# 27-Jun-11

Ishikawa Seven Basic Tools

Sreenivas

sreenivas_brsl@yahoo.com

Seven Quality Tools
• The Seven Tools
– Histograms, Pareto Charts, Cause and Effect Diagrams, Run Charts, Scatter Diagrams, Flow Charts, Control Charts

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27-Jun-11

Ishikawa’s Basic Tools of Quality
• Kaoru Ishikawa developed seven basic visual tools of quality so that the average person could analyze and interpret data. • These tools have been used worldwide by companies, managers of all levels and employees.

Histograms
Slide 1 of 3

• Histogram Defined
– A histogram is a bar graph that shows frequency data. – Histograms provide the easiest way to evaluate the distribution of data.

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27-Jun-11

Histograms
Slide 2 of 3

• Creating a Histogram
– Collect data and sort it into categories. – Then label the data as the independent set or the dependent set.
• The characteristic you grouped the data by would be the independent variable. • The frequency of that set would be the dependent variable.

– Each mark on either axis should be in equal increments. – For each category, find the related frequency and make the horizontal marks to show that frequency.

Histograms
Slide 3 of 3

• Examples of How Histograms Can Be Used
– Histograms can be used to determine distribution of sales. – Say for instance a company wanted to measure the revenues of other companies and wanted to compare numbers.

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4 .g. • When seeing whether a process change has occurred from one time period to another. severity level of software defects) ranked in ascending order from left to right. and the Yaxis contains the frequency counts • The purpose of the histogram is to show the distribution characteristics of a parameter • It enhances understanding of the parameter of interest. especially when determining whether the output of a process is distributed approximately normally. • The X-axis lists the unit intervals of a parameter (e.. Summary • The histogram is a graphic representation of frequency counts of a sample or a population. • When you want to see the shape of the data’s distribution. • When analyzing what the output from a supplier’s process looks like. • When analyzing whether a process can meet the customer’s requirements. • When determining whether the outputs of two or more processes are different.27-Jun-11 When to Use a Histogram • When the data are numerical. • When you wish to communicate the distribution of data quickly and easily to others.

check sheets help operators spot problems. and their information is increasingly helpful as more data are collected. One can easily see where to set priorities based on results shown on this check sheet. in a molded part) and how often it occurs in a specific location. the part with the largest number of defects carries the highest priority for correction. 5 . • Assuming the production flow is the same on each day. • By showing the frequency of a particular defect (e. • Check sheets show how many times each particular value occurs.. prepared form for collecting and analyzing data. • Check sheets help organize data by category. This is a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes.g. • The check sheet example shows a list of molded part defects on a production line covering a week's time. • Check sheets minimize clerical work since the operator merely adds a mark to the tally on the prepared sheet rather than writing out a figure (Figure in next slide). • More than 50 observations should be available to be charted for this tool to be really useful.27-Jun-11 Check List (Sheet) Also called: defect concentration diagram Definition: A check sheet is a structured.

etc.27-Jun-11 Because it clearly organizes data. • When collecting data from a production process. • When collecting data on the frequency or patterns of events. defect causes. problems. When to Use a Check Sheet • When data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the same location. defect location. 6 . defects. a check sheet is the easiest way to track information.

Develop operational definitions. • Design the form. • Label all spaces on the form. The tick marks were added as data was collected over several weeks. Set it up so that data can be recorded simply by making check marks or Xs or similar symbols and so that data do not have to be recopied for analysis. record data on the check sheet. 7 .27-Jun-11 Check Sheet Procedure • Decide what event or problem will be observed. Check Sheet Example The figure below shows a check sheet used to collect data on telephone interruptions. • Decide when data will be collected and for how long. • Test the check sheet for a short trial period to be sure it collects the appropriate data and is easy to use. • Each time the targeted event or problem occurs.

