycle Commuting and Facilities in Major U.S. Cities: If You Build Them, Commuters Will Use Them. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1828, 116-123. Epperson, B. (1995). Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Bicyclists Involved in Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Accidents. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1502, 58-64. Florida Bicycle Associates. (2010). Florida Bicycle Law Enforcement Guide. Greene, D.L., & Wegener, M. (1997). Sustainable Transport. Journal of Transport Geography, 5:3, 177-190. Hunter, W.W., Feaganes, J.R., & Srinivasan, R. (2005). Conversion of Wide Curb Lanes: The Effect of Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Interactions. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1939, 37-44. Hunter, W. W., Harkey, D. L., Stewart, J. R., & Birk, M. L. (2000). Evaluation of Blue BikeLane Treatment in Portland, Oregon. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1705, 107-115. Jensen, A.U. (2008). Safety effects of blue cycle crossings: A before-after study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 742-750.

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Krizek, K.J., & Roland, R.W. (2005). What is at the End of the Road? Understanding Discontinuities of On-Street Bicycle Lanes in Urban Settings. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 10:1, 55-68. Martin, S.L, Lee, S.M., & Lowry, R. (2007). National Prevelance and Correlates of Walking and Bicycling to School. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33:2, 98-195. McDonalds, N.C. (2008). Critical Factors for Active Transportation to School Among LowIncome and Minority Students: Evidence from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34:4, 341-344. Murakami, E., & Young, J. (1997). Daily Travel by Persons with Low Income. NPTS Symposium, Bethesda, MD. 29 October 1997. Newman, P. & Kenworth, J. (1999). “Traffic Calming” From: Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Island Press: Washington, D.C. Ong, P., & Blumenberg, E. (1998). Job Access, Commute, and Travel Burden among Welfare Recipients. Urban Studies, 35:1, 77-93. Pucher, J., & Renne, J.L. (2005). Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS. Transportation Quarterly, 57:3, 49-77. Saelens, B.E, Sallis, J.F., & Frank, L.D. (2003). Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling: Findings from the Transportation, Urban Design, and Planning Literatures. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 25:2, 80-91. Schimek, P. (1996). Household Motor Vehicle Ownership and Use: How Much Does Residential Density Matter? Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1552, 120-125. Stillings, T., & Lockwood, I. (2000). West Palm Beach Traffic Calming: The Second Generation. TRB Circular E-C019: Urban Street Symposium, I-5, 1-22. Thompson, S.T.C. (2006). Bicycle Access to Public Libraries: A Survery of Pennsylvania Public Libraries and Their Accessibility to Patrons Arriving via Bicycle. Library Philosophy and Practice, 9:1, 1-11. Van Houten, R., & Seiderman, C. (2005). Part 1: Bicycles: How Pavement Markings Influence Bicycle and Motor Vehicle Positioning: Case Study in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1939, 1-14. Wachs, M., & Taylor, B.D. (1998). Can transportation Strategies Help Meet the Welfare Challenge? Journal of the American Planning Association, 64:1, 15-19.

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World Commission on Environment and Development. (1987) “Towards Sustainable Development” From: Our Common Future. UN Documents. Yang, S., Zarr, R.L., Kass-Hout, T.A., & Kourosh, A. (2006). Transportation Barriers to Accessing Health Care for Urban Children. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17:4, 928-943.

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Assessing the Potential Benefits of Florida Friendly Municipal Landscaping in Newtown, Sarasota Corey Leonard Background Over the past fifty years, big beautiful green lawns and public spaces have become iconic, symbolizing the American dream. Unfortunately, the watering and maintenance requirements that these turf laden lawns and landscapes require are not sustainable. The benefits of alternative landscaping practices, such as Florida Friendly Landscaping (FFL), have been documented in the literature, however there is a lack of information regarding the benefits of using FFL techniques on municipal lands or common areas. The Newtown Redevelopment Office has identified city landscaping along U.S.301, from 10th St. to Myrtle St. as a prospective project in the near future. This research aims to quantify the environmental and economic benefits that FFL will bring to Newtown, Sarasota. Specifically, this research will (1) calculate the land area that will be affected by the new city landscaping, (2) design two theoretical landscapes (conventional and FFL) to be used in the analysis, and (3) calculate the annual economic and environmental benefits of landscaping the study area using FFL techniques. This will be accomplished with the use of a Resource Conserving Landscaping (RCL) cost calculator provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and GIS. Recent research emerging from Canada and the northeast has challenged the sustainability of private green spaces and lawns. The socio-cultural perspectives of the American lawn and the assessment on behavioral and risk perception of lawn chemical usage have been well documented, however the risks associated with the high input regimes that traditional landscaping requires has been outweighed by the pursuit of suburbanization (Robbins and Sharp

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2003, Robbins 2001, Sandberg 2005). It was not until the post World War II era that the lawn became a homogenous norm in the United States and Canada. The post war economic boom led to an unprecedented level of spending power in the middle class, resulting in changes in urban and suburban practices (Robbins and Sharp 2003). An increase in suburban development, fueled in part by the creation of the highway system, turned the nation into a green canvas. The lawn had become the outdoor expression of 1950’s conformism (Steinberg 2006). The unnatural look of the lawn became the standard, and has since become embedded deep within the American psyche. The perfect landscape is a “dream founded on two resources our nation is rapidly running out of-oil and water” (Steinberg 2006). Water resources around the globe are being threatened by pollution and by increases in demand (Loucks 2000, Solomon 2010, Vorosmarty et al. 2000). Florida is not considered an arid region, however the amount of clean drinking water available has decreased significantly over the past decade (Fletcher 2002). According to the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), landscape irrigation accounts for up to one-half of all public water supplied in Florida. Adding to the problem, the top ten species of sod commonly used in Florida are non-native and either requires thick rich soil or continuous irrigation to thrive. The soil in Florida is generally sandy, which drains well and is incapable of retaining water for significant amounts of time. Studies have shown that people associate the quest for a perfect lawn with home values and neighborhood connectivity, so even when the negative consequences are known, the behavior still persists (Robbins 2001). The high chemical (pesticide and fertilizer) input that is required by exotic landscaping practices pose environmental and health hazards (Sandberg 2005, Robbins 2001). The risks

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associated with lawn chemical usage have increased with the spread of the suburban lawn. Raw, non-agricultural pesticides have a world market value of $10.4 billion dollars, with 40 percent of the sales being represented by US household consumption. In 1984 more synthetic fertilizers were used on American lawns than on all of the food crops of the entire nation of India (Robbins and Sharp 2003). Research illustrates that the consumption of lawn chemicals in the U.S. has increased, and we are using more than necessary. Studies have shown that nearly 50% of households fail to carefully read and follow the directions when using lawn chemicals. Overuse of chemicals leads to a buildup of residue, which is often tracked into the home where they accumulate on carpet. Small children, who are more vulnerable to toxins, become at risk for chronic exposure (Robbins and Sharp 2003, Steinberg 2006). Humans are not the only ones at risk from the adverse affects of lawn chemicals. Pesticides are designed to kill pests, however they commonly affect non-target species. It is estimated that lawn-care pesticides are responsible for the death of 7 million birds each year (Steinberg 2006). Nevertheless, not all of the literature regarding landscaping is negative. In fact, research has attempted to document the social, economic, and environmental benefits of landscaping (Grove 2006, Laverne 2003, Wei et al. 2009, Xian, Crane, and Su 2007). Good landscaping aesthetics have been shown to have a positive effect on commercial building rental rates and property values (Laverne 2003). When executed properly, landscaping can also increase the surface area of non-impervious surfaces, reducing pollution loading into drainage basins (Wei et al. 2009, Xian, Crane, and Su 2007). Although the aforementioned research is aimed at highlighting the benefits of landscaping, the control or comparison group is often pavement. One can argue that any form of landscaping would be better than pavement. However, the benefits cited do not offset the current unsustainable practices and maintenance regimes. 245

The movement towards alternative practices has been slow; few people question the conventional lawn “because its true price is not readily apparent” (Steinberg 2006). In 1989, the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) imposed restrictions aimed to reduce excessive lawn watering, and in 1991 Florida passed the nation’s first water reducing landscape laws (Adams 1993). The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) released a report in 2006 that examines Florida friendly landscape and irrigation standards, which revealed significant reductions in the amount of water and chemicals used on residential lawns (Landscape Irrigation 2006, Haley et al. 2007). Florida friendly landscape standards have also been set fourth by SWFWMD and are based on the following nine principles: 1. Right Plant, Right Place: By removing exotic and invasive species, decreasing the amount of turf, and increasing the amount of plants that thrive in the local environment, the need for water and lawn chemicals can be drastically reduced. 2. Water Efficiency: Water plants only when they show signs of stress, use a moisture sensor, and decrease watering in the cooler months. This will help create a healthier landscape and save water and money. 3. Fertilize Appropriately: Excess fertilizer seeps into the aquifers or runs into water bodies. Only fertilize to maintain health, use a slow release fertilizer, follow directions on the package, and avoid weed and feed products. 4. Mulch: Mulching around plants shrubs will help to control weeds, retain moisture, and will reduce storm water runoff and erosion. Replace grass with mulched areas. Be sure to look for mulch not harvested from Florida’s wetlands, or choose recycled mulch or mulch alternatives.

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5.

Attract Wildlife: Attract friendly visitors by providing cover with trees and shrubs and introduce native plants, which would serve as natural food, shelter, and nesting plants to local wildlife.

6. Manage Yard Pests Responsibly: Misused pesticides can enter waterways and harm beneficial wildlife. Let beneficial insects to the work for you and be tolerant, low levels of best do minimal damage. If pesticides are needed, choose the least toxic and read and follow the labels carefully. 7. Recycle: Recycling yard waste back into the landscape can improve water-holding abilities and improve fertility. Leave grass clippings on the turf and start a compost pile with yard waste and kitchen scraps. 8. Reduce Stormwater Runoff: Runoff carries pollutants and excess lawn chemicals into nearby waterways. Direct gutters into the lawn or plant beds, sweep clippings, fertilizer and soil into the lawn, and pick up pet waist to help reduce the amount of pollution washed into the storm drains. 9. Protect the Waterfront: To increase the quality of waterways, plant a buffer zone between your property and the shoreline; a maintenance free zone of at least 10 feet should be established. Never prune mangroves or remove any vegetation without proper permits or guidelines (SWFWMD 2010). Florida Friendly landscaping is slowly gaining popularity in Florida’s suburbs, however, there is a lack of literature quantifying the effects of Florida friendly landscaping on common areas that are maintained by individual municipalities. Sustainable landscaping of common areas has the potential to benefit the environment and save money by reducing the amount of

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water, pesticides, and fertilizers needed to maintain them. Documentation of the economic and environmental benefits would ultimately progress the alternative landscape movement.

Research Objectives and Methods The Newtown Redevelopment Office has identified city landscaping along U.S.301, from 10th St. to Myrtle St. as a prospective future project. This research aims to quantify the environmental and economic benefits that Florida friendly landscaping will bring to Newtown. The individual research objectives of this research include the following: 1. Determine the land area that will be affected by the new city landscaping, 2. Design a conventional landscape and calculate irrigation and maintenance requirements for total area, 3. Design a Florida friendly landscape and calculate irrigation and maintenance requirements for the total area, 4. Determine the annual economic and environmental benefits of landscaping the study area using Florida friendly landscaping. Areal imagery (2009) obtained from the City of Sarasota was added in ArcGIS 9.2 to map the study area, and a parcel shape file provided by the property appraiser’s office was used to identify areas that may be landscaped. Polygons were manually drawn around areas of land along U.S.301, from Myrtle St. to 10th St., that are owned by the municipality. The polygons were used to calculate the area of land, in square feet, that could possibly be affected by the city-landscaping project. The actual area of land that will be landscaped may vary; however, the calculated study area is large enough to make an accurate and meaningful comparison.

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After the area was calculated, a Resource Conserving Landscaping (RCL) cost calculator provided by the EPA was used to compare differences between the two landscape types. Based on the size of the area to be landscaped, the RCL cost calculator demonstrates how differences in landscape design could lead to a net economic and environmental savings over time (EPA 2010). In order to accurately assess savings and to calculate the cost of generated waste, the length of the growing season for the study area was determined by using data provided by ESRI Globe. The annual maintenance requirements were calculated based on a set of estimates provided in the RCL calculator. These estimates are based on average prices charged by private landscaping businesses, so the actual cost of maintenance provided by the city will be lower than the maintenance figures calculated. The estimates are included in both analyses to demonstrate the differences in maintenance costs between the two types of landscapes. Next, the calculator required that the area be divided into three zones: 1. Regular watering zone – zones that require watering at least once per week, once established, in the absence of rain; 2. Occasional watering zone- zones that would require watering once every two to three weeks, once established in the absence of rain; 3. Natural rainfall zone- zones that only require water from natural rainfall, once established (EPA 2010). After the percentages of land in each zone was determined, the percentages of turf, shrubs, trees, and flowering plants were input based on landscape design standards provided by the DEP and SWFWMD. Finally, the initial costs of the landscaping projects were calculated using national averages provided by the EPA; similarity in costs between the landscape types was assumed. All

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of the parameters were input into the calculator. The 3-year, 6-year, 10-year, and average annual cost savings are determined based on water savings, maintenance cost, and the cost of waste disposal.

Results The polygons created to represent the area to be landscaped from Myrtle St. to 10th St., along U.S.301 had a total land area of 100,717 square feet. This area was divided into three zones based on vegetation type for conventional and Florida friendly landscapes. The conventional landscape was designed to have a ground cover dominated by sod, accounting for 80573.6 square feet (80%) of the study area. Flowerbeds planted with annuals typically found in conventional landscapes accounted for 100717.7 square feet (10%), shrubs and bushes accounted for 5035.85 square feet (5%), and trees made up 5035.85 square feet (5%) of the study area. The Florida friendly landscape was designed with sod accounting for 50358.5 square feet (50%) of the ground cover. Flowerbeds planted with perennial Florida friendly species accounted for 5035.81 square feet (5%), shrubs and bushes accounted for 30215.1 square feet (30%), and trees accounted for 15107.51 square feet (15%) of the study area. The areas of the three watering zones were calculated based on type of plant cover. Sods in both landscapes were assigned to zone 1. Flowerbeds in the conventional landscape were assigned to zone 1 while flowerbeds in the Florida friendly landscape were assigned to zone 2. Shrubs in both the conventional and Florida friendly landscape types were assigned to zone 2 and trees in both landscapes were assigned to zone 3. The cost per 1000 gallons of water was determined to be $6.60. This was based on tier II irrigation water costs provided by the City of Sarasota. Actual costs paid by the city may vary.

