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HISTORY OF INDIA South Asia North - Indo-Gangetic Plain South - Deccan Plateau I.

I. THE FIRST EMPIRES India by the End of the Axial Age 1500 BCE - The Aryans migrated into the Indus River Valley 1000-500 BCE The Indio-Aryans moved further eastward into the rest of the IndoGangetic Plain Sixteen great realms emerged to compete for supremacy. Kamboja Gandhatra Kuru Pachala Churasena Matsya Avanti Assaka Chetiya Vatsa Magadha Kashi Malla Kosala Vrijji Anga The power of Kshatriya increased, the rights of common man diminished. The Mauryans (321 184 BCE) Greatest extent under Dhana Nanda at 323 BCE. Founded by Chandragupta Maruya at 320 BCE after conquering the Nanda Empire. Extension of Borders: Extended borders towards Seleucid Persia afther defeating Seleucus at 305 BCE. Extended borders southward into Deccan Plateau during 300 BCE. Kautilya favors an autocratic welfare state (no ingdom can survive without a good and efficient economy). Chandragupat Maurya Firsrt emperor of India Chanakya The King Maker, The Indian Michiavelli; wrote Arthashastra Rajarishi as the ideal leader: 1. Has self-control. 2. Cultivates intellect with association with the elders. 3. Keeps his eyes open through spies. 4. Active in promoting the security & welfare of the people. 5. Ensures the observance of their dharma by authority & example. 6. Improves his own discipline by

learning in all branches of knowledge. 7. Endears himself to his people by enriching them & doing good to them. Chandragupat Maurya First emperor of India 1. Established Government Bureaucracy. 2. Controlled Economic Activity in Mines, Forest, Pear Fisheries, and salt fields. 3. Operated farms, shipyards, and arsenals. 4. Maintained a formidable military: o 600,000 infantry o 30,000 cavalry o 9,000 elephants 5. Constructed and improved infrastructures such as roads and irrigations. 6. Funded his works through a land tax (1/4 of of crops produced) Ashoka- patron of Buddhism Stupa literally meaning heap; mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of a Buddha; used by Buddhists as a place of worship o Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, Northeastern India; oldest Supta in existence.

The Spread of Buddhism Mahayana emphasizes belief in the Buddha and the bodhisattva as compassionate gods. Bodhisattva future Buddha Theravada Doctrine of the Elders; closest to the original version of the Buddha, their focus is on individual salvation and the importance of monastic life Vajrayana Diamond Vehicle or True Word Sect; stresses the importance of a close relationship between a guru and disciples; symbolized by Dalai Lama After the Maurya After the death of Ashoka, the Mauryans lost their territories and north India dissolved into a number of smaller states ruled by local dynasties. Savatahana on kingdom that established its own empire that would last for 400 years The Kushans (100 300) Originates from Chinese Central Asia Built an Empire supported by the Silk Road Had diplomatic ties with: o Rome o Persia o Han China Their art was a synthesis of Buddhist and Hellinistic (Greek) styles. Kanishka greatest king of the Kushans

II. THE GOLDEN AGE

The Gupta (320 500) Nalanda ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra, India are comprised of 31 rock-cut cave monuments which date from the 2nd Century BC; includes paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of both Buddhist religious art Key Cultural Advancements: 1. Indian culture was crystallized. From architecture to poetry, expressions were very rich and detailed. 2. Art forms were plentiful: the Panchahantra, the sanskrit drama, architecture, sculpture, and so on 3. The cults of Vishnu and Shiva became popular. 4. Buddhists patronized education, leading the Gupta to become the center of learning at that time. The Cholans (871 1279) Most prominent empire of the Tamil. There have been early mentions of the Cholans as early as 300 BCE in the works of Asoka but it was during the 9th Century that they achieved new heights as an empire. Meenakshi Temple in Madurai; the oldest city in South India. The Cholan, at its height, was a cultural superpower in Southeast Asia. Angkor Wat built in the 12th Century by King Suryavarman II; fusion of Khmer architecture and South Indian style; dedicated to Vishnu Pura Bekasi built in the 14th Century; monst prominent Hindu temple in Bali In mostly Muslim Indonesia, Bali is 93% Hindu. III. ISLAM IN INDIA Islam Enters India 712 850: Muslim Raiders from Persia are stopped by Rajputs 997 1030: Mahmud of Ghazni raided India and destroyed looted temples 1210 1526: The Delhi Sultanate and its various dynasties implemented a monetary system, and required non-Muslims to pay jizyah Hinduism: Fundamental Beliefs: o Complete freedom of Belief o Brahman is the Supreme being with many manifestations Society and Culture: o Bhakti (devotion) can be personal o Deities are rendered through idols o Duties and social status are ascribed by caste Government: o Brahmin and Kshatriya are seperate Islam: Fundamental Beliefs: o Strictly monotheistic

o There is only one God (Allah) and Muhammad is His prophet Society and Culture: o Worship is congregational o God has no face; no idols or images o Social status is defined by birth; duties are in the 5 pillars; egalitarian Government: o The state is theocratic (ruled by God)

Sikhism Founded by Guru Nanak in the last 15th Century as a synthesis of Hinduism and Islam He preached: 1. The unity of God 2. The brotherhood of man 3. Te reflection of caste 4. The futility of idol worship The Mughals (1526 1707) Founded by Babur in 1526. Akbar the Great has one of the longest reigns in history. (1543 1605) Highlights of the Mughal Administration during the reign of Akbar: 1. Implemented the mansabdari system where officials were paid salaries. 2. Appointed Hindus to positions of power, particularly as samindars (tax collectors). 3. Abolished by the jizya. 4. Not just tolerated other faiths, but showed genuine interest in them. 5. Had a personal approach to government and would visit the provinces personally. Under Akbans rule, Mughal India was truly an Indian empire. Taj Mahal built by Shah Jan and completed in 1648 for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Aurangzebs reign begins the decline of India. Aurangzeb was an orthodoz Muslim; reinstituted the jizyah and attempted to conquer the Deccan;; notorious for reversing the gains under his predecessors. Mughals aspired to make India a jewel in the East. They accomplished it, but at great expense. Trading towns in the coastal areas were unchecked, local rulars were left to fend for themselves, and a deep animosity began to brew between Hindi and Muslim.

This left them ripe for the taking, an opportunity not to be missed by the British.