Flight Instructor Manual

Single-Engine Procedures
GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:       

F-13/R-3

A maximum of one simulated system emergency is allowed below 2,000’ AGL. To simulate engine failure, pull the throttle control to idle. Do not pull the mixture control to idle cutoff or turn the fuel shutoff valve off. During off-airport simulated engine failures, flight should not be continued below 500’ AGL. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed. When taking off, maintain V Y through 500’ AGL. Checklists must be used on each and every flight. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but no green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated, the PIC should contact HAI dispatch while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land, the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway, shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 152
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-235 108 BHP @ 2550 RPM Fuel capacity: 26 gal. total/24.5 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 35 KIAS – 40 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 85 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 149 KIAS – 54 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 61 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 104 KIAS @ 1,670 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 1,500 lbs. – 93 KIAS @ 1,350 lbs. – 70 KIAS (cruise climb) – 60 KIAS (maximum glide)

C152-1/R-3

Pitch for V Y (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. . Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. At V R (50 KIAS). increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks           C152-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. As the takeoff roll begins. With significant surface wind. Listen for engine irregularities. Perform HITTS checklist. Call for and perform climb checklist. “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases.

increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. . Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. As airspeed increases. At V R (50 KIAS). If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). With significant surface wind. Perform HITTS checklist. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. “Airspeed alive. As the takeoff roll begins. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Call for and perform climb checklist. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Listen for engine irregularities. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions.” As airspeed increases. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Apply and hold brakes. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Release brakes.

As the takeoff roll begins. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (54 KIAS) and begin climbout. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. As airspeed increases. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. .” As airspeed increases. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. “Airspeed alive. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Perform HITTS checklist. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). Listen for engine irregularities. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Call for and perform climb checklist. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. With significant surface wind. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL.

Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. beginning level-off”). Coordinate aircraft with rudder. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Trim aircraft for level flight. “500 feet to go. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. If still on. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”).       Pitch for V CC (70 KIAS) and trim aircraft. . turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities.g. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.” “100’ prior to altitude. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”).Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C152-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Set the pitch for a level attitude.

To recover. Turn carburetor heat on. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. add full power. At target airspeed (50 KIAS unless specified). turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C152-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. heading  10º. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. increase power to 2000 RPM. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control.” Pick outside visual reference point. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. . add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. altitude  100 feet. Once reaching cruise airspeed. Below V FE (85 KIAS).

altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.” Pick outside visual reference point. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. reduce power to 2100 RPM.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude.              C152-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. and rollout on the same entry heading. angle of bank. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Control bank angle with ailerons. Call for and perform cruise checklist. . Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. altitude  100 feet. airspeed. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. 50º commercial). During rollout. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Announce heading.

Turn carburetor heat off. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C152-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. If a turning stall is to be performed. Turn carburetor heat on. Set mixture full rich. When aircraft stalls. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Pitch for level attitude. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder.                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. At target airspeed (V R . Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (54 KIAS). 50 KIAS unless specified). decrease power to idle. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. once reaching cruise airspeed. initiate 500 fpm descent. Pitch for level flight and. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. . until fully retracted. Below V FE (85 KIAS). confirming positive rate of climb each time. increase power to full.” Pick outside visual reference point. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Turn carburetor heat on. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. once reaching cruise airspeed.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. If a turning stall is to be performed. increase power to full. 50 KIAS unless specified). Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. . When aircraft stalls.                C152-9/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. At target airspeed (V R . reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.” Pick outside visual reference point. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS). Pitch for level flight and. Turn carburetor heat off. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Set mixture full rich.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. decrease pitch attitude.

Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. heading and airspeed. call out new target altitude. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. pitch level. Stalls. without outside visual reference. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. heading  10º (in straight flight). pitch level.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C152-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers.e. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. Maintain altitude  100’.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. wings level. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Turns should be performed in both directions. With constant rate. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. wings level.   . With constant airspeed.

Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. If entering traffic pattern. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Call for and perform descent checklist. . Review all airport information.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C152-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Set carburetor heat ON. Set radios to tower or CTAF. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Trim aircraft.          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location.

Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. When desired altitude is reached. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. . Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Lower upwind wing into wind. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. When desired altitude is reached. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Lower upwind wing into wind.        C152-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed.

” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set mixture full rich. Maintain altitude  100 feet. During maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Pick outside visual reference point. Set mixture full rich. Pick outside visual reference.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. call for and perform cruise checklist. Determine wind direction. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C152-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Determine wind direction. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. After completing one full circle. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. call for and perform cruise checklist. .

           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. During maneuver. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C152-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. call for and perform cruise checklist. wings level. . perpendicular to reference line. Set mixture full rich. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. Determine wind direction. Maintain altitude  100 feet.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Plan to enter the turn downwind. After completing at least one full S-turn. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it.

Communicate emergency. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. reduce throttle to idle. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. For training purposes. Perform verbal passenger briefing.       . If time and altitude permit. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. location. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. nature of emergency and number on board. including engine restart.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. C152-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. Pitch airspeed for 60 KIAS (best glide). pull the throttle control to idle. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight.       To simulate an engine failure. continue with the following procedures. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.

Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. nature of emergency and number on board. If time and altitude permit. For training purposes. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Pitch for a climb at V x .       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. location. If using flaps. . (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. continue with the following procedures. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Call for and perform climb checklist. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Select best landing site and turn towards it. If time and altitude permit.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. If desired. After verifying a positive rate of climb.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Pitch for descent airspeed of 85 KIAS. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. including engine restart. pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. Communicate emergency. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. Perform verbal passenger briefing. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. C152-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Turn carburetor heat off.

TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Call for and perform before landing checklist. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. including position and intentions. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. If landing advisory is not available. if any. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Once landing runway is determined. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C152-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. . Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. if any. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory.

 Call for and perform before landing checklist. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Use pitch for airspeed control. then the nosewheel.  Begin descent. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS).  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C152-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. set flaps to 10°.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Downwind leg.  Touch down on main wheels first. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS and trim aircraft. .  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS. power for altitude control.  Trim aircraft. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. correcting for wind as necessary.  Decrease power to idle and begin flare. then the downwind wheel. If landing in a crosswind.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.

perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. . set flaps to 10°. pitch for 75 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. then gently lower nosewheel to the ground.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. decrease power to idle and begin flare. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Begin descent. Downwind leg. C152-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Touch down on main wheels first. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Pitch for descent at 54 KIAS and trim aircraft. power for altitude control. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Use pitch for airspeed control. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. apply firm but even braking.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS).

 Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare. .  Use pitch for airspeed control.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS). Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. set flaps to 10°. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.  Begin descent.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. power for altitude control. C152-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS (use 54 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). Downwind leg.  Touch down on main wheels first.

total/50 usable (long range) Oil capacity: 7 qts.000 feet – 99 KIAS @ 2400 lbs. – 92 KIAS @ 2000 lbs. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 65 KIAS (maximum glide) C172P-1/R-3 . (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 33 KIAS – 44 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° – 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 127 KIAS – 158 KIAS – 60 KIAS @ Sea level – 65 KIAS @ 10.Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172P SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-320 160 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 43 gal. total/40 usable (standard) or 54 gal. – 82 KIAS @ 1600 lbs.000 feet – 76 KIAS @ Sea level – 71 KIAS @ 10.

Listen for engine irregularities. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Call for and perform climb checklist. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline.           C172P-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. “Airspeed alive. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Pitch for V Y (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. As the takeoff roll begins. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway.” As airspeed increases. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Perform HITTS checklist. With significant surface wind.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At V R (55 KIAS). . The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline.

At V R (55 KIAS). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and trim aircraft. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. “Airspeed alive. . Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Apply and hold brakes. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway.” As airspeed increases. Release brakes. As the takeoff roll begins. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. As airspeed increases. With significant surface wind. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Listen for engine irregularities. Call for and perform climb checklist. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Coordinate using rudder and aileron.

       Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. With significant surface wind. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Call for and perform climb checklist. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. “Airspeed alive. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (60 KIAS) and begin climbout. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Listen for engine irregularities. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Perform HITTS checklist.” As airspeed increases.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. As airspeed increases. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. As the takeoff roll begins. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. .

“500 feet to go. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Coordinate aircraft with rudder. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight.       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. beginning level-off”). Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.” “100’ prior to altitude. If still on. . Call for and perform cruise checklist. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Set the pitch for a level attitude. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Trim aircraft for level flight.g.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172P-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling.

altitude  100 feet. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.” Pick outside visual reference point. . Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172P-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Call for and perform cruise checklist. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Once reaching cruise airspeed. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. To recover.               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Below V FE (110 KIAS). heading  10º. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Turn carburetor heat on. add full power. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. increase power to 2000 RPM.

” Pick outside visual reference point. During rollout. altitude  100 feet. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Control bank angle with ailerons.              C172P-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power to 2100 RPM. Announce heading. angle of bank. 50º commercial). Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. airspeed. . Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. and rollout on the same entry heading.

initiate 500 fpm descent. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (60 KIAS). once reaching cruise airspeed.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. Pitch for level attitude. If a turning stall is to be performed. decrease power to idle. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder.                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Set mixture full rich. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. until fully retracted. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. 55 KIAS unless specified). When aircraft stalls.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172P-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. confirming positive rate of climb each time. increase power to full.” Pick outside visual reference point. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. . At target airspeed (V R . Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Turn carburetor heat off. Pitch for level flight and. Below V FE (110 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Turn carburetor heat on.

When aircraft stalls. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Pitch for V X (60 KIAS).” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Pitch for level flight and. At target airspeed (V R . If a turning stall is to be performed. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set mixture full rich. decrease pitch attitude. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.” Pick outside visual reference point. . 55 KIAS unless specified). Turn carburetor heat off. increase power to full. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Turn carburetor heat on. once reaching cruise airspeed.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172P-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases.                Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up.

Stalls. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. heading  10º (in straight flight). Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172P-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. wings level.e. Turns should be performed in both directions. Call for and perform cruise checklist.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. wings level. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. With constant airspeed. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. Maintain altitude  100’. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. call out new target altitude. without outside visual reference.   . pitch level. With constant rate. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. heading and airspeed. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. pitch level.

plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Trim aircraft. Set carburetor heat ON. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Call for and perform descent checklist. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Set radios to tower or CTAF. .          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172P-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Review all airport information. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). If entering traffic pattern.

although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind. When desired altitude is reached. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline.        C172P-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. When desired altitude is reached. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. . Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Lower upwind wing into wind.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed.

          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Set mixture full rich.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. During maneuver. Determine wind direction. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set mixture full rich. .” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Pick outside visual reference. Pick outside visual reference point.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172P-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Maintain altitude  100 feet. After completing one full circle. Determine wind direction.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. call for and perform cruise checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. call for and perform cruise checklist. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius.

Set mixture full rich. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. perpendicular to reference line. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172P-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. . Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. After completing at least one full S-turn.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Determine wind direction.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. call for and perform cruise checklist. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. wings level. Plan to enter the turn downwind. During maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet.

Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it. Communicate emergency. Pitch airspeed for 65 KIAS (best glide). To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. For training purposes.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.       . securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. location. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. If time and altitude permit. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. pull the throttle control to idle. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. nature of emergency and number on board. reduce throttle to idle.       To simulate an engine failure. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. continue with the following procedures. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. including engine restart. C172P-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory.

Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. location. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted. Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS. For training purposes. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Turn carburetor heat off. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. C172P-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Call for and perform climb checklist. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. After verifying a positive rate of climb. . If time and altitude permit. If using flaps. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. Select best landing site and turn towards it. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. nature of emergency and number on board.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. including engine restart.       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. If desired.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Communicate emergency. continue with the following procedures.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. If time and altitude permit. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pitch for a climb at V x .

If landing advisory is not available. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. including position and intentions. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. . Call for and perform before landing checklist.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172P-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. if any. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. if any. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Once landing runway is determined. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns.

then the nosewheel.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. .  Begin descent. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. correcting for wind as necessary.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS).  Call for and perform before landing checklist Downwind leg.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172P-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. then the downwind wheel. power for altitude control.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Touch down on main wheels first. If landing in a crosswind. set flaps to 10°. decrease power to idle and begin flare. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.

Downwind leg. C172P-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. apply firm but even braking. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground.  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. decrease power to idle and begin flare. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. power for altitude control.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Begin descent.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS).  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. set flaps to 10°.  Touch down on main wheels first. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. .

traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground.  Use pitch for airspeed control. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). power for altitude control.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport. Downwind leg. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. . C172P-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Begin descent. set flaps to 10°.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 172S
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming IO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 56 gal. total/53 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 40 KIAS – 48 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 129 KIAS – 163 KIAS – 62 KIAS @ Sea level – 67 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 74 KIAS @ Sea level – 72 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 105 KIAS @ 2550 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 2200 lbs. – 90 KIAS @ 1900 lbs. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 68 KIAS (maximum glide)

C172S-1/R-3

Flight Instructor Manual
NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks.          

C172S-2/R-3

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Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for V Y (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

Flight Instructor Manual
SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB

C172S-3/R-3

Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Apply and hold brakes. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. Release brakes. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for 56 KIAS and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL, accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. As airspeed increases, announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

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Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport, request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay, perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.

Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. As the takeoff roll begins.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172S-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Perform HITTS checklist. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. . Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. As airspeed increases. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft.” As airspeed increases. Call for and perform climb checklist. Listen for engine irregularities. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (62 KIAS) and begin climbout. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). “Airspeed alive. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. With significant surface wind. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL.

Call for and perform cruise checklist.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172S-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. “500 feet to go. . Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Trim aircraft for level flight. beginning level-off”). Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic.” “100’ prior to altitude.g. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If still on. Set the pitch for a level attitude.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude.       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Coordinate aircraft with rudder.

To recover. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. Reduce power to 1500 RPM.” Pick outside visual reference point. increase power to 2000 RPM. . At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). add full power. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172S-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Once reaching cruise airspeed. Below V FE (110 KIAS). reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. altitude  100 feet. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. heading  10º. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases.

bank angle ± 5º (45º private. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. 50º commercial). altitude  100 feet. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading.              C172S-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. . Call for and perform cruise checklist. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A .Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Announce heading. airspeed. Control bank angle with ailerons. angle of bank. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. and rollout on the same entry heading.” Pick outside visual reference point. During rollout. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power to 2100 RPM. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron.

add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Below V FE (110 KIAS). Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (62 KIAS). Pitch for level flight and. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. If a turning stall is to be performed.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172S-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. decrease power to idle. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Reduce power to 1500 RPM.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. initiate a 500 fpm descent. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. increase power to full. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. At target airspeed (V R . . Pitch for level attitude. 55 KIAS unless specified).” Pick outside visual reference point. until fully retracted.                 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. once reaching cruise airspeed. confirming positive rate of climb each time. Set mixture full rich. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.

. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. If a turning stall is to be performed. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. At target airspeed (V R . Pitch for V X (62 KIAS). Reduce power to 1500 RPM.” Pick outside visual reference point.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172S-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. 55 KIAS unless specified). level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. When aircraft stalls. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Pitch for level flight and. Call for and perform cruise checklist. decrease pitch attitude. increase power to full.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Set mixture full rich. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. once reaching cruise airspeed.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases.

pitch level. Stalls. heading and airspeed.   . wings level. With constant airspeed. without outside visual reference. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. wings level.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172S-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). Call for and perform cruise checklist. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. heading  10º (in straight flight). Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. call out new target altitude. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. With constant rate. pitch level. Turns should be performed in both directions. Maintain altitude  100’.e.

If entering traffic pattern. Review all airport information. Trim aircraft. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Call for and perform descent checklist. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. .         Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”).Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172S-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed.

Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. . Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. When desired altitude is reached. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. Lower upwind wing into wind. When desired altitude is reached.        C172S-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline.

Determine wind direction.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172S-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Set mixture full rich. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. call for and perform cruise checklist.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Set mixture full rich. After completing one full circle.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. call for and perform cruise checklist. Pick outside visual reference. . Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pick outside visual reference point. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. During maneuver. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius.

.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172S-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. During maneuver. perpendicular to reference line. Maintain altitude  100 feet. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. Plan to enter the turn downwind. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. call for and perform cruise checklist. wings level. Set mixture full rich. Determine wind direction.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. After completing at least one full S-turn. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line.