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The gallons of water needed to irrigate the conventional landscape was calculated to be 1,132,331 (low estimate) to 2,280,180 (high estimate), which would cost $7,473-$15,049 annually. The gallons of water needed to irrigate the Florida friendly landscape was calculated to be 651,734 (low estimate) to 1,334,502 (high estimate) annually. The annual cost of irrigation would be $4,301-$8,808. A Florida friendly landscape design on U.S. 301, from Myrtle St. to 10th St., could reduce the amount of water used for irrigation by 773,138 gallons (58.2%) per year. The water savings would equate to $4,706 per year, which could go towards other projects to benefit Newtown. The average annual cost for irrigation, maintenance, and disposal of generated waste for the conventional landscape was calculated to be $66,036 (Table 1), while the average annual cost for the Florida friendly landscape was $42,671 (Table 2). If Newtown uses Florida friendly landscape designs they could possibly save an average of $23,365 per year (64.41%) on irrigation, maintenance, and waste disposal (Figure 1). The average annual water, maintenance, and disposal costs at 3, 6, and 10 years were $70,063, $140,126, and $233,543 respectively (Figure 2). The proportionate increase over time was expected due to the assumption of equal initial cost. If initial capital requirements are higher for the Florida friendly landscape, the water savings would remain the same, but the economic benefit would increase over time.

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Conventional Landscape Averages $284,022 Initial Cost Gallons of Water Used Annually 1,706,256 $11,261 Annual Water Cost Due to Irrigation Annual Flower Bed Maintenance $28,352 Annual Turf Maintenance $13,536 Annual Shrub and Ground Cover Maintenance $655 $1,108 $881 Annual Tree Maintenance $252 $957 $604 Landscape Firm's Travel Cost $228 $228 $228 Landscape Firm's Profit $3,079 $5,267 $4,173 $47,774 Annual Maintenance Cost $33,864 $61,685 Annual Yard Waste Disposal Cost $7,000.00 $7,000.00 Annual Water Maintenance and $66,036 Disposal Cost $48,337 $83,734 $482,129 3 Year Cost $338,389 $625,869 $680,235 6 Year Cost $483,400 $877,070 $944,378 10 Year Cost $676,749 $1,212,006 Table 1: Water, maintenance, and disposal cost estimates for the conventional landscape, as calculated by the EPA’a RCL cost calculator Low Cost High Cost AVERAG Water Saving Landscape Estimate Estimate E Initial Cost $193,377 $374,667 $284,022 Rebate $0 $0 $0 $284,022 Net Initial Cost $193,377 $374,667 Gallons of Water Used Annually 651,734 1,334,502 993,118 $6,555 Annual Water Cost Due to Irrigation $4,301 $8,808 Annual Flower Bed Maintenance $9,266 $19,086 $14,176 Annual Turf Maintenance Cost $6,949 $9,971 $8,460 Annual Shrub and Ground Cover Maintenance $3,626 $6,345 $4,985 Annual Tree Maintenance $604 $2,719 $1,662 Landscape Contractor's Travel Cost $228 $228 $228 Landscape Contractor's Profit $2,067 $4,164 $3,116 $32,627 Annual Maintenance Cost $22,741 $42,513 Annual Yard Waste Disposal Cost $3,500.00 $3,500.00 Annual Water Maintenance and $42,681 Disposal Cost $30,542 $54,821 $412,066 3 Year Cost $285,003 $539,129 $540,110 6 Year Cost $376,629 $703,591 $710,835 10 Year Cost $498,797 $922,874 Table 2: Water, maintenance, and disposal cost estimates for the Florida Friendly landscape, as calculated by the EPA’s RCL cost calculator

Low Cost Estimate $193,377 1,132,331 $7,473 $18,532 $11,119

High Cost Estimate $374,667 2,280,180 $15,049 $38,172 $15,954

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Figure 1: Cost savings for conventional and Florida friendly landscape types

Figure 2: The annual water, maintenance, and disposal cost over time for conventional and Florida friendly landscapes Discussion and Conclusion The RCL cost calculator allows one to estimate the total cost of a landscaping project over time. This analysis has shown that Florida friendly landscaping has the potential to economically benefit Newtown, as well as reduce the need for pesticides, fertilizers, and unnecessary irrigation. The study area used in the analysis is only an estimate of the total land to 253

be landscaped; so actual water savings could be higher. The economic benefits from the decreased water needs of the Florida friendly landscape could also be underestimated. Water savings could lead to price drops into a lower tier, causing actual savings to be higher. Reducing the turf area by 30% and increasing shrubs and bushes by 25%, which also increases mulched areas, greatly reduces the amount of water needed for irrigation. The type of plants that will be selected will also have an affect of the amount of water needed for irrigation. Newtown should select plants and sod that are native to the area and are able to thrive, given the soil and precipitation conditions. The maintenance needs and generated waste also decreased with the Florida friendly landscape. Again, choice of plants and sod will be extremely important. Many of the Florida friendly species grow slowly, which reduce maintenance needs and generated waste. The actual figures calculated for maintenance costs are not meant to represent the costs that will be incurred by Newtown, they are general estimates provided by the EPA, which are necessary to generate the calculation. Newtown’s cost of maintenance is expected to be lower, as the city will be responsible. However, the figures do serve as an adequate comparison tool that illustrates a proportional difference between the two landscapes. Newtown could expect to save 31.7% on maintenance and 50% on waste disposal. While the analysis focused on how much water and money can be saved by implementing Florida friendly landscaping, there are several other environmental benefits that are associated with this type of landscaping that cannot be calculated. For instance, a Florida friendly landscape conserves fossil fuels. Minimizing turf grass reduces the need for mowing and trimming, which ultimately reduces the amount of fuel used to power lawn equipment. This also reduces the associated air emissions, which reduces air pollution and improves air quality.

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Florida friendly landscaping requires the grouping of plants based on water needs, which reduces runoff and retards erosion. It also supports the local ecology because native plants are uniquely adapted to the local ecosystem and are better able to resist drought and disease, while supporting local flora and fauna. The resistance to disease and drought means that less pesticides and fertilizers are needed, keeping lawn chemicals out of the fragile ecosystems and our homes (SWFWMD 2010). The solution to the high environmental and economic costs of the conventional lawn is alternative landscape practices, such as Florida friendly landscaping. However redesigning the American lawn is not going to be an easy task. The traditional lawn holds “an important place in the American view of an ideal life” (Bormann et al. 2001). To move forward, a mass awakening of people who question traditional landscaping practices is necessary. The lawn, with all of is glorious greenness, is a human-modified ecosystem that has no function other than to consume resources that are in short supply in order for people to feel a sense of belonging. Traditional landscaping practices and maintenance regimes are not sustainable; we must reevaluate our attachment to the lawn and begin to redefine the purpose and function of landscaping. The use of alternative landscaping along busy streets and in common areas, such as the proposed landscaping project in Newtown, has the potential to create a trend in residential areas. Once people are given an example that showcases the beauty and cost-effectiveness of alternative landscapes, the easier it will be to challenge the monoculture of the traditional lawn.

Works Cited Adams, Bruce. "Florida's Cooperative Approach." Planning 59.9 (1993): 12. Print. Birkenholtz, T., Robbins, P. “Turfgrass Revolution: Measuring the Expansion of the American Lawn”. Land Use Policy 20 (2003): 181. Print. 255

Bormann, F. et al. Redesigning the American Lawn. Yale University Press: New Haven and London (2001). Department Of Environmental Protection. “Landscape Irrigation and Florida-Friendly Design Standards” Report. (2006) Print. Environmental Protection Agency. “Greenscape Tools”. 2010. http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/rrr/greenscapes/tools/ Feagan, R. "Reading Private Green Space: Competing Geographic Identities at the Level of the Lawn." Philosophy and geography 4.1 (2001): 79. Print. Fletcher, C. “Florida Water Resource Development: A Call for State Wide Leadership”. Journal of Land Use 18.1 (2002): 113. Print. Grove, M., Cadenasso, M., et al. “Data and Methods Comparing Social Structure and Vegetation Structure of Urban Neighborhoods in Baltimore, Md.” Society and Natural Resources 19 (2006): 117. Print. Haley, M., Dukes, M., and Miller, G. “Residential Irrigation Water Use in Central Florida”. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering 10 (2007) :427. Print Laverne, R. J., Windson-Geildeman, K. "The Influence of Trees and Landscaping on Rental Rates at Office Buildings." Journal of arboriculture 29.5 (2003): 281. Print. Loucks, D. P. "Sustainable Water Resources Management." Water International 25.1 (2000): 3. Print. Robbins, P. et al."Lawns and Toxins:: An Ecology of the City." Cities 18.6 (2001): 369. Print. Robbins, P., Sharp, A. "Producing and Consuming Chemicals: The Moral Economy of the American Lawn." Economic Geography 79.4 (2003): 425-51. Print. Sandberg, L. A., Foster, J. "Challenging Lawn and Order: Environmental Discourse and Lawn Care Reform in Canada." Environmental Politics 14.4 (2005): 478-94. Print. Solomon, Steven. "Fresh, Clean, and Scarce." Sierra (2010): 80-1. Print. Steinberg, T. “American Green: The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Lawn”. W.W. Norton and Co.: New York (2006). SWFWMD. “Florida Friendly Landscaping” 2010. http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us/yards/. Vorosmarty, C. J., Green, P., et al. "Global Water Resources: Vulnerability from Climate Change and Population Growth." Science 289.5477 (2000): 284. Print.

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Wei, O. Wang, X., Hao, F., and Srinivasan, R. “Temporal-spatial Dynamics of Vegetation Variation on Non-point source pollution”. Ecological Modeling 220 (2009): 2702. Print. Xian, G., Crane, M., and Su, J. “An Analysis of Urban Development and its Environmental Impact on the Tampa Bay Watershed” Journal of Environmental Management 85 (2007): 965. Print.

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Noise Pollution and Environmental Justice Scott A. Moore There is nothing environmentally sustainable about the roaring sounds of a highway outside of a bedroom window, or similarly, the supercharged sounds of jet engines overhead during a meal. People are unable to achieve peace of mind when they are literally surrounded by a cacophonous din for most of their waking and sleeping life. By definition, one could call these sounds I have described above as noise. Additionally, when compared to an ideal situation, one could portray the situations described above as being negatively affected and polluted. Naturally, these two concepts come together in the field of Noise Pollution, and these are precisely the concepts that I will focus on in this study. Noise pollution is a social ailment that plagues many different kinds of people in many different circumstances and locations. Generally speaking, it is the poorer parts of a city that tend to be the noisiest, as there are much less effort made to soften the sounds of modernity. In this paper, I will consider the broad field of noise pollution and bring it into the context of how it relates specifically to lower-income neighborhoods and parts of larger towns. I will also consider why or why not this is different from the way these sounds interact with residents living in a wealthier part of a city or municipality.

Newtown, Sarasota is one place in particular that falls on the lower side of the economic spectrum, and one can be sure that as the highways outside of their neighborhoods are widened, the amount of noise being produced will increase dramatically. This kind of dynamic, which is to say, the battle between people and access to assets and a fine quality of living, can be described

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as a study in Environmental Justice, and this field will be an active informant in conducting this study. One of the most significant notions of this paper is that all of these noise-sources and noisy environments can be totally rectified, and done so in a natural and sustainable way. Throughout this study it will be my goal to relate the two fields of environmental justice and noise pollution by arriving at an end-point that is deeply indebted to sustainability. The present age is one of very green intentions: sustainable solutions are becoming more viable with each passing day, and eventually systems will be in place that will solve an environmental problem once and for all, rather than hastily patching it up to attempt to fix it again later. This paper will look optimistically towards the future by way of nature’s path for a practical and contemporary solution to the problem of noise pollution and environmental justice, which faces our cities presently. In order to set the scene for sustainable solutions in the field of noise pollution, what it means to be “sustainable” must first be gleaned and gathered. Something can be considered sustainable when “it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Wheeler, 62).” This can be interpreted as perfecting a system of growth or operations until it results in a natural and cyclical wheel of life or process, rather than one that is linear and finite. To achieve the sustainable is to finally return to progressivism and practicality. The goal and inspiration for the sustainability movement is to create scenarios where something new begins directly after something old has just ended, forming out of the ashes of the leftover components. This new component is developed through to maturity, processed, finalized, and then reconsidered in preparations for naturally restarting the cycle. An ideal example of this would be a harvest of trees. Let’s say that five trees are planted, maintained and allowed to flourish for some time.