Requirements (RQ). and 10. 6. Each phase has a set of tasks to complete and the phases with formal hand-off have entry and exit criteria. System architecture (SD). 2. 7. – pre-code-integration (into the system library) checklist. Unit tests (UT). System tests (ST). 8 . – moderator (for design review and code inspection) checklist. Low-level design (LLD). 8. High-level design (HLD). – code inspection checklist. 4. Check list in Software Process • Checklists help developers and programmers ensure that all tasks are complete and that the important factors or quality characteristics of each task are covered • Examples of checklists are – design review checklist. 3. 9. Code development (CODE). • Checklists are often a part of the process documents. Integration and building (I/B). and – product readiness checklist. – entrance and exit criteria for system tests. 5.27-Jun-11 Phases of Software Development Process in a company The software development process consists of multiple phases: 1. Component tests (CT). early customer programs (EP).

Summary • A check sheet is a paper form with printed items to be checked. 9 .27-Jun-11 Create a Check Sheet Track up to 10 defects on each day of the week. • Its main purposes is to facilitate gathering data and to arrange data while collecting it so the data can be easily used later.

regroups the categories in order of frequency. • The Pareto analysis technique is used primarily to identify and evaluate nonconformities.27-Jun-11 Pareto chart Also called: Pareto diagram. the operator collects random data. which allows the most significant problems to be corrected first. In this way the chart visually depicts which situations are more significant. and are arranged with longest bars on the left and the shortest to the right. 80% of problems are caused by 20% of the potential sources. • It is perhaps the diagram most often used in management presentations. and creates a bar graph based on the results. • Quality experts often refer to the principle as the 80-20 rule. although it can summarize all types of data. 10 . The lengths of the bars represent frequency or cost (time or money). • To create a Pareto diagram. that is. • The Pareto diagram is named after Vilfredo Pareto. • This basic principle translates well into quality problems—most quality problems result from a small number of causes. Pareto analysis Definition: A Pareto chart is a bar graph. • A Pareto diagram puts data in a hierarchical order (Figure in next slide). a 19thcentury Italian economist who postulated that a large share of wealth is owned by a small percentage of the population.

11 . Pareto Charts Slide 1 of 4 • Pareto Chart Defined – Pareto charts are used to identify and prioritize problems to be solved.27-Jun-11 By rearranging random data. – They are actually histograms aided by the 80/20 rule adapted by Joseph Juran. a Pareto diagram identifies and ranks nonconformities in the quality process in descending order. • Remember the 80/20 rule states that approximately 80% of the problems are created by approximately 20% of the causes.

27-Jun-11 Pareto Charts Slide 2 of 4 • Constructing a Pareto Chart – First. 12 . – The data must be collected and classified into categories. • When there are many problems or causes and you want to focus on the most significant. • When communicating with others about your data. When to use a Pareto Chart Slide 3 of 4 • When analyzing data about the frequency of problems or causes in a process. information must be selected based on types or classifications of defects that occur as a result of a process. • When analyzing broad causes by looking at their specific components. – Then a histogram or frequency chart is constructed showing the number of occurrences.

27-Jun-11 Pareto Charts Slide 4 of 4 Pareto Chart Examples Example #1 shows how many customer complaints were received in each of five categories. If all complaints cause equal distress to the customer. 13 . working on quality certificates should be most fruitful. and of those. working on eliminating document-related complaints would have the most impact.

breaks it down into six categories of document-related complaints. and shows cumulative values. Pareto Chart in Software Process • Pareto analysis helps by identifying areas that cause most of the problems • Pareto analysis of software defects by category for four Hewlett-Packard software projects. determining probable causes.” from Example #1. Hewlett-Packard was able to achieve significant quality improvements. and instituting process improvements. 14 . • The top three types – new function or different processing required.27-Jun-11 Example #2 takes the largest category. – By focusing on these prevalent defect types. – existing data need to be organized/ presented differently. “documents. and – user needs additional data fields) account for more than one-third of the defects.

• Pareto analysis is commonly referred to as the 80–20 principle (20% of the causes account for 80% of the defects).27-Jun-11 Figure shows an example of a Pareto analysis of the causes of defects for a product Summary • A Pareto diagram is a frequency chart of bars in descending order • In software development. a Pareto diagram can identify the few causes that account for the majority of defects • It indicates which problems should be solved first in eliminating defects and improving the operation. 15 . the X-axis for a Pareto diagram is usually the defect cause and the Y-axis the defect count • By arranging the causes based on defect frequency. although the cause-defect relationship is not always in an 80–20 distribution.