The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Auxiliary fuel pump – On If time and altitude permit. pull the throttle control to idle. reduce throttle to idle. continue with the following procedures.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight.       . nature of emergency and number on board. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Pitch airspeed for 68 KIAS (best glide). (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. including engine restart. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist.       To simulate an engine failure. Select best landing site and turn towards it. For training purposes. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Turn fuel pump on. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Perform verbal passenger briefing. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. location. Communicate emergency. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. If time and altitude permit. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. C172S-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory.

full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. . (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. location. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. For training purposes. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes).Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. If using flaps.      Smoothly increase throttle to full power. continue with the following procedures. If time and altitude permit. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. If desired. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. After verifying a positive rate of climb. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. Call for and perform climb checklist. nature of emergency and number on board. Pitch for a climb at V x . Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. including engine restart. pitch for V X (62 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. If time and altitude permit. Communicate emergency. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. C172S-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Select best landing site and turn towards it.

If landing advisory is not available. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. . Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. including position and intentions. if any. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Call for and perform before landing checklist. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. unless otherwise instructed by ATC.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172S-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. if any. Once landing runway is determined.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern.

Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172S-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. Downwind leg. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM. then the downwind wheel.  Begin descent. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. correcting for wind as necessary. . decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured.  Touch down on main wheels first.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). power for altitude control. then the nosewheel. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft. set flaps to 10°.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. If landing in a crosswind. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.

Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground. C172S-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°.  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft. then the downwind wheel.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. If landing in a crosswind.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. power for altitude control. . perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Begin descent.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. decrease power to idle and begin flare. apply firm but even braking.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. Downwind leg. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Touch down on main wheels first. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. set flaps to 10°.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. then the nosewheel.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.

Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare. Downwind leg.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. power for altitude control. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. .  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go.  Touch down on main wheels first. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Call for and perform the before landing checklist.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport. set flaps to 10°. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll. C172S-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Begin descent.

– 90 KIAS (cruise climb) – 73 KIAS @ 2650 lbs.000 feet – 84 KIAS @ Sea level – 77 KIAS @ 10.Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172RG SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 66 gal. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY VA V CC VG – 42 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 130 KIAS for 10° – 100 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 145 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 140 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 68 KIAS @ 10. – 61 KIAS @ 1850 lbs. total/62 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts. – 98 KIAS @ 2250 lbs. C172RG-1/R-3 . – 89 KIAS @ 1850 lbs.000 feet – 106 KIAS @ 2650 lbs. (maximum glide) – 67 KIAS @ 2250 lbs.

verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline.500 RPM. At V R (55 KIAS). Coordinate using rudder and aileron. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power).        . As the takeoff roll begins. propellers to 2. Perform HITTS checklist. With significant surface wind. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Pitch for V Y (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-2/R-3 Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Call for and perform climb checklist. “Airspeed alive. Listen for engine irregularities.           Perform line-up check. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications.” As airspeed increases. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.

accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft.500 RPM. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Listen for engine irregularities. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At V R (55 KIAS). Perform HITTS checklist. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up. Apply and hold brakes. “Airspeed alive. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. . Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. propellers to 2. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.” As airspeed increases. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). As airspeed increases. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. Release brakes. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind. Pitch for 63 KIAS and trim aircraft. As the takeoff roll begins.

Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. As airspeed increases. As the takeoff roll begins. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Perfom HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft.500 RPM. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. propellers to 2. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. “Airspeed alive. . Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline.” As airspeed increases. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. With significant surface wind. Listen for engine irregularities. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (67 KIAS) and begin climbout. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop.

LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Call for and perform cruise checklist. “500 feet to go. If still on. beginning level-off”). Coordinate aircraft with rudder.        Pitch for V CC (90 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities.” “100’ prior to altitude. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Trim aircraft for level flight.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172RG-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude.g. . Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting.

At cruise airspeed. increase power to 20” MP. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. Turn carburetor heat on. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Set throttle to 15” MP. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. To recover from slow flight. Retract landing gear. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. . Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Call for and perform cruise checklist.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172RG-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). Close cowl flaps. altitude  100 feet. heading  10º. Open cowl flaps. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. increase throttle to 23” MP. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases.” Pick outside visual reference point. Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Retract last 10º flaps. Set propeller to 2500 RPM. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Below V FE (130 KIAS). Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS.

Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Control bank angle with ailerons. 50º commercial). and rollout on the same entry heading. During rollout. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude.              Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Maintain entry heading ± 10º.” Pick outside visual reference point. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS C172RG-7/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Announce heading. altitude  100 feet. . Call for and perform cruise checklist. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. angle of bank. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. airspeed. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP. reduce power to 19”-20” MP. or as necessary to maintain V A .

add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Retract next 10º flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. smoothly increase power to full. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Set throttle to 15” MP. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. decrease power to idle. Turn carburetor heat on. At target airspeed (V R . When aircraft stalls. Call for and perform cruise checklist.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172RG-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. Set propeller to 2500 RPM. Pitch for level flight and. Retract last 10º flaps. Turn carburetor heat off. Below V FE (130 KIAS). Pitch for level attitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. 55 KIAS unless specified). If a turning stall is to be performed. .” Pick outside visual reference point. Retract landing gear. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending more than 10º. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. initiate a 500 fpm descent.                      Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. once reaching cruise airspeed. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (67 KIAS).

level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. 55 KIAS unless specified). Set propeller to 2500 RPM. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. once reaching cruise airspeed.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172RG-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. and no further increases should be made. Set throttle to 15” MP. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Open cowl flaps. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. decrease pitch attitude. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. This will be simulated maximum power. If a turning stall is to be performed. Pitch for level flight and. increase power to 25” MP.” Pick outside visual reference point. Close cowl flaps.                  Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Turn carburetor heat off.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. At target airspeed (V R . When aircraft stalls. . Pitch for V X (67 KIAS). Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Turn carburetor heat on.