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Then, five more are planted as two of them have reached maturity by completely natural means, and are harvested. So, now two mature, organic trees have been produced, and there are eight more to follow with an ever-increasing amount of surplus trees being produced due to the fact that the harvester is imitating nature’s cycle of endless plenty. How then, do such scenarios play into the fields of noise pollution or acoustics? Before this question is answered, the intricacies of all things noise must be described and brought into context. What then is the official definition of noise? Not surprisingly, this question can result in several answers: one could either go the direct way, as described by Clifford R. Bragdon on page fifty-one of his book “Noise Pollution,” declaring that noise can be “defined subjectively as unwanted sound, sound not desired by the recipient” (Bragdon, 1970). Of course after being told that this is the definition of noise, one may openly declare that they feel their conversations with other people are unwanted sounds, and that their colleagues are noisemakers! Or one could also describe the sounds coming from an undesired radio station as noise, and that it is polluting the sonic environment. However, these are not necessarily the kinds of noise I am interested in regarding this research. The above quips could almost be understood as problems of aesthetics and irritation, rather than problems of especially noisy sounds. If Bragdon has decided that noise is merely subjective to the listener and that it has a sliding scale of validity or affectation, then I am more interested in a different kind of noise. I am interested in the kinds of noise that are objective; the instances of noise that affect everyone around them just the same, the kinds of noise that truly impose upon the lives of those in its proximity. Perhaps, I am really talking about volume here, but then again, the constant and quiet hum of electronic signals or cars passing on the highways

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have certainly been defined as noise before. It has already been seen that, in some cases, there is a fine line between what can be called noise and what cannot. It is one thing for someone to call a song in the rock and roll genre a bunch of noise, and another to call a steam hammer noisy as it pounds enormous pilings into the ground. In his book “Noise Pollution,” Donald Anthrop divides noise into four different categories: noise in dwellings, construction noise, motor vehicle noise, and aircraft noise (Anthrop, 1973). He attributes poor home construction as a large factor in regards to the amount of noise experienced by the inhabitants of any given dwelling. This includes both poor workmanship of the walls and ceilings of buildings regarding their density and insulation, as well as the general acoustic design of the home. One can certainly deem a household as being noisy when someone in one room can perfectly hear what is being said or done in the next room over, especially if what is being said or done is at a high volume. A good example of this is when a student is doing their homework or working on something in their bedroom, but someone watching the television of vacuuming somewhere else in the house is constantly distracting them. As far as acoustic design goes, plenty of scientific research has been conducted that explains the angles that walls and ceiling should be placed at in order to ensure that sound can reverberate adequately and accurately. Sometimes homebuilders complete construction never having heard of these things. Perhaps this is due to a lack of financial support, poses Mr. Anthrop. Financial support and the lack of it is something I will return to later when considering poorer neighborhoods and their problems with noise. Having mentioned the vacuum cleaner already, one naturally moves to think of other appliances found in households today that have, by default, noisy modes of operation. These include, the dishwasher, the blender, the hum of a microwave or refrigerator, a coffee grinder,

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washer, dryer, or even the occasional use of the garbage disposal. At first consideration these may not seem to be such a nuisance, but throughout the day, month, and year one is in close proximity to these things on a semi-regular basis, which can certainly cause the ears to fatigue and become numb to those frequencies. Yes, it is true that prolonged exposure to a constant noise will cause your ears to eventually tune it out for good. Of course by now appliance manufacturers are aware that consumers prefer quieter appliances; meaning that while models are getting newer, they are also getting quieter and more expensive. Once again it can be seen that peace of mind and a quiet home really comes down to finances and whether someone can afford the finer things, or whether they cannot. Besides the ancient blender that hacks dully away at the ice inside it, or the vacuum that sounds like a jet engine, are the actual jet engines that are careening and soaring overhead each and every day of this modern life. The sound that immediately comes to one’s mind when considering an airplane is, of course, the roaring sound of the engines as the plane picks up speed for a takeoff. The low-rumble of the engines shakes the insides of all of those in its proximity, and one can still hear those sounds even after the plane has already taken off into the sky. That is, unless you are still on the plane, then it can be expected that these sounds will follow for quite some time! We know that the sounds of a plane can be heard for miles and miles as it takes off above the ground, so all along the way people living and working below can hear the noisy sounds, and odds are that it can pose as a distraction and a nuisance from daily activity. Up until now I have only been considering the sounds of airplanes as only ever coming from a single airplane, one at a time. However, it is obviously apparent that these enormous vehicles don’t just appear out of thin air, but that they, along with hundreds of their brothers and

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cousins, reside in airports around the globe en masse, only to experience an exodus en masse as well. Being that there are so many people living in the United States, there must be just as many planes in operation to shuttle them to and fro. This means, that airports are taking up more and more space to accommodate all of the necessary planes, runways, hangers, and hubs needed to support such a high demand. It just so happens that due to the same fact of having so many people needing somewhere to live, more and more neighborhoods are being built up as well. This brings the discussion to a very interesting point: that there are many neighborhoods being built in, sometimes extremely, close quarters to the ever-expanding and operating local airport. Now, on first impulse, which would one guess as being the more expensive place to live: a house that has a backyard that oversees one of the nation’s largest runways, or the home that is miles away from the din of airports, and is tucked away nicely behind some exotic trees and landscaping? This is certainly a rhetorical question, as everyone knows that if one lives near the airport then one will most certainly be hearing those sounds most associated with airports throughout their waking and sleeping life. In fact, the authors of the book “The Impact of Noise Pollution” describe this exact scenario in their introduction to the chapter on Air Traffic noise. It is most unfortunate that some people cannot escape the roar of the jet engine; that it serves as a constant reminder that they are not wealthy enough to move to a different part of town. But this is exactly the situation at which this paper is aimed. There are two possible solutions when a family is not wealthy enough to live far away from a noisy airport, and are forced to experience the constant wash of sounds that travel directly into their daily lives: they can either magically come up with enough money to move out of the neighborhood and into a different part of town, or proper measures are taken so that their quality of life is improved without them having to fully relocate and abandon their home. There are

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numerous books that depict a number of possible solutions in the use of sound barriers and other sound-reducing technologies, and the book “Environmental Noise Barriers” by Kotzen and English is a wonderful resource to learn more about them. A very curious detail is that these barriers can be produced sustainably from nature in plenty. Yet it’s time to go on the road again. The open road: nothing but miles and miles of open highway with desolate and farreaching dessert on either side as far as the eye can see. Nice and quiet, besides the sounds of wind and the occasional caw of a bird or two, all one hears is the sound of the wheels spinning underneath and the quiet sound of the engine hard at work. Perchance this scene is, in fact, a daily routine in the life of someone residing in the United States, but chances are, that the morecommon scenario experienced while having to ride daily in a motor vehicle is one of bumper-tobumper traffic and stress. Car horns honking, people possibly shouting, and this repeating for miles and miles, as far as the eye can see. Truly, if there was ever an image of a large-scale metropolis, or a developed and evolved city, it was one depicting a traffic jam on a hot and humid day. Imagine if these jam-packed streets were directly outside of a bedroom window, not very appealing is it? I am unsure whether or not countless cars lined-up one after the other ensures progress, yet that is indeed what can be found in some of the most prosperous cities in America these days. And just as poorer families are unable to afford an escape route away from the dissonance of the modern-day airport, they are unable to elude the encroaching pavement of another road-widening construction job and all of the busy honkers and drivers that go along with it. Just to be explicit, this is not an uncommon occurrence. That being the case, it can be gathered that issues like relate directly to environmental justice. That a family or group of families is forced to sit and listen to the sounds of traffic all day because they cannot afford a nicer area of town is an outrage.

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Economics are harder than I am making them out to be, but actually a sustainable solution is not too difficult to imagine. There are numerous possible solutions available to the retrofitter and city-liver, yet those doing the building, expanding and polluting, do not often propose these solutions. One wonders why this might be, why a construction company or builder may decide to avoid the extra amendments to the fairness of his job, such as sound barriers or more-efficient design. Quite simply, it is due to the fact that the builder knows that they will finish the job and return to their homes far away from the construction zone. It is understood that low-income families currently reside close to the construction zone, and that they will just have to deal with fact that they will not go more than an hour without hearing some imposing sound swoop into their daily routine, all of this being due to their economic situation. Now would be a good time to start to investigate the real way that noise affects the ones who experience it. In his introduction to the first chapter of the book “Environmental Urban Noise,” the editor Amando Garcia states, “noise fills everything and affects everybody (Environmental Urban Noise, page 1). If this really is the case, than all people rich and poor should be concerned with their day-to-day acoustical environment, because it could very well be affecting them without their being aware. Which is to say, that the affects of noise on people can be dramatically severe, as well as subtle or nuanced. In pages 75 to 78 of their book entitled “Environmental Factors in Urban Planning,” E. Grandjean and A. Gilgen go to great lengths in order to describe the various negative side effects brought on by noise. It may come as a surprise, but it is actually possible to become deaf if forced to experience constant noise that does not change. Yes, it is quite possible for a listener to eventually become numb or deaf to a certain sound, pitch, or frequency if they are forced to hear for extended periods of time. This includes

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musicians who listen to and experience music at loud volumes, but also people who live close to construction yards or other heavy-machinery factories. The constant banging and piling sound can grate at one’s ears until it has literally broken a hole in the person’s hearing. This is not a very good thing to say the least! Additionally, it has been discovered that noise affects the automatic nervous system. The authors state that very loud and sustained noises can “cause narrowing of the blood-vessels and hence raise the blood-pressure.” They move to say, “The respiratory system is even more sensitive, and reacts by breathing more rapidly” (Grandjean, 1973). It is hard to imagine someone being able-bodied and in good health if they are breathing rapidly and have high blood pressure, but alas, this is common among poorer people who live near industrial zones in large cities where the more wealthy people live in far-removed or secluded communities far away from the din of reality. Further complications include the disturbance of sleep, which is obviously essential for success in daily activities. Sleep is the time when the body recovers from the stresses of the day. The immune system rebuilds itself and works to fight off any ailments, and the muscles finally relax and reset themselves for the next day. The mind is allowed to relax, wander, and dreamconstantly compiling and reformatting its memory banks and pathways. But what if this is disturbed by the sounds of cars and airplanes, or perhaps by neighbors shouting or carrying-on down the hall, down the street, or down the block? The body becomes restless and agitated when pulled from sleep while deep in the middle, and it is usually difficult to fall back asleep. Even then, “disturbance of this sort prevents sleep from having its restorative effect, and brings about chronic weariness, with all of its consequent ill-effects on well-being, efficiency and liability to illness (Environmental Factors, 76).” So now it can be seen that a typical scenario of someone being affected by noise is a grim

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one. The person is surrounded by noise pollution and struggles with rapid breathing, narrow arteries, chronic fatigue and distraction, as well as a poor-immune system. Take also into account that not everyone can afford expensive and/or skilled doctors to prescribe to them the help needed to recover or deal with these negative effects. Some people cannot even afford medicine if they become sick, possibly due to a weakened immune system. Furthermore, it is common knowledge that “one of the most obvious effects of traffic noise is interference with communication” (Urban Traffic Noise, 41).” How people are able to speak and communicate with one another while distracting sounds interfere is a baffling mystery. Also take into consideration that many schools are located deep within the infrastructure of a city, where cars and planes are constantly making their presence known by the loud and caustic sounds they make. Even if a school is located in a suburb, there are highways and roads all around, and an open window in the classroom could be an open-invitation for distraction and confusion. Scenarios like this paint an ill-fated picture of contemporary city life, one that seems depressing, drab, and bleak, yet this does not have to be the case at all. Of course one can appreciate the complexities and benefits of technology and modern-day methods of operation, but with it does not have to come all of the noisy side effects. It is, indeed, possible to retrofit these devices and or surroundings with noise barriers and insulation, and I will now discuss some of these in this paper. Sound is energy, and energy can never be destroyed, it is only absorbed or transferred someplace else. The goal of most noise barriers is to either bounce the sounds away from the people who wish not to hear the sound, or they absorb it within their walls in order to slightly dampen and soften the sound, these two types are called “reflective” and “absorptive”

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(Environmental Noise Barriers, 95). In many cases, planting and greenery are brought into the project, both to increase visual appeal, and effectiveness, as trees and plants can absorb some of the sound as it bounces from the road or from the sky. A great deal of thought it put into to selecting the exact color, size, shape, and texture of a new noise barrier as it is brought into a setting or project. For the most part, a sound barrier as used to help residents carryout their lives alongside the noisiness of planes and car, looks like a tall and large wall that stretches for a large length. These can be constructed from many types of materials, including metal, alloys, wood, and dirt. The last two materials listed are particularly important because they come from nature. They are sustainable materials. These are the kinds of materials that builders should focus on using when devising new sound barriers for highways, gardens, schoolyards, neighborhoods, and any other setting where humans interact. Even if something more impervious such as a metal is required for a job, builders should work to ensure that it has come from recycled materials so that the sustainability factor is still there. Not only does planting a long row of trees along a city street beautify the street and increases people’s happiness, it also helps to dampen the vehicle noise coming from the streets themselves. This is not a remarkably expensive thing to do, and it should be done much more often than it is currently. Solutions like this fit perfectly into the needs of poorer communities such as Newtown in Sarasota County, Florida. While one construction company expands a two lane road into six lanes, all the while drilling and pouring and pounding and drilling and compounding noisily, just outside the windows of the neighborhood residents, another construction company should be building a wall to act as a noise barrier for the residents. It is not fair for poorer people to be forced to live in noisy, uninhabitable zones, when these areas can be adapted to better-suit a peaceful and quiet environment.

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Luckily, there has already been some impetus in revitalizing and adapting the city of Newtown for a new and improved modern age and city-image. Listed on the city’s website (http://www.sarasotagov.com/Newtown/CRA.html) is a detailed description of plans to redevelop the community and downtown areas. This redevelopment plan includes many different kinds of legislation and planning, which will, indeed, greatly improve the residents’ quality of life, however, I did not notice much work being made in the area of noise pollution and acoustics. Listed among the goals and initiatives of the redevelopment area are plans to beautify the community with more trees and park areas, yet these new additions can be placed strategically, and not just aesthetically. One can see from the side effects I have listed above that noise and noise pollution are very detrimental to one’s health and well-being. As the residents of Newtown begin to rebuilding and retrofit their city to make it ideal, I would advise them to consider greenery as not only a way to titivate the area, but also as a way to quiet it down. I know for a fact that the sounds of loud car stereos can be heard indoors are cars drive through the streets of Newtown. By strategically placing foliage and trees in spots between the streets and the homes, the sound that is transferred can be reduced dramatically. For areas that require much more noise dampening than a few trees, denser foliage and landscaping can be devised to accommodate the task at hand! Whether or not it is the residents of the city or private licensers that do the planting, I would hope that the answer to Newtown’s noise pollution is a sustainable one, as a finite solution will have to be achieved eventually. There will come a time when all construction and landscaping companies use strictly sustainable materials in their designs, and the sooner this happens, the better. No person should be forced to endure a situation where their quality of life is negatively affected and they are

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unable to do anything about it because of financial limitations. It is the duty of the airport to account for the noise their premises produces, and they should be required to perform tests that access the noise levels that the local people will be forced to experience because of their being there. Moreover, rather than mining, drilling, and producing new metals to construct a noise barrier that will act as a boundary for a highway or roadway, constructors should seek-out recycled and sustainable sources to re-work for their new purpose of being an effective sound dampener. Allowing poor and rich people to live in peace is not as difficult as abstract mathematics or experimental physics, yet it is treated as such. There must be accountability for the people who build objects that increase the noise pollution of local residents without fully taking care of their responsibilities. When a plumber installs a new kitchen sink, it is their responsibility to include the faucet and proper piping. When a company paves a new road or adds a new expansion to an airport, it is their responsibility to provide the premises with proper noise barriers and insulation, and for these new barriers to be sustainably produced. Anything else is environmentally unjust, and should not be allowed to go on further. We have seen the detrimental effects of noise on the people forced to experience it, and we have also seen several different ways that the problem can be rectified. It may be surprising to find that plants and trees can be combined to sustainably bring down noise levels within a community, but a great solution is not much harder than that. Even if construction companies or urban planners neglect to include any kind of sound barriers for the people tat live and work in areas that tend to be noisy, at least it is possible to add sound insulation where it is needed, no matter how rich or poor an area is. It is not fair for poorer people to be forced to forever hear the sounds of cars outside their window and planes constantly flying overhead, it is my aim that someday the state of affairs will be ideal.

