Week 2 assignment: 12. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables: (a) equalinterval, (b) rank-order, (c) nominal, (d) ratio scale (e) continuous. (a) equal-interval: This scale has equal interval hence we can perform differences but does not have an absolute zero so we cannot perform division on these variables. These satisfaction levels of visitors (on Likert scale) on a scale of 1 to 5 this scale lies between rank order and ratio scale. (b) rank-order: These variables are in the next stage from the nominal. We can arrange them in rank order but cannot do any other statistical operation such as difference, multiplication or division. The education level: elementary school, high school, some college, and college graduate. (c) Nominal: We cannot perform any static operations on these variables. Gender: Male & Female (d) ratio scale: This scale has an absolute zero and we can perform all possible statistical operations on these variables. Like addition, difference, multiplication and division. Example: Temperature in Kelvin or age (e) continuous: These variables have all possible values within the given range. For example weight or age. We can measure age on all possible points on the number line say between 0 to 100 years. 15. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon: 30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20, 24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40 Make (a) a frequency table and (b) a histogram, then (c) describe the general shape of the distribution.

2 The lowest value is 15 and highest value is 52. thus we make 7 classes with CI of 6 Frequency Table CI 12-17 18-23 24-29 30-35 36-41 42-47 48-53 Total Frequency 1 2 3 16 11 3 2 38 Histogram Speed of Cars 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 12-17 18-23 24-29 30-35 Class Interval 36-41 42-47 48-53 Frequency .

(b) Approximately rectangular: In this each value the variable can take has an equal probability. while the actual differences are not that much.S: Scroll down for the newspaper.3 19 Give an example of something having these distribution shapes: (a) bimodal. The graph is misleading as Y axis is chosen to overemphasis the differences. . A large number of students will have low scores with few exceptional students scoring high or even 100%. or distribution of outcome of a dice throw. (Please see the Excel graph in the second attachment for more details). Do not use an example given in this book or in class. 20. and (c) positively skewed. (a) Bimodal: Distribution of height of people in a company (with both males and females . (c) Positively skewed: Marks obtained in a very tough stats exams. (b) approximately rectangular. Distribution of heads and tails in a large numbers of coin tosses.males and females will have one mode each creating bi-modal distribution). P. Find an example in a newspaper or magazine of a graph that misleads by failing to use equal interval sizes or by exaggerating proportion.

4 .

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