Flight Instructor Manual CHANDELLES C172RG-10/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through a 180º maximum-performance climbing turn. Second half of maneuver: Maintain constant pitch attitude.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip. maintain initial entry altitude  100 feet. First 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 15º. Coordinate with rudder. During rollout. heading ± 10º. pitch to maximum nose-up. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. During rollout. increase pitch attitude.       Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude  100 feet.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip.    . Both pitch and bank should be constantly changing. Coordinate with rudder. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. This will be simulated maximum power. Third 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle to 15º. rollout airspeed should be just above a stalling airspeed. As airplane reaches 30º of bank increase throttle to 25” MP. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Last 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle and pitch attitude to level. pitch to maximum nose-down. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. First half of maneuver: Maintain constant bank angle. decreasing pitch to level. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. heading ± 10º.             LAZY 8S Objective: To maneuver the airplane through two 180º turns while constantly changing pitch attitude and bank angle. Second 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 30º. decrease bank angle. Set propeller at 2500 RPM. or as necessary to maintain V A . Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS). Pick outside ground reference point.          Set altitude as necessary to ensure at least three complete 360º turns with recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. to touchdown within 200’ of designated landing point. Passing over reference point. Turn carburetor heat on. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS. Plan recovery (or transition into power-off 180º accuracy landing) by 1500’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP SPIRALS C172RG-11/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate sufficient planning as to maneuver the airplane through at least three 360º descending turns while tracking a constant radius circle. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS. During descent. Bank may be increased up to 60º. . Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS). unless terrain and wind conditions dictate otherwise. roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron.” Set propeller at 2500 RPM. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Set propeller at 2500 RPM. adjust bank angle as necessary to maintain constant radius around reference point.  POWER-OFF 180º ACCURACY LANDINGS Objective: Safely maneuver the airplane from abeam a landing point to a successful power-off touchdown. Plan descent as in normal traffic pattern.” Ensure cowl flaps are closed. Turn carburetor heat on. During rollout maintain heading ± 10º.        Set altitude no more than 1000’ AGL.

heading and airspeed.   . wings level. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). Stalls. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. pitch level. Call for and perform cruise checklist.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight.e. pitch level. With constant rate. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. without outside visual reference. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. Maintain altitude  100’. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. With constant airspeed. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172RG-12/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. heading  10º (in straight flight). call out new target altitude. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Simulated full power (25” MP). wings level.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. Turns should be performed in both directions.

Call for and perform descent checklist. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Trim aircraft. . Set carburetor heat ON.          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. Set radios to tower or CTAF.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172RG-13/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). If entering traffic pattern. Review all airport information.

Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Lower upwind wing into wind. When desired altitude is reached. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. When desired altitude is reached. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip.        C172RG-14/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Lower upwind wing into wind. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. .

During maneuver. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. After completing one full circle. call for and perform cruise checklist. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Determine wind direction. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. After completing one full rectangular pattern.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172RG-15/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Maintain altitude  100 feet. . adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Pick outside visual reference. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. Pick outside visual reference point.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Set mixture full rich. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. call for and perform cruise checklist. Determine wind direction. Set mixture full rich.

Plan to enter the turn downwind perpendicular to the reference point. Set mixture full rich.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172RG-16/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Passing abeam the reference point. Determine wind direction. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Maintain altitude  100 feet. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. bank aircraft so point is on wingtip. Bank angle will not be constant and will be adjusted as necessary to maintain visual contact with the point (approximately 30 . perpendicular to reference line. Set mixture full rich. adjust altitude as necessary to keep reference point in same spot. Pick new reference point off opposite wingtip and repeat maneuver in other direction. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind.40 at the steepest point). adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line.         Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. After completing one turn around the reference point. Pick outside visual reference point. 8S-ON-PYLONS Objective: To fly a figure-eight pattern around two reference points while keeping the point fixed on the wingtip.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Determine wind direction. During maneuver. wings level.    . Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. During maneuver. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Plan to enter the turn downwind. After completing at least one full S-turn.” Set altitude to pivotal altitude (800’ AGL). roll wings-level and maintain level flight while selecting reference point. call for and perform cruise checklist.

Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. nature of emergency and number on board. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. continue with the following procedures. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Extend landing gear at 1500’ AGL. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. pull the throttle control to idle. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. If time and altitude permit. Communicate emergency. Apply carburetor heat and turn fuel pump on. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. C172RG-17/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. including engine restart. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700.       To simulate an engine failure. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. reduce throttle to idle. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight.        . location. For training purposes. Pitch airspeed for 75 KIAS (best glide).

if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Call for and perform climb checklist. For training purposes. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. use descent airspeed of 95 KIAS (VFE -5 KIAS for training purposes).Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. continue with the following procedures. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. including engine restart. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. Communicate emergency. . After verifying a positive rate of climb. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. Retract landing gear. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Turn carburetor heat off. If using flaps.         Smoothly increase throttle to full power.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. If time and altitude permit. C172RG-18/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Retract last notch of flaps. If desired. Pitch for descent airspeed of 105 KIAS. pitch for V X (67 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. full flaps and landing gear may be lowered to increase descent angle.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. nature of emergency and number on board. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. location. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Verify a positive rate of climb. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. If time and altitude permit. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Pitch for a climb at V x .

Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. including position and intentions. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Call for and perform before landing checklist. . Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. If landing advisory is not available.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Call for and perform before landing checklist. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. if any. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. if any. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172RG-19/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. unless otherwise instructed by ATC.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. Once landing runway is determined.

lower the landing gear.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Undercarriage.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172RG-20/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. correcting for wind as necessary. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Touch down on main wheels first. . Props. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. then the downwind wheel. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. If landing in a crosswind.  Perform second GUMPS check. then the nosewheel.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured. power for altitude control. Downwind leg.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). Mixture.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. set flaps to 10°. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Switches). then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Perform final GUMPS check. decrease power to idle and begin flare.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS).  Begin descent.  Reduce power to 15” MP.

