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Shannan Rael Religion 1107 Section 206

Worksheet #1

I.A greater reality/ultimate reality, divine; That which lies beyond the world we perceived with our five senses Religion; Organized institution that believe that a greater reality which lies beyond what we can see, engaged in rituals, traditions and scripture to support this belief. Spirituality; Non organized institutions, or a personal inner life if you will , of prayer and meditation which also supports the belief in a greater reality.

II. Materialistic Perspective: Religion is invented and imagined by humans and can be found in every culture, also referred to as supernatural. Functional Perspective: Religion is useful and can offer stability and organized structure. Can improve life and help recovery from illness. Belief Perspective: Ultimate reality exists and people across time and space concur that there is something greater despite not being able to see it.

III. Bowker was a functional theorist and author of "Is God a Virus". He believed that religion was found universally because it protects gene replication and nurturing of children. He believed that religion may also be inherited in human genes. Dali Lama was also a functionalist and believed that if humanity is to survive happiness and inner balance is crucial. He believed that meditation could create those states. Mindfulness Meditation is the term for this. Durkheim was a functionalist and a sociologist prominent from 1858 to 1917. He believed that religion is a glue that held society together. He also believed that it created social values such as love, compassion

and discipline over our natural desires and emotions. Gandhi was a functionalist who believed religion could serve as a way to transform people, as he was formed from a shy child to a powerful leader. Marx was a materialistic philosopher known from 1818 to 1853. He believed that religion falsely pacifies people who then fall victim themselves to tools of oppression. He also wrote Communist Manifesto. Freud was a materialistic psychoanalyst from 1856 - 1938 who believed that religious belief was an illusion created by humans infantile insecurities and neurotic guilt. He also believed that religion mimics mental illness. He was an extremist. C.Jung had a belief perspective which perceived humanity as a whole and with a collective unconscious or a global psychic inheritance of archetypal symbols, from which geographically separated cultures have drawn. Feuerbach was a materialistic philophsopher during 1804 - 1872. He believed that deities were imagined supremes worshiped for love, wisdom and power. He furthered that it made one forget they have that power within themselves, creating a belief of humans being sinful. Fromm was also a materialistic who believed that religion served as a stable frame of reference that humans need.

IV. Transcendent: Exceeding usual limits existing outside the mutual universe. An example would be Judeo-Christian Islamic traditions tend to believe in the sacred as transcendent. Immanent: Present in the visible world. An example would be the Vatican. Dualism: A view of human beings as two irreducible elements (matter and spirit). An example would be one entering into the awareness of the eternal reality. Monism: The view of reality being one unitary organic whole with no independent parts. An example is beneath the multiplicity of apparent forms there is one underlying substance. Polytheism: The belief or worship on more than one god. An example would be Hinduism or Buddhism. Monotheism: The belief that there is but only one god. An example would be the concept of God as an old man with a beard who rules the

world from the sky. Animism: A belief that the existence of spirits separable from the body. An example would be folk or tribal religion. Agnosticism: The belief that one is not committed to believing in either the existence or non existence of God. An example would be religious skepticism stemming from the inability to neither prove or disprove the existence of a greater reality. Atheism: An immovable belief that there is no deity. An example would be rejection of theistic beliefs because there is no concrete proof that God exists. Taboo/Kapu: Forbidden or profane to use because are what be held to supernatural powers. The idea of non human spirits can be thought of as Taboo. Shaman/Priest: A shaman is a man or woman that has undergone spiritual ordeals and can communicate with spirit worlds to help people. A Priest is authorized to perform the sacred rites of a religion especially as a mediatory agent between humans and God. An example would be a shaman heals by spraying water onto a girl, a priest hears a confession and absolves one of their sins. Totem: One that serves as a revered symbol. An example would be Buddha. Vision Quest: A solitary vigil to seek spiritual guidance about ones mission in life. An example would be before undertaking the sacred mission of the sun dance, adults will make a vision quest. Life Cycle Ceremonies: Rituals honoring major points in the human life cycle such as birth, naming puberty, marriage and birth. An example would be a Hopi baby being presented at dawn to the rays of the Father Sun at twenty days old and named. Rites of Passage: A ritual associated with a change in status. An example is an adolescent boy is given duties to signify his ascent to manhood. Sacred time and Sacred space: Ritual dramas about the beginnings and sacred history of the people engaged in the ritual. People coming together in a sweat lodge to pray. Oral religions: Religions that have no scripture. Religious beliefs and traditions are passed down orally. An example is in most cases native cultures have no scripture keeping the indigenous sacred ways dynamic and flexible.

Collective Approach: Various religious groups come together for a common goal. An example would be french socialist Durkheim refers to mental attitudes performed. Another is collective rituals to support the group, such as, asking for a good harvest. Sacrifice: An offering to the spirits. An example is the Dahomey tradition of Vodou. Sacred: Dedicated or set apart for the service of worship or a deity. An example is some sacred sites such as the mountain Erde where Buryats gather to worship the spirit of the Earth. Profane: Wordly secular, as opposed to scared. An example would be ordinary day to day activities. Ritual: A ritual is a worship action that is predictable and is repeated. An example would be the recitation of prayer in mass. Symbol: Imaged borrowed from the material world that are similar to ineffable spiritual experience. An example would be Jesus on the cross as a symbol of sacrifice to Christians. Sign: Something material or external that stands for or signifies something special. An example would be a weeping statues thought of as a sign. Ancestors: Those that have come before us. An example would be many native religions believe that our ancestors are guiding them in life. Epic: Extended beyond the ordinary. An example is when something is difficult to comprehend. Myth: A symbolic story expressing ideas about the reality or spiritual history. An example is teaching story, "Descendants of the Eagle" is a myth. Creationism: Belief that all life was created by God. An example is how it is said the world was created in 6 days.