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Works Cited: Anthrop, Donald F. Noise Pollution. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1973. Print. Bragdon, Clifford R. Noise Pollution The Unquiet Crisis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971. Print. Consultative Group on Transportation Research Urban Traffic Noise strategy for an improved environment. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1960. Print. Grandjean, E, and A Gilgen. Environmental Factors in Urban Planning. Britain: Taylor and Francis Ltd., 1976. Print. Kotzen, Benz, and Colin English. Environmental Noise Barriers A Guide to their Acoustic and Visual Design. New York, New York: E & FN Spon, 1999. Print. Vallet, M. "Effects of Noise on Health." Environmental Urban Noise. 2001. Amando Garcia. Boston, MA: WIT, 2001. Print. World Commission on Environment and Development, "Our Common Future." The Sustainable Urban Development Reader. 2004. Stephen M. Wheeler and Timothy Beatley. London and New York: Routledge, 2004. Print.

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The Benefits of On-Site Power Generation for Newtown By: Lin Allen Ozan Introduction Conservation is a vital component of sustainability and is deemed a primary forcer to alleviate the depletion of natural and manmade capital (Dincer and Rosen 1999, Kamerschen and Porter 2004, Vlek and Steg 2007). One approach used for conservation that has meaningful results is demand-side management (Didden and D’ haeseleer 2003, Loughran and Kulick 2004, Reddy and Parikh 1997, Strbac 2008). Demand-side management is s multi-dimensional tool that uses planning, implementation, and monitoring to facilitate the balance between consumers and utility needs (Gellings 1985). Nevertheless, many demand-side management programs have inherent communication and adoption complexities that can be easily overcome through policy modifications (Chappells and Shove 2005, Gellings 1985, Nadel 1992). This paper attempts to highlight the fascinating potential and attractive benefits of demand-side management strategies, and provide possible resolutions to current program implementation issues (McKenzie-Mohr 1994, Roe et al 2001). Specifically, the benefits of on-site power generation will be discussed and sites to implement the program in Newtown, Sarasota will be identified. Onsite power generation imparts many incentives to those who take advantage of this demand-side management method by peak shaving, increased efficiency, reduced premiums, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions (Bourgeois et al 2003, Stern 1992, Hughes and Bell 2006, Yates and Aronson 1983). In addition, the transfer from remote capture and transmission of coal energy to the onsite capturing and conversion of natural gas energy to produce electricity provides even greater benefits (Ellerman 1996, Holtz-Eakin and Selden 1995, Jaramillo et al 2007). To achieve sustainability we must move away from non-renewable sources of energy production.

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Nevertheless, even the most enthusiastic proponents for onsite photovoltaic power generation admittedly maintain that the technology of photovoltaics is much closer to commercial feasibility, however it requires more policy options and partnerships to foster its growth (Byrne et al. 1996). Natural gas prices have sharply fallen recently, and the savings are being taken advantage of by electricity providers across the nation. Major conglomerates such Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and Shell have began acquiring a major stake in the natural gas market (Washington Post). They foresee the promise of natural gas as a major, if not primary fuel source in the future as the world’s proven oil reserves dwindle. Although natural gas is not a renewable source of energy, it is an extraordinary bridge fuel that can provide the scale of current energy needs while ushering the United States away from a foreign-dependent carbon-based economy to an independent energy production nation with furthered economic resilience. At the local level, the application of on-site power generation technology by means of natural gas and participation in the incentives provided by Florida Power &Lighting (FPL) demand-side management load control programs will greatly benefit Newtown, Sarasota. Not only would it be fiscally responsible, but it would also bestow a tremendous example of forward progress to achieving both economic and environmental sustainability. I. Background In recent years we have all observed a shifting in our nation’s economic prosperity, and as individuals we have become more self-reliant and less communal while our government has strived to promote fundamental policy to strengthen our nation’s future and provide energy security. However, at the individual level it seems as if investing in our future has taken a back burner within Florida’s regional policy. This is exceedingly evident recently with the lack of support and disappointing outcome to neighboring Hillsborough County’s referendum that was

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designed to strengthen the transportation infrastructure. This important decision was put in the hands of those who would benefit most, everyday citizens. In addition, this referendum was just the start to regional transportation throughout the entire Southwest region of Florida. It can be argued that the majority of citizens in Hillsborough County did realize the value obtained through supporting the referendum, but did not want the economic burden to fall upon the individual citizen with an increased consumption tax. This real-world scenario is analogous to many missed opportunities due to lack of strong education/marketing endorsement and failure to garner support for investing in the future. With regards to conservation initiatives, there are three classes of resource use behavior, which include: investment, management, and curtailment. Conservation marketing campaigns typically focus on management and curtailment behaviors in hopes of obtaining positive outcomes, while investment in newer or improved technologies characteristically falls by the wayside. In addition, investment classically has the greatest impact on reducing resource use (McKenzie-Mohr 1994). Therefore, this research is a call to invest in the future of Newtown by providing natural gas powered generators to key community buildings and facilities that will decrease green-house gas emissions, decrease energy expenditures, and increase energy production efficiency. Newtown has an excellent opportunity to strengthening its community by investing in the future, and this opportunity can be exploited without garnering financial backing form the everyday citizen. A fraction of redevelopment funds could have a farreaching impact on the community. Investing in the future while promoting conservation and sustainability can transform Newtown into an example community of forward progress through demand-side management regimes. Therefore, this analysis illuminates specific methods targeted towards conservation initiatives and provides clear examples for points of action. Section two provides a thorough examination of key aspects of demand-side management in

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relation to energy conservation. Section three details the current shifts in the utility market and the progressive steps being achieved to promote stabilization of the current electricity infrastructure through the investment of natural gas. In addition, section three features scientific analysis of environmental benefits to natural gas a fuel source in relation to coal combustion. Section four provides information on the benefits of on-site power generation and shining examples of what benefits can be realized as a product of stabilizing on-site power generation. Section five illustrates the savings that can be obtained through instituting on-site power generation in key facilities within Newtown. The final section, section six, provides a summarization of the key points of this article. II. Demand Side Management Demand-side management (DSM) programs are varied and many. These programs can provide increased decisive action with the consumer and increased efficiency with the provider to reduce energy costs. A study on the technical potential for conservation and load management savings in New York projected a statewide electricity reduction potential of over 34% with the application of cost-effective conservation and load management measures (Nadel 1992). In addition, a 1990 report arranged for the Electric Power Research Institute established that the use of energy saving technologies could potentially reduce United States electricity expenditures between 24-44% within ten years (Nadel 1992). The technical potential of energy conservation initiatives through DSM programs are astounding. Nevertheless, these studies do not account for the impediments of adoption by the consumer. The consumer’s foremost concern when adopting energy saving technologies resides in the notion of time span until realization of return on the initial investment. Most consumers believe that the payback period from investment in technology is far too extensive. This is typically the case when purchasing consumer goods such

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as energy efficient washing machines, refrigerators, and other highly priced necessary consumer products. Nevertheless, there are many technologies that increase efficient use of resources with a short duration between investment and payback. Examples include, switching form incandescent to fluorescent lighting to save on electricity consumption and the installation of soil-moisture-sensors to save water expenditures with automated irrigation systems. These technologies realize the financial benefits quickly due to the restructuring in the way the foundational resource is allocated and harnessed, and the relative low cost of the technology. For example, the average residential consumption of electricity within the state of Florida is 960 kWh a month at a rate of 11.65 cents per kWh, which equates to $130.52 a month in electricity expenditures (DOE 2008). In addition, the average home within the United States spends approximately 10% of electricity costs on lighting, hence lighting costs for an average Florida home would cost $13.05 a month (Reliant 2010). Given that a 50-75% reduction in energy savings can be attained through the replacement of incandescent light bulbs with energy efficient compact fluorescent light bulbs (DOE 2008); a savings of $6.52 - $9.78 can be realized a month by the consumer. With an initial investment of $39.88 for 12 compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs the return on the investment would be in approximately 4 months (Walmart 2010). Therefore, within the first year of replacement there would be a net reduction of $52.16 - $78.24 in energy expenditures when accounting for the initial investment. In addition, the CFL’s have a lifespan of eight times that of incandescent bulbs. So, over the lifespan of the CFL’s there would be a savings of $599.84 - $899.76. This restructuring is how the DSM framework creates benefits. Specific DSM programs include strategic conservation, load management, electrification, and customer generation (Gellings 1985). These measures are not mutually exclusive and hybridized versions can exist as the recommendation of this analysis suggests with

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customer generation load management. This can be achieved by on-site generation of power during peak demand. Peak demand is distinguished by time of day, day of week, and season due to the temporal and spatial variation in peak usage. For example, energy usage increases significantly in the Northeastern United States due to heating during the winter months, however energy consumption reduces in the South due to decreased dependence on air conditioning for thermal comfort during the same time period. Outside of the many environmental benefits, DSM strategies are mutually financially beneficial to the producers and consumers of electricity; the producer saves on capital investment while the consumer reaps lucrative financial savings through a decrease in utility bills (Gellings 1985). Florida Power & Lighting (FPL) DSM programs have greatly reduced the need to increase the size of their infrastructure. According to FPL, they have avoided building twelve medium-sized power plants due to the efforts of DSM (FPL Releases 2008). FPL is the industry leader in DSM program effectiveness, and in 2008 FPL avoided the distribution of 3,724 megawatts through its programs (DOE 2008). The following graph (Figure 1) depicts the greatest savings through DSM programs throughout the entire nation. Figure 1

Source: Department of Energy; Energy Information Administration; 2008 data

The Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration conducts studies each year to 277

assess the progress of the utilities market in the deployment and utilization of mandated DSM programs. Florida Power and Lighting has ranked in the top ten in many Energy Information Administrations studies throughout the past decade. The political climate has never been as complimentary to increasing energy efficiency as it is now, but as each year passes the incentives provided by legislation can expire. “Never has the U.S. legislative and economic landscape been so favorable to commercial, industrial, and institutional end-users pursuing energy-efficient lighting and electrical product upgrades in their facilities, and never has a community been better positioned to help end-users capitalize on today’s extensive range of demand-side management opportunities than electrical contractors” (Washington Post 2009). The revitalization of past conservation initiatives have regained popularity for the individual consumer and the opportunity is ripe for residential and commercial consumers to invest in sound efficiency technologies. The DSM programs are centered on the residential and commercial end-user, however with the mounting pressure on utility suppliers to provide clean affordable energy they must diversify their energy acquisition portfolio. Within the last decade there has been a shift of electricity suppliers from coal-based production to more inventive methods of production and distribution of their product. The current trend has been to subsidized the current coal combustion infrastructure of electricity generation with natural gas. III. Natural Gas vs. Coal A large percentage of new energy production is not coal fired but by means of natural gas. In 2000, exactly 23,453 megawatts of electric capacity was added to the United States infrastructure, in which 95% was realized by natural gas fired additions (Electric Generation 2010). The following graph (Figure 2) depicts the relationship between historical and projected electric generation capacity and sources of fuel for production. The graph illustrates the relative

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growth of coal, nuclear, and natural gas from 1970 to 2000 and the stagnation of renewables and petroleum during that same time period.

Figure 2

Electricity Generation by Fuel 1970-2020 (billion kilowatt hours) Source: EIA Annual Energy OutlookWith Projections to 2020

In addition, the growth of coal as fuel capacity has remained relatively constant during the historical and projected time periods while natural gas is expected to grow exponentially beyond the year 2000. Current data suggests that these projections have come to fruition. In light of recent assessments of the United States proven gas reserves, this shapes natural gas as the quintessential transitional bridge fuel as we move towards renewable sources of energy production. The Potential Gas Committee releases its 2008 assessment of proven natural gas reserves and determined that the US possesses 1,836 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, which is a 33% increase from the previous year’s assessment and the largest calculated reserve mark in 44 years (Potential Gas 2009). Many speculators assess that the United States is to natural gas what Saudi Arabia is to oil. Coal has a considerable technical disadvantage when compared to natural 279

gas. It is a less concentrated form of energy; therefore it requires more sophisticated equipment and processes to eliminate the large quantity of non-combustible matter and water that is bundled with the hydrocarbon content (Ellerman 1996). In addition, there are subsequent negative environmental implications from the combustion of coal. Figure 3

(Source Jarmillo 2007)

In relation to natural gas, coal is exceedingly more deleterious to our environment when accounting for all factors of production and distribution. Figure 3 depicts the life cycle of coal and various forms of natural gas and their associated CO2 emissions per megawatt hour. When comparing coal production, processing, and combustion with carbon capture sequestration to natural gas’s combined life cycle including carbon capture sequestration there is a significant difference in their CO2 emissions, with approximately 375 lbs per megawatt hour for coal and approximately 225 lbs per hour with natural gas. In addition to decreased CO2 emissions, there are large decreases in SO2 and NO. The following table (Figure 4) depicts the relationship of SO2 and NO with usage of coal and natural gas as fuels in electricity production.

