Flight Instructor Manual

Single-Engine Procedures
GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:       

F-13/R-3

A maximum of one simulated system emergency is allowed below 2,000’ AGL. To simulate engine failure, pull the throttle control to idle. Do not pull the mixture control to idle cutoff or turn the fuel shutoff valve off. During off-airport simulated engine failures, flight should not be continued below 500’ AGL. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed. When taking off, maintain V Y through 500’ AGL. Checklists must be used on each and every flight. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but no green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated, the PIC should contact HAI dispatch while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land, the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway, shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 152
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-235 108 BHP @ 2550 RPM Fuel capacity: 26 gal. total/24.5 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 35 KIAS – 40 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 85 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 149 KIAS – 54 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 61 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 104 KIAS @ 1,670 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 1,500 lbs. – 93 KIAS @ 1,350 lbs. – 70 KIAS (cruise climb) – 60 KIAS (maximum glide)

C152-1/R-3

Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. “Airspeed alive. As the takeoff roll begins.” As airspeed increases. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. With significant surface wind. Pitch for V Y (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks           C152-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. At V R (50 KIAS). Coordinate using rudder and aileron. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Call for and perform climb checklist. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). Listen for engine irregularities. . Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Perform HITTS checklist.

At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Listen for engine irregularities.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. With significant surface wind. .” As airspeed increases. As the takeoff roll begins. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. As airspeed increases. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Release brakes. Perform HITTS checklist. At V R (50 KIAS). If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Apply and hold brakes. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Call for and perform climb checklist. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. “Airspeed alive. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power).

Coordinate using rudder and aileron. “Airspeed alive. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Call for and perform climb checklist. Listen for engine irregularities.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (54 KIAS) and begin climbout. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. . Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. As airspeed increases. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll.” As airspeed increases. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Perform HITTS checklist. With significant surface wind. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. As the takeoff roll begins.

Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C152-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling.       Pitch for V CC (70 KIAS) and trim aircraft.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude.” “100’ prior to altitude. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. beginning level-off”). Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Coordinate aircraft with rudder. If still on.g. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Trim aircraft for level flight. . “500 feet to go. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e.

reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist. heading  10º. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Turn carburetor heat on. At target airspeed (50 KIAS unless specified). Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. add full power. increase power to 2000 RPM. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C152-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations.” Pick outside visual reference point. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Once reaching cruise airspeed. altitude  100 feet. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. Below V FE (85 KIAS). To recover.               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. . Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control.

bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. reduce power to 2100 RPM. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver.” Pick outside visual reference point. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. 50º commercial).Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Announce heading. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. . Control bank angle with ailerons. angle of bank. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . altitude  100 feet. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Call for and perform cruise checklist. During rollout. airspeed. and rollout on the same entry heading. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude.              C152-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL.

initiate 500 fpm descent. increase power to full. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. Call for and perform cruise checklist. 50 KIAS unless specified). If a turning stall is to be performed. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Turn carburetor heat off. once reaching cruise airspeed. When aircraft stalls. At target airspeed (V R . confirming positive rate of climb each time. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Pitch for level flight and. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. . Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (54 KIAS). enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Turn carburetor heat on.                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. until fully retracted. Set mixture full rich. Pitch for level attitude. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C152-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Below V FE (85 KIAS). decrease power to idle.” Pick outside visual reference point. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually.

When aircraft stalls. Turn carburetor heat on. decrease pitch attitude.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Set mixture full rich. If a turning stall is to be performed. once reaching cruise airspeed. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Reduce power to 1500 RPM.” Pick outside visual reference point. 50 KIAS unless specified).                C152-9/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS).” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. At target airspeed (V R . increase power to full. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Turn carburetor heat off. . Pitch for level flight and. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.

     Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. With constant airspeed. heading  10º (in straight flight). o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. Turns should be performed in both directions. Stalls. heading and airspeed. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. Call for and perform cruise checklist. call out new target altitude. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. pitch level. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude.   . UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. without outside visual reference. Maintain altitude  100’. wings level.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C152-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. With constant rate. pitch level. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. wings level. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it.e.

plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Set carburetor heat ON. If entering traffic pattern. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C152-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. . Review all airport information. Trim aircraft. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed.          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Call for and perform descent checklist.

Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Lower upwind wing into wind. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. When desired altitude is reached. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input.        C152-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. When desired altitude is reached. . Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip.

          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. During maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Determine wind direction. Pick outside visual reference point. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. call for and perform cruise checklist. Set mixture full rich. call for and perform cruise checklist. After completing one full circle. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C152-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Pick outside visual reference. . Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Set mixture full rich. Determine wind direction.

S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. Plan to enter the turn downwind. During maneuver. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. After completing at least one full S-turn. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. . perpendicular to reference line.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C152-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. call for and perform cruise checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Determine wind direction. Set mixture full rich.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. wings level.

C152-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. For training purposes. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Pitch airspeed for 60 KIAS (best glide). (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.       To simulate an engine failure.       . Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. continue with the following procedures. reduce throttle to idle. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. including engine restart. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it. nature of emergency and number on board. Perform verbal passenger briefing. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. location. pull the throttle control to idle. If time and altitude permit. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. Communicate emergency. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight.

the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. If time and altitude permit. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Call for and perform climb checklist. Communicate emergency. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. If using flaps. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. Pitch for descent airspeed of 85 KIAS. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. After verifying a positive rate of climb. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. nature of emergency and number on board. If desired. pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. For training purposes. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Perform verbal passenger briefing. C152-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. location. including engine restart. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. Pitch for a climb at V x . If time and altitude permit. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Immediately retract one notch of flaps.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. .Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Turn carburetor heat off. continue with the following procedures.

make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. If landing advisory is not available. . Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Call for and perform before landing checklist. if any. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. if any.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. including position and intentions. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Call for and perform before landing checklist.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C152-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. Once landing runway is determined. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.

