Madhava Mantra

For Individuals, Organisations and the Society

A Handbook Based on Shri Madhava Sadashiva Golwalkar’s (Shri Guruji) Life

Compiled by: Dr Satish Modh

Mere momentary upsurges of emotion will not build character. Often, infusion of emotions will only shatter the nerves and make the person weaker than before, leaving him a moral wreck. Building up of character requires a steady and day-today process of imparting Samskaars. - Shri Guruji

Today, more than anything else, we need such men – young, intelligent, dedicated, and more than all, virile and masculine. When eternal knowledge (Narayana) and eternal manliness (Nara) combine, victory is ensured. And such are the men who make history. - Shri Guruji

We know that Rama traveled throughout the country to gather a large army and defeated Ravana. It only means that it is not enough for persons to be good, they should become active and dynamic; then only evil can be checked. - Shri Guruji

CONTENTS
Madhava Mantra – 1: Shivo Bhutva Shivam Yajet Madhava Mantra – 2: : Unreserved Dedication Madhava Mantra – 3: Focus on Individual Madhava Mantra – 4: You Alone, Not Me Madhava Mantra – 5: Organizing Hindu Society Madhava Mantra – 6: Mission is Greater than the Man Madhava Mantra – 7: Emphasis on Daily Activity Madhava Mantra – 8: Nature of Sangh Work Madhava Mantra – 9: Building National Character Madhava Mantra – 10: Setting Right Examples Madhava Mantra – 11: Setting Clear Goals Madhava Mantra – 12: Away from Party Politics Madhava Mantra – 13: Dealing with Opposition Madhava Mantra – 14: For Workers in other Fields Madhava Mantra – 15: Hindu Dharma Madhava Mantra – 16: Spirituality Beyond Religion Madhava Mantra – 17: Moral Values Madhava Mantra – 18: Defending Hindu Culture Madhava Mantra – 19: Individual and the Society Madhava Mantra – 20: The Way of Life Madhava Mantra – 21: Educating the Mind Madhava Mantra – 22: Integrated Personality

Madhava Mantra - 1
Shivo Bhutva Shivam Yajet
In 1940, 34-year-old Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar (Shri Guruji) became the second and very young Sarsanghchalak of Rashtiya Swayamsevak Sangh. Shri Guruji was Sarkaryawaha for a very short period of time – just for ten months – when he was given the responsibility of Sarsanghchalak. He was new to Sangh and basically a spiritually oriented person. In his first speech as Sarsanghchalak he spoke with humility but supreme confidence, “Doctorji has entrusted to me this onerous responsibility. But, this is the Vikramaditya’s throne. Even if a rustic boy sits on it, he will dispense only justice. Doctorji was a great soul. I very proudly offer my reverence to such a great soul but the real worship of him is to try and become like the object of worship itself, “Shivo bhutva Shivam yajet”. Unlike Doctor Hedgewar (founder of Rashtrya Swayamsevak Sangh, the RSS), who had spent all his life in social and political activity, Guruji had never come into contact with politics or with any public work as such. But he was a great scholar, wide and well read. He could talk on any subject with effective participation. Shri Guruji was born on 19th February 2006 in Nagpur in a very moderate family. He was a very voracious reader and had read Shakespeare in full while still in the middle school. He lived a full life as a student – played a lot, studied a lot, helped his friends, won prizes in elocution and carried out household chores expected of him.

Shri Guruji did his M.Sc. from the Banaras Hindu University, which attracted enterprising youth from all over the country. While in Banaras, spiritual discussions, study of Vedic treatises and contact with Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya, the founder of the university, left a deep impact upon him. This was reflected in his life in various ways like worship, meditation, Asanas, Pranayam, indifference to mundane individual life and identification with the joys and sorrows of the society. Although young Madhav was a teacher in Zoology at the Banaras Hindu University, he used to help out students in subjects like English, Economics, Mathematics and Philosophy. A major portion of his salary would be spent in paying the fees of his promising poor students – or even buying books for them. These students called him “Guruji” out of love and respect for him, which became his identity in his later life. After a three-year stint at Banaras Hindu University he returned to Nagpur and passed his law examination, but he never practiced it. Shri Guruji was known as a scholar of great erudition with high character, selflessness, charisma, forbearance, purity of mind, ability to identify with the joys and sorrows of others. The serene and steadfast Himalayas beckoned to him again and again for a life of solitude and meditation. But soon enough his mind would say, “How can you leave everybody to his fate and go away seeking your own happiness?” In a letter to Shri Telang written on February 28, 1929 he says, “I shall not go to the Himalayas, rather Himalyas shall come to me, its serene silence will dwell within me.”

In the summer of 1936 he left every one for Sargachhi to fulfill his desire for single-minded Sadhana under the guidance of Swami Akhandanand, one of few selected disciples of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Gurubhai of Swami Vivekananda. He never forgot Swami Akhandananda’s advice of not hankering after personal happiness, never to fear adversity, and always to live his life in God. Swami Akhandananda, one of the 16 direct monastic disciples of Ramakrishna Paramahansa, discerned in Sri Guruji all the potentialities of a Vivekananda re-born. Dr. Hedgewar, the founder of the RSS, saw in him a worthy leader of Sangh. While casting off their mortal coil, both these mahatmas had an innate satisfaction, Swami Akhandanandaji for having handed over the torch of spiritualism to a worthy disciple and Dr. Hedgewarji for leaving the Sangh in strong safe hands. As a disciple of the former and successor of the latter, Sri Guruji combined in himself both the roles, both in one, both at once. In him were fulfilled the missions of both blended into one. He established through his example that apparently divergent messages of these two illustrious souls were in reality not only compatible but also perfectly identical. By a lifetime saga of sacrifice and service to Bharatvarsha, Sri Guruji demonstrated that society is merely a manifestation of the Vishwaswaroopa. How right Doctorji’s selection was and how uniquely capable Shri Guruji was in successfully steering the Sangh through the changing situations in the country, was decisively demonstrated in the thirty three years of his helmsman ship.