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Figure 4

(Source Jarmillo 2007)

Figure 4 reflects that emissions from SO2 and NO natural gas are significantly lower than that of coal. This illustrates the promising environmental advantages attributed to natural gas in comparison to coal. In addition, natural gas can be purchased directly by the end-user (domestic or commercial consumers) to provide the same environmental and financial benefits being achieved by the utility suppliers. IV. On-Site Power Generation Unlike most corporate entities that sell products, electric utility providers have extreme difficulties in providing the infrastructure to support the increase in demand as the population exponentially increases, and therefore promotes mitigating the consumption of their product. It is in their interest to promote efficiencies in production and distribution in order to curb demand and reduce addition capital investment. By curbing capital investment in conjunction with conservation strategies such as DSM programs, FPL is able to increase the lifespan of current infrastructure and invest in research and development towards renewable energy infrastructure such as the DeSoto Next Generation Solar Energy Center that has an estimated power generation of approximately 42,000 megawatt-hours (Exeneawable 2010). One of the city of Sarasota’s

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Environmental Points of Pride is the participation in FPL’s Load Control Program. This involvement has realized a yearly power cost savings of over $250,000 for the city (Points of Pride 2008). Expanding this participation to facilities, such as schools and community centers, would greatly increase the cost savings. Even though the savings reduce the direct profit to FPL, there is a net profit associated with the reduction of consumption. Therefore, FPL promotes and supports on-site power generation to reduce peak-load power distribution through its Load Control Program. Electric power generation and distribution remote from the end user averages an efficiency loss of approximately 33% before consumption (Bourgeois 2002). Thus, onsite electricity generation curtails this loss and efficiencies are gained. The use of on-site generators that are fueled by natural gas reduces the end-user cost for electricity by providing off grid power directly instead of remote production and distribution. V. Implementation of Onsite Power Generation in Newtown, Sarasota Newtown will greatly benefit from participation in FPL’s DSM Load Control Program. The city of Sarasota has already witnessed tremendous savings with the implementation of the program and expansion of the participation is necessary to increase sustainability and financial relief. The following is an example of the savings that can be obtained through participation. The figures do not place into account the fixed rates that provide additional costs, but do provide an accurate estimation of the differences between non-fixed cost distribution base rates. FPL’s general on-peak service commercial rates range from 3.466 to 3.102 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) for usage ranging between 20 to 499 kW, and 0.953 to 0.635 cents per kwh for usage ranging between 500 to 1999 kW. To put this in perspective, 1,000 kW of energy would cost between $25.64 and $28.93 (base rate). FLP’s Load Control Program (LCP) charges a significantly reduced base rate for commercial service during peak loads. FPL’s LCP on-peak

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service commercial base rates range from 1.046 to 1.160 cents per kWh for usage ranging between 20 to 499 kW, and 0.727 to 0.631 cents per kwh for usage ranging between 500 to 1999 kW. Therefore, 1,000 kW of energy would cost between $8.38 and $11.63. This is a savings ranging from $14.01 to $20.55 with all other charges beyond the base charge remaining constant. Therefore, a commercial facility that uses 10,000 kilowatts a month could save between $140.10 and $205.50 a month, which would be a yearly savings of between $2,466.00 and $1,681.20. The financial return on the investment depends on how much energy is used and how much the initial investment is, however the positive environmental implications associated with the switch in technology are automatic. Determining the size of generator needed would be the first step for establishing the initial investment cost. A 45 kW generator would be suitable for a large home of approximately 4,000 square feet or a small to medium business, restaurant, or municipal building. A 60 kW generator would be sufficient for a 6,000 square foot structure that has multiple uses and power requirements. Commercial generators are available in multiple sizes and range in sizes between 10 kW to 150 kW; larger generators are typically used for industrial needs (Generac 2010). The following is a pricing structure for commercial generators: 45 kW ($10,800 – 15,400); 60 kW ($13,800 – 14,970); 80 kW ($16,800 – 22,400); 100 kW ($21,900 – 24,000); and 150 kW ($26,900 – 28,300) (Google Shopping 2010). A professional assessment would be required in determining the actual needs of a facility. Nevertheless, a 150kW generator can provide complete energy security for most commercial applications from gas stations and convenience stores to restaurants, schools, assisted living centers, and municipal buildings (Generac 2010). Expanding the city’s participation with FPL’s Load Control Program to other local facilities within Newtown, such as schools, community centers, nursing and rehabilitation centers, and other key buildings will provide enormous financial and environmental benefits.

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Community health, safety, and welfare are core redevelopment plan focus areas within Newtown. Instituting on-site generators in key locations will provide health, safety, and welfare for Newtown citizens in the event of power outages by providing complete energy security. Complete energy security can be highly beneficial during prolonged power outages during storm events such as hurricanes. The facilities that are equipped with on-site generators are able to fully operate off the grid when power outages occur. In addition, these facilities can also be used as safe havens for community members that do not have residential power. The following map (Figure 5) is marked with 9 specific facilities that would benefit from onsite power generation and have the potential to serve emergency shelters. Figure 5 1. Booker High School 2. Booker Middle School 3. Emma E. Booker Elementary 4. R. L. Taylor Community Center 5. Glasser Schoenbaum Human Services Center 6. Pines Of Sarasota Nursing and Assisted Living Care Center 7. J. H. Floyd Nursing and Rehabilitation Center 8. North Sarasota Library 9. Newtown Redevelopment Office These strategic sites consume large amounts of energy due to building dimensions and utillity. These sites will make a sizeable impact on decreased energy 284

expenditures, mitigated emissions (CO2, SO2 and NO), and community security. VI. Conclusion Conservation is the cornerstone of sustainability. As world populations increase exponentially we must find creative ways to evolve our technologies and explore methods for prolonging our resources. Conservation through demand-side management allows us to curb energy expenditures and realize efficiencies. Load control programs have the benefit of reducing the wear-and-tear on our utility infrastructure so the capital costs of developing new infrastructure by the suppliers are not passed on to the consumer. Environmentally and fiscally, the choice to provide energy security on-site versus solely remote distribution is exceptionally sensible. Newtown has an excellent opportunity to strengthen its community by investing in the future, and this opportunity can be exploited without garnering financial backing form the everyday citizen. Currently Newtown has the means to redevelop its community, and during that process there should be a focus on environmental sustainability for current and future generations. On-site power generation by means of natural gas will supply lucrative savings, reductions in volatile emissions, and progress community security. In addition, participation in Florida Power and Lightings Demand Side Management Load Control Program will elevate Newtown as a city of increased sustainable self-reliance and provide a shining example of what local communities can do to invest in a sustainable future. References Basiago, A. D. (1998). Economic, social, and environmental sustainability in development theory and urban planning practice. Environmentalist, 19(2), 145. Berke, P. R. (2002). Does sustainable development offer a new direction for planning? challenges for the twenty-first century. Journal of Planning Literature, 17(1), 21.

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Bourgeois, T. G. (2003). Creating markets for combined heat and power and clean distributed generation in new york state. Environmental Pollution, 123(3), 451. Byrne, J. (1996). Evaluating the economics of photovoltaics in a demand-side management role. Energy Policy, 24(2), 177. Chappells, H. (2005). Debating the future of comfort: Environmental sustainability, energy consumption and the indoor environment. Building Research and Information, 33(1), 32. Daly, H. E. (1990). Operational principles for sustainable development. Ecological Economics, 2(1), 1. Didden, M. H. (2003). Demand side management in a competitive european market: Who should be responsible for its implementation? Energy Policy, 31(13), 1307. Dincer, I. (1999). Energy, environment and sustainable development. Applied Energy, 64(1-4), 427. DOE energy consumption: at http://www.eia.doe.gov/ask/electricity_faqs.asp. Accessed on November 1, 2010. Ellerman, D. (1996). The competition between coal and natural gas the importance of sunk costs. Resources Policy, 22(1-2), 33. Exeneawable Solar Park: at http://www.exenewable.com/projectProfile.asp?id=20706. Accessed on November 1, 2010. Exxon Mobile Mobile to buy natural gas specialist: at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/12/14/AR2009121403505.html. Accessed on November 1, 2010. Gellings, C. W. (1985). Concept of demand-side management for electric utilities. Proceedings of the IEEE, 73(10), 1468. Gellings, C. W. (1989). Integrating demand-side management into utility planning. Proceedings of the IEEE, 77(6), 908. Generac generator sizing: www.generac.com/Commercial/Commercial/Products/Commercial_Series_22_-_150_kW/. Accessed on November 1, 2010. Holtz-Eakin, D. (1995). Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth. Journal of Public Economics, 57(1), 85. Hughes, L. (2006). Compensating customer-generators: A taxonomy describing methods of compensating customer-generators for electricity supplied to the grid. Energy Policy, 34(13), 1532. 286

Jaramillo, P. (2007). Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation. Environmental Science Technology, 41(17), 6290. Kamerschen, D. R. (2004). The demand for residential, industrial and total electricity, 19731998. Energy Economics, 26(1), 87. Loughran, D. S. (2004). Demand-side management and energy efficiency in the united states. Energy Journal, the, 25(1), 19. McKenzie-Mohr, D. (1994). Social marketing for sustainability:: The case of residential energy conservation. Futures, 26(2), 224. McMichael, A. J. (2003). New visions for addressing sustainability. Science, 302(5652), 1919. Munson, R. (2006). Yes, in my backyard: Distributed electric power. Issues in Science and Technology, 22(2), 49. Nadel, S. (1992). Utility demand-side management experience and potential-a critical review. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 17(1), 507. Reddy, B. S. (1997). Economic and environmental impacts of demand side management programmes. Energy Policy, 25(3), 349. Reliant Energy Home Improvements: at http://www.reliant.com/PublicLinkAction.do?i_chronicle_id=090175228030b78d&langua ge_code=en_US&i_full_format=jsp#lighting. Accessed on November 1, 2010. Roe, B. (2001). US consumers' willingness to pay for green electricity* 1. Energy Policy, 29(11), 917. Stern, P. C. (1992). What psychology knows about energy conservation. The American Psychologist, 47, 1224. Strbac, G. (2008). Demand side management: Benefits and challenges. Energy Policy, 36(12), 4419. Vlek, C. (2007). Human behavior and environmental sustainability: Problems, driving forces, and research topics. The Journal of Social Issues, 63(1), 1. Wall, G. (2002). Conditions and tools in the design of energy conversion and management systems of a sustainable society. Energy Conversion and Management, 43(9-12), 1235. Walmart lighting pricing: at http://www.walmart.com/cp/home-lighting/133113. Accessed on November 1, 2010. Yates, S. M. (1983). A social psychological perspective on energy conservation in residential buildings. The American Psychologist, 38, 216.

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A Natural History of Newtown, Sarasota, Florida: Including Geology, Hydrology and Soils Adrien Roth

Recently, more and more talk has been generated about sustainability - and the green movement as a response to research on climate change. While the issue of global climate change sometimes seems daunting and too much for small groups to do anything about, the key to generating change lies in the efforts made by small local community groups. Community groups often have very strong ties to their neighborhoods and surroundings and are devoted to sustainable changes and development techniques to preserve their communities for generations to come. Often, local groups come equipped with the knowledge of the place they call home, but attaining even more information about the natural environment in which they live can further impact their desire to protect and preserve their surroundings. Now more than ever, it is becoming imperative that we protect the environments in which we all live, as the impacts of global climate change accelerate, and before more unique ecosystems suffer irreversible damage. Here I will discuss the unique natural environment that exists in Newtown, Sarasota, as well as the rest of Florida, including: geology, hydrology and soils.

Global Climate Change and Sustainability More and more research is being done on the issue of global climate change, and a multitude of reports and new data are being released regarding the issue on a regular basis. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released four reports since 1990 which detail the scientific community’s progress in understanding global climate change. A fifth report is in the beginning stages of compilation. Several important determinations and suggestive data 288

have been presented in these reports and offer evidence to support climate change. Some of the most key findings include: a) certainty that human activities are substantially increasing the concentrations of greenhouse gases (IPCC, 1990), b) a prediction that surface air temperatures, and global average temperatures will increase, and sea-level will rise during the next century as a result of the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (IPCC 2001), and c) past and present carbon dioxide emissions caused by human activity will contribute to temperature and sea-level rise for more than a millennium to come (IPCC, 2007). Though these reports are backed by hard scientific data, they urge that there are uncertainties associated with their assumptions, such as: estimates for future emissions, data and model reliability, and detection. All in all, the research compiled by the IPCC has provided the public with information about the changes the planet is undergoing. Given this information, many groups both large and small have begun to take action to slow the affect of human activity on the health of the environment, and in some cases even attempt to reverse some of the damage that has been done. Granted, most everyone has some place they feel connected to, whether it’s within their community, or somewhere else they feel they’re part of. Aldo Leopold’s book A Sand County Almanac describes his connection to the natural environment of an area of Wisconsin he considers his home. He makes several points in this early book on environmental conservation, one of which is that we are part of our natural surroundings. Not only can we have an impact on our environment, but it also impacts us. For example, if we treat an agricultural area well, it will provide us with a bountiful harvest. On the other hand, if we pollute our local streams with trash and pollutants, the impacts could be harmful not only to the organisms that are part of the stream ecosystem, but ultimately to humans as well. He suggests that those most likely to take action to

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protect their cherished natural environments are those who have an understanding of its value and of what it can offer and what humans can give back to it. This idea is included in the sustainability framework. It considers how we as humans can use the land and environment in a way that provides for our needs, but sustains the natural systems in a mutually beneficial relationship. The more understanding people have of the environments in which they live, the closer they will feel to the area. This closer tie will lead to more efforts to preserve and protect these unique and delicate systems. This paper will provide information that will deepen the understanding about the geology, hydrology, and soils in the Newtown, Sarasota area and in Florida as a whole.