If landing in a crosswind. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS and trim aircraft. then the downwind wheel. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. . touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Touch down on main wheels first. Downwind leg. correcting for wind as necessary. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Trim aircraft.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Begin descent.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C152-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. set flaps to 10°.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Decrease power to idle and begin flare.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS).  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. then the nosewheel.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. power for altitude control.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.

 When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS). then gently lower nosewheel to the ground. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. power for altitude control.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Begin descent. C152-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). pitch for 75 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. set flaps to 10°.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. apply firm but even braking.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Pitch for descent at 54 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Downwind leg. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Touch down on main wheels first. decrease power to idle and begin flare. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. . request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.  Use pitch for airspeed control.

Downwind leg. C152-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS (use 54 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. set flaps to 10°. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible.  Use pitch for airspeed control. power for altitude control.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Begin descent. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS).  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. . Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.

(dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 33 KIAS – 44 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° – 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 127 KIAS – 158 KIAS – 60 KIAS @ Sea level – 65 KIAS @ 10. total/50 usable (long range) Oil capacity: 7 qts. – 92 KIAS @ 2000 lbs.000 feet – 99 KIAS @ 2400 lbs. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 65 KIAS (maximum glide) C172P-1/R-3 . total/40 usable (standard) or 54 gal.000 feet – 76 KIAS @ Sea level – 71 KIAS @ 10.Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172P SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-320 160 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 43 gal. – 82 KIAS @ 1600 lbs.

Call for and perform climb checklist. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. “Airspeed alive. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Listen for engine irregularities. Pitch for V Y (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. With significant surface wind. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS).” As airspeed increases.           C172P-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Perform HITTS checklist.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. As the takeoff roll begins. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. . The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. At V R (55 KIAS). Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control.

If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. “Airspeed alive. Release brakes. Listen for engine irregularities.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Perform HITTS checklist. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Call for and perform climb checklist. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Apply and hold brakes. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power).” As airspeed increases. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. . At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. With significant surface wind. As airspeed increases. As the takeoff roll begins. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. At V R (55 KIAS).

Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS).” As airspeed increases. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. As the takeoff roll begins.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. Listen for engine irregularities. Call for and perform climb checklist. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. As airspeed increases. “Airspeed alive. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (60 KIAS) and begin climbout. Perform HITTS checklist. . With significant surface wind. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude.

Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Trim aircraft for level flight. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). “500 feet to go.” “100’ prior to altitude. Call for and perform cruise checklist.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude.g. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). If still on. beginning level-off”). Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172P-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. . turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Set the pitch for a level attitude.       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft.

Below V FE (110 KIAS). turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. . Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. increase power to 2000 RPM. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Turn carburetor heat on. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172P-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. add full power. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified).               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. altitude  100 feet. To recover. Once reaching cruise airspeed. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist. heading  10º. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS.” Pick outside visual reference point. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.

” Pick outside visual reference point. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . During rollout. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. and rollout on the same entry heading. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. airspeed. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Call for and perform cruise checklist. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. angle of bank. . Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Announce heading. reduce power to 2100 RPM.              C172P-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. 50º commercial). altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Control bank angle with ailerons. altitude  100 feet. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude.

confirming positive rate of climb each time. Set mixture full rich. once reaching cruise airspeed. Turn carburetor heat on. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Pitch for level flight and. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break.” Pick outside visual reference point.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172P-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Below V FE (110 KIAS). add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. increase power to full. Turn carburetor heat off.                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. At target airspeed (V R . When aircraft stalls. decrease power to idle. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. 55 KIAS unless specified). If a turning stall is to be performed. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. . Pitch for level attitude. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. until fully retracted. initiate 500 fpm descent. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (60 KIAS).

Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.                Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Pitch for V X (60 KIAS). If a turning stall is to be performed. once reaching cruise airspeed. . Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. decrease pitch attitude. Set mixture full rich. Turn carburetor heat on. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. increase power to full. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. At target airspeed (V R .Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172P-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. 55 KIAS unless specified). When aircraft stalls. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Turn carburetor heat off. Reduce power to 1500 RPM.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Pitch for level flight and.

wings level. pitch level. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). heading  10º (in straight flight). Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. Maintain altitude  100’. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Turns should be performed in both directions. With constant airspeed. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. pitch level.e. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. With constant rate. call out new target altitude. wings level. heading and airspeed.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172P-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments.   . maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. Stalls.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. Call for and perform cruise checklist.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. without outside visual reference.

         Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Review all airport information. Trim aircraft. . Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If entering traffic pattern.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172P-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Call for and perform descent checklist. Set carburetor heat ON. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”).

When desired altitude is reached. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing.        C172P-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Lower upwind wing into wind. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. When desired altitude is reached. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. . Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Lower upwind wing into wind.

TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. During maneuver. Pick outside visual reference point. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Determine wind direction.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Set mixture full rich. After completing one full rectangular pattern. . After completing one full circle. call for and perform cruise checklist. Pick outside visual reference. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172P-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Set mixture full rich. call for and perform cruise checklist.

During maneuver. After completing at least one full S-turn. Plan to enter the turn downwind. . perpendicular to reference line. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. Maintain altitude  100 feet.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. Set mixture full rich. Determine wind direction. wings level. call for and perform cruise checklist. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172P-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions.

including engine restart. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. If time and altitude permit.       . securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind.       To simulate an engine failure. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. For training purposes. Communicate emergency. reduce throttle to idle. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. Perform verbal passenger briefing. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. C172P-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. continue with the following procedures. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. pull the throttle control to idle. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. nature of emergency and number on board. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. location. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. Pitch airspeed for 65 KIAS (best glide).

