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Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines

Paper ID 1218

The Finite Element Method of Single Phase Switched Reluctance Motor coupled to Converter and LC Fillter for Vaccum Cleaner
Jae-Hak Choi1, Yon-Do Chun1, Pil-Wan Han1, Dae-Hyun Koo1, Ju Lee2

Industry Applications Research Division, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Korea 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea E-mail : 60[%] while the rated output of the motor is 900[W] at the rated speed 35,000[rpm], respectively. The drive circuit in Fig. 1 consists of a single-phase diode bridge rectifier that converts the input AC into DC and an asymmetric bridge converter that supplies power to the SRM. In order to reduce the cost of converter, a capacitor with a low capacitance is placed at the DC link of the converter. Commercial Source voltage 220[Vrms] at 60[Hz] is applied with DC link C and L 13[F], 4[mH] respectively.

Abstract-A switched reluctance motor for vacuum cleaner in home appliance is usually driven by low cost asymmetric bridge converter which consists of rectifier, LC filter and switching power device. The finite element analysis coupled driving converter with LC filter is required for the accurate evaluation of SPSRM drive performance and the reflection on the design. This paper deals with the characteristics of single phase switched reluctance motor based on the converter coupled finite element analysis. A computational technique for the converter coupled FE analysis is introduced and its validity is proven by the experiment for motor voltage and current.



The application of Single Phase Switched Reluctance Motors (SPSRM) for home appliance like vacuum cleaner is on the increase due to its simple construction, high speed and large torque. Especially this system could be able to lower the cost of drive converter owing to the reduction of the number of power devices [1]. The converter of SPSRM in Fig. 1 adopts a DC link capacitor(C) with low capacitance in order to reduce the cost and size of the system, and an inductor (L) for the power factor correction. A low capacitance causes a large DC link voltage ripple and the amplitude of ripple voltage depend on LC parameter, source voltage and drive state of SPSRM [2], [3]. If DC link voltage with low capacitance is considered as a constant average voltage on the analysis, the performance of the motor such as torque ripples, instantaneous current is inaccuracy due to these voltage ripples. Therefore, freewheeling diodes, switching devices, and LC filter must be considered in finite element analysis from the viewpoint of the reflections on the design and the accurate evaluation of torque ripple waveform that cause undesirable acoustic noise and vibration. This paper introduces a computational technique for the converter coupled FE analysis, and it shows its results and proves the validity of analysis by the experiment. II. MACHINE DESCRIPTIONS Fig. 1 shows the magnetic flux paths of single phase 6/6 SPSRM and asymmetric bridge converter for a vacuum cleaner. The stator consists of one phase and six salient poles with concentrated winding, and the rotor consists of six salient poles. The motor is configured to have three poles, and the path of the magnetic flux is made to be short as possible and each of the windings are connected parallel in order to reduce the magnetic resistance. The output power is 540[W] and the efficiency is


(b) Fig. 1. Single-Phase Switched Reluctance Motor: (a) winding distribution, (b) driving converter and its magnetic path

III. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS TOOL In SRM with no magnetic saturation, the instantaneous torque is expressed by T ( , i ) = 1 / 2 i 2 dL( ) / d . The electromagnetic torque is proportional to the derivative of the inductance, L, which is a function of rotor position, , and the square of winding currents affected by inductance of windings. Although this mathematical equation is often quoted for SRM, it is not sufficient for accurate prediction of torque, because the magnetic saturation effect can not be considered [4]. The finite element method is essential for the precise calculation of the

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Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines nonlinear magnetic saturated torque [3]. Also, the switching conditions and freewheeling diodes of the motor drive circuit have to be considered in finite element analysis. To provide torque, the drive circuit must be commutated that the switches S1 and S2 of phase-A turn on as the solid line shown in Fig. 2(a). When S1 and S2 of phase-A turn off, the current flows through the freewheeling diodes D1 and D2 as the dotted line shown in Fig. 2(b) The current is restored to DC link capacitor. Therefore, these kinds of conditions must be considered in analysis. The time-stepped voltage source Finite Element Method (FEM) is coded with the circuit equation considered turn-on, turn-off switches and freewheeling diodes. Fig. 3 show the single pulse driving among three switching topology in SRM: hard copping, soft copping and single pulse. The single pulse driving is useful in application for high speed running of SRM. A. Formulation If the magnetic vector potential and current density have only a z-axis component, the governing equation for SRM can be expressed in a magnetic vector potential, A, as follows:

1 A A + + J 0 = 0 x x y y


where is the permeability, A is z-component of the magnetic vector potential, J0 is the input current density. The voltage source equation of SPSRM for voltage source analysis is expressed in (2) because the driving circuit has a diode rectifier, power factor correction LC filter, and switching power devices as shown in Fig. 1.

d EM + RM + LM I M k sVDC = Vd dt


where EM is the electromotive force induced in the coil, RM is the phase resistance, LM is the leakage inductance of the end coil, IM is the input current of SPSRM, VDC is the DC Link voltage, and Vd is the diode voltage drop. ks is the switching function that indicates the state of power devices and defined as follows:
(a) (b) Fig. 2. Current flow by switching condition in drive circuit: (a) turn-on state (S1 and S2 is turn-on), (b) turn-off state or freewheeling state (S1 and S2 is turnoff)

k s { 1, 0, 1 }


1: Turn-on, 0: Soft chopping, -1: Turn-off That is, VDC or -VDC is applied to the motor according to the switching state of power device. DC Link voltage VDC and current IDC flowing into the capacitor C is written in (4).

dVDC 1 I DC = 0 dt C


From Kirchhoffs Current Law, the related equation between IL flowing into the inductor (L), IM, and the DC Link current (IDC) is given as (5).