As President of India Shri Zail Singh said, “ Shri Guruji personified the ideal of simplicity and dedication to duty. He ardently believed in the reforms of Hindu Culture and traditions and worked for it zealously.” Jain Muni Sushilkumar commented that the presence of Shri Golwalkar – great man of culture – was most essential during the hard times through which the country was passing. How Shri Guruji transformed the young organisation called Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh to a Sangh Parivar, a family of organisations and influenced the shaping of independent Bharat is what this book is about. The Madhava Mantra does not focus on the specific activities or strategies, but instead on the impact of his personality and intensity on the growth of Sangh and on Hindu society. These Madhava Mantra can be a useful handbook for all social workers engaged in transforming individuals, organisations and society.

“The real worship of your icon is to try and become like the object of worship itself - Shivo bhutva Shivam yajet.”

Madhava Mantra - 2
Unreserved Dedication
RSS founded by Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar in 1925, is the largest voluntary organisation in the world today. There is no avenue of Indian life where the Sangh has not left its imprint. The RSS has over 140 frontal organisations and they are the front-runners in their respective fields. What has made this possible? There were many organisations in the country at the time of founding of RSS. Many of them, including century plus old Congress to the communist parties have gone through divisions at various levels. What is it that keeps the RSS continue its march from strengths to strengths? The answer lies in the fact that it has evolved a unique style of operation. Many may differ on Sangh's world view and its solutions to problems but no one can question its organizational skills, ideological rectitude and unequaled discipline. From his first moment as Sarsanghchalak, Shri Guruji attached importance to the Hindu view of life in all its varied aspects. He forged a strong chain of idealistic workers who rose above weaknesses like personal ambition, ego and differences that normally undermine the unity and cohesiveness of an organisation. Expansion and consolidation of the organisation was the prime concern of the new Sarsanghchalak. While talking about his decision to plunge in Sangh activities, he said, “It was that great man’s (Dr Hedgewar)

acute agony at the nation’s pitiable plight and his unreserved dedication to the cause that ultimately made me to surrender to him, and this surrender indeed proved a matter of great happiness and satisfaction for me.” Shri Guruji toured the country twice every year, and this he did for 33 continuous years. Every time new people came into his contact and they all became his very own. He knew that neither discussion nor arguments would motivate a man to action; it was constant and affectionate personal contact that was needed. Shri Guruji believed that nation building and service to mankind is not a part time activity. Echoing his belief, hundreds of Swayamsevaks came forward from many places to work full time. There were many who gave up their jobs ideas of marriage, family relationships to devote full time to Sangh work.

“Nation building and service to mankind is not a part time activity.”

Madhava Mantra - 3
Focus on Individual
Shri Guruji was a conqueror of people’s hearts, but the weapon of his conquest was love. He could mix easily with all age groups and social groups, and win over their affection. Shri Guruji, while dwelling on the type of Swayamsevak Sangh needs, said at Chandrapur in Vidarbha in 1939, “Swayamsevaks should be capable of providing leadership to at least 60-70 people around him, be their friend and guide, and able to win their trust and confidence. Shri Guruji believed that the individual should be the focal point of all types of actions and transformations. If the individual is not good enough, he can set at naught even a good plan, a good system. Shri Guruji used to say, “A real social worker is one who can discover his own shortcomings but find out the good qualities in others. The pitfalls that a social worker has to be aware are the feelings of self-complacency and self-conceit.” When asked about overcoming difficulties in one’s shortcomings he replied, “When man can by his sincere and persistent efforts, reach even divinity, why bother about shortcomings? They will of their own accord vanish if one surrenders himself wholly and unreservedly to his chosen ideal.”

It is not that Shri Guruji had no shortcomings in his behavior when he became Sarsanghchalak. But he transformed himself. Gradually he became an ocean of love that could assimilate people with their good and bad points, and assigned them suitable role for achieving the goal. Shri Guruji was very picture of a disciplined life. During the three long decades from 1940 to 1970 there was not a single occasion when a pre-planned programme had to be cancelled, suspended or started late because of his indisposition. It was his second nature to suffer physical pain silently without letting anybody know about it. For him his body was just an instrument for the mission to which he was wedded. His advise to workers was, “In an organisation one cannot say - ‘Take me as I am. Individual deficiencies have to be removed and virtues for taking people together have to be cultivated and imbibed.”

“In an organisation one cannot say – ‘Take me as I am’. Individual deficiencies have to be removed and virtues for taking people together have to be cultivated and imbibed.”

Madhava Mantra - 4
You Alone, Not Me
The personality of the leader of an organisation plays an important role for the growth and success of that organisation. Sri Guruji did not consider himself a separate entity, independently of the Sangh. His life was a yagna, an eternal, sacrifice at the sacred feet of the Jan (people), the manifestation of Janardhana (God). Sri Guruji’s most precious offering in this yagna was his own ego. For Sri Guruji innate humility was just as much the opposite of self-abasement as it was of self-exaltation. His life was unique. He was a great yogi but he worshipped the divine as manifested in the society, caring for common people. He could have worked for his own salvation (Moksha). Instead he devoted himself to the service of Society. Shri. Guruji frequently quoted the oldest and the supreme scripture Rig Veda. He said Rig Veda sums up specific directions to the people to live a mutual, organized and glorious life. It says: “Our minds should be one, our thoughts should be similar, and we should help one another and bring prosperity and happiness”. Shri Guruji often talked about the relation of the individual with the society. He felt that one should be able to totally identify with the society. He said, “In simple terms, the joys of the society are his joys, its glory is his glory, its sorrows his sorrows, its insults his insults.”

He said, “There are two types of people in this world, those who come into a room and say - Well, here I am - and those who come in and say - Ah! There you are!. Shri Guruji’s life had no place for the narrow “I” in it. It was the life of a total renunciation and a Karma Yogi that had become with the society as a whole. He worked and sacrificed for the good of the Society without desiring publicity. His approach to life was: Main Nahin, Tu Hi (You Alone, Not Me) Shri Guruji believed that identification with the joy’s and sorrows of the society is the very basis of the Sangh work. This does not require power. He was ever insistent that the cultural unity of the nation must be preserved at all costs and that no vested interest be permitted to project regional diversity as a separate culture for the sake of few votes. The concept of national idealism, which Shri Guruji very emphatically propounded in those days, has nurtured the Sangh to grow into the banyan tree of today. He wanted every Swayamsevak to give up the pursuit of individual salvation in favour of an endeavour for collective self-realization of the Sangh.

