Flight Instructor Manual

Single-Engine Procedures
GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:       

F-13/R-3

A maximum of one simulated system emergency is allowed below 2,000’ AGL. To simulate engine failure, pull the throttle control to idle. Do not pull the mixture control to idle cutoff or turn the fuel shutoff valve off. During off-airport simulated engine failures, flight should not be continued below 500’ AGL. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed. When taking off, maintain V Y through 500’ AGL. Checklists must be used on each and every flight. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but no green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated, the PIC should contact HAI dispatch while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land, the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway, shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 152
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-235 108 BHP @ 2550 RPM Fuel capacity: 26 gal. total/24.5 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 35 KIAS – 40 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 85 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 149 KIAS – 54 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 61 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 104 KIAS @ 1,670 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 1,500 lbs. – 93 KIAS @ 1,350 lbs. – 70 KIAS (cruise climb) – 60 KIAS (maximum glide)

C152-1/R-3

Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. “Airspeed alive. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Pitch for V Y (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Listen for engine irregularities.” As airspeed increases. With significant surface wind. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. .Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks           C152-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Perform HITTS checklist. As the takeoff roll begins. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (50 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline.

Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Call for and perform climb checklist. With significant surface wind. Listen for engine irregularities. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. At V R (50 KIAS). The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. As airspeed increases. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Release brakes. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. As the takeoff roll begins. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). Perform HITTS checklist.” As airspeed increases. Apply and hold brakes. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. . Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. “Airspeed alive.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline.

announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. As airspeed increases. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. With significant surface wind. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. As the takeoff roll begins. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Call for and perform climb checklist. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. “Airspeed alive. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Listen for engine irregularities. accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (54 KIAS) and begin climbout. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Perform HITTS checklist. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. . non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS).” As airspeed increases.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude.

If still on. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”).       Pitch for V CC (70 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities.g. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. “500 feet to go. Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Coordinate aircraft with rudder.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C152-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Set the pitch for a level attitude. beginning level-off”). . Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Call for and perform cruise checklist. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude.” “100’ prior to altitude. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Trim aircraft for level flight.

At target airspeed (50 KIAS unless specified). altitude  100 feet. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. add full power. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Turn carburetor heat on. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.” Pick outside visual reference point. Below V FE (85 KIAS). Once reaching cruise airspeed. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. To recover. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. increase power to 2000 RPM. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. heading  10º. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C152-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. .               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.

altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. 50º commercial). decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. During rollout. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Announce heading. angle of bank. Control bank angle with ailerons. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. airspeed.” Pick outside visual reference point. reduce power to 2100 RPM. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. altitude  100 feet.              C152-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. . and rollout on the same entry heading.

” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. Pitch for level attitude. initiate 500 fpm descent. Pitch for level flight and. . Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. confirming positive rate of climb each time. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. When aircraft stalls. increase power to full. until fully retracted. If a turning stall is to be performed. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. 50 KIAS unless specified). level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Turn carburetor heat on. Reduce power to 1500 RPM.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C152-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Set mixture full rich. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (54 KIAS). At target airspeed (V R . once reaching cruise airspeed. Turn carburetor heat off. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Below V FE (85 KIAS). decrease power to idle. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.

If a turning stall is to be performed. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. decrease pitch attitude. . 50 KIAS unless specified).Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS). Turn carburetor heat off. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Pitch for level flight and. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. increase power to full. At target airspeed (V R . reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. When aircraft stalls. once reaching cruise airspeed.” Pick outside visual reference point. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Turn carburetor heat on. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually.                C152-9/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Set mixture full rich.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.

Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. With constant airspeed. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. call out new target altitude. wings level. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Turns should be performed in both directions.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it.e. wings level. heading  10º (in straight flight). Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. Maintain altitude  100’. heading and airspeed.   . Stalls. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. pitch level. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. With constant rate. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. without outside visual reference. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. pitch level.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C152-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”).

Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). . If entering traffic pattern. Call for and perform descent checklist.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C152-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing.          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Review all airport information. Set carburetor heat ON. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Trim aircraft.

. Lower upwind wing into wind. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. When desired altitude is reached. When desired altitude is reached.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input.        C152-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. Lower upwind wing into wind. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input.

          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C152-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Determine wind direction. Set mixture full rich. After completing one full circle. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Pick outside visual reference. . Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. call for and perform cruise checklist. Set mixture full rich. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. call for and perform cruise checklist. Pick outside visual reference point. During maneuver. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Maintain altitude  100 feet.

After completing at least one full S-turn. Determine wind direction. call for and perform cruise checklist. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. wings level. Plan to enter the turn downwind. perpendicular to reference line.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. . Set mixture full rich. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C152-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Maintain altitude  100 feet. During maneuver.

To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. continue with the following procedures.       . location.       To simulate an engine failure. Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it. Pitch airspeed for 60 KIAS (best glide).Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. For training purposes. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. reduce throttle to idle. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. If time and altitude permit. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. pull the throttle control to idle. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. Perform verbal passenger briefing. nature of emergency and number on board. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. including engine restart. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. Communicate emergency. C152-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.

including engine restart. . if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. nature of emergency and number on board. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Pitch for a climb at V x . pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL.       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. continue with the following procedures. If time and altitude permit. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Perform verbal passenger briefing. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. If desired. For training purposes. Communicate emergency. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. C152-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. If time and altitude permit. Pitch for descent airspeed of 85 KIAS. After verifying a positive rate of climb. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). If using flaps. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. location. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Call for and perform climb checklist. Turn carburetor heat off.

. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C152-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. If landing advisory is not available. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. if any. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Once landing runway is determined. Call for and perform before landing checklist. including position and intentions.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. if any. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport.

 Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Use pitch for airspeed control. set flaps to 10°.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS).  Begin descent. power for altitude control. correcting for wind as necessary.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Trim aircraft.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Decrease power to idle and begin flare. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS and trim aircraft. Downwind leg.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. If landing in a crosswind.  Touch down on main wheels first. . then the downwind wheel. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C152-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. then the nosewheel. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.

apply firm but even braking.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. then gently lower nosewheel to the ground.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. Downwind leg. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. pitch for 75 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS).  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. C152-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°.  Begin descent.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Pitch for descent at 54 KIAS and trim aircraft. power for altitude control. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Touch down on main wheels first. decrease power to idle and begin flare. set flaps to 10°. .

Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. .  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Begin descent.  Use pitch for airspeed control.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. C152-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS (use 54 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Touch down on main wheels first. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Downwind leg. set flaps to 10°.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS). power for altitude control. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.

(dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 33 KIAS – 44 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° – 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 127 KIAS – 158 KIAS – 60 KIAS @ Sea level – 65 KIAS @ 10. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 65 KIAS (maximum glide) C172P-1/R-3 . total/40 usable (standard) or 54 gal. – 82 KIAS @ 1600 lbs.000 feet – 99 KIAS @ 2400 lbs. total/50 usable (long range) Oil capacity: 7 qts. – 92 KIAS @ 2000 lbs.000 feet – 76 KIAS @ Sea level – 71 KIAS @ 10.Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172P SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-320 160 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 43 gal.

Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Pitch for V Y (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Call for and perform climb checklist. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Coordinate using rudder and aileron.” As airspeed increases.           C172P-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. With significant surface wind. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. “Airspeed alive. As the takeoff roll begins. Listen for engine irregularities. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). At V R (55 KIAS). .

Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. As airspeed increases.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft.” As airspeed increases. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. “Airspeed alive. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. As the takeoff roll begins. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. With significant surface wind. Call for and perform climb checklist. . Listen for engine irregularities. Pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Release brakes. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. At V R (55 KIAS). The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Apply and hold brakes. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Perform HITTS checklist. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline.

With significant surface wind. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (60 KIAS) and begin climbout. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Perform HITTS checklist. As the takeoff roll begins. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. . Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll.” As airspeed increases. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. As airspeed increases. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. “Airspeed alive. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Call for and perform climb checklist.

Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). beginning level-off”).” “100’ prior to altitude. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e.g. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. “500 feet to go. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If still on.       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Call for and perform cruise checklist. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Trim aircraft for level flight.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172P-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Set the pitch for a level attitude. .           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook.

increase power to 2000 RPM. Below V FE (110 KIAS).” Pick outside visual reference point. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. Once reaching cruise airspeed. To recover. Turn carburetor heat on. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. . At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). altitude  100 feet. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. heading  10º. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172P-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations.               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. add full power.

” Pick outside visual reference point. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. Announce heading. angle of bank.              C172P-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Call for and perform cruise checklist. altitude  100 feet. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. and rollout on the same entry heading. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. reduce power to 2100 RPM. .Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. airspeed. 50º commercial). Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Control bank angle with ailerons. During rollout. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. bank angle ± 5º (45º private.

Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. When aircraft stalls. increase power to full. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. At target airspeed (V R . Pitch for level attitude.                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Pitch for level flight and.” Pick outside visual reference point. Turn carburetor heat off. decrease power to idle. If a turning stall is to be performed. until fully retracted. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Call for and perform cruise checklist. confirming positive rate of climb each time. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (60 KIAS).” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. Set mixture full rich. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. . Turn carburetor heat on. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. Below V FE (110 KIAS). 55 KIAS unless specified).Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172P-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. once reaching cruise airspeed. initiate 500 fpm descent.

When aircraft stalls. once reaching cruise airspeed. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. . enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. At target airspeed (V R . Reduce power to 1500 RPM.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172P-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder.                Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Turn carburetor heat off.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. decrease pitch attitude. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pitch for level flight and. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. If a turning stall is to be performed. Turn carburetor heat on. Call for and perform cruise checklist. increase power to full. 55 KIAS unless specified). Pitch for V X (60 KIAS). Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set mixture full rich.

pitch level.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. With constant rate. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. pitch level.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172P-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Turns should be performed in both directions. With constant airspeed. wings level. call out new target altitude. Stalls.e. Call for and perform cruise checklist. heading  10º (in straight flight). wings level. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i.   .      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). heading and airspeed. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. without outside visual reference. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. Maintain altitude  100’. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle.

         Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. Review all airport information. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Set carburetor heat ON. Trim aircraft. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. Set radios to tower or CTAF. If entering traffic pattern. Call for and perform descent checklist. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). .Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172P-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing.

Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Lower upwind wing into wind. .Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. When desired altitude is reached. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. When desired altitude is reached.        C172P-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input.

Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. During maneuver. Pick outside visual reference. Determine wind direction. . After completing one full circle. Determine wind direction. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. call for and perform cruise checklist. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172P-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pick outside visual reference point. Set mixture full rich. call for and perform cruise checklist. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Set mixture full rich.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Maintain altitude  100 feet.

Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. Maintain altitude  100 feet. After completing at least one full S-turn. Plan to enter the turn downwind. wings level. Determine wind direction.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172P-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. . Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. perpendicular to reference line. call for and perform cruise checklist. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. Set mixture full rich. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. During maneuver. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point.

pull the throttle control to idle. Pitch airspeed for 65 KIAS (best glide). including engine restart.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight.       To simulate an engine failure. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. continue with the following procedures. nature of emergency and number on board. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. Communicate emergency. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. C172P-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. location. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. reduce throttle to idle. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. For training purposes. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. If time and altitude permit. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist.       . Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it.

(Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. If desired. Communicate emergency. Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. Turn carburetor heat off.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Call for and perform climb checklist. location. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. including engine restart. For training purposes. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. nature of emergency and number on board.       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. Pitch for a climb at V x . If time and altitude permit. If time and altitude permit. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. continue with the following procedures. Perform verbal passenger briefing. If using flaps. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. C172P-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. . After verifying a positive rate of climb. pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted.

Call for and perform before landing checklist.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. if any. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Once landing runway is determined. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. including position and intentions. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Call for and perform before landing checklist. If landing advisory is not available.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172P-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. . plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. if any. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern.

 Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172P-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. then the nosewheel.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. set flaps to 10°. .  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. power for altitude control.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Begin descent. decrease power to idle and begin flare. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. If landing in a crosswind. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. correcting for wind as necessary. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. then the downwind wheel. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Call for and perform before landing checklist Downwind leg.  Touch down on main wheels first. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.

request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. decrease power to idle and begin flare. C172P-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Use pitch for airspeed control. set flaps to 10°.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. . Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Begin descent. power for altitude control.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. apply firm but even braking. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Downwind leg.

Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). C172P-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll. .” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Begin descent. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport. power for altitude control. set flaps to 10°.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Downwind leg.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.  Use pitch for airspeed control. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 172S
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming IO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 56 gal. total/53 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 40 KIAS – 48 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 129 KIAS – 163 KIAS – 62 KIAS @ Sea level – 67 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 74 KIAS @ Sea level – 72 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 105 KIAS @ 2550 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 2200 lbs. – 90 KIAS @ 1900 lbs. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 68 KIAS (maximum glide)

C172S-1/R-3

Flight Instructor Manual
NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks.          

C172S-2/R-3

    

Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for V Y (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

Flight Instructor Manual
SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB

C172S-3/R-3

Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Apply and hold brakes. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. Release brakes. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for 56 KIAS and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL, accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. As airspeed increases, announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

      

Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport, request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay, perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.

       Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. . As airspeed increases. With significant surface wind. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. “Airspeed alive. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.” As airspeed increases. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. As the takeoff roll begins. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Perform HITTS checklist. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172S-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Call for and perform climb checklist. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (62 KIAS) and begin climbout. Listen for engine irregularities. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude.

Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Trim aircraft for level flight. . “500 feet to go. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”).g. Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Call for and perform cruise checklist. beginning level-off”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached.” “100’ prior to altitude.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172S-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Set the pitch for a level attitude. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. If still on. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation.       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic.

heading  10º. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. add full power. To recover.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Once reaching cruise airspeed. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. increase power to 2000 RPM.” Pick outside visual reference point.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172S-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). altitude  100 feet. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. . Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Below V FE (110 KIAS). Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º.

Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. airspeed. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. angle of bank. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. reduce power to 2100 RPM. Control bank angle with ailerons. 50º commercial). bank angle ± 5º (45º private.              C172S-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. altitude  100 feet. . Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. and rollout on the same entry heading. Announce heading. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. During rollout.

confirming positive rate of climb each time.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172S-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. 55 KIAS unless specified). until fully retracted.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set mixture full rich. If a turning stall is to be performed. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. initiate a 500 fpm descent. . increase power to full. Pitch for level attitude. At target airspeed (V R . Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. When aircraft stalls.                 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break.” Pick outside visual reference point. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (62 KIAS). Below V FE (110 KIAS). Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. once reaching cruise airspeed. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. decrease power to idle. Pitch for level flight and. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.

When aircraft stalls. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. If a turning stall is to be performed.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172S-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. At target airspeed (V R . 55 KIAS unless specified). Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Pitch for V X (62 KIAS). Reduce power to 1500 RPM. once reaching cruise airspeed.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. decrease pitch attitude. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Pitch for level flight and. . enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. increase power to full.” Pick outside visual reference point. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set mixture full rich. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases.

In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. heading and airspeed. call out new target altitude. wings level. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator.e. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. wings level. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. pitch level.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. without outside visual reference. Maintain altitude  100’. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. heading  10º (in straight flight). o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172S-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Stalls. Turns should be performed in both directions.   . pitch level. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). With constant airspeed. With constant rate. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS.

Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Review all airport information. Set radios to tower or CTAF. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If entering traffic pattern. Call for and perform descent checklist. . Trim aircraft.         Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172S-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing.

Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. When desired altitude is reached. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. . Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline.        C172S-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. When desired altitude is reached.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Lower upwind wing into wind.

Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. Set mixture full rich.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. After completing one full circle. After completing one full rectangular pattern. . Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pick outside visual reference. During maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet. call for and perform cruise checklist. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. call for and perform cruise checklist. Determine wind direction. Set mixture full rich. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172S-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Maintain altitude  100 feet.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Pick outside visual reference point.

” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172S-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. wings level. During maneuver. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. perpendicular to reference line. Maintain altitude  100 feet.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. call for and perform cruise checklist. Determine wind direction. . After completing at least one full S-turn. Plan to enter the turn downwind. Set mixture full rich. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind.

(Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. continue with the following procedures. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Pitch airspeed for 68 KIAS (best glide). (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700.       . Perform verbal passenger briefing. reduce throttle to idle. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Auxiliary fuel pump – On If time and altitude permit.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. location. Communicate emergency.       To simulate an engine failure. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. If time and altitude permit. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. C172S-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. pull the throttle control to idle. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. nature of emergency and number on board. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. For training purposes. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. including engine restart. Turn fuel pump on.

(Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. If time and altitude permit. C172S-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. After verifying a positive rate of climb. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. Call for and perform climb checklist. continue with the following procedures. . Select best landing site and turn towards it. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Pitch for a climb at V x . Immediately retract one notch of flaps. Perform verbal passenger briefing. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. including engine restart.      Smoothly increase throttle to full power. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. If desired.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. For training purposes. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). location. Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. nature of emergency and number on board. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. If time and altitude permit. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. pitch for V X (62 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted. Communicate emergency. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. If using flaps. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.

unless otherwise instructed by ATC. . Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Call for and perform before landing checklist. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. including position and intentions. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172S-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. if any.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Once landing runway is determined. If landing advisory is not available. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. if any. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise.

power for altitude control. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Use pitch for airspeed control.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172S-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. correcting for wind as necessary.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. then the nosewheel.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). . decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. If landing in a crosswind.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Begin descent. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Downwind leg.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. then the downwind wheel. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. set flaps to 10°.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.

Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. apply firm but even braking. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. If landing in a crosswind.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Downwind leg.  Use pitch for airspeed control. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. decrease power to idle and begin flare.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. .  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. then the downwind wheel. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. set flaps to 10°. power for altitude control. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). C172S-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. then the nosewheel.  Begin descent. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.

 Touch down on main wheels first.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Call for and perform the before landing checklist.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport. set flaps to 10°.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Downwind leg. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. C172S-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. power for altitude control.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS).  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Begin descent. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. .  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.

C172RG-1/R-3 . – 61 KIAS @ 1850 lbs. – 90 KIAS (cruise climb) – 73 KIAS @ 2650 lbs. (maximum glide) – 67 KIAS @ 2250 lbs.000 feet – 106 KIAS @ 2650 lbs. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY VA V CC VG – 42 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 130 KIAS for 10° – 100 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 145 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 140 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 68 KIAS @ 10.000 feet – 84 KIAS @ Sea level – 77 KIAS @ 10.Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172RG SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 66 gal. total/62 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts. – 89 KIAS @ 1850 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 2250 lbs.

Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. As the takeoff roll begins. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Perform HITTS checklist.        . Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Pitch for V Y (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft.” As airspeed increases. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline.           Perform line-up check. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Call for and perform climb checklist. At V R (55 KIAS). With significant surface wind. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. propellers to 2. “Airspeed alive. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline.500 RPM. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-2/R-3 Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Listen for engine irregularities. Coordinate using rudder and aileron.

Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway.” As airspeed increases. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. As airspeed increases. With significant surface wind.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. “Airspeed alive. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. At V R (55 KIAS). pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Apply and hold brakes. Pitch for 63 KIAS and trim aircraft. As the takeoff roll begins. . accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Release brakes. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up. Listen for engine irregularities. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications.500 RPM. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. propellers to 2.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Perform HITTS checklist. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request.

At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline.500 RPM. As the takeoff roll begins. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (67 KIAS) and begin climbout. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop.” As airspeed increases. . announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Listen for engine irregularities. “Airspeed alive. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. With significant surface wind. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. propellers to 2. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. As airspeed increases. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Perfom HITTS checklist.

If still on.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172RG-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Trim aircraft for level flight. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). beginning level-off”). Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook.” “100’ prior to altitude. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude.        Pitch for V CC (90 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). “500 feet to go. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. . Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation.g. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight.

Below V FE (130 KIAS). Turn carburetor heat on. heading  10º. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. . Open cowl flaps. Close cowl flaps. increase power to 20” MP. Set propeller to 2500 RPM. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. At cruise airspeed. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Retract last 10º flaps. Set throttle to 15” MP. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172RG-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations.” Pick outside visual reference point.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. altitude  100 feet. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. To recover from slow flight. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. Retract landing gear. increase throttle to 23” MP. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude.

Call for and perform cruise checklist. airspeed. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP. Announce heading. During rollout. Control bank angle with ailerons. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. altitude  100 feet. or as necessary to maintain V A . decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. . bank angle ± 5º (45º private. and rollout on the same entry heading. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. 50º commercial).              Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. angle of bank.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS C172RG-7/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. reduce power to 19”-20” MP. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron.

Retract landing gear. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. Set throttle to 15” MP.” Pick outside visual reference point.” Retract next 10º flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. initiate a 500 fpm descent. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending more than 10º. If a turning stall is to be performed. 55 KIAS unless specified). Set propeller to 2500 RPM. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Below V FE (130 KIAS).                      Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Pitch for level attitude. Retract last 10º flaps. once reaching cruise airspeed. Call for and perform cruise checklist. At target airspeed (V R . Pitch for level flight and. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. When aircraft stalls. smoothly increase power to full. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. . Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (67 KIAS). Turn carburetor heat off.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172RG-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Turn carburetor heat on. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. decrease power to idle.

Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Turn carburetor heat on.” Pick outside visual reference point. If a turning stall is to be performed. decrease pitch attitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set propeller to 2500 RPM. When aircraft stalls. Set throttle to 15” MP. Pitch for V X (67 KIAS). Pitch for level flight and. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. increase power to 25” MP. . Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.                  Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. once reaching cruise airspeed. This will be simulated maximum power. At target airspeed (V R . Open cowl flaps. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172RG-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. Close cowl flaps. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. and no further increases should be made. Turn carburetor heat off. 55 KIAS unless specified).

pitch to maximum nose-down. increase pitch attitude. or as necessary to maintain V A . Second half of maneuver: Maintain constant pitch attitude. Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Coordinate with rudder. This will be simulated maximum power. rollout airspeed should be just above a stalling airspeed. pitch to maximum nose-up. During rollout.       Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. As airplane reaches 30º of bank increase throttle to 25” MP. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Third 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle to 15º. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. decrease bank angle.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip. First 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 15º. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP.Flight Instructor Manual CHANDELLES C172RG-10/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through a 180º maximum-performance climbing turn. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip.    . decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude  100 feet. Both pitch and bank should be constantly changing. Coordinate with rudder. decreasing pitch to level. First half of maneuver: Maintain constant bank angle. Second 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 30º. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Set propeller at 2500 RPM. maintain initial entry altitude  100 feet. During rollout. Call for and perform cruise checklist. heading ± 10º.             LAZY 8S Objective: To maneuver the airplane through two 180º turns while constantly changing pitch attitude and bank angle. Last 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle and pitch attitude to level. heading ± 10º. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.

Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Bank may be increased up to 60º.        Set altitude no more than 1000’ AGL. Turn carburetor heat on. Passing over reference point. unless terrain and wind conditions dictate otherwise. Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS). Turn carburetor heat on. Plan recovery (or transition into power-off 180º accuracy landing) by 1500’ AGL. .” Set propeller at 2500 RPM. adjust bank angle as necessary to maintain constant radius around reference point. During descent. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS. Plan descent as in normal traffic pattern.” Ensure cowl flaps are closed. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS. roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.          Set altitude as necessary to ensure at least three complete 360º turns with recovery by 1500’ AGL. Pick outside ground reference point. to touchdown within 200’ of designated landing point.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP SPIRALS C172RG-11/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate sufficient planning as to maneuver the airplane through at least three 360º descending turns while tracking a constant radius circle. Set propeller at 2500 RPM.  POWER-OFF 180º ACCURACY LANDINGS Objective: Safely maneuver the airplane from abeam a landing point to a successful power-off touchdown. Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS). During rollout maintain heading ± 10º.

     Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. heading and airspeed. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. Turns should be performed in both directions.e. call out new target altitude. wings level. pitch level. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. With constant airspeed. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. heading  10º (in straight flight). without outside visual reference. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm.   .  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172RG-12/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. wings level. pitch level. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Simulated full power (25” MP). Call for and perform cruise checklist. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). Stalls. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. With constant rate. Maintain altitude  100’. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device.

Set carburetor heat ON. . Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Set radios to tower or CTAF. If entering traffic pattern. Trim aircraft.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172RG-13/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”).          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Call for and perform descent checklist. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Review all airport information.

Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. When desired altitude is reached.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. . When desired altitude is reached. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing.        C172RG-14/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Lower upwind wing into wind. Lower upwind wing into wind. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder.

Set mixture full rich. Set mixture full rich. Maintain altitude  100 feet.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Maintain altitude  100 feet.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. call for and perform cruise checklist. call for and perform cruise checklist. Pick outside visual reference.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172RG-15/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. After completing one full circle. During maneuver. Determine wind direction. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pick outside visual reference point. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. . TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.

Passing abeam the reference point.    . 8S-ON-PYLONS Objective: To fly a figure-eight pattern around two reference points while keeping the point fixed on the wingtip. Plan to enter the turn downwind perpendicular to the reference point. Set mixture full rich. wings level.         Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Plan to enter the turn downwind. Pick new reference point off opposite wingtip and repeat maneuver in other direction. roll wings-level and maintain level flight while selecting reference point. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. Pick outside visual reference point. bank aircraft so point is on wingtip.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Bank angle will not be constant and will be adjusted as necessary to maintain visual contact with the point (approximately 30 . S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. During maneuver. During maneuver. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. adjust altitude as necessary to keep reference point in same spot. Determine wind direction. Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. After completing at least one full S-turn. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. call for and perform cruise checklist. Set mixture full rich.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172RG-16/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line.40 at the steepest point). Maintain altitude  100 feet. perpendicular to reference line. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude to pivotal altitude (800’ AGL). After completing one turn around the reference point.

location. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. pull the throttle control to idle. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. including engine restart. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. reduce throttle to idle. Communicate emergency. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Pitch airspeed for 75 KIAS (best glide). C172RG-17/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. nature of emergency and number on board. If time and altitude permit. Apply carburetor heat and turn fuel pump on. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.        .Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. Select best landing site and turn towards it. For training purposes. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. continue with the following procedures. Perform verbal passenger briefing.       To simulate an engine failure. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Extend landing gear at 1500’ AGL.

(Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. . including engine restart. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Retract last notch of flaps. continue with the following procedures.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Call for and perform climb checklist. full flaps and landing gear may be lowered to increase descent angle. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.         Smoothly increase throttle to full power. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Verify a positive rate of climb. nature of emergency and number on board. For training purposes. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Retract landing gear. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. If desired. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Communicate emergency. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Perform verbal passenger briefing. pitch for V X (67 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. location. Turn carburetor heat off.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. If time and altitude permit. If using flaps. C172RG-18/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Pitch for descent airspeed of 105 KIAS. Pitch for a climb at V x . After verifying a positive rate of climb. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. If time and altitude permit. use descent airspeed of 95 KIAS (VFE -5 KIAS for training purposes). Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind.

Call for and perform before landing checklist. If landing advisory is not available.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. Once landing runway is determined. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. if any.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172RG-19/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. including position and intentions. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. if any. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. . especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids.

Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Perform final GUMPS check. Downwind leg. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. Switches). .  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. decrease power to idle and begin flare. correcting for wind as necessary. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Undercarriage. then the nosewheel.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172RG-20/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. power for altitude control. then the downwind wheel. Mixture. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).  Touch down on main wheels first.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. set flaps to 10°.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. If landing in a crosswind.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS). lower the landing gear.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM.  Perform second GUMPS check. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Begin descent. Props.  Reduce power to 15” MP.