I DC = I L k s I M


Equation (6) is the circuit equation concerned in the source circuit that contains the inductor, L. IL flows from the source to DC Link part, but the opposite direction of the current flowing is intercepted by force because of the diode rectifiers characters. Rotation angle

Fig. 3. Single pulse driving: inductance profile, supply voltage, linkage flux, and phase current.

dI L + VDC = VS dt


Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines B. System Matrix After applying Galerkin method to (1) and combing the voltage source equation of SPSRM with (2)~(6), then the overall system matrix can be obtained by using the backward difference method to deal with the time derivative term in the circuit equation as in (7).
[Q] [S ] [ F ] / t [ R] + [ L ] / t m [0] [0] ks / C [0] [0] ( A) ks (I M ) [0] [ L] / t + k s ( I L ) k s / C 1 / t (VDC ) [0]
t + t


[0] [0] [0] ( A) 0 [ 0] [ F ] / t [ L ] / t [0] [0] ( I M ) Vd (7) m + = [ 0] [0] [ L] / t [0] ( I L ) VS [0] [0] 1 / t (VDC ) 0 [ 0]

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 4 shows the results of the converter coupled FE analysis. Fig. 4(a) indicate the source voltage and current waveforms which are respectively Vs and Is in Fig. 1. The source current (Is) includes ripple of switching frequency of power device, and its harmonics and power factor of source power are much improved than converter with only capacitor. Fig. 4(b) shows DC link voltage waveform and proves that DC link voltage is not constant. Generally, the DC link voltage is around 300V when common voltage AC 220V is applied in single-phase full bridge rectifier. The ripple of power device switching frequency and the twice times of source frequency are comprised in the DC link voltage. That is, the DC link voltage is affected by the turn-on and -off as well as the capacity of the LC filler. It can be appeared in the peak voltage of DC link, 400V. Fig. 4(c) shows the SPSRM current waveform during the period of source. Motor current fluctuates in accordance with the DC link voltage and long period of torque ripple is also is expected because the motor torque is proportional to the square of winding currents. Fig. 4(d) shows the applied voltage and current waveform of SPSRM during the switching period. Motor voltage doesnt have a constant value due to the change of DC link voltage. Fig. 5 presents the experimental results. However, there are some difference between the analysis results and the experimental ones. The manufactured motor is tested under the distortion of common supply voltage as shown in Fig. 5(a), but the finite element analysis model is calculated and compared under perfectly sinusoidal supply voltage as shown in Fig. 4(a). Fig. 5(d) confirms that both results of motor voltage and currents nearly match well and the proposed analysis scheme is adequate. Especially, if average voltage is applied in SPSRM, the torque ripple causing noise and vibration could not be exactly obtained.


(d) Fig. 4. Analysis result: (a) Source current and voltage, (b) DC link voltage (c) Motor current, (d) Applied voltage and motor current


Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines V. CONCLUSIONS In this work, the computational scheme for the converter coupled FE analysis was introduced and the validity of analysis method was verified by the experimental results. The characteristics of SPSRM and its converter were also presented through the converter coupled FE analysis. From the analysis results, it is known that not only SPSRM but circuit parameters are important elements of design and performance of motor. Moreover, it is expected that the proposed analysis method in this article may be effectively used for various electric machines. REFERENCES
[1] Krishnan, R., Staley, A.M, Sitapati, K., "A novel single-phase switched reluctance motor drive system," Industrial Electronics Society, 2001. IECON 01. The 27th Annual Conference of the IEEE, pp.1488-1493, 2001. J.Y Lim, Y.C Jung, S.Y Kim, J.C Kim, "Single phase switched reluctance motor for vacuum cleaner", IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol.2, pp.1393-1400, 2001. Jae-Hak Choi, Tae-Heoung Kim, Yong-Su Kim, Seung-Jun Lee, YounHyun Kim, and Ju Lee, Finite Element Analysis of Switched Reluctance Motor Considering Asymmetric Bridge Converter and DC Link Voltage Ripple, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol.41, no.5, 1640-1643, May 2005. T. J. E. Miller, Switched Reluctance Motors and their control, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp. 18-19


[2] [3] (c)


(d) Fig. 4. Experimental result: (a) Source current and voltage, (b) DC link voltage (c) Motor current, (d) Applied voltage and motor current

Fig. 5. Instantaneous torque waveforms on analysis