“Main Nahin, Tu Hi (You Alone, Not Me). One should be able to totally identify with the society.”

Madhava Mantra - 5
Organizing Hindu Society
Shri Guruji’s natural inclination was toward the basic theme propounded by Swami Vivekananda, the theme of spiritual foundation for the nation to reach its glory. Shri G T Madholkar in his article in Tarun Bharat Nagpur (16.6.1973) mentions in his conversation his dialogue with Guruji where he quotes Shri Guruji as - “I think what I am doing is in consonance with Swami Vivekanada’s philosophy, guidance and method of work. No other great personality’s life or teaching has influenced me so much. I believe by doing the Sangh work I shall be carrying out only his work.” He could see that such a mission of organizing the society and character building was taking place in the Sangh. He was in full agreement with Doctorji’s thought that instead of blaming others, our own weakness as a nation is responsible for our slavery. Hence this root cause has to be removed. Enduring patriotism should be the basis of the national character in the society. He was of the view that patriotism does not mean merely opposing British rule. People should realize what really constitutes the nation. In the absence of patriotism, discipline and character, people would continue with their selfish pursuits and quarrels. He firmly believed that Hindu culture formed the very soul of Bharat and that Bharat is an ancient Hindu nation. Therefore, to strengthen the nation, Hindu society has to be organized with intense patriotic feeling with pride in their cultural ideals.

He believed that such an organisation can not be built by making speeches or passing resolutions. It needs daily interaction of the society with a purpose. Hence the unique Shakha system was evolved for organizing Hindus. Guruji’s spiritual strength acquired at Sagachhi through intense sadhana was put to full use by making mission of RSS as his sole mission in life. He agreed with Doctorji that a person equipped with the knowledge and experience of spiritual life should not lose himself in the pursuit of personal happiness but should pledge all his powers to the cause of national revival. Emphasizing the need for organizing the Hindus from one end of the country to the other, Shri Guruji asserted that our society is still in the grip of castiest and provincial differences, disorganized and weak and suffers from amnesia of identity. It has also become greedy of material objects of enjoyment. So long as our people are not devoted to the nation as a whole and infused with genuine character how can even democracy succeed?

“Every member of the society should feel his identity with it and contribute his mite to it. This spirit of identity and selfsurrender forms the bedrock of an organisation.”

Madhava Mantra - 6
Mission is Greater than the Man
Shri Guruji always shunned publicity in spite of his personal magnificent work and achievements. While replying to a civic address at Madurai in December 1949, Sri Guruji aptly observed: ‘A post box receives letters, at times very important ones. But the box has no reason to be flattered by them. It is only an intermediary through which letters pass to proper persons in the proper places. The honors which you have bestowed on me I will pass on to those countless workers whom I am privileged to represent’. On another occasion, dismissing the idea that RSS would suffer incalculably in his absence, he stated with fervour and conviction: ‘No particular individual is indispensable. Men may come and men may go, but the society goes on for ever. With me or without me, the Sangh will continue to work and grow because of their inner necessity and intrinsic work’. He once said, “Workers may tell you that these are Shri Guruji’s thoughts or ideas. But in fact they are not mine at all. The hoary tradition of our country contains an ocean of knowledge. I have taken on only a just few drops out of this ocean. Even an illiterate villager of this country is a born philosopher… that even amazes Western scholars and thinkers.” Guruji was very modest whenever praised. Once he said with great earnestness, “The reports and articles in my praise that have appeared in the press have surprised me.

How can one individual be given the credit for such a great organisation like the Sangh? Doubtless, countless workers have contributed to its growth”. In spite of his reservations and opposition to the idea, swayamsevaks celebrate 51st birthday of Shri Guruji by organizing nation wide programmes. He reluctantly agreed for these celebrations to respect the love of Swayamsevaks for him. While replying to the honour conferred upon him at various programmes Shri Guruji said that he was insignificant compared with the mighty organisation of Sangh. In 1956 at Nagpur Shri Guruji said with all humility, “The reports and articles in my praise that have appeared in the press during the recent days have indeed surprised me. How can one individual be ever given credit for such a great organisation like the Sangh? Doubtless, countless workers have contributed to its growth. I am fortunate enough to be the object of your affection. I request you not only to love the Sangh but also to make it part of your daily life… The mission is far greater than the man. If a man thinks that a mission solely depends upon him it would be just meaningless ego….So my request to you is do not look to the man, look only to the mission.”

“Setting apart the minimum time and energy to meet our physical needs, the rest of our efforts should be directed towards reaching our goal.”

Madhava Mantra - 7
Emphasis on Daily Activity
Under Sri Guruji’s inspiring, fearless and indomitable leadership, RSS grew by leaps and bounds. In town after town, the Sangh Pracharak would arrive with a few letters of introduction to local leaders. He would put up himself in the local office of an organization or in a temple or with any well-wisher and start a daily Shakha. With the help of local supporters and guidance from seniors in the RSS, the shakha would grow into a social magnet, attracting promising young men and local luminaries alike, regardless of their cast, class or sect. Talking about the advantages of a Shakha, Shri Guruji said, “We all meet at a common plot of ground, conduct suitable physical exercises and common prayer and impart ideas and feelings about the society and the Sangh. By doing it with common accord, the programme however simple it may look has an educative value. The programme gives us an opportunity to identify ourselves with the joys and sorrows of the society. To impress this idea and to free ourselves from the shackles of a morbid self-centred life, the daily Shakha is absolutely necessary.” These apparently elementary sorts of programmes bring about the cleansing of the mind. This work of moulding minds and building character can be done only when people gather daily and regularly in an environment congenial to its growth.

Commenting on the use of lathi for training and physical exercise, Shri Guruji said, “In most of the countries training to the people is imparted through simple physical exercises and instruments like sticks, bows and arrows. Such a training is necessary to instill discipline of the body and the mind in the people. Sangh, too, is doing the same.” Shri Guruji’s constant endeavor was to turn the religiously oriented Hindus in the direction of serving the society as well. For this, he presented the model of his own dedicated life. RSS has succeeded purely because it has been able to give people a sense of community, purpose of living and a direction, whether it is north, south, east or west. RSS gives the individual the ability to perform and to achieve.