Perform verbal passenger briefing. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. including engine restart. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. Communicate emergency. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. If time and altitude permit. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. After verifying a positive rate of climb. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Turn carburetor heat off. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. continue with the following procedures. pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted.       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. location.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Call for and perform climb checklist. Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS. If using flaps. Select best landing site and turn towards it. For training purposes. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. If time and altitude permit. nature of emergency and number on board. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Pitch for a climb at V x . for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). . If desired. C172P-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.

Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. if any. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. if any.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. If landing advisory is not available. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. unless otherwise instructed by ATC.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172P-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. including position and intentions. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. . Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Once landing runway is determined. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory.

Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172P-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. power for altitude control. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft. .  Begin descent. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. decrease power to idle and begin flare. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). set flaps to 10°.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. If landing in a crosswind. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Call for and perform before landing checklist Downwind leg. then the nosewheel. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. then the downwind wheel. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. correcting for wind as necessary.  Touch down on main wheels first. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.

 Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Begin descent. Downwind leg.  Use pitch for airspeed control. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Touch down on main wheels first. power for altitude control. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. apply firm but even braking. .Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. decrease power to idle and begin flare. set flaps to 10°. C172P-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.

Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Downwind leg. set flaps to 10°.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. power for altitude control. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. C172P-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Begin descent.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. .  Touch down on main wheels first.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Call for and perform before landing checklist. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 172S
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming IO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 56 gal. total/53 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 40 KIAS – 48 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 129 KIAS – 163 KIAS – 62 KIAS @ Sea level – 67 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 74 KIAS @ Sea level – 72 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 105 KIAS @ 2550 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 2200 lbs. – 90 KIAS @ 1900 lbs. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 68 KIAS (maximum glide)

C172S-1/R-3

Flight Instructor Manual
NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks.          

C172S-2/R-3

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Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for V Y (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

Flight Instructor Manual
SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB

C172S-3/R-3

Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Apply and hold brakes. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. Release brakes. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for 56 KIAS and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL, accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. As airspeed increases, announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

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Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport, request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay, perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.

“Airspeed alive. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps.” As airspeed increases. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (62 KIAS) and begin climbout. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. . Perform HITTS checklist. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. As airspeed increases. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Listen for engine irregularities. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Call for and perform climb checklist.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172S-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. With significant surface wind.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. As the takeoff roll begins. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS).

Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Call for and perform cruise checklist. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”).           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. If still on. “500 feet to go. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. beginning level-off”).” “100’ prior to altitude. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172S-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic.g.       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. . Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Trim aircraft for level flight.

Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º.” Pick outside visual reference point. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Call for and perform cruise checklist. altitude  100 feet. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. increase power to 2000 RPM. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. . Once reaching cruise airspeed. Below V FE (110 KIAS). heading  10º. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. add full power. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172S-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. To recover. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.

Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. During rollout. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Announce heading. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. and rollout on the same entry heading. .Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. altitude  100 feet. Control bank angle with ailerons. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. reduce power to 2100 RPM. 50º commercial). airspeed. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. angle of bank. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.              C172S-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.

55 KIAS unless specified). decrease power to idle. Pitch for level flight and. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder.                 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. When aircraft stalls. once reaching cruise airspeed. Set mixture full rich. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. increase power to full. If a turning stall is to be performed. until fully retracted. Below V FE (110 KIAS). . Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (62 KIAS).Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172S-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. initiate a 500 fpm descent.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Pitch for level attitude. At target airspeed (V R . confirming positive rate of climb each time. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Pick outside visual reference point.

Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Pitch for V X (62 KIAS). At target airspeed (V R . Pitch for level flight and. once reaching cruise airspeed. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder.” Pick outside visual reference point. decrease pitch attitude. When aircraft stalls. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. . increase power to full. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. If a turning stall is to be performed. Set mixture full rich.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. 55 KIAS unless specified). Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172S-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. heading  10º (in straight flight). Maintain altitude  100’. without outside visual reference. With constant rate.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). wings level. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. heading and airspeed. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Turns should be performed in both directions. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. pitch level. With constant airspeed. wings level. pitch level. Stalls. Call for and perform cruise checklist. call out new target altitude. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it.   .Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172S-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator.e.

Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Set radios to tower or CTAF. .Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172S-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. Call for and perform descent checklist. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Trim aircraft. Review all airport information.         Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. If entering traffic pattern. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern.

although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. When desired altitude is reached. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. Lower upwind wing into wind. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. When desired altitude is reached.        C172S-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. .

Maintain altitude  100 feet. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. After completing one full circle. Pick outside visual reference point. Determine wind direction.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pick outside visual reference.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172S-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Set mixture full rich. Set mixture full rich. call for and perform cruise checklist. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. call for and perform cruise checklist. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. During maneuver. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Determine wind direction. . After completing one full rectangular pattern. Maintain altitude  100 feet.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.

Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172S-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Plan to enter the turn downwind. wings level. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. After completing at least one full S-turn. During maneuver. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set mixture full rich. . perpendicular to reference line. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. call for and perform cruise checklist.

(Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. pull the throttle control to idle. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. location. Select best landing site and turn towards it. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Pitch airspeed for 68 KIAS (best glide). For training purposes. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Auxiliary fuel pump – On If time and altitude permit.       To simulate an engine failure. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. Turn fuel pump on. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight.       . reduce throttle to idle. including engine restart. C172S-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. If time and altitude permit.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. nature of emergency and number on board. continue with the following procedures. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. Communicate emergency. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind.

(Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. If using flaps. For training purposes. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. location. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. consult emergency checklist for further procedures.      Smoothly increase throttle to full power.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. After verifying a positive rate of climb. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. If desired. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. nature of emergency and number on board. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. . including engine restart. continue with the following procedures. C172S-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. pitch for V X (62 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted. Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS. Communicate emergency. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. Select best landing site and turn towards it. Call for and perform climb checklist. Perform verbal passenger briefing. If time and altitude permit. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. If time and altitude permit. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. Pitch for a climb at V x . Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind.

Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172S-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. if any.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. If landing advisory is not available. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. . Once landing runway is determined. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. including position and intentions. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Call for and perform before landing checklist.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. if any.

Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. decrease power to idle and begin flare. then the nosewheel.  Use pitch for airspeed control. set flaps to 10°. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. .  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. then the downwind wheel. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172S-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. If landing in a crosswind.  Begin descent.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. correcting for wind as necessary. Downwind leg. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. power for altitude control.  Touch down on main wheels first. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.

If landing in a crosswind.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Begin descent. C172S-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. then the downwind wheel. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. .  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground. apply firm but even braking.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). power for altitude control.  Touch down on main wheels first. Downwind leg. decrease power to idle and begin flare. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. then the nosewheel.  Use pitch for airspeed control.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. set flaps to 10°.

C172S-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport. Downwind leg.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. .  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS).  Begin descent.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. set flaps to 10°.  Call for and perform the before landing checklist.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. power for altitude control.

Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172RG SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 66 gal. total/62 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts.000 feet – 106 KIAS @ 2650 lbs. (maximum glide) – 67 KIAS @ 2250 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 2250 lbs. – 90 KIAS (cruise climb) – 73 KIAS @ 2650 lbs. – 61 KIAS @ 1850 lbs. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY VA V CC VG – 42 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 130 KIAS for 10° – 100 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 145 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 140 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 68 KIAS @ 10. – 89 KIAS @ 1850 lbs. C172RG-1/R-3 .000 feet – 84 KIAS @ Sea level – 77 KIAS @ 10.

Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-2/R-3 Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Listen for engine irregularities. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. As the takeoff roll begins. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP.           Perform line-up check. Pitch for V Y (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. “Airspeed alive. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway.” As airspeed increases. Call for and perform climb checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions.500 RPM. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. propellers to 2.        . increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. At V R (55 KIAS). Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. With significant surface wind. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). Perform HITTS checklist. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes.

” As airspeed increases. accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At V R (55 KIAS). At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. With significant surface wind. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. As airspeed increases. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Release brakes. As the takeoff roll begins. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request.500 RPM. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Apply and hold brakes. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. Perform HITTS checklist. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. propellers to 2.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Pitch for 63 KIAS and trim aircraft. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. . Listen for engine irregularities. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). “Airspeed alive.

Listen for engine irregularities.500 RPM. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Perfom HITTS checklist.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (67 KIAS) and begin climbout. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. propellers to 2. As airspeed increases.” As airspeed increases. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. As the takeoff roll begins. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). “Airspeed alive. .        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. With significant surface wind. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop.

Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Trim aircraft for level flight. Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. “500 feet to go. Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”).        Pitch for V CC (90 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude.” “100’ prior to altitude. . Set the pitch for a level attitude. If still on. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”).g. beginning level-off”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”).Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172RG-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e.

. Set throttle to 15” MP. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Retract last 10º flaps. Below V FE (130 KIAS). Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. altitude  100 feet. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. heading  10º. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. Set propeller to 2500 RPM. increase power to 20” MP. To recover from slow flight. increase throttle to 23” MP. Open cowl flaps.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172RG-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º.” Pick outside visual reference point. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Close cowl flaps. At cruise airspeed. Turn carburetor heat on. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Retract landing gear. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL.

or as necessary to maintain V A . . airspeed. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction.              Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. Announce heading. Call for and perform cruise checklist. During rollout. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Control bank angle with ailerons.” Pick outside visual reference point. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. reduce power to 19”-20” MP. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. 50º commercial).Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS C172RG-7/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. angle of bank. altitude  100 feet. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. and rollout on the same entry heading. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading.

decrease power to idle.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172RG-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. At target airspeed (V R . Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. initiate a 500 fpm descent.” Pick outside visual reference point. Below V FE (130 KIAS).                      Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL.” Retract next 10º flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Pitch for level flight and. If a turning stall is to be performed. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Turn carburetor heat on. 55 KIAS unless specified). Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Set propeller to 2500 RPM. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. Retract landing gear. . Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (67 KIAS). Retract last 10º flaps. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. smoothly increase power to full. Turn carburetor heat off. Set throttle to 15” MP. When aircraft stalls. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending more than 10º. Pitch for level attitude. once reaching cruise airspeed.

Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172RG-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Turn carburetor heat off. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. . If a turning stall is to be performed. Call for and perform cruise checklist. once reaching cruise airspeed.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pitch for level flight and. decrease pitch attitude. Turn carburetor heat on. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. When aircraft stalls. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually.” Pick outside visual reference point. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. increase power to 25” MP. Set throttle to 15” MP. 55 KIAS unless specified). This will be simulated maximum power. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Open cowl flaps. At target airspeed (V R .                  Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Close cowl flaps. Pitch for V X (67 KIAS). Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Set propeller to 2500 RPM. and no further increases should be made.

Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip. Call for and perform cruise checklist. decreasing pitch to level. During rollout. As airplane reaches 30º of bank increase throttle to 25” MP.             LAZY 8S Objective: To maneuver the airplane through two 180º turns while constantly changing pitch attitude and bank angle. increase pitch attitude. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. pitch to maximum nose-up.    . Both pitch and bank should be constantly changing. or as necessary to maintain V A . Second 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 30º. This will be simulated maximum power. First half of maneuver: Maintain constant bank angle. Coordinate with rudder. Coordinate with rudder. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. During rollout. Set propeller at 2500 RPM. Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. heading ± 10º. Last 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle and pitch attitude to level. rollout airspeed should be just above a stalling airspeed. Third 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle to 15º. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. decrease bank angle. First 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 15º.Flight Instructor Manual CHANDELLES C172RG-10/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through a 180º maximum-performance climbing turn. Second half of maneuver: Maintain constant pitch attitude. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. heading ± 10º. pitch to maximum nose-down. Call for and perform cruise checklist.       Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude  100 feet. maintain initial entry altitude  100 feet.

Turn carburetor heat on.” Ensure cowl flaps are closed. Pick outside ground reference point. Passing over reference point.        Set altitude no more than 1000’ AGL. During rollout maintain heading ± 10º. to touchdown within 200’ of designated landing point. adjust bank angle as necessary to maintain constant radius around reference point.  POWER-OFF 180º ACCURACY LANDINGS Objective: Safely maneuver the airplane from abeam a landing point to a successful power-off touchdown. roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. During descent. Plan descent as in normal traffic pattern. Plan recovery (or transition into power-off 180º accuracy landing) by 1500’ AGL. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS.          Set altitude as necessary to ensure at least three complete 360º turns with recovery by 1500’ AGL. Set propeller at 2500 RPM. Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS). . Turn carburetor heat on. Bank may be increased up to 60º. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. unless terrain and wind conditions dictate otherwise. Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS).” Set propeller at 2500 RPM. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP SPIRALS C172RG-11/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate sufficient planning as to maneuver the airplane through at least three 360º descending turns while tracking a constant radius circle.

Call for and perform cruise checklist. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. pitch level. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Simulated full power (25” MP).e. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. With constant airspeed. heading  10º (in straight flight).Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172RG-12/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. Stalls. Maintain altitude  100’. heading and airspeed.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. wings level. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude.   . Turns should be performed in both directions. wings level.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. without outside visual reference. pitch level. With constant rate. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. call out new target altitude. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS.

plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172RG-13/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Set carburetor heat ON. .          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. Trim aircraft. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Call for and perform descent checklist. Review all airport information. Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). If entering traffic pattern.

Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. When desired altitude is reached. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. When desired altitude is reached. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. . although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder.        C172RG-14/R-3 Decrease power to idle. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. Lower upwind wing into wind. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Lower upwind wing into wind.

TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Maintain altitude  100 feet.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. . Maintain altitude  100 feet. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Pick outside visual reference point. After completing one full circle. Set mixture full rich. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set mixture full rich.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172RG-15/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Determine wind direction.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. After completing one full rectangular pattern. During maneuver. Determine wind direction. Pick outside visual reference. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. call for and perform cruise checklist. call for and perform cruise checklist.

   . After completing at least one full S-turn. roll wings-level and maintain level flight while selecting reference point.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. adjust altitude as necessary to keep reference point in same spot. After completing one turn around the reference point. 8S-ON-PYLONS Objective: To fly a figure-eight pattern around two reference points while keeping the point fixed on the wingtip. Plan to enter the turn downwind. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pick new reference point off opposite wingtip and repeat maneuver in other direction. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. During maneuver. Pick outside visual reference point. bank aircraft so point is on wingtip. perpendicular to reference line. Set mixture full rich.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172RG-16/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions.         Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. call for and perform cruise checklist. Determine wind direction. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point.” Set altitude to pivotal altitude (800’ AGL). Passing abeam the reference point. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. Bank angle will not be constant and will be adjusted as necessary to maintain visual contact with the point (approximately 30 .40 at the steepest point). Plan to enter the turn downwind perpendicular to the reference point. Set mixture full rich. wings level. During maneuver.

(Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. continue with the following procedures. Select best landing site and turn towards it. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. reduce throttle to idle. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. For training purposes. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. Apply carburetor heat and turn fuel pump on. Communicate emergency. C172RG-17/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind.        . nature of emergency and number on board. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. pull the throttle control to idle. Perform verbal passenger briefing. If time and altitude permit. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. location.       To simulate an engine failure. Pitch airspeed for 75 KIAS (best glide). including engine restart. Extend landing gear at 1500’ AGL.

Select best landing site and turn towards it. If time and altitude permit. For training purposes. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. consult emergency checklist for further procedures.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Pitch for descent airspeed of 105 KIAS. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach.         Smoothly increase throttle to full power. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. use descent airspeed of 95 KIAS (VFE -5 KIAS for training purposes). Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. Retract landing gear. pitch for V X (67 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. Call for and perform climb checklist. continue with the following procedures. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. nature of emergency and number on board. Turn carburetor heat off. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Pitch for a climb at V x . Communicate emergency. Verify a positive rate of climb. If desired. Perform verbal passenger briefing. . location. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. full flaps and landing gear may be lowered to increase descent angle. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. C172RG-18/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Retract last notch of flaps. If time and altitude permit. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. including engine restart. If using flaps. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. After verifying a positive rate of climb. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.

including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. including position and intentions. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. if any. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172RG-19/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. . Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. If landing advisory is not available. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. Once landing runway is determined. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. if any.

 When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS).  Begin descent. Downwind leg.  Touch down on main wheels first. correcting for wind as necessary.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). lower the landing gear. power for altitude control. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured. Mixture. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. set flaps to 10°. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Switches).  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Perform second GUMPS check.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172RG-20/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Props. Undercarriage. decrease power to idle and begin flare. then the downwind wheel.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM. . then the nosewheel.  Reduce power to 15” MP. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. If landing in a crosswind.

