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volume one issue one edtc 6010
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Welcome to Instructional Design Technology, a newsletter devoted to learning technology. This issue focuses on providing an introduction to the history, theories, models, trends and careers in this industry. Education, instruction, learning, training, and any of the other myriad of names given to knowledge and behavior transfer all have one thing in common: the learner. The mode by which the learner participates in this transfer di ers depending on the type of content as well as the facilitator or facilitators of the content. During a recent ECU EDTC 6010 discussion forum gathering “Initial Thoughts” on the topic of instructional technology, there appears to be two over arching opinions on the subject of “what is instructional technology?” The learner is central to both opinions. Let us rst look at those who favor instructional technology as a bridge to prepare students for the 21st century. Charity White, Lindley Park/Donna Lee Lo in Elementary Schools Art teacher, says, “I believe instructional technology is currently being taught in education to expose students to the skills needed in order to prepare them to graduate as 21st century, globally competitive citizens.” Meagan Hudson, a teacher from West Clayton Elementary, echoes this with “Instructional technology in the schools is used to better prepare students to be successful in the 21st century job market.” Their de nition does not appear to di erentiate the behavioral approach to teaching “job skills” from the transfer of speci c knowledge related to the subjects required to be learned by the students. Missing from this de nition is also the end-to-end instructional process which is where instructional technology plays an integral part according to Robert Reiser, John Dempsey and many other experts in the eld. It also does not address the larger demographic which includes adult learners who in many cases already have the technology skills for the workplace; in their case, instructional technology is used primarily to enhance or enable cost e ective distribution of the learning. The other de nition of instructional technology is summed up by additional members of the EDTC 6010 class. Je rey Bugajski, Pines Elementary educator, feels “Instructional Technology is making a link between a workers action and the outcome of that action by e ectively using technology and di erentiated resources.” Meredith Jones, O ce Manager at Southport Christian School, views it as, “quite simply any form of current technology used to educate, or to instruct how to do something such as a particular job.” These de nitions are closer to the instructional design theories of B.F. Skinner and M.G. Moore (Reiser and Dempsey) in that they focus on using technology to drive outcome. However, like the opinions of the other group, they do not address the application of instructional technology across the entire process of instructional design and deployment. The eld on instructional technology is not static and neither is the de nition. It has been formulated over the past century and evolved with each new layer of communications technology (including media type and computers) and advancements in instructional design. The role of instructional technologist has evolved from media specialist and single modality developer to needs analyst, instructional consultant, multimedia designer, and researcher and implementer of an ever growing number of additional disciplines including sociology, psychology, quality assurance, metrics and analytics, etc. As learner, business and societal requirements change, the boundaries of instructional technology will continue to adapt as well. As learners become contributors as well as participants, instructional technology professionals may in turn become more and more looked upon as instructors and facilitators than simply practitioners in the business of producing educational products.
inside this issue
one: two: three: four: ve: six: seven: idt history theories models trends careers resources
The history of instructional design technology dates back to the earliest forms of instruction like the Socratic method. This period is characterized by the birth and development of Programmed Instruction. Wells writes the “World Brain: The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia” Regular scheduled television broadcasting begins in the U. Louis Ivan Pavlov publishes his ndings in “Classical Conditioning” The rst catalog of instructional lms is published John B. Skinner publishes “The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching” B. F. “Preparing Instructional Objectives” Robert Gagne publishes “The Conditions of Learning” Robert Glasser employs the term instructional system IBM develops the rst comprehensive Computer Aided Instruction for schools Civil Rights Act outlaws discrimination in public accommodations Robert Gagne publishes “The Conditions of Learning” James Finn introduces the systems approach to designing instruction Ted Nelson coins the term "hypertext" as "non-sequential writing" Congress passes