27-Jun-11 Scatter Diagram Also called: scatter plot. and the vertical (y) axis represents the measurements of the second variable. to look for a relationship between them. with one variable on each axis. the points will fall along a line or curve. • In a scatter diagram. only that a relationship exists and how strong it is. • The better the correlation. X–Y graph Definition: • The scatter diagram graphs pairs of numerical data. the tighter the points will hug the line. If the variables are correlated. the horizontal (x) axis represents the measurement values of one variable. • A scatter diagram shows how two variables are related and is thus used to test for cause and effect relationships. 16 . • Figure in next slide shows part clearance values on the x-axis and the corresponding quantitative measurement values on the y-axis. • It cannot prove that one variable causes the change in the other.

17 .27-Jun-11 The plotted data points in a scatter diagram show the relationship between two variables. Scatter Diagrams • Scatter Diagrams Defined – Scatter Diagrams are used to study and identify the possible relationship between the changes observed in two different sets of variables.

Scatter Diagrams • An Example of When a Scatter Diagram Can Be Used – A scatter diagram can be used to identify the relationship between the production speed of an operation and the number of defective parts made. – Plot the data pairs on the diagram. collect two pieces of data and create a summary table of the data.27-Jun-11 Scatter Diagrams • Constructing a Scatter Diagram – First. 18 . – Interpret the scatter diagram for direction and strength. • It is common that the “cause” variable be labeled on the X axis and the “effect” variable be labeled on the Y axis. – Draw a diagram labeling the horizontal and vertical axes.

– After brainstorming causes and effects using a fishbone diagram. – When testing for autocorrelation before constructing a control chart. 19 . Scatter Diagram in Software • Compared to other tools. the positive correlation between the two allows us to use program complexity to predict defect level.27-Jun-11 When to Use a Scatter Diagram • When you have paired numerical data. It usually relates to investigative work and requires precise data • Scatter diagram usually illustrates the relationship between complexity index and defect level • Each data point represents a program module with the X coordinate being its complexity index and the Y coordinate its defect level • Program complexity can be measured as soon as the program is complete. the scatter diagram is more difficult to apply. to determine objectively whether a particular cause and effect are related. • When trying to determine whether the two variables are related. – When determining whether two effects that appear to be related both occur with the same cause. whereas defects are discovered over a long time. such as… – When trying to identify potential root causes of problems. • When your dependent variable may have multiple values for each value of your independent variable.

• Program modules with high-complexity indexes are the targets for analysis and possible module breakup. intramodule cleanup. • Low-complexity indexes coupled with high defects are clear indications of modules that are poorly designed or implemented and should also be scrutinized. thereby reducing the chance for defects.27-Jun-11 • We can reduce the program complexity when it is developed (as measured by McCabe's index). Scatter Diagram of Program Complexity and Defect Level 20 . • Reducing complexity can also make programs easier to maintain. and other actions. encapsulation.

27-Jun-11 Summary • A scatter diagram vividly portrays the relationship of two interval variables. – It is a tool for discovering all the possible causes for a particular effect.. – The major purpose of this diagram is to act as a first step in problem solving by creating a list of possible causes. 21 . • Scatter diagrams aid data-based decision making (e. Cause and Effect Diagrams Slide 1 of 4 • Cause and Effect Diagram Defined – The cause and effect diagram is also called the Ishikawa diagram or the fishbone diagram. if action is planned on the X variable and some effect is expected on the Y variable).g.

Cause and Effect Diagrams Slide 3 of 4 • An Example of When a Cause and Effect Diagram Can Be Used – This diagram can be used to detect the problem of incorrect deliveries. – Write in all the detailed possible causes in each of the broad areas. – Set goals and take action on the main causes. – View the diagram and evaluate the main causes.27-Jun-11 Cause and Effect Diagrams Slide 2 of 4 • Constructing a Cause and Effect Diagram – First.htm> – When a production team is about to launch a new product. – Identify all the broad areas of the problem.com. the factors that will affect the final product must be recognized.hci. clearly identify and define the problem or effect for which the causes must be identified. – Each cause identified should be looked upon for further more specific causes. • Diagram on next slide – Diagram obtained from: <http://www. Place the problem or effect at the right or the head of the diagram.au/hcisite/toolkit/causeand. 22 . The fishbone diagram can depict problems before they have a chance to begin.