At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway.  Pitch for descent at 63 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Use pitch for airspeed control. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. power for altitude control. Downwind leg.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. C172RG-21/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°.  Reduce power to 15” MP. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Begin descent. Apply firm but even braking while bringing yoke full aft.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM.  Perform second GUMPS check. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Do not retract the flaps! Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. . Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. set flaps to 10°. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Props. lower the landing gear.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS).  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). Mixture. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Undercarriage. Switches).

. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Perform second GUMPS check. Undercarriage. power for altitude control. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touch-and-go.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS). abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. C172RG-22/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 63 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM. Mixture. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. set flaps to 10°.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Begin descent. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. Props. Switches).  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM. lower the landing gear.  Perform final GUMPS check. Downwind leg.

Do not pull the 5 Amp “Gear Pump” circuit breaker.Maneuver Manual Seminole Multi Engine Procedures GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:           PA44-1/R-4     A maximum of one simulated system emergency at any time is allowed below 2. On final approach Pilot Flying will verbally inquire “Verify 3 green?” – Pilot Monitoring will respond “3 green verified” after visual confirmation. Exceptions – Lower speed for Short Field climb. Vx or barrier clearance may be used as published in the AFM. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but fewer than 3 green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated. To simulate landing gear failure. V MC or drag demos. Selecting the gear to the down position should be accomplished using a flat hand. keep one finger on the landing gear lever until the gear is locked up or down as desired and verified with the three green indicator lights. no red gear unsafe warning. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate. Low-altitude engine failures (below 4000’ AGL) should only be performed by reducing one of the throttles to idle. Both fuel selectors must be ON below 4000’ AGL unless there is an actual emergency. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed.000’ AGL. In the traffic pattern. Leaving one finger on the gear handle without undue pressure will ensure that the gear handle locks into the detent. Simulated engine failures on the runway should not occur above 40 KIAS. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land. Gear handle will move to the down position without being pulled “out of the detent”. Do not turn the fuel selectors off or move the mixture to idle cutoff. GUMPS check lists (reference normal and short landing procedures in this manual) shall be performed on each leg of the traffic pattern. During takeoff. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing. Simulated engine failures should not occur below 400‘ AGL. When cycling the gear. landing gear is to be extended no later than midfield on the downwind. no warning horn and visually in external mirror. Use a minimum altitude of 4000’ AGL for complete engine shutdowns. shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. maintain V Y (88 KIAS) through 500‘ AGL. Extreme caution must be exercised to ensure the gear is extended prior to landing. pull the 25 Amp “Landing Gear” circuit breaker. the PIC should contact HAI dispatch (122. the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway. Checklists must be used on each and every flight. .85) while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist.

 Limit number of gear cycles on touch-and-goes.Maneuver Manual Operational Concerns These items will help increase the life of the aircraft and reduce overall operational costs:  One complete engine shutdown to full feather during rating.  Avoid back-to-back V MC and drag demos to reduce wear on engines. PA44-2/R-4 .

– 112 KIAS @ 2700 lbs. (dipstick. per engine) V SO V MCA VS VR V SSE V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY V XSE V YSE VA V CC – 55 KIAS – 56 KIAS (note that this is a stalled condition) – 57 KIAS – 75 KIAS (value may vary based on takeoff weight) – 88 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 169 KIAS – 202 KIAS – 140 KIAS (down) – 109 KIAS (up) – 140 KIAS – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level (blue line) – 135 KIAS @ 3800 lbs.Maneuver Manual Seminole (PA-44) PA-44 SPECIFICATIONS References: PA44 AFM revision VB-860 Lycoming O-360 and LO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 110 gal. – 105 KIAS (cruise climb) PA44-3/R-4 . total/108 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts.

Down wind abeam #'s Base Final IFR PROC. Final app. ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA Straight in/ Circle land 1 dot up 5deg bk 1/4 dot up 2-5deg bk 1/2 dot down 2-5 deg bk-500'/min 1 dot down 2-5 deg bk-600'/min 1 dot down900'/min 1/4 dot up 2-5° bank as required 105 88-105 27" as req. App. Dec. RPM Mixture Configuration PA44-4/R-4 Gear down 25 deg flaps Gear dwn 10 deg flaps Gear down 10 deg flaps SE OPS IFR/VFR Climb Level flight App. Descent.Maneuver Manual CONFIGURATION AND POWER SETTING TABLE PA-44 Situation NORM OPS VFR/IFR Takeoff climb cruise cruise descent App. Cruise VFR PROC.P. . 2500 2700 rich rich " " 105 17" 2500 rich gear down 105 18" 2500 rich gear down 105 19" 2500 88 105 30" 25" 2700 2500 " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open " " Gear down flaps as req. ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA 1 dot down level 1 dot down600'/min 2 dot down900'/min level 105 21" 2500 rich 105 13" 2500 rich 120 105 105 15" 16" 17" 2300 2300 2500 " " rich " " " " " " " " 80-105 80-105 15"-18" 13"-15" 23002700 2700 " rich " 1/2 dot down 88-105 15"-18" 2300 " " Gear down 10-25 deg flaps Gear down 25-40 deg flaps 1 dot down 40 deg flaps 5-10 up 5-10 up level 1 dot down level 75-105 105 140 140 120 30" 25" 23" 20" 19" 2700 2500 2300 2300 2300 " " " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps closed " " " " Attitude KIAS M.