 Perform second GUMPS check.  Begin descent. Do not retract the flaps! Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. Downwind leg.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. C172RG-21/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. set flaps to 10°. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. Mixture.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).  Pitch for descent at 63 KIAS and trim aircraft. lower the landing gear. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Apply firm but even braking while bringing yoke full aft.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. .  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Perform final GUMPS check.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS). Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Reduce power to 15” MP.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. power for altitude control. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Undercarriage. Switches). decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Props. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.

 Begin descent. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. . Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Undercarriage.  Perform second GUMPS check.  Use pitch for airspeed control. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. Switches). Props.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport. C172RG-22/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 63 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Downwind leg.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touch-and-go. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll. Mixture. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. lower the landing gear. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. power for altitude control.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. set flaps to 10°. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS).Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).

. the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway. Leaving one finger on the gear handle without undue pressure will ensure that the gear handle locks into the detent. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land.000’ AGL. In the traffic pattern. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing. Vx or barrier clearance may be used as published in the AFM. GUMPS check lists (reference normal and short landing procedures in this manual) shall be performed on each leg of the traffic pattern. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but fewer than 3 green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated. the PIC should contact HAI dispatch (122. Extreme caution must be exercised to ensure the gear is extended prior to landing. Exceptions – Lower speed for Short Field climb. V MC or drag demos. Simulated engine failures should not occur below 400‘ AGL. Both fuel selectors must be ON below 4000’ AGL unless there is an actual emergency. Use a minimum altitude of 4000’ AGL for complete engine shutdowns. maintain V Y (88 KIAS) through 500‘ AGL. keep one finger on the landing gear lever until the gear is locked up or down as desired and verified with the three green indicator lights. Do not pull the 5 Amp “Gear Pump” circuit breaker. To simulate landing gear failure. Selecting the gear to the down position should be accomplished using a flat hand.Maneuver Manual Seminole Multi Engine Procedures GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:           PA44-1/R-4     A maximum of one simulated system emergency at any time is allowed below 2. no warning horn and visually in external mirror. Do not turn the fuel selectors off or move the mixture to idle cutoff. landing gear is to be extended no later than midfield on the downwind. shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. During takeoff. Gear handle will move to the down position without being pulled “out of the detent”.85) while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist. When cycling the gear. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed. On final approach Pilot Flying will verbally inquire “Verify 3 green?” – Pilot Monitoring will respond “3 green verified” after visual confirmation. Checklists must be used on each and every flight. Low-altitude engine failures (below 4000’ AGL) should only be performed by reducing one of the throttles to idle. Simulated engine failures on the runway should not occur above 40 KIAS. no red gear unsafe warning. pull the 25 Amp “Landing Gear” circuit breaker.

PA44-2/R-4 .  Limit number of gear cycles on touch-and-goes.Maneuver Manual Operational Concerns These items will help increase the life of the aircraft and reduce overall operational costs:  One complete engine shutdown to full feather during rating.  Avoid back-to-back V MC and drag demos to reduce wear on engines.

total/108 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts. – 112 KIAS @ 2700 lbs. (dipstick.Maneuver Manual Seminole (PA-44) PA-44 SPECIFICATIONS References: PA44 AFM revision VB-860 Lycoming O-360 and LO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 110 gal. per engine) V SO V MCA VS VR V SSE V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY V XSE V YSE VA V CC – 55 KIAS – 56 KIAS (note that this is a stalled condition) – 57 KIAS – 75 KIAS (value may vary based on takeoff weight) – 88 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 169 KIAS – 202 KIAS – 140 KIAS (down) – 109 KIAS (up) – 140 KIAS – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level (blue line) – 135 KIAS @ 3800 lbs. – 105 KIAS (cruise climb) PA44-3/R-4 .

ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA Straight in/ Circle land 1 dot up 5deg bk 1/4 dot up 2-5deg bk 1/2 dot down 2-5 deg bk-500'/min 1 dot down 2-5 deg bk-600'/min 1 dot down900'/min 1/4 dot up 2-5° bank as required 105 88-105 27" as req. Final app. ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA 1 dot down level 1 dot down600'/min 2 dot down900'/min level 105 21" 2500 rich 105 13" 2500 rich 120 105 105 15" 16" 17" 2300 2300 2500 " " rich " " " " " " " " 80-105 80-105 15"-18" 13"-15" 23002700 2700 " rich " 1/2 dot down 88-105 15"-18" 2300 " " Gear down 10-25 deg flaps Gear down 25-40 deg flaps 1 dot down 40 deg flaps 5-10 up 5-10 up level 1 dot down level 75-105 105 140 140 120 30" 25" 23" 20" 19" 2700 2500 2300 2300 2300 " " " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps closed " " " " Attitude KIAS M.Maneuver Manual CONFIGURATION AND POWER SETTING TABLE PA-44 Situation NORM OPS VFR/IFR Takeoff climb cruise cruise descent App. Down wind abeam #'s Base Final IFR PROC. Dec. Descent. 2500 2700 rich rich " " 105 17" 2500 rich gear down 105 18" 2500 rich gear down 105 19" 2500 88 105 30" 25" 2700 2500 " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open " " Gear down flaps as req. App.P. RPM Mixture Configuration PA44-4/R-4 Gear down 25 deg flaps Gear dwn 10 deg flaps Gear down 10 deg flaps SE OPS IFR/VFR Climb Level flight App. Cruise VFR PROC. .

verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power).           PA44-5/R-4         Perform line-up check. With significant surface wind. “Airspeed alive. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Perform HITTS checklist.” As airspeed increases. propellers to 2. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. . pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Call the Go Decision Point. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. Call for and perform climb checklist. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKEOFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Listen for engine irregularities. As the takeoff roll begins.500 RPM. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Pitch for V Y (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At V R (75 KIAS).