“To identify with the joys and sorrows of the society and to free ourselves from the shackles of a morbid self-centered life, the daily Shakha is absolutely necessary.”

Madhava Mantra – 8
Nature of Sangh Work
Shri Guruji was very clear about the nature of Sangh work. He said, “From the very beginning the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh has accepted the responsibility of building national character in our people. This work, in fact, has no end. It has to go on generation after generations. Character is as much needed for future generations as for the present one. Every citizen of Bharat must always be seen working for the country. Hence the work of the Sangh is independent of the ups and downs of circumstances.” “Preaching or arguing in favor of a particular system of philosophy and particular form or name of God and criticizing all others will not be conductive to the mission of consolidating the entire Hindu people.” Guruji always thought of Bharat as a mighty nation and maintained that building up this might is the sole aim of the Sangh. He said, “Does a nation mean merely a motley crowd of disparate groups? The work of Sangh transcends narrow personalities, provinces, sects, languages and castes. The Sangh has no place for such different types of parochial loyalties. Its ideal is to bring all the people together on the common basis of love and reverence for the motherland and her culture. So the Sangh expects all of you to rise above all such dissentions and differences and come together on its unifying platform.” Once making an emotional appeal to workers to complete the RSS work in the manner and measure

required, he quoted an example from the famous biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson written by his secretary Boswell. Once Oliver Goldsmith asked Dr. Johnson, “Doctor, how many fish in a chain will it take to reach from here to the moon?” Dr. Johnson was nonplussed by this question. Goldsmith himself replied: “Only one fish will suffice, if it is sufficiently big!” Sri. Guruji said that similarly even a single day would be sufficient for the completion of RSS work, if only all the Swayamsevaks of the Sangh worked with every atom of their strength with unshakeable faith in the ultimate victory of ‘Sanatana Dharma’. When Sri Guruji was asked to define RSS in one word, he said “Hinduism can be defined in one word, ‘OM’. But it would take years of study to understand its significance. Likewise RSS can be understood only by attending Shakha everyday”.

“Sangh’s ideal is to bring all the people together on the common basis of love and reverence for our country and our culture.”

Madhava Mantra - 9
Away from Party Politics
Shri Guruji always explained the serious limitations of politics and political power. He said, “ Politics is but a very small segment of national life. It can never cover its entire gamut. Some people think – Yatha Raja Tatha Prja – so power of raja, the king, is necessary to influence the people’s mind. But we live in democracy. In democracy it is – Yatha Praja Tatha Raja. Henec if the people are weak, the ruler too will be weak. If the people were timid, without self-confidence, without character, the ruler too would be likewise. Henec the truth is that political power should be guided by the people and not the other way around.” Shri Guruji firmly believed that a spirit of ‘democracy’ at its best, which confers the right of freedom of speech, thought and action on the individual is nowhere more fully recognized and practiced than in the Hindu Tradition. During the 1948-49 ban on Sangh, the then Home Minister Sardar Patel wrote to Shri Guruji (Golwalkar) urging him to merge the Sangh with the Congress and continue to serve the society through that forum. At that time, prospects of the government lifting the ban on the Sangh were indeed very bleak. Even then, Shri Guruji wrote back to the Saradar with due respect that the Sangh, as before, wished to continue to serve the nation in the cultural sphere. Commenting the nature of involvement of Sangh Swayamsevaks in politics Shri Guruji said on March 14,

1954, “The Sangh worker in the political field must not feel that he is now ‘free’ too blow his own trumpet like other ‘leaders’ and indulge in a life of comfort and pleasure. He has to remember that he has the responsibility of bringing about the desired change in that field. It would be a big loss indeed if he forgets this pledge and corrupts his idealism in the dazzle of politics.” Commenting on partition politics, Shri Guruji once said, “How can the nation be uplifted so long as it lacks national character? We cannot see character as a rule because the leaders think only from the party angle in all political and economic matters. They accord greater importance to the party and want to promote it at all costs. They take part in the elections not for the good of the country but just for achieving power, nothing more. Even the sense of service to the society is mired in party squabbles. Party benefit and, more so, personal aggrandizement, have become all in all. Once you form a party on such a basis it becomes impossible to rise above partisan ends”.

“RSS is not political in the sense that it does not participate in day-today elections, the race for power and all that. It is a cultural organisation, which emphasizes the oneness of the country and the people.”

Madhava Mantra - 10
A Nation is a Soul
Sri Guruji always ridiculed the idea of India being a ‘nation in the making’ and said that proponents of this theory appeared to be only ‘patriots in the making’. Wherever he went he quoted from our scriptures to show that Bharatvarsha had been a ‘rashtra’ since Vedic times. A nation is a soul, a spiritual principal. Two things, which in truth are but one, constitute this soul or spiritual principal. One lies in the past, one in the present. One is the possession in common of a rich legacy of memories; the other is the present-day consent, the desire to live together, and the will to perpetuate the value of the heritage that one has received in an undivided form. The nation, like the individual, is the culmination of a long past of heroic endeavours, selfless sacrifices and glorious deeds of devotion. Of all cults, that of the ancestors is the most legitimate, for they have made us what we are. A heroic past, great men, glory in song, tradition and legend, this is the social capital upon which one bases a national idea. To have common glories in the past, to have a common will in the present; to have performed great deeds together and to wish to perform still more, these are the essential conditions for being the people of a country. Sri Guruji consistently held the view that a proper history of India had not yet been written. In this context he stated: “It is ridiculous to divide our national history into

Hindu period, Muslim period and British Period. History can’t be named after rulers; a proper history has to be a history of the people. And so, our entire history is Hindu history”. This is the quintessence of Hindutva. On the influence of Western culture once he said, “How strange it is that we have adopted only the external attributes of the Western civilization, but not the patriotism and national pride that can be seen in the life of the Westerner in peace time as well as in times of adversity. These we ignore altogether.” But he emphasized in one of his talks in Mumbai in 1952, “We can not be called a free people so long as our life styles and out thinking pattern continue to be under the foreign influence. We will really experience freedom only when every one of us feels an intense urge to eliminate all such tendencies and resolve to solve the problems created by thousands of years of slavery and to achieve for our nation the pride of place in the comity of nations.”

“We have to correct individuals and then the nation can be corrected. It is for certain individuals to rise to great heights and guide the nation.”

Madhava Mantra - 11
Setting Clear Goals
Many institutions and organisations were launched owing to Shri Guruji’s inspiration. Thousands of letters he wrote to these workers made significant contribution to their inception and growth. He wrote to many people and motivated them for religious, cultural and social work. While giving such advice he did not hesitate to tell the bitter truth if doing so was called for. He firmly believed that proper thinking and feelings coupled with self-confidence and resolute action could help solve any problem. Shri Guruji always set clear goals for any activity to be undertaken by Sangh Swayamsevaks. For example he set the goals of Vishwa Hindu Parishad as follows: • Owing to the prolonged slavery, lack of self confidence, aping of others and inferiority complex, the Hindu Diaspora has been reduced to a state of being neither Hindu nor a non-Hindu. They should now be progressively acquainted with the unique greatness of Hinduism, the Hindu philosophy and the Hindu code of noble conduct, and thus establish the true content of Dharma once again. Hindu brethren settled abroad desire to live as Hindus. But proper arrangements for imparting the necessary knowledge of our Dharma are not available to them. Such arrangements need to be urgently made.

We are not against any faith; so our work will have to be based on honesty, love and purity of character and sense of affection for the entire mankind. It is our duty to evolve harmonious accord among different sects of Hindus and take the whole society to the heights of spiritual eminence.

Similarly he gave the guidance to Shri Dattopant Thengadi who joined labour movement in 1950. He said: • Faithfully follow the discipline of the organisation for which you are going to work. Organizational discipline must be your first priority. If by chance, discipline and your conscience are in conflict, resign immediately. During traveling for the work stay with a labour colleague. Make this a practice. If we don’t live with the poor and know their actual living conditions we can not become mentally one with them.

Shri Guriji was very clear about the role RSS would play in building the nation. He said, “There are two ways of carrying out a national program - One through the state power; another, by changing people’s attitudes. We have chosen the second path.”

“When there is no Goal in life, frustration creeps in. One should feel dissatisfied only when one is not able to devote his life to this Goal as much he should.”

Madhava Mantra - 12
Setting Right Examples
Shri Guruji always stressed on building physical and mental strength. He used to say, “The modern fashion among young men is to look more and more and feminine. All these must go. The history of the world is testimony to the fact that man’s tendency to soften his body leads to the destruction of a nation. France, Rome and many other nations met their doom because of this when people indulged in song and dance and forgot their manly prowess.” Shri Guruji believed that one must develop positive attitude in all walks of life. Even while playing games in shakha he stressed not loosing sight of this aspect. Once in Kerala he asked a Swayamsevak what game you are playing in the Shakha? The Swayamsevak replied, “The game is ‘Extinguishing the lamp’.” Shri Guruji commented, “No game should be named like this. In our culture, putting out a lamp is considered inauspicious. We say – Keep the lamp of knowledge burning bright. Even in games the name should be such as to inculcate positive feelings.” Shri Guruji had an ingrained attitude of serving others. When Doctorji fell very ill, he served Doctorji with as much dedication as he had served his guru Swami Akhandananda. Many Swayamsevaks and workers too have had similar experiences. He was very close to Wamanrao Wadegaonkar who was blind. Around 1934-1935 Wamanrao had to undergo a major operation. Being blind he had to depend upon others.

Shri Guruji stayed with him day and night. Later Wamanrao recalled, “I shall never forget how gently this great scholar nursed me with such concern and attention.” Shri Guruji stressed that the responsibility of imbuing right values in our society lies squarely on the shoulders of the present generation i.e. the elders in the families. It is they who have to take the lead in setting right examples. When the elders with real worth and prestige in society take to a particular model of behaviour to suit a noble ideal, the same will become popular and respectable in the eyes of others also.

“My main complaint is against our parents. What do they teach their children? What is the atmosphere in our homes nowadays?”

Madhava Mantra - 13
Dealing with Opposition
In matters of principle, Shri Guruji never accepted any compromise. He never surrendered to any propaganda unleashed by political opportunists who were only looking for short-term political gains. He dealt with opposing views firmly. In his first speech as Sarsanghchalak on July 3, 1940 he cautioned them, “Doctorji has not handed over to us a hollow organisation. Our Organisation is an impregnable citadel. Its rampant is so strong that those who seek to breach them will have their own heads broken.” But at individual level he never advocated a policy of confrontation. Once, due to hatred generated against RSS by some politicians, once Shri Guruji’s quarters in Nagpur was attacked. He calmed down the Swayamsevaks who wanted to retaliate and said, “We are dedicated to serve and unite the Hindu Society. I cannot allow even a single drop of blood to be shed of any individual of the same society” and ordered the Swayamsevaks gathered outside to disperse. In his speech at the Makar Sankranti function of Mumbai Shakha on 14th January 1948 he said, “We should not allow the poison of anger to pollute the nectar of love and goodwill in our hearts. However good or bad the people around us may be, they are after all our own society. Whatever be the ideological approach of our opponents, we must appreciate that they too have done good work, they

too have made sacrifices. Then for whom shall we express love, generosity and fellow feeling if not for them? Let us recall the motto of oneness– vayam panchadhikam shatam and pledge all our might to the creation of a homogeneous nation.” Even when he was attacked with stones in Kolhapur and Sangli (Maharashtra) during his tour of Bharat after the ban on RSS was lifted he did not denounce his opponents. He wrote in the Purushartha magazine, “These are our own people whom we have to serve. They may offer a garland of flowers or a garland of shoes. They may shower on us praise or abuse. Whatever they do they are after all our own people, our own society. The society may behave nicely or rudely towards us, but that is just a test for us. Some day they will be with us. They will even accept to follow us because of our absolute devotion. The society is an embodiment of God Almighty, and God has said He is the slave of his devotees. So the need is for us to prove ourselves to be real devotees.”

“It is not a sin to serve and strengthen one’s own community. But it is certainly a sin to ignore the needs of one’s society and allow it to disintegrate and degenerate.”

Madhava Mantra - 14
For Workers in other Fields
Shri Guruji felt a strong need to bring together all the different forces that lay scattered all over the country. He was a man with vision - a person who could look into the future and prepare his followers. He was always open to new ideas. When Shri Shambhunath Capildev, a Member of Parliament from Trinidad, his suggestion on forming a global hindu forum became instrumental in the creation of Vishwa Hindu Parishad. Guided by the firm faith that it was impossible for Bharat to become strong and confident enough to fulfill its destiny unless every aspect of nation’s life was informed with the inspiring ideology of the Sangh, he pioneered the formation of various other organisations like the Bharatiya Jansangh (now the Bharatiya Janata Party), Vivekanand Rock Memorial, Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad, Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh, Vanvasi Kalyan Ashram and the Shishu Mandir educational institutions. In his speech on the night of March 14, 1954 during the sessions at Sindi he dwelt on the importance of the Shakha technique and its relationship with various new activities. Shri Guruji firmly stated that the Shakha was a complete system in itself and the most important work for the Swayamsevaks was to set up a wide network of its Shakhas and increase its organizational power. The Sangh work is independent and complete in itself and do not need activities in labour field, education or politics to support it.

He said, “But then the question arises, why this entry into new fields? Fact is we want the ideological direction of Sangh in all fields of our national life. These activities have not been undertaken with a sense of defeat or for making up any deficiency in Sangh work… The Swayamsevaks sent into different fields are our soldiers sent to lead those fields. Every such Swayamsevak has to keep living contact with the daily work of the Sangh, present a new paradigm in every walk of life, and fulfill the wider goal of the cause in his specific sphere of work.” “People also ask, what will be the relationship of these workers with the Sangh? Clearly we have sent them into these activities to lead them on the strength of our ideology and their personal integrity and character. They should act as the ambassadors stationed in a foreign country are expected to do. He neither marries and settles down there, noe does he sever his connection with his own country. Rather he seeks to make an impact of his country’s interests. He represents his mother country, so he is vigilant about not creating any kind of adverse impression about it. So also there must be no interruption in their daily Sangh work for all such workers.”

“Our minds should be one, our thoughts should be similar, and we should help one another and bring prosperity and happiness.”

Madhava Mantra - 15
Hindu Dharma
According to Shri Guruji the word "Hindu' denotes a society. The word is formed with the letter Hi from the Himalayas and Indu from the Indu Sarovar (the Southern Ocean), conveying the entire stretch of our country. ‘Hindutva’ is not just a word. It is the history of a great culture and civilization called 'Sanatana Dharma'. Hinduism is only a derivative, a fraction or a part of Hindutva or Hindu ness. In an interview with the Editor, Illustrated Weekly (November 1972), Shri Guruji said that there is no threat to Hindu Dharma from modern science since Hinduism is on firm ground because it has no dogma. It has faced nonbelievers before. It will survive the wave of irreligiousness better than any other religious system. Ours is not a religion in the dictionary sense of the word; it is Dharma, a way of life. Hinduism will take skepticism in its stride. The essential ingredients of Hindu Value System, according to Guruji, are: • The truth is one but can have plural manifestations. This plurality need not be in conflict with one another; it can be cooperative and complementary. The whole universe is permeated with the Godly Spirit. Let us first offer whatever we earn to this Spirit then only can we become eligible to feed ourselves.

Our concept of Dharma is based on the universality of spirit. Therefore, Dharma according to Hindu is not simply a bundle of rituals. It is a principle of universal harmony harmony between an individual and society, harmony between human society and outward nature or Prakriti, harmony between individual soul and the universal soul.

In conversation with some Swayamsevaks iat Thana (November 1972) he endorsed the unique characteristics of Hinduism, which are not found in other religions. The idea of Ekam Sat Vipraah Bahudhaa Vadanti (Truth is one, sages call it variously) is one of the unique ideas o Hinduism. Secondly, whereas the others have been pursuing an outward search for happiness, our philosophy has concentrated on the inward search.

“There is no threat to Hindu Dharma from modern science since Hinduism is on firm ground because it has no dogma.”

Madhava Mantra - 16
Spirituality Beyond Religion
Shri Guruji was a very spiritual person. In a letter to his friend Telang written on may 20, 1929 he writes, “I have no desire to attune myself to a mundane human life. What I want is to stretch this string of life to create a still purer tune. While doing so, mental strain cannot be avoided. This means it does not matter if one has to live apart from the common world. The important thing is that the string of life must not be out of tune with the heavenly music”. He believed that nature - even inanimate creation has a 'soul', a spark of the Spirit in it. If one could establish his identity and harmony with that 'soul', then in that state one could solve any problem. The works carried out by such persons who are in tune with the secrets of Nature will be enduring and beneficial for all time. The works, which are against the element of Nature, will prove fruitless and even harmful. He respected tenets of all religions but believed in one divine power. In a conversation with some Muslim leaders he asked, “Do you believe that God likes only Koran or Bible or Geeta? Do you believe that He will come only if you call Him in some particular name and would refuse to come if you call Him by any other name? Do you think that God understands only Arabic, Sanskrit or English and no other language?” “We Hindus believe that each individual can worship the divine in his own way. All can attain Him - if

the effort were sincere and honest. And that is why Hinduism is not a proselytizing religion. The very idea of conversion starts with the assumption that mine is the only sure and correct way and all others must be converted to it. Do you believe in this? This, if said in respect of attainment of God, will be speaking too low of Him..” If we look at his correspondence with numerous people we will find that it is replete with the spirit of optimism, his unwavering faith in Divine and the immortality of Hindu way of life. For him no individual was too small or worthless and any good work worth not ignoring. It is a fact that social balance and mutual help and harmony do alleviate people's sufferings to an extent, but not all sufferings. In spite of the best social set-up people do suffer from illness, nervous breakdowns, bereavement and so on. So the mental afflictions have to he remedied on a more fundamental basis. When asked - Is there anything wrong in praying to God for our physical needs and comforts? He said, “Why should we beg? Does he not know what we need? Whatever he bestows on us, we should put it to the best use.”

“In Hinduism we not only tolerate another person's religion or way of worship, but we have a respect for it.”