 Perform final GUMPS check.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. power for altitude control. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS).  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Perform second GUMPS check. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. Undercarriage.  Pitch for descent at 63 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Touch down on main wheels first. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Begin descent. set flaps to 10°.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). .  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. Apply firm but even braking while bringing yoke full aft. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Switches). Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM. Do not retract the flaps! Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Reduce power to 15” MP. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Downwind leg. decrease power to idle and begin flare. lower the landing gear.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. Props. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. C172RG-21/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. Mixture. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.

C172RG-22/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 63 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. power for altitude control. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Touch down on main wheels first. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS). Mixture. Props.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM. . abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces.  Perform second GUMPS check.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). set flaps to 10°. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM. Downwind leg. lower the landing gear.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Begin descent. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. Undercarriage. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touch-and-go.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Switches).

the PIC should contact HAI dispatch (122. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing. keep one finger on the landing gear lever until the gear is locked up or down as desired and verified with the three green indicator lights. pull the 25 Amp “Landing Gear” circuit breaker. GUMPS check lists (reference normal and short landing procedures in this manual) shall be performed on each leg of the traffic pattern. Extreme caution must be exercised to ensure the gear is extended prior to landing. Use a minimum altitude of 4000’ AGL for complete engine shutdowns. . When cycling the gear. In the traffic pattern. maintain V Y (88 KIAS) through 500‘ AGL.Maneuver Manual Seminole Multi Engine Procedures GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:           PA44-1/R-4     A maximum of one simulated system emergency at any time is allowed below 2.000’ AGL. Do not turn the fuel selectors off or move the mixture to idle cutoff. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but fewer than 3 green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate. Checklists must be used on each and every flight.85) while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist. no warning horn and visually in external mirror. Vx or barrier clearance may be used as published in the AFM. On final approach Pilot Flying will verbally inquire “Verify 3 green?” – Pilot Monitoring will respond “3 green verified” after visual confirmation. Leaving one finger on the gear handle without undue pressure will ensure that the gear handle locks into the detent. Selecting the gear to the down position should be accomplished using a flat hand. To simulate landing gear failure. Simulated engine failures on the runway should not occur above 40 KIAS. shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. Both fuel selectors must be ON below 4000’ AGL unless there is an actual emergency. landing gear is to be extended no later than midfield on the downwind. Exceptions – Lower speed for Short Field climb. the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land. V MC or drag demos. Low-altitude engine failures (below 4000’ AGL) should only be performed by reducing one of the throttles to idle. no red gear unsafe warning. Do not pull the 5 Amp “Gear Pump” circuit breaker. Simulated engine failures should not occur below 400‘ AGL. Gear handle will move to the down position without being pulled “out of the detent”. During takeoff.

PA44-2/R-4 .  Avoid back-to-back V MC and drag demos to reduce wear on engines.Maneuver Manual Operational Concerns These items will help increase the life of the aircraft and reduce overall operational costs:  One complete engine shutdown to full feather during rating.  Limit number of gear cycles on touch-and-goes.

– 112 KIAS @ 2700 lbs. (dipstick. per engine) V SO V MCA VS VR V SSE V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY V XSE V YSE VA V CC – 55 KIAS – 56 KIAS (note that this is a stalled condition) – 57 KIAS – 75 KIAS (value may vary based on takeoff weight) – 88 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 169 KIAS – 202 KIAS – 140 KIAS (down) – 109 KIAS (up) – 140 KIAS – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level (blue line) – 135 KIAS @ 3800 lbs. total/108 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts. – 105 KIAS (cruise climb) PA44-3/R-4 .Maneuver Manual Seminole (PA-44) PA-44 SPECIFICATIONS References: PA44 AFM revision VB-860 Lycoming O-360 and LO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 110 gal.

ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA 1 dot down level 1 dot down600'/min 2 dot down900'/min level 105 21" 2500 rich 105 13" 2500 rich 120 105 105 15" 16" 17" 2300 2300 2500 " " rich " " " " " " " " 80-105 80-105 15"-18" 13"-15" 23002700 2700 " rich " 1/2 dot down 88-105 15"-18" 2300 " " Gear down 10-25 deg flaps Gear down 25-40 deg flaps 1 dot down 40 deg flaps 5-10 up 5-10 up level 1 dot down level 75-105 105 140 140 120 30" 25" 23" 20" 19" 2700 2500 2300 2300 2300 " " " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps closed " " " " Attitude KIAS M.P. App. ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA Straight in/ Circle land 1 dot up 5deg bk 1/4 dot up 2-5deg bk 1/2 dot down 2-5 deg bk-500'/min 1 dot down 2-5 deg bk-600'/min 1 dot down900'/min 1/4 dot up 2-5° bank as required 105 88-105 27" as req. RPM Mixture Configuration PA44-4/R-4 Gear down 25 deg flaps Gear dwn 10 deg flaps Gear down 10 deg flaps SE OPS IFR/VFR Climb Level flight App. Down wind abeam #'s Base Final IFR PROC.Maneuver Manual CONFIGURATION AND POWER SETTING TABLE PA-44 Situation NORM OPS VFR/IFR Takeoff climb cruise cruise descent App. . Final app. 2500 2700 rich rich " " 105 17" 2500 rich gear down 105 18" 2500 rich gear down 105 19" 2500 88 105 30" 25" 2700 2500 " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open " " Gear down flaps as req. Dec. Descent. Cruise VFR PROC.