500 RPM. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Pitch for V Y (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. propellers to 2.           PA44-5/R-4         Perform line-up check. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP.Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKEOFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Perform HITTS checklist. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce.” As airspeed increases. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Listen for engine irregularities. Call for and perform climb checklist. . Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Call the Go Decision Point. With significant surface wind. At V R (75 KIAS). Coordinate using rudder and aileron. “Airspeed alive. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. As the takeoff roll begins. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.

Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Set stabilator trim slightly nose-high. accelerate to VY (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Listen for engine irregularities. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. . pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). At 70 KIAS (63 KIAS with 25° flaps).          Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Perform HITTS checklist.” As airspeed increases. propellers to 2. Coordinate using rudder and aileron.500 RPM.Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF & CLIMB PA44-6/R-4 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. “Airspeed alive. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Call the Go Decision Point. Apply and hold brakes. Release brakes. With significant surface wind. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. As the takeoff roll begins. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Call for and perform climb checklist. Pitch for 75 KIAS (67 KIAS with 25° flaps) and trim aircraft. At hold-short line set flaps to 0° (25° flaps may be used if obstacles dictate additional clearance). Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline.

Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight.” “100’ prior to altitude. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. If still on. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e.Maneuver Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB PA44-7/R-4 Soft field takeoffs are not typically practiced in multi-engine aircraft and are not required by PTS.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Trim aircraft for level flight.        Pitch for V CC (105 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. “500 feet to go. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). . Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.g. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. ENROUTE CLIMB Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting. beginning level-off”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

At cruise airspeed.” Pick outside visual reference point. Below V LE (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. . Retract landing gear below V LO (109 KIAS).                    Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. At target airspeed (65 KIAS unless specified). altitude  100 feet. increase power to 18” MP. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. To recover from slow flight. Retract last 10º flaps. Open cowl flaps. Close cowl flaps. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Below V FE (111 KIAS). Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º.Maneuver Manual SLOW FLIGHT PA44-8/R-4 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist. heading  10º. increase throttles to 20” MP. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. Set throttles to 15” MP.

airspeed. Announce heading. Set propellers at 2300 RPM and throttles at 21” MP as necessary to maintain V A . Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading.              PA44-9/R-4 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. reduce power to 21” MP. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude.Maneuver Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. angle of bank.” Pick outside visual reference point. . altitude  100 feet. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Control bank angle with ailerons. 50º commercial). Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. and rollout on the same entry heading. During rollout. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Call for and perform cruise checklist. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-OFF STALLS

PA44-10/R-4

Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Below V FE (111 KIAS), add flaps incrementally until full flaps are extended. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), initiate a 500 fpm descent, decrease power to idle. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls, smoothly increase power to 25” MP. Pitch for level attitude, level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Turn carburetor heat off. Retract flaps one notch and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Retract next notch flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. Retract landing gear. Retract last 10º flaps. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions.                

PA44-11/R-4

Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Open cowl flaps. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), increase power to 20” MP. This will be simulated maximum power, and no further increases should be made. Turn carburetor heat off. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Announce first indication of stall (buffet, stall warning horn or loss of control effectiveness) and promptly begin recovery. Do not perform a full stall. Decrease pitch attitude and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Close cowl flaps. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
V YSE GEAR AND FLAP DRAG DEMO

PA44-12/R-4

Objective: The drag demo is used to determine performance characteristics of the aircraft in different configurations while operating on one engine. It is very useful to determine the order in which items should be cleaned up in the event of an engine failure of a single engine go around. When making configuration changes, allow the airplane to become established before noting the VSI reading.                    Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Simulate failure of right engine by moving throttle to idle. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase left throttle to 25” MP. Open left cowl flap. Check and note VSI reading. This is the value with a windmilling propeller. Pitch for blue line  5 KIAS. Check and note VSI reading each time. Return to blue line. Simulate feathering the right propeller by increasing throttle to 11½” MP and decreasing propeller to 2000 RPM. Check and note VSI reading. Lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Raise landing gear. Lower flaps one notch at a time. At each position check and note VSI reading. With flaps fully extended, lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Simulate un-feathering right propeller by decreasing throttle to idle and increasing propeller to full forward. Check and note VSI reading. Recover by increasing right throttle to 15” MP, reducing left throttle to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM. Do not make significant power changes or increase the right throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. Retract landing gear. Retract flaps one notch at a time. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

  

Announce the first indication of loss of yaw or roll control. Close cowl flaps. or buffet and immediately initiate recovery. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.” Pick outside visual reference point. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase right throttle to 25” MP. stall warning. . Recover within 20° of the entry heading.               Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. proper technique must be learned. Due to the potential of loss of altitude if loss of an engine occurs close to the ground during a go-around or takeoff. Recovery should not be attempted by increasing the power on the simulated failed engine. Pitch for level flight and. Slowly decrease airspeed 1 KIAS per second by increasing pitch attitude. When simulating this maneuver it is imperative to stress a minimal altitude loss as a V MC condition is most likely to occur close to the ground. Recover promptly by simultaneously reducing power sufficiently on the operating engine while decreasing the pitch attitude as necessary to regain airspeed and directional control with a minimum loss of altitude. Maintain directional control using rudder pressure until full rudder is applied.      Note: The most critical point for a pilot to lose an engine is close to the ground. Simulate failure of left engine by moving throttle to idle.Maneuver Manual V MC DEMO PA44-13/R-4 Objective: Develop the knowledge and skills required to safely handle a minimal controllable airspeed situation. Advance power smoothly on operating engine and accelerate to V XSE /V YSE . Set throttle to 15” MP. once reaching cruise airspeed. Turn left carburetor heat on. ±5 KIAS during recovery. The student will learn the feel of the aircraft leading up to V MC and the proper corrective action should it be encountered. This maneuver is designed to teach the pilot to recognize the onset of a loss of control due to asymmetrical thrust. Open right cowl flap. Establish a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. as appropriate.

Call for and perform cruise checklist. Flaps up. if time and altitude permit. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine. The throttle should be retarded halfway and.Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (SIMULATED) PA44-14/R-4 Objective: Simulate in-flight failure of an engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper troubleshooting procedures.  Turn Carburetor heat on.          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS).  Ensure primers are in and locked. dead engine”). however. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Propellers full forward. If altitude permits. Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range.  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine. Landing gear up. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying. Simulate feathering the propeller on the inoperative engine by increasing the throttle to 11½“ MP and reducing the propeller to 2000 RPM. Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. increase throttle to 15” MP.  Ensure fuel selectors are on.  Turn boost pumps on. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM. To simulate a restart of the inoperative engine.  Ensure magnetos are on.  Open cowl flap on operative engine. all the way. Throttles full forward. if no additional yaw is detected. troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist. Mixtures full forward. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot. (Verbalize only) Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook. the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference.     .

Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM.  Turn boost pumps on. all the way. if no additional yaw is detected. Call for and perform cruise checklist. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. Throttles full forward. Mixtures full forward. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist.      .  Turn Carburetor heat on. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine.Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (COMPLETE SHUTDOWN) PA44-15/R-4 Objective: Perform complete shutdown of one engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper engine securing and restarting procedures. If altitude permits.  Ensure magnetos are on. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot. Ensure propeller is above 950 RPM. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying. increase throttle to 15” MP. move the propeller control into the detent. if time and altitude permit.          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS). Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. Retard propeller control halfway and.  Ensure fuel selectors are on. the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference. Landing gear up. Flaps up. After restarting inoperative engine. if no additional yaw is detected.  Open cowl flap on operative engine. Propellers full forward. Restart engine as per checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook.  Ensure primers are in and locked. If restarting is unsuccessful. dead engine”).  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications. The throttle should be retarded halfway and. feather the propeller on the inoperative engine. however.

” Close cowl flaps. Perform verbal passenger briefing. nature of emergency and number on board. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. If time and altitude permit. Communicate emergency. pitch for V X (82 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. Once verifying a positive rate of climb. .         Smoothly increase throttles to full power. If time and altitude permit. Pitch for a climb. location. including engine restart. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. Reduce throttles smoothly to idle. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Set propellers full forward. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Call for and perform climb checklist. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. Extend landing gear below V LE (140 KIAS). For training purposes. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL.                Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Retract last notch of flaps. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. Verify a positive rate of climb. (Verbalize only) Pull mixtures to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valves OFF. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. Ensure carburetor heat is off. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. continue with the following procedures. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. PA44-16/R-4 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Pitch for descent airspeed of 140 KIAS.Maneuver Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Retract landing gear. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.

Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES PA44-17/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety. Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH.  If runway environment is in sight.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist. forward. At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. extend landing gear. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward.  Call for and perform before-landing checklist. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches).  Tune and identify primary navaid.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS. continue with landing. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF if practicing IAPs at uncontrolled airports. especially when reporting positions in reference to IFR-only navigational aids. Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 40º. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point. including position and intentions. Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights.  Pitch for 80 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Set flaps to 25º for precision approach (10º for non-precision). .  Perform final GUMPS check. Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn.  Set propellers to 2500 RPM. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic.  Set throttles to 17” MP.  (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear.

 (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear. Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist.Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES (SINGLE-ENGINE) PA44-18/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety while simulating the loss of one engine.  If runway environment is in sight. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH.  Call for and perform before-landing checklist.  Do not extend flaps. Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 25º. Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power. .  Pitch for 85 KIAS and trim aircraft. extend landing gear. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches). Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments. Perform final flow check of mixture controls.  Set propeller on operating engine to 2500 RPM. continue with landing. Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS.  Set throttle on operating engine to 18” MP.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point.  Tune and identify primary navaid. forward. At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH.

      Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. . Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. if any. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport.Maneuver Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD PA44-19/R-4 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. including position and intentions. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. if any. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Call for and perform before landing checklist. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. If landing advisory is not available. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Once landing runway is determined. plan overflight of airport at 1000’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. unless otherwise instructed by ATC.

then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. pitch for descent at 80 KIAS and trim aircraft. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Perform second GUMPS check. Mixture.  Begin descent.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. power for altitude control. correcting for wind as necessary. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on. . then the downwind wheel. Switches).Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING PA44-20/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Note: For single-engine landings limit final approach speed to 90 KIAS and flap setting to 25°. then the nosewheel.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS). pitch for 100 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Touch down on main wheels first.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). Undercarriage. set flaps to 10°. lower the landing gear.  Pitch for descent at 90 KIAS and trim aircraft. Props.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM. Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP. forward. Verify gear is down in mirror. Downwind leg. If landing in a crosswind.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.

Verify gear is down in mirror.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on. Apply firm but gentle braking while bringing yoke full aft. Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. Props.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. Flaps may be retracted to increase braking effectiveness.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM. set flaps to 10°.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). lower the landing gear.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS).Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. Mixture. Undercarriage. pitch for 95 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Perform second GUMPS check.  Begin descent. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. PA44-21/R-4 Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM. forward. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. power for altitude control.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Switches).  Pitch for descent at 85 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP. . pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Downwind leg. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns.

Maneuver Manual PA44-22/R-4 .

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