500 RPM. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. . At 70 KIAS (63 KIAS with 25° flaps). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Perform HITTS checklist. As the takeoff roll begins. Apply and hold brakes. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP.” As airspeed increases. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. “Airspeed alive. At hold-short line set flaps to 0° (25° flaps may be used if obstacles dictate additional clearance). Set stabilator trim slightly nose-high.Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF & CLIMB PA44-6/R-4 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check.          Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. accelerate to VY (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Call the Go Decision Point. Pitch for 75 KIAS (67 KIAS with 25° flaps) and trim aircraft. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. Call for and perform climb checklist. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Listen for engine irregularities. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Release brakes. With significant surface wind. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. propellers to 2.

Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. beginning level-off”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If still on.Maneuver Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB PA44-7/R-4 Soft field takeoffs are not typically practiced in multi-engine aircraft and are not required by PTS. . Call for and perform cruise checklist.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude.g. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.” “100’ prior to altitude. Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). ENROUTE CLIMB Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Trim aircraft for level flight. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”).        Pitch for V CC (105 KIAS) and trim aircraft. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. “500 feet to go. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached.

Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. heading  10º.Maneuver Manual SLOW FLIGHT PA44-8/R-4 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set throttles to 15” MP. At target airspeed (65 KIAS unless specified). increase throttles to 20” MP. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. To recover from slow flight. Below V LE (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Close cowl flaps. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Below V FE (111 KIAS). Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases.                    Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Open cowl flaps. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. At cruise airspeed. . altitude  100 feet.” Pick outside visual reference point. Retract landing gear below V LO (109 KIAS). The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. increase power to 18” MP. Retract last 10º flaps.

Announce heading. Call for and perform cruise checklist. and rollout on the same entry heading. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude.” Pick outside visual reference point. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. airspeed. Control bank angle with ailerons. reduce power to 21” MP. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. 50º commercial). altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver.              PA44-9/R-4 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Set propellers at 2300 RPM and throttles at 21” MP as necessary to maintain V A . angle of bank. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Maneuver Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. During rollout. altitude  100 feet. . Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-OFF STALLS

PA44-10/R-4

Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Below V FE (111 KIAS), add flaps incrementally until full flaps are extended. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), initiate a 500 fpm descent, decrease power to idle. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls, smoothly increase power to 25” MP. Pitch for level attitude, level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Turn carburetor heat off. Retract flaps one notch and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Retract next notch flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. Retract landing gear. Retract last 10º flaps. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions.                

PA44-11/R-4

Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Open cowl flaps. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), increase power to 20” MP. This will be simulated maximum power, and no further increases should be made. Turn carburetor heat off. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Announce first indication of stall (buffet, stall warning horn or loss of control effectiveness) and promptly begin recovery. Do not perform a full stall. Decrease pitch attitude and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Close cowl flaps. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
V YSE GEAR AND FLAP DRAG DEMO

PA44-12/R-4

Objective: The drag demo is used to determine performance characteristics of the aircraft in different configurations while operating on one engine. It is very useful to determine the order in which items should be cleaned up in the event of an engine failure of a single engine go around. When making configuration changes, allow the airplane to become established before noting the VSI reading.                    Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Simulate failure of right engine by moving throttle to idle. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase left throttle to 25” MP. Open left cowl flap. Check and note VSI reading. This is the value with a windmilling propeller. Pitch for blue line  5 KIAS. Check and note VSI reading each time. Return to blue line. Simulate feathering the right propeller by increasing throttle to 11½” MP and decreasing propeller to 2000 RPM. Check and note VSI reading. Lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Raise landing gear. Lower flaps one notch at a time. At each position check and note VSI reading. With flaps fully extended, lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Simulate un-feathering right propeller by decreasing throttle to idle and increasing propeller to full forward. Check and note VSI reading. Recover by increasing right throttle to 15” MP, reducing left throttle to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM. Do not make significant power changes or increase the right throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. Retract landing gear. Retract flaps one notch at a time. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

  

Recover within 20° of the entry heading. When simulating this maneuver it is imperative to stress a minimal altitude loss as a V MC condition is most likely to occur close to the ground. Maintain directional control using rudder pressure until full rudder is applied. ±5 KIAS during recovery. Recover promptly by simultaneously reducing power sufficiently on the operating engine while decreasing the pitch attitude as necessary to regain airspeed and directional control with a minimum loss of altitude. Set throttle to 15” MP.      Note: The most critical point for a pilot to lose an engine is close to the ground. proper technique must be learned. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Slowly decrease airspeed 1 KIAS per second by increasing pitch attitude. Announce the first indication of loss of yaw or roll control. Pitch for level flight and. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. as appropriate.” Pick outside visual reference point. once reaching cruise airspeed. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase right throttle to 25” MP. Turn left carburetor heat on. This maneuver is designed to teach the pilot to recognize the onset of a loss of control due to asymmetrical thrust. Close cowl flaps. Open right cowl flap. Due to the potential of loss of altitude if loss of an engine occurs close to the ground during a go-around or takeoff. The student will learn the feel of the aircraft leading up to V MC and the proper corrective action should it be encountered. Recovery should not be attempted by increasing the power on the simulated failed engine. stall warning. . Simulate failure of left engine by moving throttle to idle.               Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. Establish a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. or buffet and immediately initiate recovery. Advance power smoothly on operating engine and accelerate to V XSE /V YSE .Maneuver Manual V MC DEMO PA44-13/R-4 Objective: Develop the knowledge and skills required to safely handle a minimal controllable airspeed situation. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.