At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. Listen for engine irregularities. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.           PA44-5/R-4         Perform line-up check. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. With significant surface wind. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on.Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKEOFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. “Airspeed alive. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). At V R (75 KIAS). increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control.500 RPM.” As airspeed increases. . Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. As the takeoff roll begins. Call for and perform climb checklist. Call the Go Decision Point. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Pitch for V Y (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. propellers to 2. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications.

As the takeoff roll begins. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Apply and hold brakes. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. At hold-short line set flaps to 0° (25° flaps may be used if obstacles dictate additional clearance). Coordinate using rudder and aileron. At 70 KIAS (63 KIAS with 25° flaps). Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Release brakes. propellers to 2. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline.500 RPM. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP.” As airspeed increases. Call the Go Decision Point.          Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Pitch for 75 KIAS (67 KIAS with 25° flaps) and trim aircraft. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude.Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF & CLIMB PA44-6/R-4 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Set stabilator trim slightly nose-high. With significant surface wind. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Call for and perform climb checklist. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). “Airspeed alive. Perform HITTS checklist. accelerate to VY (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. . At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Listen for engine irregularities.

Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. If still on. Call for and perform cruise checklist. ENROUTE CLIMB Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Trim aircraft for level flight.        Pitch for V CC (105 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. “500 feet to go. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). beginning level-off”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e.g. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”).Maneuver Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB PA44-7/R-4 Soft field takeoffs are not typically practiced in multi-engine aircraft and are not required by PTS. Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook.” “100’ prior to altitude. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”).           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. .

Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º. At cruise airspeed. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.” Pick outside visual reference point. Call for and perform cruise checklist.Maneuver Manual SLOW FLIGHT PA44-8/R-4 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. To recover from slow flight.                    Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. heading  10º. Below V FE (111 KIAS). Set throttles to 15” MP. Below V LE (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. Open cowl flaps. increase power to 18” MP. Retract last 10º flaps. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. altitude  100 feet. Close cowl flaps. At target airspeed (65 KIAS unless specified). . Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Retract landing gear below V LO (109 KIAS). add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. increase throttles to 20” MP.

As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude. Control bank angle with ailerons. and rollout on the same entry heading. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. angle of bank. reduce power to 21” MP. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. airspeed. During rollout. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Announce heading. 50º commercial). decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Set propellers at 2300 RPM and throttles at 21” MP as necessary to maintain V A .              PA44-9/R-4 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL.” Pick outside visual reference point. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. .Maneuver Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. altitude  100 feet. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-OFF STALLS

PA44-10/R-4

Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Below V FE (111 KIAS), add flaps incrementally until full flaps are extended. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), initiate a 500 fpm descent, decrease power to idle. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls, smoothly increase power to 25” MP. Pitch for level attitude, level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Turn carburetor heat off. Retract flaps one notch and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Retract next notch flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. Retract landing gear. Retract last 10º flaps. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions.                

PA44-11/R-4

Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Open cowl flaps. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), increase power to 20” MP. This will be simulated maximum power, and no further increases should be made. Turn carburetor heat off. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Announce first indication of stall (buffet, stall warning horn or loss of control effectiveness) and promptly begin recovery. Do not perform a full stall. Decrease pitch attitude and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Close cowl flaps. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
V YSE GEAR AND FLAP DRAG DEMO

PA44-12/R-4

Objective: The drag demo is used to determine performance characteristics of the aircraft in different configurations while operating on one engine. It is very useful to determine the order in which items should be cleaned up in the event of an engine failure of a single engine go around. When making configuration changes, allow the airplane to become established before noting the VSI reading.                    Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Simulate failure of right engine by moving throttle to idle. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase left throttle to 25” MP. Open left cowl flap. Check and note VSI reading. This is the value with a windmilling propeller. Pitch for blue line  5 KIAS. Check and note VSI reading each time. Return to blue line. Simulate feathering the right propeller by increasing throttle to 11½” MP and decreasing propeller to 2000 RPM. Check and note VSI reading. Lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Raise landing gear. Lower flaps one notch at a time. At each position check and note VSI reading. With flaps fully extended, lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Simulate un-feathering right propeller by decreasing throttle to idle and increasing propeller to full forward. Check and note VSI reading. Recover by increasing right throttle to 15” MP, reducing left throttle to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM. Do not make significant power changes or increase the right throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. Retract landing gear. Retract flaps one notch at a time. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

  

              Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. This maneuver is designed to teach the pilot to recognize the onset of a loss of control due to asymmetrical thrust. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase right throttle to 25” MP. Slowly decrease airspeed 1 KIAS per second by increasing pitch attitude. once reaching cruise airspeed. ±5 KIAS during recovery. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Recover promptly by simultaneously reducing power sufficiently on the operating engine while decreasing the pitch attitude as necessary to regain airspeed and directional control with a minimum loss of altitude. Set throttle to 15” MP. Pitch for level flight and. Recovery should not be attempted by increasing the power on the simulated failed engine. Simulate failure of left engine by moving throttle to idle. Turn left carburetor heat on.      Note: The most critical point for a pilot to lose an engine is close to the ground. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Maneuver Manual V MC DEMO PA44-13/R-4 Objective: Develop the knowledge and skills required to safely handle a minimal controllable airspeed situation. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. When simulating this maneuver it is imperative to stress a minimal altitude loss as a V MC condition is most likely to occur close to the ground. Recover within 20° of the entry heading. The student will learn the feel of the aircraft leading up to V MC and the proper corrective action should it be encountered. Open right cowl flap. . Close cowl flaps. proper technique must be learned. Establish a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine. as appropriate. Maintain directional control using rudder pressure until full rudder is applied. stall warning. Announce the first indication of loss of yaw or roll control. or buffet and immediately initiate recovery. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Advance power smoothly on operating engine and accelerate to V XSE /V YSE . Due to the potential of loss of altitude if loss of an engine occurs close to the ground during a go-around or takeoff.” Pick outside visual reference point.