Natural History - The Geology of Florida

Geologic History The geology of Florida, though not especially complicated, has its beginnings over hundreds of millions of years ago. Throughout the course of geologic time, pieces of the Earth’s crust called tectonic plates have undergone cycles of breaking apart and suturing back together. The oldest and deepest rock in Florida, called “basement rocks”, are believed to have been part of what is now northwest Africa and date back to 700 million years ago (Lane, 1994) (Figure 1). The evidence lies in the rock types found in Africa and Florida and their similarities. Both regions have sandstone, shale, and other similarly-aged rock types, as well as matching fossil assemblages. It is believed that around 230 million years ago all of the present-day continents were attached as one large landmass called Pangaea. It was during this time that the northwest

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part of Africa was in contact with what is now the east coast of North America. About 195 million years ago, the Atlantic Ocean began to open up, causing Africa to separate from North America and South America.

Figure 1: As the Earth’s continents appeared 230 million years ago when they made up the super continent, Pangaea (Lane, 1994). As the continental plates drifted apart, the basement rocks of Florida were created at the spreading center of the plates. They were very dense and thus, sank deep into the ocean floor, which allowed for more rock to accumulate on top of it (Lane, 1994). The type of rock that accumulated in the area where Florida exists are carbonates - rocks such as limestone and dolostone. Limestone is created by various marine organisms, and can also be formed by the decay of other organisms, such as coral and algae. In order for a thick carbonate platform to form (Figure 2), as in the case of Florida, shallow waters and a large amount of carbonate-

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secreting marine organisms are necessary. The oldest near-surface carbonate rocks found in Florida are a relatively-young 45 million years old.

Figure 2: The Florida Platform formed by the accumulation of carbonate rocks (Lane, 1994).

It’s interesting to note that for the majority of the last 65 million years of Florida’s geologic history, the area spent most of the time below sea level. During this time, there was a gulf trough that circulated ocean water in a passage between present day Georgia and Florida. Due to this passage, Florida was separated from the rest of North America and the sediments that eroded from the Appalachian Mountains weren’t able to reach Florida. About 20-30 million years ago, the present-day Appalachian Mountains were uplifted, which increased erosion rates. Large amounts of sediments flooded the gulf trough and spread down into a newly raised Florida. These sediments can now be seen all over the state mostly in the form of the white quartz sand which has made Florida beaches famous. Another important addition to Florida’s geology during this time was the deposition of phosphate-rich sediments. It is believed that a mixture of phosphate-rich ocean waters, 292

phosphate-feeding organisms, such as plankton, and sediments helped to produce these deposits. Named the Hawthorne Group of sediments, it is located in north-central Florida and encompasses the Tampa Bay area, including parts of Sarasota County. In these regions, phosphate is mined for fertilizing purposes. Though Florida is mainly flat-lying, there are a few upwellings in the topography which emerged during the last 65 million years. The oldest of these is called the Ocala Platform and runs down the gulf coast side of the state; Newtown, Sarasota is contained in the Ocala Platform. The most recent geologic event occurred during the last 1.8 million years through the last major glacial period. At this point in history, sea level rose and fell several times, leaving Florida underwater and above water alternately. It was during this era that most of the landforms seen in Florida - such as ridges, sinkholes, springs, lakes and rivers were formed. It was also through the glacial advances and retreats of this time that additional sediment eroded and moved by glaciers was added to the surface of Florida’s rock formations and other sediment deposits. That brings us to present day, where geologic history could repeat itself and put Florida below sea level again. Even though this appears to be a cyclic event, evidence suggests that the current sea level rise threats facing Florida and other coastal communities are being made worse, or happening faster, due to human activity (Figure 3). Increasing rates of greenhouse gas emissions are heating up the planet at a faster than normal rate, and melting icecaps in polar regions. This melting is adding great volumes of water to the Earth’s oceans, and causing them to rise world-wide.

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Figure 3: An image of what Florida would look like if sea level rose 5 meters (Haxby, 2005).

Rocks of Florida Perhaps the formation of Florida’s carbonate platform, during periods when sea-level was higher than the present, does the best job of explaining why limestone is so widespread in Florida (Singh and Vernon, 1959). It is the primary rock found near the surface, and though it is abundant, it comes in many forms in different areas of the state (Lane, 1987). Most commonly, it exists in pure rock form, which can look like white to yellow rocky clay, or simply coarse rock of the same color (Figure 4). In other areas, especially along the east coast of the state, and to a lesser extent, the southern Gulf region and Newtown, Sarasota, the limestone contains high levels of coarse shell fragments and forms a carbonate rock called coquina (Figure 5). Dolostone is another rock predominant throughout the state and though it appears to similar to limestone, it contains an extra bond in its mineralogy, making it slightly more resistant than limestone.

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Figure 4: Common coarse, creamy white Florida limestone (Roth, 2010).

Figure 5: Coquina is a rock similar to limestone made entirely of cemented shells. It is found in coastal regions of Florida, including the Sarasota area (Wilson, 2008).

Rocks of Sarasota The region that encompasses Newtown, Sarasota was on the fringes of the Florida coast line during glacial advance in retreat. Because of this, it was a depositional environment for a very long time, and the majority of the sediment covering the carbonate platform is sand and shell. The formations found in Sarasota County range from Oligocene (38mya to 22mya) to Holocene (10,000 years ago to present) (United States Department of Agriculture, 1991). The Suwannee Formation is the oldest in the county and contains yellow-white to gray dolomitized and fossilized limestone. It is about 350 feet thick in Newtown, Sarasota. Covering the 295

Suwannee Formation is the Arcadia Formation which contains quartz sands, calcareous clay with some phosphate and sandy limestone. Thickness of this formation ranges from 300-500 feet. The Peace River Formation caps the Arcadia Formation and consists of greenish gray sands with phosphate, clays, sandy clays and some dolomite. Ironically, the formation is found throughout Sarasota County, with the exception of the city of Sarasota, including Newtown. From the Pliocene to Pleistocene epochs (5.3mya to 0.1mya), shell beds and quartz sands were deposited in blankets of 15 to 30 feet. The Anastasia Formation of the late-Pleistocene is primarily coquina or cemented shells and can be seen in outcrop on Siesta Key near Newtown, Sarasota. The newest sediments of the Holocene consist of sands, silts, clays and organic materials found in stream beds, swamps, marshes and lakes.

Florida’s Karst Landscape With most of the surface rock being carbonate in form, it gives way for a very special geologic setting to exist throughout the state of Florida. Carbonate rocks, such as limestone and dolostone, are especially susceptible to dissolution by groundwater, due to its acidic nature (Lane, 1986). This process, or geologic phenomenon, is called karst activity. Karst landscapes include features such as springs, sinkholes, and caves, all of which are the result of carbonate rock being dissolved by groundwater circulation. Limestone and other similar rock types are naturally filled with joints and fractures, creating more pathways for groundwater to travel and more surface area of the rock exposed for dissolution. Caves are areas, or voids, in underground carbonate rock which have been dissolved by an underground stream or water table fluctuation. Most caves found in Florida are water-filled and require diving to investigate because of the low water table. There are dry caves in the

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Panhandle in Florida Caverns State Park which can be explored without diving. Springs are places where underground streams reemerge at the ground surface. In Florida, there are 300 known springs, including one notable spring located in Sarasota County. Warm Mineral Spring is situated near the town of North Port, about eleven miles from Venice, just south of Newtown, and is a popular tourist spot ( Scott, 2004). The spring is within a sinkhole that is roughly 250 feet north to south and 315 feet east to west (Figure 6). The depth of the spring is about 230 feet. There is a debris cone of sand, dolostone, and limestone, which rises about 100 feet from the deepest part of the sinkhole. Very little vegetation lives in the spring, and a small stream connects the spring to the Myakka River.

Figure 6: Warm Mineral Spring in Sarasota County, Florida is contained within a sinkhole (Warm Mineral Springs, 2004).

Sinkholes are expressions of dissolved carbonate rock, either at the surface or 297

underground. It is due to these these various types of formation that there are various types of sinkholes found in Florida (Figure 7).

Figure 7: The four major zones and types of sinkhole formation in Florida (Florida Department of Natural Resources, 2005).

Solution sinkholes occur when there is carbonate rock exposed at or near the ground surface and the cavity in the rock occurs at or near the surface. These types of sinkholes occur mostly along the gulf coast north of Tampa and also in the Everglades region south of Naples and Lake Okeechobee. Cover subsidence sinkholes occur mostly in areas with a moderate 298

amount of sediment (sand, silt and clay) covering the rock. This means that the rock gets slowly dissolved underneath the sediment and gradually the sinkhole develops at the surface as the sediments fall into the cavity in the rock. The process is similar to the sand grains falling in an hour glass. In areas with 30 to 200 feet of sediment cover, these types of sinkholes are most numerous, and are found mostly along the east coast of the state from around Daytona Beach south to Lake Okeechobee. The third type of sinkhole most commonly found in Florida are cover collapse sinkholes, and they occur in areas with moderate sediment cover which consists of mostly clay, or areas with very thick sediment cover. Areas with moderate sediment cover of mostly clay are scattered, but can be found along the Alabama and Georgia borders in the Panhandle and more locally in the Tampa Bay Area. This includes all of Pinellas County, the top half of Hillsborough County, the middle sections of Pasco and Hernando Counties, and the majority of Polk County. In areas with more than 200 feet of sediment cover, sinkholes are not as common, but are catastrophic when they occur. Cover collapse sinkholes are usually the most catastrophic because they occur so quickly and are large. They occur in two phases, due to the great amount of sediment covering the rock. The process begins as a void in the rock, and slowly the sediment will start to fall into the void, just as in the cover subsidence sinkhole. The difference is that due to a greater volume of sediment, the void left in the sediment column as it falls into the void creates a sinkhole itself. The Sarasota area, including Newtown, lies in an area of this thick sediment cover, and thus, experiences very few sinkholes when compared to the rest of the Tampa Bay area. Many of the lakes found in Florida are sinkholes which have filled in with water over time.

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Hydrology and Watersheds Karst processes explain a little about what water does underground, but at the surface, water is categorized and grouped by watershed. A watershed includes the area of land in which all water drains to the same location. Watersheds are separated by a geographic barrier, which is normally an area of higher elevation which sends the draining water in different directions. Newtown is part of the Sarasota Bay watershed, and is included in the larger Sarasota BayPeace-Myakka Watershed system (Figure 8). The Peace and Myakka Rivers both empty into

Charlotte Harbor, south of Newtown, Sarasota. The Sarasota Bay watershed is fed by local streams and bayous such as: Bowles Creek, North Creek, Catfish Creek, Phillipi Creek and the Whitaker and Hudson Bayous.

Figure 8: A map of Florida highlighting the location of the Sarasota Bay-Peace-Myakka Watershed system (Sarasota Bay Estuary Program, 2006). Sarasota Bay is actually an estuary, or a salt water mixing zone, where freshwater from streams around Sarasota mixes with salt water from the Gulf of Mexico. During the advance and retreat of glaciers, sediment was deposited on coral reefs, forming keys or barrier islands which 300

presently separate Sarasota Bay from the rest of the Gulf. This is a very unique hydrologic system and ecosystem because several types of water bodies come together – local creeks, streams, bayous and tidal waters – which creates habitat for several species of aquatic plants and animals. The stormwater and wastewater runoff from Newtown enters Whitaker Bayou and eventually Sarasota Bay, thus it’s important to control the quality of the water leaving Newtown. The Sarasota Bay watershed is fortunate to have a local group - the Sarasota Bay Estuary Program (SBEP) which has monitored, led clean-up efforts, and helped to restore areas of the watershed since 1989 (Sarasota Bay Estuary Program, 2006). According to the SBEP, the Sarasota Bay estuary is one of only twenty eight in the country to be recognized as an “estuary of national significance” by the U.S. Congress. This designation was given to estuaries that are important environmentally, economically and culturally in their regions and are in need of protection and preservation due to development. In 2006, they released a State of the Bay report which outlined improvements, concerns, and future goals for the watershed. The Sarasota Bay watershed is home to a very special ecosystem. Not only is the area included in the watershed an estuary, but some areas are delicate coastal lagoons. In SBEP’s 2006 report, they provide information about the watershed’s unique hydrology. In the Sarasota Bay watershed, there is a confining layer of clay which allows infiltrating surface water to pond on top of the clay layer. Development and urbanization not only decrease infiltration and raise flooding concerns, but provide more pollutant sources (Stringfield, 1933). Over the past decade, there have been overall improvements in water quality, with only a few areas of concern remaining, mainly in sub watersheds south of Sarasota Bay. Due to the relatively high level of agricultural activity in the region, nitrogen pollution from fertilizers has been of rising concern for algal bloom disruption. As runoff from farms enters small waterways upstream, the nitrogen-containing fertilizers

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eventually flow downstream to their entry in Sarasota Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Efforts are underway to improve storm water and wastewater runoff options to reduce pollution of bay waters. These efforts include work on the septic to sewer issues, alternatives to fertilizers, and native landscaping choices which require less water and work to filter water before it reaches the bay. The Whitaker Bayou, which is adjacent to Newtown is one area of the Sarasota Bay watershed which has its own comprehensive restoration plan that aims mostly at solving wastewater pollution issues.

Aquifers Through Florida is completely surrounded by water, the majority of water used for the public comes from groundwater (Florida Department of Environmental Protection). An aquifer is an underground layer of rock or unconsolidated sediment that contains water and can be extracted to the surface by a well or a spring. There are around 12,000 wells in Florida used for public supply, and are associated with five aquifers in the state (Figure 9).

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Figure 9: A map showing the five major aquifers of Florida. Notice that the Surficial Aquifer System is the most wide-spread in the state, and includes Newtown, Sarasota. Areas in this aquifer are especially susceptible to groundwater pollution since it is near the land surface (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 2007). Of the five aquifers shown in Figure 9, the Surficial Aquifer System is the aquifer that Newtown, Sarasota uses for its water supply. Unlike the Sand and Gravel Aquifer and the Biscayne Aquifer, the Surficial Aquifer is under generally unconfined conditions and is made up of unconsolidated sand, shells or shelly sand material. The thickness of the aquifer is generally less than 50 feet, especially in coastal regions like Newtown, Sarasota. Since the groundwater and public water supply are so close to the surface, the region is especially vulnerable to groundwater pollution.

Soils The soils found in Florida come in colors ranging from reds to yellows to dark brown and black, and are influenced by factors that include: parent rock material, native vegetation, surface 303

topography, temperature and precipitation, drainage, and human activity. Hydrology and groundwater also have an impact on soil horizons, because it’s the water moving through the sediment which allows for deposition and translocation of minerals through the soil column. In Sarasota County, there are two primary classes of soils found: acidic soils with hardpan and soils formed from sand on top of shells and limestone (United States Department of Agriculture, 1991). As mentioned, the Sarasota area, including Newtown, is primarily made of sand and shells on top of limestone, and with a shallow water table, there is a range of soil horizon colors that can be found as water translocates and deposits minerals. Acidic soils with hardpan are formed from the translocation of minerals from acidic sands which are deposited shallow in the soil column. This deposit becomes an almost cemented sandstone, or what is referred to as hardpan. The majority of soil formations found in this group are dark gray at the surface and transform into lighter gray and, eventually, brown as you move down the soil column (Watts and Collins, 2008). These types of soils are suitable for shallow crops such as celery, tomatoes, cabbage and sugarcane. They are deficient in most nutrients so fertilization is necessary. The hardpan layer makes it difficult for water or root penetration, so it is not suitable for citrus, tobacco, or peanuts. The soils formed from sands over shell and limestone are found in the central and southeastern regions of Sarasota County. Vegetation found in these soils include: palmettos, wire grass, oak and pine. For the most part, these soils consist of dark gray to gray sands lying over marl, which is a calcareous clay. Though these types of soils require drainage for crop cultivation, once fertilized they can produce a wide variety of crops including: cotton, citrus and other subtropical fruits, sugar cane, cabbage, beans, tomatoes and corn.

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Conclusion The state of Florida, and Newtown, Sarasota in particular are unique and valuable environments. They are the result of intricate Earth processes requiring millions of years to develop and they have added to the natural mystique of what we see today. The geology, hydrology, and soil-forming processes that surround us depend on our care and understanding to sustain them for coming generations to enjoy and cultivate. It’s up to the people of today to help slow the degradation of, and to protect the resources that exist in our local natural environments so that they are in existence for generations of humans to come.

References Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2007) Aquifers, State of Florida, Accessed November 27, 2010. Available at: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/swapp/aquifer.asp . Florida Department of Natural Resources (1985) Sinkhole Type and Distribution in Florida, Bureau of Geology, Map Series No. 110. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report: Contributions of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2001) Third Assessment Report (TAR): Climate Change 2001. Synthesis Report: Contributions of Working Groups I, II and III. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1990) First Assessment Report (FAR), includes Contributions from Working Groups I, II, and III. United Nations Framework on Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) Lane, E (1994), Florida's geological history and geological resources, Florida Geological Survey, Special publication 35, pp 1-65. Accessed September 12, 2010. Available at: http://ufdc.uflib.ufl.edu/UF00000124/00001/FC1?toc=y. Lane, E (1987) Guide to rocks and minerals of Florida, Florida Geological Survey, Special publication 9, pp 1-44. Accessed September 12, 2010. Available at: http://ufdc.uflib.ufl.edu/UF00099286/00001/FC. Lane, E (1986), Karst in Florida, Florida Geological Survey, Special publication 29, pp 1-97. Accessed September 12, 2010. Available at: http://ufdc.uflib.ufl.edu/UF00000144/00001/6J.

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Leopold, A (1949), The Land Ethic, Sand County Almanac, Oxford University Press. Haxby, W (2005), NASA Earth Observatory, Accessed on October 14, 2010. Available at: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/TimeShelf/. Sarasota Bay Estuary Program (2006), State of the Bay 2006, pp 1-44. Accessed on September 12, 2010. Available at: http://www.sarasotabay.org/pdf/StateOfTheBay_06.pdf. Scott TM, et al (2004), Springs of Florida, Florida State Geological Survey, FGS: Bulletin 66, pp 1-658, Accessed on September 10, 2010, Available at: http://ufdc.uflib.ufl.edu/UF00094032/00001/1 Singh, PH and Vernon RO (1959), Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures, Florida Geological Survey, Special publication 5, pp 1-255. Accessed September 12, 2010. Available at: http://ufdc.uflib.ufl.edu/UF00000137/00001/1. Stringfield, GT (1933), Groundwater Investigations in Florida, Florida State Geological Survey, FGS: Bulletin 11, pp 1-33, Accessed on September 10, 2010, Available at: http://ufdc.uflib.ufl.edu/UF00000441/00001/1 United States Department of Agriculture (1991), Soil Survey of Sarasota County, Florida, Soil Conservation Service, pp 1-159. Accessed on September 12, 2010. Available at: http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/manuscripts/FL115/0/sarasota.pdf Watts, FC and Collins, ME (2008), Soils of Florida, Soils Science Society of America, Inc., pp 1-88. Warm Mineral Springs (2004), Warm Mineral Springs, North Port, Florida, Accessed on October 28, 2010. Available at: http://attractions.uptake.com/blog/files/2009/02/warm_mineral_springs2.jpg Wilson, MA (2008),Coquina from Florida, Department of Geology, The College of Wooster.

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The Feasibility of Public Wi-Fi in Newtown, Sarasota: Investigating Community and Economic Development through Public Wireless Internet Access By Matt Torrence

Introduction Sustainability and equity take many forms, but the changing face of electronic information and the access to data and other resources has been truly revolutionary. The Internet has become less a luxury item and more a public utility, especially in terms of economic and social development. While Internet access may be relatively prevalent in terms of raw availability, at least in some form, quality information and consistent access are not yet pervasive. This is both a challenge and an opportunity, providing communities like Newtown, Sarasota the chance to expand on the plans and paradigms collected for this research and to become a model community. Newtown is a unique town as there are current economic and social challenges that cannot be ignored. However, through research, observation, and other forms of investigation, there is clear potential for this type of project. With strong community leaders and a cohesive and connected population, there is the chance of great success through unity of effort and ideal. Consequently, there is also the chance for abject failure if the community needs and standards are not properly observed. By using the existing redevelopment planning documents, as well as observation of existing and proposed community wireless models, options for sustainable future development of public Wi-Fi emerge from the literature. This effort will seek to present the feasibility of establishing free, or low-cost, community wireless Internet access in Newtown, specifically in areas conducive to social and economic growth. These new, or improved, resources would serve as a potential incentive for new and existing businesses, as well as provide numerous advantages to residents and visitors. While it will be difficult to provide flawlessly accurate and comprehensive estimates of the financial and labor costs required to complete some, or all, of this endeavor, the data available does allow for 307

some excellent amateur investigation. As will be demonstrated by the review of the literature and this brief examination of Newtown's existing resources, options for improvement in this realm are available.

Outline The following brief outline charts a course for navigating the existing and potential information related to community wireless and improved information access in Newtown, Sarasota. I. Literature Review II. Existing Community Wireless Efforts III. The Newtown, Sarasota Redevelopment Project IV. Summary of Current Wireless Environment V. Social Aspects of the New Information Age VI. Economic and Development Benefits of Pervasive Wireless Access VII. Partial Conclusions and Proposals for Future Efforts

Literature Review To collect sources and expand the literature, I went first to the low-hanging fruit; access to information and developing skills for information literacy are an essential part of my current passion and profession and many of the initial few sources are already familiar favorites. Bertot, Becker, and others in this initial literature review have long espoused the fundamental role public and other libraries have played, and continue to play, in the provision of this essential tap of information. The American Library Association (ALA) has collected current and historical primary data on the need, use, and future goals for libraries and their role in providing access not always available in home, or other environments. Pure access is important, but as discussed by DiMaggio, et al, there are essential social and commercial elements to the Internet and the new information community that may not be ignored. 308

The technical end is also heavily researched in the literature, particularly the articles by Flickenger and Kavanaugh, et al. These works emphasize the importance of networked communities and, anecdotally, helped immensely in the solidification of my topic. Other articles from the literature, particularly those about universal and community wireless in Austin, TX, and several Canadian cities also set examples for possible replication, or partial adoption. With this project, the feasibility of ubiquitous wireless in a small, urban community will be superficially examined. The larger question, though, is perhaps best stated by Middleton in the title of his article, " Approaching digital equity: Is wifi the new leveler?" Newtown's questions and challenges are more specific than this overarching concept, but this issue is still central to my examination of fomenting community and urban renewal using the social and commercial aspects of pervasive wireless access to information. The final elements of this literature review are the less scholarly, but no less vital, Internet and human sources utilized for this project. The history of the people, the place, and the current state of redevelopment in Newtown are particularly integral to this potential improvement to the town's electronic backbone. Without their stories, opinions, and ideas, not to mention their potential efforts and collaborative business and community labors, this type of proposal is doomed from the start. From this writer's brief experience with the people and the place, there is more optimism and hope than pessimism and surrender. Among the community leaders and spokespersons, there is a strong willingness to plan for the future. Existing Community Wireless Efforts To begin this journey, it’s first necessary to look at the existing models that demonstrate social and commercial applications (or at least attempts and investigations) into community wireless projects. The review of the literature brought forth two particular geographic locations, as well as a few specific researchers, that are forging the pathway for this type of research. A great number of resources and authors will be discussed, but the other part to the stat of this examination is a brief summary of the work of Alison Powell in England and Canada, as well as the work of Martha Fuentes-Bautista and Nobuya Inagaki in Austin TX. Following a short review of these possible models, other aspects fall easily into the discussion.

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Powell has written a number of works on the subject of public and community Wi-Fi, but her 2008 piece in the journal Information, Communication, and Society brings together many of the important concepts necessary for the Newtown environment. More specific information on this area is not yet available, but Powell’s work charts the path of community Wi-Fi in Montreal from its early days of novelty to the consideration of its fundamental social and political significance (2008, p. 1069). In this work, she also discusses the overlaps, as members of the community come to realize the importance of a tool like public wireless access in a number of their own spheres, or activities (2009, p.1070). With little existing infrastructure limiting development and continually reducing investment costs, there is opportunity for public and private partnership. Other researchers, such as Kavanaugh, et al, have written earlier articles on this element of democratic participation through technology infrastructure, especially due to the power of this medium to the ease the collection of information necessary for effective participation (2005, p. 11). The Montreal and Austin examples take it to a more comprehensive ideal, including the economic, social, and political aspects. In the case of Fuentes-Bautista and Inagaki, a story similar to that of our Canadian researchers begins to emerge. This piece delves heavily into the political mandates for increased access, referencing calls by the Bush administration for “connectivity at restaurants, airports, and other public spaces as one of the strategies to reach universal broadband service by the year 2007” (2006, p. 407). With these authors, as well as others in the literature, we see an imaged shift from the Internet as luxury, to the Internet as public utility. Newtown has the opportunity to be a new model in this fashion. Another important question, elegantly posed by Sansui and Palen, is “How do we think about the relationship between the owner of the coffee shop/Wi-Fi space and the coffee ship patron/Wi-Fi user?” (2008, p. 260). These authors also discuss important issues of virtual barriers, equity in volume and type of use, and other possible hot-button issues (Sansui and Palen, 2008, p. 260-1). Another opportunity afforded by this new virtual layer of space is the new relationships between the people and these modified places (Sansui and Palen, 2008, p. 262). Newtown has the chance to transform parks, community centers, and other public and meeting spaces into areas supporting numerous and concurrent types of activities.

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The Newtown, Sarasota Redevelopment Project Newtown is a place with strong history and motivated leadership, but one that also demonstrates the tragic effect of general and specific economic downturn. On online profile of Newtown from City-Data.com shows that the demographics of this town are quite different from the surrounding areas, with a considerably higher percentage of minority residents and a lower average per capita income (http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Newtown-SarasotaFL.html). Much of this writer’s impression of Newtown’s present and past comes from observation and the oral histories provided by community residents and leaders. Despite the social and economic barriers, this is a proud and improving community thanks to the efforts of Sarasota County government and local town leadership. Crime and other undesirable social factors are impediments to overall economic redevelopment, but these problems have symbiotic remedies. It’s possible that public Wi-Fi has great potential playing a role in the spread of sustainable and equitable access to information, as well as providing external benefits to businesses, tourists, and new uses of social and other spaces. Community wireless has the potential to influence the actions and development of residents and new businesses. This data online show a median income of $21,221 for Newtown, almost half the $39,458 figure quoted for Sarasota County in 2008. These financial hurdles are not impossible obstacles, but the route to possible financing for community wireless will clearly require personal, business, and other sources of funding. This document also provides other general facts, such as a population of 5,762 in a 1.179 square mile area (http://www.citydata.com/neighborhood/Newtown-Sarasota-FL.html). Not huge numbers, but far from prohibitive population and land specifications to create a resource base for this type of infrastructure. State and County Quickfacts, available online from the U.S. Census Bureau at http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/12115.html, helps to further display the economic gaps evident when comparing Newtown with the rest of Sarasota County. Sarasota in general 311

demonstrates lower rates of female and minority business ownership than the averages for the state of Florida and there are no available data for Black-owned firms in this area. The lack of information is another hurdle, but where there is a dearth of existing infrastructure, there’s always the chance to start with the newest and most innovative thoughts and technologies. This project can’t be pioneered on hope, but the demographic and fiscal realities do open up a world of possible grant and research options. Another integral resource in the feasibility of this project is the synergy of this project with the existing Newtown Community Redevelopment planning and timetables. Also available online is a document titled, “Newtown Community Redevelopment Area: Narrative and Chronology” (http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA.pdf). This document sets forth many of the social, political, and statutory goals and motivations for this project and any hope for the effective installation and use of public Wi-Fi technologies will need to dovetail with this plan. Anecdotally, I can say that the redevelopment pioneers with whom I have met and the energy I have witnessed encourage the belief that this and other documents created by these community leaders will serve as strong assets. The participation of government and business will be another requirement, but the community is ready to accept new and emerging technologies. Further review of this document demonstrates an intense focus on economic rebirth, as well as a strong desire to curb crime and blighted areas. The previous examples from Austin and Montreal show some hope for the use of public spaces by new and different parts of the population. In addition to students, residents, and visitors, business will, hopefully, contribute to this new local and social network, if only for their own financial gain. In the forthcoming section on technology, some general costs will be discussed, but the rapid reduction in price provides more room for optimism. The Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan – 2020 is a document that will also help to guide the possible benefits to the community in developing a public Wi-Fi culture and infrastructure. This document divides the goals into eight major sections: Administrative Policy; Economic Development; Housing; Land Use; Transportation; Community Health, Safety, and

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Welfare; Infrastructure; and Urban Design/Parks. The advent of public wireless can be of immense benefit to many of these goals and their related objectives.

Summary of Current Wireless Environment Internet access has changed much in the recent years, with drastic increases in availability coupled with reduction in costs and technology requirements. Much has been written on the new era of sustainable computing and cheaper smart phones and netbooks are putting the power of information access into the hands of more and more citizens. There will be more on the social and political ramifications of this facet later, but the economic power and application in the Newtown environment are the primary focus of this section. As discussed in other elements of this paper, the Internet is increasingly available in U.S. households of all income levels, as well as more and more public and community spaces. In 2005, researchers estimated around 20% of Internet subscribers to be on high-speed systems, at an average cost of $42.36 (Savage and Waldman, p. 615). In the years following the publication of this article, “dial-up” Internet access has largely disappeared, especially in densely populated areas. With the surrounding areas being relatively affluent, contact with one major cable and Internet provider revealed the availability of high-speed access in the Newtown area, but the cost may still be prohibitive for many residents. A look at table 1119 of the Statistical Abstract of the United States (attached hereto as Appendix “A”) shows that 71% of all U.S. residents use the Internet each day at some location (work, home, etc.), with 61.7% having access in their homes. In Florida, use in all locations is slightly lower than the national average, at 69.7%. A higher than average percentage of Floridians has home and broadband access, though, with figures of 64.8% and 53.2%, respectively. These slight gaps are further opportunities for Newtown to emerge as a new model for Internet use. Precise numbers of residential subscribers to home internet access was not available from commercial vendors, but libraries, community leaders, and other elements of the public and private sectors can mobilize to lead the charge for subsidized and ubiquitous Wi-Fi access. 313

Regardless of the technological future of Newtown, public libraries and other free Internet access points will continue play an important role in the lives of many U.S. residents. The Newtown area does have library Internet facilities in close proximity to the downtown area, along with several public school and university campuses. If government were to serve as a potential partner in the facilitation of Wi-Fi, the libraries could serve as informational, technological, and architectural hubs for the further development of a community network. As established destinations of objective and helpful information, the libraries could easily expand this role to assist with such a project, even working with new and interested businesses and local residents to promote equity in opportunity and provision of these new services. Software is available that allows residential users to share their connections, creating a true community web (Ananthaswamy, 2008, p. 24). With such concentrated a downtown area, a few key private and governmental people could get a trial system up and running in no time. This could be used to help test the interest and feasibility of larger scale efforts in the central Newtown area. The density of population may serve as an advantage lost on much larger and more anonymous cities. The close-knit nature of this community would greatly benefit the spread of participation in this model of residential collaborative wireless.

Social Aspects of the New Information Age The first goal of the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan – 2020 is to establish the administrative and financial tools to meet all the other goals and objectives for this process of rejuvenation. Part of this required efficient and equitably transmission of new information, opportunity, and development. To spread the fire of success, public Wi-Fi could again play an active role. Articles throughout the literature have debated the Internet’s ability to affect, positively or negatively, general inequality by reducing the cost of information (DiMaggio, et al, 2001, p. 310). These and other authors intimated that there would remain heavy barriers, but the decrease in the cost of information coupled with exponential increases in free technology tools has increased equity in information access. A small business can market to and interact with and a much bigger local and virtual community with a minimum of investment and knowledge. 314

This is not to say that everything is easier in the age of information overload. Many still live without any type of home Internet availability and a good portion of these people rely on public libraries for information access. With so many government agencies and services accessible only via online accounts, this makes access more and more a need than a privilege. According to a 2007 study by Bertot, McClure, and Jaeger, libraries are the only provider of free Internet access in 73.1% of measure areas (2008, p. 28). Public libraries are already vested in the role of providing access and points for the community to gather. There’s no reason these hubs cannot also partner with other groups and individuals to provide the information, as well as the means to access the necessary resources to procure them. The scale of current Wi-Fi projects in many smaller towns and cities also lends encouragement to the social and tightly-knit Newtown community. Much as the Internet bridges people over distance, it could be utilized as a tool to further connect the already bound Newtown community. One interesting example of small scale beginnings is cited by Sandvig in a 2004 article. In this work, he describes the “Warchalking” activity of a London resident who, in 2002, physically marked various free Wi-Fi spots throughout the city using chalk (p. 585). As equity of information access becomes more necessary, even in smaller and less-developed areas like Newtown, these inexpensive and introductory steps toward a cohesive Wi-Fi net are extremely important. As noted in the same article, these actions lead to more formal efforts, such as mapping and disseminating other free Wi-Fi sources (Sandvig, 2004, p. 586-587).

Economic and Development Benefits of Pervasive Wireless Access In a much broader sense, the government is always subsidizing new technologies. The Internet infrastructure is no different, and an excellent 2006 article by Downes and Greenstein summarizes the privatization and commercialization of the Internet during the last 30 years (2007, p. 3). Their particular research tracks the spread of commercial Internet Service Providers (ISPs), as well as the availability and pricing of Internet services in different population areas and densities (Downes and Greenstein, 2007, p. 3). This raises an important initial question: are there technology firms in Newtown, or the surrounding area, that might be amenable to 315

involvement in a public Wi-Fi project? A local company would benefit directly from new businesses coming into the region, but is there any real likelihood of using their capital to spur growth in the region? According to the most recent Statistical Abstract of the United States, there were just over 19,000 ISPs in 2007 (Table 1114). Using the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes (518111 and 5182) for commercial ISPs, a search of the national business directory database ReferenceUSA reveals some relevant information about the current environment. The entire Sarasota County region shows 64 companies providing Internet service and for the more specific Newtown zip code of 34234, the following four companies are listed: ZIP State Code 34234 34234 34234 34234

Address 1748 Independence Blvd 4405 Independence Ct 3333 N Tamiami Trl # 110 1877 Northgate Blvd

City

Company Name Hamel Tronics I KELA Co Performance Copying & Printing Wild Wild East

Sarasota FL Sarasota FL Sarasota FL Sarasota FL

*ReferenceUSA database, accessed November 1, 2010 All of these being smaller and private firms, there is little additional information available. The lack of business available for recruitment in this project is a challenge, but expanding the search to ISPs in Sarasota County would provide more targets for collaboration and possible investment. Downes and Greestein sum up many of Newtown’s realities with the following quote: Our estimates indicate that the places that lacked access had features that drove up cost, such as low density, lack of major highway or railway for carry backbone, and the absence of investments in other IT infrastructure that supported a labor market for technical talent. (2007, p. 23).

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Many of these are elements that will constrain the infrastructure development for a potential public Wi-Fi endeavor, but there are nearby elements that can help overcome these limitations. Growth of educational opportunities, both physical and virtual, will train a new generation of technology workers, increasing the possibility of entrepreneurial interest and investment. Newtown may lack an extremely affluent, or dense populous, but the decreasing costs associated with these technologies and the increasing general awareness of Wi-Fi, cellular, and other virtual information tools and resources can contribute to successful implementation. Businesses could also combine efforts for mutual benefit and economies of scale by integrating their spheres of coverage. Economic activity is generally good for all local businesses, especially for those businesses that are complimentary in nature. If one or two businesses begin the trend, a Wi-Fi mesh, as described in a 2008 article by Szabo, Farkas, and Horvath, can be cooperatively created, much as the individual residents might combine their wireless access nodes (p. 149). Aggregating these efforts would be a possible secondary step, which could then be marketed to consumers, other potential businesses and industry, as well as residents and visitors to the area.

Partial Conclusions and Proposals for Future Efforts With so many uncertainties and vague measures, it’s difficult to provide immediate and accurate estimates on the probability of the success for this type of undertaking. Regardless, it’s the sincere hope of this author that serious consideration is given to this, or related community technology projects. As demonstrated by the literature, these types of projects are often difficult to manage, but with little existing and expensive technology barriers to overcome, Newtown may actually be poised to succeed where others have failed to gain traction. This type of neighborhood investment requires considerable capital, but can quickly pay its own way with new jobs, better and more pervasive access to information, and the possibility of more cohesive economic development. A primary goal of the Newtown Comprehensive Redevelopment Plan – 2020 is to develop a system to exchange information and promote the financial and other goals of its residents. 317

With this benchmark in mind, it seems clear that the installation of free and public wireless and broadband access could be used to facilitate, as well as meet, some of the necessary objectives. Additional monies would be a certain need, but some existing funds could be routed to supplement the initial investment, especially if the new system provided advances and replacements for current tools and services. Funds for communication hardware and software used by non-emergency workers, for example, could be added to the pool needed for initial or continued investment. As discussed by pioneering examples in Austin and other cities worldwide, there is symbiotic benefit when there is the “presence of a critical mass of early adopters and tech-savvy users” (Fuentes-Bautista and Inagaki, 2006, p. 414). Newtown may not be the ideal situation, with a shortage of technology firms and leaders compared to Austin, or Montreal, but there are nearby resources, including those from the academic and political environments. There exists a leadership with a solid understanding of the community and the ability of this system to enhance social, business, and other interactions. With this combination, as well as additional investments and a bit of luck, there’s opportunity for success in developing public Wi-Fi in some scale for Newtown. The next steps are difficult, but rather obvious; gauge community interest, the attention and capital availability of local businesses, and the change of involvement by local government. The last of these three important pillars is likely the best place to start, considering the financial and social involvement currently exhibited by the community leaders and other interested officials. More and more people of all types and education levels are using the Internet and WiFi, but the fact that most users are college graduates from the ages of 25 to 34 need not be a barrier (Powell, 2008, p. 1081). With the ease and experience now available in selecting the hardware components, you no longer will require advanced computer skills to access next generation computing. Local schools and libraries also have much to offer, as well as the prospect of graduate or faculty research attention. There are several institutions of higher education in the surrounding area that could be approached to discuss research possibilities. In accordance with government and FCC regulations, libraries and other educational institutions get reduced pricing on Internet 318

access, enhancing their selection as an early partner in a possible wireless endeavor. Bertot, et al, in their 2008 publication, note that 54.2% of public libraries already provide wireless Internet connectivity, with 17.4% more planning on implementing such services within one year (p. 292). This type of activity indicates an interest, as well as a willingness by libraries to help lead the way. Additionally, many libraries are firm believers in imitation as a form of flattery; and many more are perfectly happy to share successes and failures, particularly if it rewards them with positive recognition. By cooperating with SCAT for transit, the libraries and schools for additional learning and hardware centers, and the leaders most involved with the economic redevelopment, goals for Wi-Fi accessibility may be accomplished more completely and efficiently. Establishing public Wi-Fi in Newtown is ambitious, but completing this goal would directly benefit all other future organizational efforts. This new open-access model may additionally be used to market services, attract visitors, and gather the community. The technology costs are difficult to estimate, but the potential benefits for Newtown’s emergence and economic recovery are great.

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References Ananthaswamy, A. (2008). Wi-fi “co-op” could spell internet for all. The New Scientist, 197(2641), 24-24. doi: 10.1016/S0262-4079(08)60294-8 Bertot, J. C., Clark, L., Davis, D., & McClure, C. R. (2008). Libraries connect communities : Public library funding & technology access study, 2007-2008. Chicago: American Library Association. DiMaggio, P., Hargittai, E., Neuman, W. R., & Robinson, J. P. (2001). Social implications of the internet. Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 307-336. Downes, T., & Greenstein, S. (2007). Understanding why universal service obligations may be unnecessary: The private development of local internet access markets. Journal of Urban Economics, 62(1), 2-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jue.2006.10.004 Flickenger, R. (2002). Building wireless community networks (1st ed.). Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. Fuentes-Bautista, M., & Inagaki, N. (2006). Reconfiguring public internet access in Austin, TX: Wi-fi's promise and broadband divides. Government Information Quarterly, 23(3-4), 404434. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2006.07.013 InfoUSA. ReferenceUSA [electronic resource]. Omaha, NE: InfoUSA Inc. Retrieved from License agreement available:; https://web.lib.usf.edu/licenses/infoUSA; http://reference.infousa.com Kavanaugh, A., Carroll, J. M., Rosson, M. B., Reese, D. D., & Zin, T. T. (2005). Participating in civil society: The case of networked communities. Interacting with Computers, 17(1), 9-33. doi: 10.1016/j.intcom.2004.10.006 Lane, G. (2003). Urban tapestries: Wireless networking, public authoring and social knowledge. Springer London. doi:10.1007/s00779-003-0229-8 Middleton, K. L. (2010). Approaching digital equity: Is wi-fi the new leveler? Information Technology People, 23(1), 4. Newtown community redevelopment area narrative and chronology. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://www.sarasotagov.com/newtown/Newtown_CRA.pdf Newtown comprehensive redevelopment plan - 2020 Newtown neighborhood in Sarasota, Florida (FL), 34234 detailed profile. (2010). Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Newtown-SarasotaFL.html 320

Powell, A. (2008). WIFI publics: Producing community and technology. Information, Communication Society, 11(8), 1068. Sandvig, C. (2004). An initial assessment of cooperative action in wi-fi networking. Telecommunications Policy, 28(7-8), 579-602. doi: 10.1016/j.telpol.2004.05.006 Sanusi, A., & Palen, L. (2008). Of coffee shops and parking lots: Considering matters of space and place in the use of public wi-fi. Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing, 17(2), 257-273. doi:10.1007/s10606-007-9062-3 Sarasota county libraries. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://suncat.co.sarasota.fl.us/ Savage, S. J., & Waldman, D. (2005). Broadband internet access, awareness, and use: Analysis of United States household data. Telecommunications Policy, 29(8), 615-633. doi: 10.1016/j.telpol.2005.06.001 SCAT: Sarasota county area transit. Retrieved October 15, 2010, from http://www.scgov.net/SCAT/ Szabó, C. (2008). Motivations, design and business models of wireless community networks. Mobile Networks and Applications, 13(1), 147. United States Bureau of the Census. Statistical abstract of the United States. Retrieved November 1, 2010 from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/ United States Census Bureau. State & county QuickFacts: Sarasota County, Florida. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/12/12115.html

Appendix “A”

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