Madhava Mantra - 17
Moral Values
Shri Guruji believed that the ‘duty based’ conduct is the foundation of any society. He said, “Absolute sense of duty is most desirable but if in the present atmosphere of pampering to the self it seems impracticable, the truth that duty is supreme and the individual’s or group’s rights are only correlated to it and must be subordinate to it, must be persistently impressed upon the minds of the young in their formative years.” “Bad means can never yield good results in the long run. If for some time bad means appear to give good results, it is only temporary. It is like trying to warm yourselves by sitting amidst fire when caught in a hailstorm. The warmth will soon result in our total reduction to ashes.” “Today things have come to such a pass that it is only those who have mastered more and more of evil tactics that rise higher in power and position. But the importance of character of the individual and the purity of the means can never be overemphasized.” Once he said, “Morality is good; immorality though bad has one good quality – the understanding of moral values and realization of having deviated from them. But non-morality is positively a danger., for there is callous disregard for both the moral and immoral. The immoral, the sinful, have a chance of turning over a new leaf, but the amoral becomes impervious to all sense of right and wrong;

as such his is an irretrievable case. Such persons are extremely dangerous to the right evolution of the society.” He felt that a thorough re-orientation in the process of thinking, in establishing values of life is the need of the hour. Want of this is at the root cause of our social evils. If this reorientation is not immediately taken in hand seriously, other remedies will remain merely superficial and ineffective. He said that real discipline is not one that is borne out of fear of punishment or the lure of some gain. It is borne out of pure love between individuals and his surrender to an ideal.

“Corruption has so many forms. Some are corrupted by name, fame, and posts or even awarding of titles. Building a countrywide network of people who are not purchasable is the only solution to this problem.”

Madhava Mantra - 18
Defending Hindu Culture
There was too much criticism of Hindu culture in the initial years after independence. On the issue of Hindu culture being a hindrance to the development of a composite culture, Guruji said that a composite culture, if any, cannot grow on weak and deficient constituents. Secondly, the basic culture of the country, while absorbing elements of other cultures, retains its identity and name. He said, “The chief argument of progressives against our values of life is its age. For the all that is old is bad. Must we substitute tube-light for the Sun because the Sun is old, indeed very old. This is the sign of weakness of the mind, the absence of intellectual strength to think freely and positively, fully and fearlessly.” “Mere music and dance by themselves do not constitute culture. If the entertainment aspect alone is considered and the cultural value is ignored, it would surely lead to social degeneration.” Shri Guruji criticized Delhi-centric view of our culture and history. He said, “Our history books tend to revolve around Delhi. But Delhi is not India. And in many periods of Indian history, other kingdoms have been bigger than the kingdom of Delhi. Because of these lopsided history books, our people know little about the Cholas, the Cheras, the Pandyas, the Hoysalas, and the Pulakeshins. How many people have even heard of Kharvel of Utkal, one of the greatest kings of Bharatvarsha, who controlled

much of South East Asia? Or of Lachit Barphukan, hero of the successful Assamese resistance of Mughal attacks?” “Today we find among our people a serious absence of viewing Bharat as our holy motherland and the decline of devotion to our hoary Dharma. If we keep on forgetting our objects of honour there would be no marks left for us at all. A nation that lets its points of faith be destroyed can never hope to rise.” He was appreciative of the fact that culture cannot grow on empty bellies. Therefore he said that even though we are purely a cultural organisation we have to see to it that external conditions of life do not hinder cultural development, but help it. The discipline nurtured in the Sangh is the spontaneous self-restraint of a cultured people. It is a discipline wherein each one feels that he a higher duty to the nation. He responds to that higher call in a wellordered, coordinated manner.

“Our culture is too vital, too true to be destroyed by false glamour. The fundamentals of our culture will reassert themselves with due force. I only hope they don’t reassert with undue force and so wipe out the few good things we may accept from the West.”

Madhava Mantra - 19
Individual and the Society
Shri Guruji always dwelt on the issue of various thought systems prevailing in the world for development of mankind and compared them with our way of life. He analyzed the relationship of man with the society and his obligation to it. He said, “There is no denying the fact that the primary needs like food, clothing, shelter, etc., should be fulfilled for one and all. But the state should not assume all powers. So I suggest that through cooperative production should be stepped up. We can adopt the technique of the West for production but should maintain the spirit of our social structure.” “Industrialization has become the one criterion for measuring the progress of countries. That is the reason why the world is heading towards conflicts and wars. In the competition for the disposal of surplus production to other countries, conflict for markets develops after a stage. Fight ensues. The Western theory of creating multiplicity of wants and creating more machines to meet them will only result in making man the slave of machine.” In another interview with press in New Delhi (April 1966) he commented on the use of chemical fertilizers to step up production. He said these fertilizers harm the agriculture soil over a period of time. We should use traditional organic manures such as cow-dung and green leaves, which are more conducive to the keeping up of the quality of the soil.

Materialism has no answer to the very fundamental question: "Why at all should people aspire for world unity and human welfare? Why should they feel pained at the sight of man set against man? Why should we love each other?" From the materialist point of view we are all equally gross entities, each separate and exclusive in himself, who can have no bonds of mutual affinity or affection. There can also be no inner restraint in such beings, which can make them control their selfishness from running amuck, in the interest of the humanity as a whole. He said that in the absence of any positive urge for service or sacrifice, on the practical level a sort of 'contract' between the individual and society had to be worked out to avoid the inherent conflict born out of selfishness. It is this basic conflict that expressed itself in the form of capitalism on the one hand and communism on the other. That is, on the one hand, the individual became the enemy of the society, and on the other, the society became the enemy of the individual.

“The Western theory of creating multiplicity of wants and creating more machines to meet them will only result in making man the slave of machine.”