Landing gear up. troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist. Flaps up. (Verbalize only) Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook.  Open cowl flap on operative engine.  Ensure fuel selectors are on. Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. if time and altitude permit.  Ensure magnetos are on. Mixtures full forward. If altitude permits.     . To simulate a restart of the inoperative engine. Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range.  Turn Carburetor heat on. Simulate feathering the propeller on the inoperative engine by increasing the throttle to 11½“ MP and reducing the propeller to 2000 RPM. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM.          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS).  Turn boost pumps on. Propellers full forward. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot. The throttle should be retarded halfway and. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying. increase throttle to 15” MP. the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference. dead engine”). all the way. Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine.  Ensure primers are in and locked. if no additional yaw is detected. Throttles full forward.Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (SIMULATED) PA44-14/R-4 Objective: Simulate in-flight failure of an engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper troubleshooting procedures. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. Call for and perform cruise checklist. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine. however. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory.  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications.

 Ensure fuel selectors are on. Ensure propeller is above 950 RPM.  Open cowl flap on operative engine. If restarting is unsuccessful. the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference. Landing gear up. feather the propeller on the inoperative engine. Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine.  Ensure primers are in and locked. Throttles full forward. if no additional yaw is detected. if time and altitude permit.      . Retard propeller control halfway and. dead engine”). The throttle should be retarded halfway and. however. Restart engine as per checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Flaps up. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM.  Ensure magnetos are on.  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook.  Turn boost pumps on. If altitude permits. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine. Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. all the way.          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS). if no additional yaw is detected. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist. increase throttle to 15” MP. After restarting inoperative engine. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying. Mixtures full forward. Propellers full forward.Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (COMPLETE SHUTDOWN) PA44-15/R-4 Objective: Perform complete shutdown of one engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper engine securing and restarting procedures. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory.  Turn Carburetor heat on. move the propeller control into the detent. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot.

Once verifying a positive rate of climb. Set propellers full forward. Communicate emergency. For training purposes. If time and altitude permit. Select best landing site and turn towards it. location.Maneuver Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Verify a positive rate of climb. nature of emergency and number on board. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Perform verbal passenger briefing.         Smoothly increase throttles to full power. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. pitch for V X (82 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. continue with the following procedures. Pitch for descent airspeed of 140 KIAS. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL.                Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. . If time and altitude permit. Pitch for a climb. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist.” Close cowl flaps. Call for and perform climb checklist. PA44-16/R-4 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Extend landing gear below V LE (140 KIAS). the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Retract last notch of flaps. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. Ensure carburetor heat is off. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. Retract landing gear. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. (Verbalize only) Pull mixtures to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valves OFF. including engine restart. Reduce throttles smoothly to idle. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point.

continue with landing. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches).  Perform final GUMPS check. Perform final flow check of mixture controls.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH. Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches.  Tune and identify primary navaid. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point. forward.  Pitch for 80 KIAS and trim aircraft. . down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power. Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments. At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF if practicing IAPs at uncontrolled airports.Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES PA44-17/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety. especially when reporting positions in reference to IFR-only navigational aids.  Set propellers to 2500 RPM. including position and intentions. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS.  If runway environment is in sight.  (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn.  Set throttles to 17” MP. Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 40º. Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist.  Set flaps to 25º for precision approach (10º for non-precision).  Call for and perform before-landing checklist. extend landing gear.

 (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear.  Do not extend flaps. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. . Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 25º.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Set propeller on operating engine to 2500 RPM.  If runway environment is in sight. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. continue with landing. Perform final flow check of mixture controls.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH. Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power.  Tune and identify primary navaid. At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope.  Pitch for 85 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS.  Call for and perform before-landing checklist. Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches. Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches).  Set throttle on operating engine to 18” MP. Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments. forward. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH. extend landing gear.Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES (SINGLE-ENGINE) PA44-18/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety while simulating the loss of one engine.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn.

TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. if any. . Once landing runway is determined. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids.Maneuver Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD PA44-19/R-4 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. including position and intentions. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. plan overflight of airport at 1000’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. If landing advisory is not available. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Call for and perform before landing checklist. if any. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic.

Perform final flow check of mixture controls. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. set flaps to 10°. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on. forward. If landing in a crosswind. then the nosewheel.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less. Downwind leg. pitch for descent at 80 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING PA44-20/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. then the downwind wheel. Note: For single-engine landings limit final approach speed to 90 KIAS and flap setting to 25°. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP. pitch for 100 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Begin descent. lower the landing gear. Verify gear is down in mirror. Mixture.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS).  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. Props.  Perform second GUMPS check. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. correcting for wind as necessary. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. power for altitude control. Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Touch down on main wheels first. Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°. Undercarriage. Switches). down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns. .  Pitch for descent at 90 KIAS and trim aircraft. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°.

 Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Undercarriage. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS). then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Flaps may be retracted to increase braking effectiveness. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. set flaps to 10°.Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Begin descent. Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. Downwind leg.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). power for altitude control. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. PA44-21/R-4 Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns. Mixture. .  Call for and perform before landing checklist. pitch for 95 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on.  Touch down on main wheels first. Props. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights.  Perform second GUMPS check. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.  Perform final GUMPS check. Verify gear is down in mirror. lower the landing gear.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM. forward. pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare. Apply firm but gentle braking while bringing yoke full aft. Switches).  Pitch for descent at 85 KIAS and trim aircraft.

Maneuver Manual PA44-22/R-4 .

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