the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Jerome Bruner publishes his model of Discovery Learning McMaster University introduces problem-based learning in medical education ARPANET lays groundwork for Internet “Schoolhouse Rock” debuts on Saturday morning television Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak design the Apple I Computer IBM introduces the Personal Computer (PC) Knowledge Management System designed as multi-user collaborative system MD Merrill establishes the Component Display Theory Howard Gardner publishes “Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences” Apple introduces the Macintosh computer David Kolb publishes “Experiential Learning” Bill Atkinson develops Hypercard Tim Berners-Lee develops the World Wide Web Karl Wiig writes his foundational book on “Knowledge Management” Marc Andreessen and James H. students. Tolman publishes “A New Formula for Behaviorism” National Professional Organization for Visual Instruction was established.IBM conducts the Teaching Machines Project Alan Turing publishes “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” The Soviet launch of Sputnik initiates US federal funds for public education B.S. Dominant use of lms and AV technology for instruction Smith and Tyler develop a formal manual on evaluation Vannever Bush writes the article "As We May Think" (Atlantic Monthly. Watson launches the “Behaviorist Revolution” Because of lm. The Great Depression a ected education in terms of funding. Widespread growth of instructional systems and the recognition of their system properties.” World War I . and resources.introduces the critical incident technique Maslow introduces his Heirarchy of Needs Benjamin Bloom et al. G. 3500 2800 429 200 0 100 1450 1832 1838 1854 1858 1871 1890 1895 1899 1905 1906 1910 1913 1913 1914-1918 1918 1918 1918 1920 1920 1922 1922 1923 1924 1925 1930 1936 1938 1939 1941-1945 1942 1945 1946 1949 1950 1950 1954 1954 1954 1954 1954 1956 1959 1959 1959 1961 1962 1962 1962 1962 1963 1964 1965 1965 1965 1965 1966 1969 1970 1973 1976 1981 1983 1983 1983 1984 1984 1987 1989 1990 1992 1995 2003 2004 2005 2010 2010 2011 Adoption of Cuneiform writing on clay tablets Development of papyrus Socrates introduces the Socratic Method Introduction of parchment Invention of paper Gutenberg creates the rst printing press Wilhelm Wundt establishes the rst experimental psychology laboratory Horace Mann founds and edits “The Common School Journal” Geoge Boole writes “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought” Laying of the trans-Atlantic Telegraph Charles Darwin writes “Descent of Man” William James' releases his “Principles of Psychology” Joseph Rice organizes an assessment program for making educational decisions John Dewey publishes “The School and Society” The rst school museum opens in St. Development of Instructional Design Models Era of Microcomputers and Performance Technology history page two Age of Constructivism Social Networking and Knowledge Management . 1945) Edgar Dale develops his Cone of Experience Ralph Tyler publishes “Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction” Introduction of Computers . Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim create YouTube Systems for tacit knowledge system Apple debuts the iPad Proliferation of streaming internet video and learner generated content This period was dominated by a fundamental shift in thinking about education which was supported by the advent of scienti c investigation into human and animal learning. Skinner demonstrates a machine designed to teach arithmetic John Flanagan . World War II dominated this time with military training. These latter forms were driven by changes in learning theory and associated instructional design models. Thomas Edison proclaims "Books will soon be obsolete in schools…. publish “Taxonomy of Educational Objectives” Roby Kidd publishes “How Adults Learn” Peter Drucker coins “Knowledge Management” Wolfgang Kohler publishes “Gestalt Psychology Today” Jerome Bruner publishes “The Process of Education” Robert Miller develops detailed task analysis procedures Robert Mager publishes his book. Clark found Netscape Communications Bernie Dodge and Tom March developed Webquest Tom Anderson develops MySpace Mark Zuckerberg creates FaceBook Steve Chen.Films are important as the Visual Instruction Movement grows Public Elementary school education becomes manditory in the US Franklin Bobbitt starts the Social E ciency movement William Heard Kilpatrick develops the Project Method 19th Amendment gives woment the right to vote Jean Piaget forms his theories of experience-based learning Ralph Tyler writes “Objectives for Learning” Edward C. becomes International Business Machines (IBM) Sidney Pressey invents a testing and teaching machine Start of the Progressive Movement in education Alan Turing's "On Computable Numbers" describes a general purpose computer H. Computing-Tabulating-Recording Co. F. Early technological focus was on the preservation and transfer of knowledge which was replaced by mass printing and then electronic media including video and the Internet. This decade was dominated by matching of society needs to education and connecting outcomes and instruction.
It needs a mind able to gather information from disparate sources and put ideas together in ways that makes sense to the learner and a mind capable of breaking new ground. Watson. Learners link new information to prior knowledge. When examining the timeline these theories are a result of environmental and societal demands either driving original theories or improving on prior discoveries. Relevance. 2011) is a world view that operates on a principle of “stimulus-response.” All behavior is caused by external stimuli. thus mental representations are subjective. traditional models use either part-task or whole-task practice. and Bruner. Thorndike. and Satisfaction. Bandura. observations or events. Rorty. Piaget. 2011) as a paradigm or worldview posits that learning is an active. there are four steps for promoting and sustaining motivation in the learning process: Attention. My top nine include the following: Behaviorism (Learning Theories Knowledgebase. Gagne. People actively construct or create their own subjective representations of objective reality. 4C/ID (Merriënboer et al. This mind recognizes di erences between individuals. B. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) (Learning Theories Knowledgebase. Schank (scripts). The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer). Briggs. groups and cultures.F. real-world problems. Many instructional design theories are interdependent while some are only applicable under speci c learning requirements or conditions. Ivan Pavlov. The learner is an information constructor. the 4C/IDmodel recommends a mixture where part-task practice supports very complex. Second. Dewey. 2007) is a relatively new theory proposed by Howard Gardner describing an instructional method requiring the mastery of at least one way of thinking and the utilization of a scienti c inquiry approach to solving problems. There are many theories when it comes to the eld of learning. Wager. Kolb. According to John Keller’s ARCS Model of Motivational Design (Learning Theories Knowledgebase. active learning centered on the investigation and resolution of messy. Theory developed by David A. Experiential Learning (Learning Theories Knowledgebase. and Scandura (structural learning). "wholetask" learning. the model makes a critical distinction between supportive information and required just-in-time (JIT) information (not just knowledge but performance). All behavior can be explained without the need to consider internal mental states or consciousness.A theory is a general principle that explains or predicts facts. L. Key contributors include John B.” Five minds for the Future (Bruce Hammonds. These theories can be applied singly or for many learning solutions combined to meet the requirements of the subject matter. 2002) focuses on the integration and coordinated performance of task-speci c constituent skills rather than on knowledge types.a holistic perspective that combines experience. Constructivism (Learning Theories Knowledgebase. Con dence. creative disciplined Gartner’s 'Five Minds for the Future' synthesizing ethical respectful theories page three . and behavior. context or presentation-delivery media. one that learns to appreciate a sense of ‘others’ and it considers how students can serve purposes beyond self-interest. Bruner (moving toward cognitive constructivism). 2011) essentially argues that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. Reigeluth (Elaboration Theory). This theory was developed by Merrill (Component Display Theory ). Skinner. and Tolman. 2011) is a fourstage cyclical theory of learning . Key contributors include Vygotsky. perception. Vico. developing new ideas and asking new questions. E. 2011). PBL was developed at the medical school at McMaster University in Canada. constructive process. 2011) is an instructional method of hands-on. And third. Cognitivism (Learning Theories Knowledgebase. A theory is generally accepted as valid having survived repeated testing. cognition.
ADDIE-M really is an evolution of the best of the Dick and Carey design model with the inclusion of the Gerlach and Ely design model scoping and allocation stages. there are ve process stages in every project. Many of those in the instructional design profession do not make this direct correlation between ADDIE and formal project management. we can bene t from project management practices in other product focused businesses.A model is a theoretical construct or mental picture that helps one understand something that cannot easily be observed or experienced directly. ADDIE is the instructional designer’s version of project management with Donald Kirkpatrick’s 4 Levels of assessment the equivalent of industrial quality assurance and quality control. and software development. in many cases they are iterative with key milestones requiring formal approval by all project stakeholders before advancing to the next stage. 2011) In project management. The upside of these parallels is that while the products we develop are learning solutions. in many ways. In the case of instructional design. but at their core. the model provides a visual map of the process of producing learning solutions. Development. (Strickland. given some of the large scale learning programs required by businesses and large educational institutions. This is where a well-designed assessment/test plan is critical to the success of learning solutions. The names of the steps and reports may be di erent. This is especially true with instructional design technology. In fact. . according to the Project Management Institute’s PMBOK Guide 4th Edition. While these stages appear to be sequential. where for many of the current modes of deployment there is a development component requiring software engineering and the associated rigorous quality assurance/quality control processes. and Evaluation) model with the addition of a sixth stage called Maintenance (M). My experience over the last ten years of being in the management of learning solutions has shown me learning organizations that do not draw the parallels between ADDIE and project management are usually plagued with communication issues throughout the program life-cycle. during my rst decade I did not know anything about ADDIE. I have primarily used the modern day ADDIE (Analysis. Note that in principle. Design. each of these stages map to the ADDIE-M model: Revise Instruction Conduct Instructional Analysis Identify Instructional Goals Write Performance Objectives Develop Criterion Reference Tests Develop Instructional Strategy Develop and Select Instructional Materials Develop and Conduct Formative Evaluation Identify Entry Behaviors Develop and Conduct Summative Evaluation Dick and Carey Design Model Determination of Strategy Specification of Content Organization of Groups Assessment of Entering Behaviors Allocation of Time Evaluation of Performance Specification of Objectives Allocation of Space Selection of Resources Analysis of Feedback Gerlach and Ely Design Model PMBOK Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Controlling Closing ADDIE-M Analysis Design Development Implementation and Evaluation Maintenance ADDIE-M Design Model Design Document Video Content Compiled and Edited (if applicable) Storyboard (Module by Module) Graphics Development LCMS Programming Conduct Beta Design Review Content Review Storyboard Review ISD/IDT Tasks Stakeholder Tasks Beta Test Functionality Testing Pilot Testing Incorporate Pilot Feedback Platform Testing Quality Check Final Delivery models page four Where this is bene cial today. these models or processes are the same. There are logical similarities between the ADDIE model and these other three processes or methodologies. I have reviewed other models and in the end it all comes down to production. Implementation. is that it is very easy to engage a variety of stakeholders in their own terminology while ensuring the instructional nature of the project is not lost in the process. Over the past twenty years. Interestingly enough. What I did know was industrial design. project management.
in order to demonstrate learning. The multi-generational learning space we are presented with today provides a great number of opportunities and challenges for both the learner and the learning professional. a new approach that removes the emphasis from traditional worksheets. as we know it. with constant narrative feedback from teachers and peers and the opportunity to change and improve any activity. Rather than pressuring students to practice rote skills for two hours nightly. 2011): • Shorter and specific training has been proven more eﬀective • A template approach often makes it easier for the learner to focus on the content • Reusable learning objects can be pulled on an as-needed. is an endangered species. not replace. there is a move towards Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). PLEs do exactly what they say . owned by them. A results-only system makes learning a shared responsibility between teachers and students. 2011) This idea is echoed by other thought leaders like Salman Khan of the online educational video resource. PLEs take advantage of social media and cload computing for shared documents and distributed learning.you'll be able to nd the best lectures in the world. and the old style of education that most teachers use today. trends page ve . “Technology enables us to be both learner-centric and value-centric. They can start with a problem of which the learning is a part and then provide guidance and assistance when the learner encounters an obstacle. Technology can make our training come to life. technical infrastructure. design models. multiple-choice tests. Bill Gates sees the university.The eld of learning and instructional design technology in particular is a trendy place to be. Virtual worlds also provide instant immersion of the learner in the situation. the instructional technologists to make sense of the chaos and select the right tools for the job. The learner is then encouraged to seek out information rather than have it pushed to them improving motivational learning." the Microsoft billionaire said last year. This opens the window for user created “Learning Documentaries” where through recorded experiences they can demonstrate how they solve the problem and they can review how others have as well. grades. Every day there is something new in education and it is up to us. "Five years from now . created by them. PLEs are becoming a much talked about concept for both business and formal education in an attempt to provide for informal learning and user control. just-in-time basis One of the technologies in an emerging state for over a decade is nally starting to make inroads courtesy of improved computer infrastructure and a generation of computer gamers. cultural directions. business requirements. 2010) PLEs dovetail nicely with Results Only Learning Environments (ROLE). Virtual worlds allow the participant to not just view but actually become part of a case study. a results-only classroom provides a combination of individual and cooperative learning activities. direct instruction. and a globally dispersed audience make for a constant state of ux.they are personal to each individual. Instructional theories.” (Wheeler. “Originally a counterpoint to the institutional Managed Learning Environment.on the web for free . And. The demographics for this audience extends from preschool age to post retiree giving us a range of 4 to 65+ years. A ROLE is student-centered and project-based. (Louise Williams. in Gates's opinion this extraordinary and constantly expanding digital smorgasbord of educational choices "will be better than any single university" in the world. We must be careful and stay true to our core models and use technology to enable. Performing in a virtual world is often less threatening to the subject matter expert than “live” video. Technology both assists and hinders our learning philosophies. In order to accommodate this span and provide systems for lifelong learning. Khan Academy. Value-centric advantages that are also learnercentric include (Integrated Learning Services. used by them within their lifelong learning. completed in class and over extended time.
and assessment" (Association of Learning Technology. providing technical assistance. supporting or enabling learning with the use of learning technology.There are a number of excellent career resources for instructional design technology positions. management. They perform multiple roles and are responsible for many activities such as establishing e-networks. Association for Learning Technology lists the following as their core professional values: • commitment to exploring and understanding the interplay between technology and learning • commitment to keep up to date with new technologies • empathy with and willingness to learn from colleagues from di erent backgrounds and specialism • commitment to communicate and disseminate e ective practice When you consider a career in learning technology recognize that technology is only one part of your role. teaching. 2007). providing support for learning through technology. online tutoring and developing e-learning materials. research. adapting the message for each audience. Here are just a few of the types of career opportunities available: Instructional Designer Manager. which is described as "the broad range of communication. Learning technologists are an emerging community actively involved in managing. information and related technologies that can be used to support learning. initiating and taking control of your own learning. The QR tags on this page will take you to several of these career sites where you can explore the myriad of opportunities in elds ranging from social media to medical simulation to online grade school and university education. researching. Learning and Performance Digital Media Technologist Manager of Instructional Media Technology Director of Instructional Technology Corporate Trainer Digital Media Specialist Education and Learning Services Manager Instructional Technology Specialist ePortfolio Coordinator Senior Desktop And Instructional Technology Support Specialist Senior Consultant Education Technology and Connected Online Communities of Practice Education and Social Policy Associate Director of The University Teaching and Learning Center For Faculty Development careers page six Education and Learning Services Manager . A learning technologist needs to be good at communicating and teaching. evangelizing.
Progressively. As instructional design technologists. skills and behaviors. unsuccessful. we provide the “rails” connecting methodology with deployment modality contributing end-to-end to the learning solution. re ections page seven . This was especially e ective in team environments where participants were not collocated and understanding the decision making process of each individual was just as important if not more important than the decision itself." once children are old enough to comprehend basic instructions. Overview (general description) Tasks (checklists) Steps (job aids) Training (e-Learning. The most a ective combination involved a knowledge and environmental overview a la "Death World" followed by an "Ender's Game" style training simulation which was simultaneously annotated by the learner to generate a running “Burn Notice” commentary for after action review. For skills and behaviors. The learner is actually the viewer of the television program and may not even realize at rst that they are learning anything. and suitable problems/projects which drive the need to acquire new knowledge. Whereas the physical reality of the school provides the behavioral learning and knowledge. In the early stages they are introduced to the basic names and characteristics of the ora and fauna. most importantly. everyday. "Burn Notice" is less direct. annotating key performance areas is vital to understanding where we are going and why the decisions made along the way were successful or. mLearning. research skills enabling the acquisition of new knowledge. Providing a system for capturing. the viewer is introduced to a wide variety of 30 to 60 second "how-to" videos while enjoying a television program. Orson Scott Card’s "Ender's Game" = Constructivism (Jean Piaget. USA Network’s "Burn Notice" = stage one of a type of situated cognitive apprenticeship (Jean Lave. In "Death World." the students at a special military school are trained to be leaders and tacticians and pilots and soldiers through a di erent style of immersion. as the children survive each encounter. categorizing. coaching) I have applied each of these independently and in varying combinations with varying levels of success. just as critical. the environment becomes more and more like the their true planet. We are constantly looking for ways to provide solutions for every learning opportunity. they are immersed in a Skinner style contrived environment representing the hazardous conditions of the planet on which the live. Some of the issues a ecting their success had little to do with the methodology and more to do with breaking down learning barriers. skills and behaviors. video. They can in fact be contrived to lter out non-essential material and focus on key learning points. This component can be live or virtual (video or job aid) depending on the quality and clarity of the presentation and associated method of providing feedback (for virtual this means providing examples of both correct and incorrect behavior and recommended remedies when errors occur). In "Ender's Game. retrieving and. it is through tactical games and simulations that they learn how to engage their enemy. John Dewey. Three of my favorite examples of applied learning theory are found in the following ctional examples: Harry Harrison’s "Death World" = BF Skinner's behaviorist theory that educational environments do not require 100% realism.Learning is happening all around us. the addition of an apprenticeship component is vital. The lead character of the show periodically "annotates" the activities he and his team are executing so that the viewer feels like they are a part of the action. both informally and formally. A major bene t of digital storytelling is the opportunity to transform experiential analysis into recorded learning scenarios suitable for engaging and empowering individuals and teams across the organization be it business or educational institution. John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky) which is an o shoot of Constructivism. As a byproduct. Jerome Bruner and David Ausubel) where students to use active techniques (experiments. In the end the transition between the game and reality is occurs without them even realizing it. It has been my experience that we learn di erently throughout our lives based on several factors: amount of previous knowledge. skills and behaviors. essentially implementing change management to e ectively engage the learner. skills and behaviors to support the acquisition of new knowledge. real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then re ect and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. Lev Vygotsky.
blogspot.html http://paper.com/2010/12/05/investigating-learning-styles/ http://spino .ch/en/4C/ID http://leading-learning.integratedlearningservices.com/problem-based-learning-pbl.com/?p=4987 http://www.jobtarget.khanacademy.com/talks/chris_anderson_how_web_video_powers_global_innovation.com/las-vegas-shows/abcs-of-music-2997/ http://chronicle.youtube. These sources are listed here for you to use for future reference.brandon-hall.learning-theories.org/about http://www.com/en/timeline/415929/Historical+Evolution+of+Instructional+Design++Technology/ http://tip.smh.wordpress.s audio. Patricia Slagter van Tryon EDTC 6010 East Carolina University Copyright © 2011 http://76.org/20110601/sanction-of-the-victim/ http://www.au/technology/technology-news/the-slow-collapse-of-the-ivory-tower-20110415-1dhje.com/2010/06/18/applying-arcs-motivational-design-in-creating-an-active-class/ http://blog.html http://www.com/home/index.learning-theories.html http://edutechwiki.li/twubbell http://ruspat.ted.edu/depts/imt/isdmodels/index.learning-theories.learning-theories.isu.vegas.com/kellers-arcs-model-of-motivational-design.psychology.com/home/index.html http://www.com/cognitivism.elearnmag.jobtarget.html http://www.com/de nitions http://www.9/search?site=public&client=public&proxystylesheet=public&output=xml_no_dtd& lter=0&q=instructional%2Btechnology&x=0&y=0 http://arulchandrana.com.com/workplacelearningtoday/?p=15436 http://www.com/addie-model.html http://www.astd.html http://timerime.ted.edu/~ed626/Dick_Carey/dc.com/2010/07/anatomy-of-ple.html http://www.com/2011/04/29/summit-scores-enders-game/ http://steve-wheeler.learning-theories.htm http://blog.html http://www.com/conversations/2959/to_turn_schools_into_results_o.ipadnewsdaily.com/spots/burn-notice/images/5410456/title/burn-notice-wallpaper-wallpaper http://www.html http://www.html http://www.html http://www.com/section/Jobs/61/ http://ed.edutopia.html http://www.fanpop.com/2007/11/ ve-minds-for-future.com/experiential-learning-kolb.com/behaviorism.wordpress.umich.ncpublicschools.31.org/mager.blogspot. Written by Ken Hubbell Professor Dr.html http://www.org/content/careers/ http://www.unige.cfm?site_id=2637 http://www.html http://www. early theorists.learning-theories.comicbookresources.php/2011/04/teaching-problem-solving-in-a-virtual-world/ http://www.gutenbergnews.nwlink.learning-theories.kaplaneduneering.learning-theories.com/t/annotations_about resources page eight .com/~donclark/hrd/ahold/isd.12.org http://www. and instructional design organization publications.org/jobs/ http://www.org/subpage.com/university-pledges-ipad-for-every-student-0745/ http://www.com/kappnotes/index.com/constructivism.cfm?site_id=136 http://www.html http://www.com/2011/03/adapting-20th-century-training-models.This newsletter is a combination of personal experience accumulated over the past two decades during my career as an instructional technologist and the opinions of a variety of industry experts.cfm?section=articles&article=139-1 http://www.