Madhava Mantra - 20
The Way of Life
Shri Guruji often quoted Hindu philosophy and said that it offers a logical solution to our every day problems. It says, the real source of happiness lies within oneself and not outside. Even a little introspection will bear this out. Shri Guruji gave an example of a man who is absorbed in enjoyment of music. Now, if he receives a bad news, he would immediately lose all interest in the music. If music had the inherent power to give happiness, then it should have made the man overcome his sorrow and made him continue to listen to music. But the very opposite was the effect. Music, which was a source of enjoyment till a moment before, had now become a point of repulsion to him. In his Bunch of Thoughts (1966 by Jagarana Prakashan, Bangalore ) he writes that it only shows that the external objects, which appear to give us happiness, serve only as pretexts or instruments whereas its real source is within. But still we go after the external objects, only because of delusion. All external enjoyments after a while stop giving us pleasure and land us in sorrow and disappointment. It is a matter of common experience that a restless mind can never be happy. It is only when the mind is calm and peaceful that man enjoys happiness. To achieve such a quiet and tranquil state of mind, it is necessary to see that the various types of desires do not raise their heads in the mind. When the mind becomes quiet, one becomes aware

of the reality in the depths of human mind. So long as the mind is restless, that awareness is lost. And so happiness, which stems from the awareness of that reality, is also lost. It only means that if the mental waves could be calmed, then one could enjoy happiness even without the aid of any external object of enjoyment. Just as the river flowing within the bounds on either side will be beneficial, but becomes destructive when it breaks its bounds, so also is the case with the stream of human life. It is only when it flows between the two bounds of Dharma and Moksha that it will be conducive to the happiness of both the individual and the society. Whatever is permissible within these two bounds could be enjoyed by one and all. It is only this arrangement that can strike a balance between enjoyment and peace of mind and ultimately lead one to the state of highest bliss.

“All external enjoyments after a while stop giving us pleasure and land us in sorrow and disappointment.”

Madhava Mantra - 21
Educating the Mind
During his countrywide travels, Shri Guruji had many occasions to visit educational institutions and interact with teachers, educationists, journalists and others. He was deeply dissatisfied with the education system prevailing in the country. He commented, “Our education system is merely informative and not formative”. He gave following observations from time to time: • The present educational system contains neither the best points of the Western educational systems nor the positive content of our ancient Bharatiya system. No positive goal is placed before students. They go out into the world without any goal in life worth living for. Right from the primary stage the right kind of ambition and also the right view point should be inculcated in the student’s mind. Talking of ‘humanity’ and ‘internationalism’ without the firm foothold of nationalism, only ampounts to getting deprived of both. If we ponder over our philosophy and our historical heritage as a nation we shall find that it contains the highest good of humanity as its supreme goal. Whatever be one’s faith or mode of worship, emphasis should always be on educating the

students in chaste character and control over the senses.. Yoga too is necessary for training the mind in concentration. Shri Guruji said that this is the era of computers and personal gadgets. These machines dominate our everyday life. Therefore, it is our important that the education system in our country integrate modern science with moral values. While interacting with few Swayamsevaks in 1972 he said that the machine is for the happiness of man. It is like Bhasmaasur, and will destroy the maker if not held in control. Persons with moral force and wisdom can alone control and direct such a Bhasmaasur, Men with such sovereign authority must be able to guide the destiny of man.

“It is our important that the education system in our country integrate modern science with moral values.”

Madhava Mantra - 22
Integrated Personality
All organisations need a tradition of dedicated and able leadership to grow and progress towards its goal. Visionaries may set up some organisations but if a chain of idealistic persons is not available for taking it forward that work remains incomplete and dies out. Such leaders possess skills, which can be broadly classified as conceptual skills, organizational skills and human relations skills. Conceptual skills broadly refers to knowledge of the environment, understanding of his own role and of other’s expectations of him. Organizational skills refer to analytical thinking and problem solving, leadership, motivation, crisis management time management and communication skills. Human relations skills refer to sensitivity, understanding and rapport building with others in and outside the organisation. When we look at the life of Shri Guruji we realize that he practiced what most management theorists only preach. In the area of mission clarity, the motivation and effectiveness of volunteers he has been truly a pioneer, setting out the guiding principles and practices that are an example to others. In management jargon he was a team builder, a motivator par excellence, a coordinator, a counselor, a trainer, a public speaker, a problem solver and above all a person totally dedicated to mission of his organisation. The key aspects of Guruji’s positive personality can

be summarized as below which can act as a roadmap for very one in business and society: • • Attitude towards life: Constructive, positive, pragmatic, purposeful and selfless. Attitude towards organisation: Total identification with mission, Congruence of ethical behavior of organisation vis-à-vis self, Constant efforts to build the organisation. Attitude towards colleagues and others: Humanistic and growth oriented, nurturing and promoting brotherhood. Value System: Total belief in Hindu value system. Life lived based on teachings of Gita and Vedant.

• •

Shri Guruji had a clear vision of his work. He said, “World peace is our ultimate goal. In fact, it has been our nation’s mission, and we have to fulfill it. To give lessons in peace to the world on a spiritual level and to create a sense of oneness in the whole of humanity has been our real national mission since ages. But when will all this become possible? Only when we succeed in bringing together our own people and imbibing in them our sublime cultural values and sterling character and motivating them for the achievement of that mission.”

“One need not focus on shortcomings of others. These shortcomings will vanish on their own if one surrenders himself wholly and unreservedly to his chosen ideal.”

Reference and Further Readings:
1. Bunch of Thoughts, M S Golwalkar, Jagarana Prakashan, Bangalaore, 1980. 2. Dr Keshav Baliram Hedgewar (Hindi), Rakesh Sinha, Prakashan Vibhag, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, New Delhi, 2003. 3. Patrarup Shri Guruji (Marathi), Bharatiya Vichar Sadhana, Pune, 1985. 4. Salutations to Shri Guruji, V. Sundaram (IAS Retd.), Shri Guruji Centenary Celebration Committee Tamilnadu, Chennai, 2006. 5. Shri Guruji and Matrushakti, Nivedita Raghunath Bhide, Suruchi Prakashan, New Delhi, 2006. 6. Shri Guruji on Hindu View of Life, P Parameshwaran, Suruchi Prakashan, New Delhi 2006. 7. Shri Guruji: Man with Mission, Dr Krishna Madhava Ghatate, Shri Bharati Prakashan, Nagpur, 2005. 8. Shri Guruji: Pioneer of a New Era, C P Bhishikar, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1999. 9. Shri Guruji Samagra Darshan (Hindi) Volume I to VI, Bharatiya Vichar Sadhana, Nagpur, 1974. 10. Shri Guruji ka Arthik Chintan (Hindi), Dr Bajaranglal Gupta, Suruchi Prakashan, New Delhi, 2006 11. Smarananjali, Shri Guruji Centenary Celebration Committee New Delhi, 2006. 12. Spotlights, M S Golwalkar, Sahitya Sindhu, Bangalore, 1975.

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