• Especially when a team’s thinking tends to fall into ruts.27-Jun-11 Cause and Effect Diagrams Slide 4 of 4 Diagram of the Incorrect Deliveries Example: When to Use a Fishbone Diagram Also Called: Cause-and-Effect Diagram. 23 . Ishikawa Diagram • When identifying possible causes for a problem.

Determine which steps add value and which don’t in the process of simplifying the work.27-Jun-11 Flow Charts Slide 1 of 3 • Flow Charts Defined – A flow chart is a pictorial representation showing all of the steps of a process. – Analyze the flow chart. familiarize the participants with the flow chart symbols. – Draw the process flow chart and fill it out in detail about each element. 24 . Flow Charts Slide 2 of 3 • Creating a Flow Chart – First.

25 .27-Jun-11 Flow Charts Slide 3 of 3 • Examples of When to Use a Flow Chart – Two separate stages of a process flow chart should be considered: • The making of the product • The finished product Run Charts Slide 1 of 3 • Run Charts Defined – Run charts are used to analyze processes according to time or order.

– Interpreting Data • Interpret the data and draw any conclusions that will be beneficial to the process or operation. X values represent time and values of Y represent the measurements taken from the manufacturing process or operation. They decided to monitor the amount of time it takes to deliver their product over the next few weeks. but they have noticed that it doesn’t take the same amount of time each day of the week. – Charting Data • Plot the Y values versus the X values. Run Charts Slide 3 of 3 • An Example of Using a Run Chart – An organization’s desire is to have their product arrive to their customers on time.27-Jun-11 Run Charts Slide 2 of 3 • Creating a Run Chart – Gathering Data • Some type of process or operation must be available to take measurements for analysis. 26 . – Organizing Data • Data must be divided into two sets of values X and Y.

– Select the appropriate process control chart. Control Charts Slide 2 of 3 • Steps Used in Developing Process Control Charts – Identify critical operations in the process where inspection might be needed. – Update the limits. – Establish the control limits and use the chart to monitor and improve.27-Jun-11 Control Charts Slide 1 of 3 • Control Charts Defined – Control charts are used to determine whether a process will produce a product or service with consistent measurable properties. 27 . – Identify critical product characteristics. – Determine whether the critical product characteristic is a variable or an attribute.

• When predicting the expected range of outcomes from a process. • When determining whether your quality improvement project should aim to prevent specific problems or to make fundamental changes to the process. • When analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes (non-routine events) or common causes (built into the process). 28 . • When determining whether a process is stable (in statistical control).27-Jun-11 Control Charts Slide 3 of 3 • An Example of When to Use a Control Chart – Counting the number of defective products or services • Do you count the number of defects in a given product or service? • Is the number of units checked or tested constant? When to Use a Control Chart • When controlling ongoing processes by finding and correcting problems as they occur.

eng.clemson. – Refer to the prior notes on flowcharts. » Answer is on the next slide » Example obtained from: <http://deming. build a step-by step picture of the process.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/flow m. and define areas of improvement in the process.htm#Example> 29 . • Remember: Define and analyze the process.27-Jun-11 Activity • Process Flow Chart for Finding the Best Way Home – Construct a process flow chart by making the best decisions in finding the best route home.

co. http://hci. http://yourmba.edu.org/interactivate/lessons/sm3.uk/pareto_diagram. As seen through the presentation.au/hcisite/toolkit/causeand.htm> Foster Thomas S.htm> Run Charts/Time Plot/ Trend Chart.eng. Each tool was clearly defined with definitions. http://sytsma.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/runm.Cited • • • • • • • Histograms and Bar Graphs.html Flowchart.deming. these tools are rather simple and effective.htm Scatter Diagram.html> Your MBA: The Business Study Reference Site. <http://www.htm Hci Home Services.shodor.27-Jun-11 Summary This presentation provided learning material for each of Ishikawa’s seven basic tools of quality.clemson. <http://www. 2001 30 .com. a step-by-step process and an example of how the tool can be used.com/tqmtools/Scat. Managing Quality An Integrative Approach. Works . <http://http://deming. Cause and Effect Diagram.clemson.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/flowm. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.