dead engine”).  Open cowl flap on operative engine.Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (SIMULATED) PA44-14/R-4 Objective: Simulate in-flight failure of an engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper troubleshooting procedures.     . Mixtures full forward. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine. Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine. if no additional yaw is detected. Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. Throttles full forward. The throttle should be retarded halfway and. however. the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference.  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications. Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying. troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. Simulate feathering the propeller on the inoperative engine by increasing the throttle to 11½“ MP and reducing the propeller to 2000 RPM. if time and altitude permit. Landing gear up.  Ensure magnetos are on. increase throttle to 15” MP. To simulate a restart of the inoperative engine. all the way.  Turn boost pumps on. Propellers full forward. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. If altitude permits. Call for and perform cruise checklist. (Verbalize only) Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook.  Ensure fuel selectors are on.  Ensure primers are in and locked.  Turn Carburetor heat on.          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS). Flaps up.

Mixtures full forward.  Ensure magnetos are on.  Ensure fuel selectors are on. increase throttle to 15” MP. all the way. the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot. if no additional yaw is detected. Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine. The throttle should be retarded halfway and. move the propeller control into the detent. If restarting is unsuccessful. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine. if no additional yaw is detected. Throttles full forward. Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. Call for and perform cruise checklist. however.  Ensure primers are in and locked. Flaps up.  Turn Carburetor heat on. feather the propeller on the inoperative engine. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying. Retard propeller control halfway and.  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications.          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS).Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (COMPLETE SHUTDOWN) PA44-15/R-4 Objective: Perform complete shutdown of one engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper engine securing and restarting procedures.      . troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist. if time and altitude permit. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. If altitude permits. Ensure propeller is above 950 RPM. dead engine”). Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. Propellers full forward.  Turn boost pumps on. After restarting inoperative engine. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Landing gear up. Restart engine as per checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook.  Open cowl flap on operative engine. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM.

Reduce throttles smoothly to idle.” Close cowl flaps. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. (Verbalize only) Pull mixtures to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valves OFF. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Ensure carburetor heat is off. nature of emergency and number on board. Pitch for a climb. If time and altitude permit. If time and altitude permit. PA44-16/R-4 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Verify a positive rate of climb. Extend landing gear below V LE (140 KIAS). the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. continue with the following procedures. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. location. including engine restart. Retract landing gear. . Select best landing site and turn towards it.                Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight.         Smoothly increase throttles to full power. Retract last notch of flaps. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. Perform verbal passenger briefing. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing.Maneuver Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Pitch for descent airspeed of 140 KIAS. Communicate emergency. Call for and perform climb checklist. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Set propellers full forward. pitch for V X (82 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. Once verifying a positive rate of climb. For training purposes.

At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point.Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES PA44-17/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety.  Call for and perform before-landing checklist. Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist.  Set throttles to 17” MP. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH.  Tune and identify primary navaid. continue with landing.  Perform final GUMPS check. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches).  Pitch for 80 KIAS and trim aircraft. forward.  If runway environment is in sight. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF if practicing IAPs at uncontrolled airports. Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 40º. Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. including position and intentions.  Set propellers to 2500 RPM.  Set flaps to 25º for precision approach (10º for non-precision). Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches.  (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear. extend landing gear.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH. especially when reporting positions in reference to IFR-only navigational aids. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. . Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power.

 Do not extend flaps. Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point. Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope.  Call for and perform before-landing checklist. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches).  Pitch for 85 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Tune and identify primary navaid.  Perform final GUMPS check. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches. forward.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. . Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power.  If runway environment is in sight.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn. extend landing gear. continue with landing.  (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH.Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES (SINGLE-ENGINE) PA44-18/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety while simulating the loss of one engine. Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 25º.  Set throttle on operating engine to 18” MP.  Set propeller on operating engine to 2500 RPM.

Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. plan overflight of airport at 1000’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Call for and perform before landing checklist.Maneuver Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD PA44-19/R-4 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Once landing runway is determined. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. if any. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Call for and perform before landing checklist. including position and intentions. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. If landing advisory is not available. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. if any. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. .

Switches). pitch for 100 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Downwind leg.Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING PA44-20/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. pitch for descent at 80 KIAS and trim aircraft.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS). set flaps to 10°.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Note: For single-engine landings limit final approach speed to 90 KIAS and flap setting to 25°.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. . propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. forward.  Perform second GUMPS check. then the nosewheel.  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Props. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°. then the downwind wheel. correcting for wind as necessary.  Pitch for descent at 90 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Perform final GUMPS check. If landing in a crosswind.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM.  Touch down on main wheels first. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. lower the landing gear.  Begin descent.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Mixture. power for altitude control. Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on. Verify gear is down in mirror. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Undercarriage. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns.

perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Props.  Perform second GUMPS check. Perform final flow check of mixture controls.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. Downwind leg. forward.  Pitch for descent at 85 KIAS and trim aircraft. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Flaps may be retracted to increase braking effectiveness.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). lower the landing gear. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Mixture. Apply firm but gentle braking while bringing yoke full aft.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. pitch for 95 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS).  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on.  Touch down on main wheels first. power for altitude control. Verify gear is down in mirror. PA44-21/R-4 Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM.  Perform final GUMPS check. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. . Switches). Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM. Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. set flaps to 10°.  Begin descent. pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Undercarriage.Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.

Maneuver Manual PA44-22/R-4 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful