Buenos días! bway-nohs dee-ahs Hello! / Good morning! ¡Hola! / ¡Chao! oh-lah / chow Hi! / Bye!

Hasta la vista / Hasta luego. ah-stah lah vees-tah / ah-stah loo-ay-go See you / See you later. (Muchas) Gracias. (moo-chahs) grah-see-ahs Thank you (very much). Lo siento loh see-ehn-toh I'm sorry ¿Cómo está usted? koh-moh ay-stah oo-sted How are you? (formal) Bien / Muy bien bee-ehn / moy bee-ehn Good / Very good

¡Buenas tardes! bway-nahs tard-ays Good afternoon! Adiós. ah-dee-ohs Good bye. Hasta pronto. ah-stah prohn-toh See you soon. De nada. day nah-dah You're welcome. Con permiso / Perdón / Disculpe kohn pehr-mee-soh / pehrdohn /dees-kool-peh Excuse me / Pardon me ¿Cómo estás? koh-moh ay-stahs How are you? (informal) Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs Bad / Very bad / OK ¿Cómo te llamas? koh-moh tay yah-mahs What is your name? (informal) Igualmente. ee-guahl-mehn-tay Same here. / Same to you. ¿De dónde eres? day dohn-day eh-rehs Where are you from?

¡Buenas noches! bway-nahs noh-chays Good evening! / Good night! Por favor. por fah-bor Please. Hasta mañana. ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah See you tomorrow. Bienvenidos byen-veh-nee-dohs Welcome ¡Vamos! bah-mohs Let's go! ¿Qué tal? kay tahl How's it going? Sí / No see / noh Yes / No Me llamo... / Mi nombre es... may yah-moh / mee nohmbreh ess My name is... Señor / Señora / Señorita sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / saynyor-ee-tah Mister / Mrs. / Miss Yo soy de... yoh soy day I'm from...

¿Cómo se llama usted? koh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted What is your name? (formal) Mucho gusto. / Encantado. moo-choh goo-stoh / en-cahntah-doh Nice to meet you. ¿De dónde es usted? day dohn-day ehs oo-sted Where are you from? (formal)

. Claro / Claro que sí klah-roh / klah-roh keh see Sure / Of course Aquí / Ahí ah-kee / ah-ee Here / There ¿Cómo? koh-moh What? Pardon me? Hay / Había.. yoh noh loh seh I (don't) know. noh ehn-tyen-doh I (don't) understand. (No) Hablo. Yo (no lo) se...... No tengo ninguna idea.. noh ah-bloh I (don't) speak.. / There was / were. Estoy cansado / enfermo. eye / ah-bee-ah There is / are. eh-stoy kahn-sah-doh / ehn-fehrmoh ¿Cuántos años tienes? quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-aynays How old are you? (informal) ¿Hablas inglés? ah-blahs een-glehs Do you speak English? (informal) Yo tengo _____ años. yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs I am _____ years old. tehn-goh ahm-breh / sed I'm hungry / thirsty.. Sin novedad. ¡Pase! pah-seh Go ahead! Tengo calor / frío.(informal) ¿Cuántos años tiene usted? quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ay-nay oo-sted How old are you? (formal) ¿Habla usted español? ah-blah oo-sted eh-spahn-yol Do you speak Spanish? (formal) ¿Entiende usted? / ¿Entiendes? ehn-tyen-deh oo-sted / ehn-tyendehs Do you understand? (formal / informal) ¿Puede ayudarme? pweh-deh ah-yoo-dar-meh Can you help me? (formal) ¿Dónde está / Dónde están.. tehn-goh kah-lohr / free-oh I'm hot / cold. .. noh eem-por-tah It doesn't matter. ? ¿Cómo se dice ____ en español? koh-moh seh dee-seh ___ en ehspahn-yol How do you say ____ in Spanish? No importa.. / Where are . (No) Entiendo.... noh tehn-goh neen-goo-nah eedeh-ah I have no idea. ¿Qué es esto? keh ehs ehs-toh What is that? ¿Qué te pasa? keh teh pah-sah What's the matter (with you)? ¿Qué pasa? keh pah-sah What's happening? ¡Buena idea! bweh-nah ee-deh-ah Good idea! Tengo hambre / sed. ? dohn-deh eh-stah / dohn-deh ehstahn Where is . seen noh-veh-dahd Nothing much.

as well as Argentina. tay ah-moh I love you. Paraguay. (informal and singular) Notice that Spanish has informal and formal ways of speaking. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met. If the words refer to a woman or are spoken by a woman. eh-stoy ah-boo-ree-doh I'm bored. Peru. enfermo. ehs-tah bee-ehn That's alright. and aburrida In Spain. meh ohl-vee-deh I forgot. ¿Listo? lees-toh Ready? ¡Qué chistoso! keh chees-toh-soh How funny! ¡Salud! sah-lood Bless you! Te toca a ti. Uruguay and Venezuela. Chile.) Encantado. Estoy aburrido. kee-sahs / deh-pehn-deh Maybe / It depends. Me olvidé.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends. teh toh-kah ah tee It's your turn. Todavía no. enferma. for example. or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor. cansado. Quizás / Depende. PRONUNCIATION Spanish Letter a English Sound ah . noh meh eem-por-tah I don't care. and aburrido are the masculine forms of the words. Bolivia. tehn-goh keh eer ah-oh-rah I must go now. noh seh preh-oh-koo-peh Don't worry Tengo que ir ahora. 2. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Spanish (as well as in many other languages. (informal) No me importa. ¡Nos vemos! nohs veh-mos We'll see you! ¡Buena suerte! bweh-nah swehr-teh Good luck! Te amo. do not know well. Está bien. toh-dah-vee-ah noh Not yet. / It's ok. the Spanish language is calledcastellano instead of español. animals or children. cansada. then the final o changes to a: encantada. relatives. ¡Que le vaya bien! keh leh vah-yah bee-ehn Have a nice day! ¡Felicitaciones! feh-lee-see-tah-see-oh-nehs Congratulations! ¡Callate! kah-yah-teh Shut up! No se preocupe.I'm tired / sick.

For words that do no follow these rules.e i o u ll v ñ r rr d j g qu ai / all / ay z z. ce. ALPHABET a b c d ah bay say j k l ll hoh-tah kah ay-lay ay-yay r s t u air-ay rr airr-ay ay-say tay oo ch chay day m ay-may . as inel pájaro (bird). sometimes a h k eye s th (in northern Spain only) The five vowels in Spanish are all pure vowels: [a]. Stress: Just as in English. If a word ends in a consonant. the stress is on the second-to-last syllable. ci ay ee oh oo y b at beginning of word. [o]. Please keep in mind that because Spanish is spoken in many countries. real soft b between 2 vowels ny (as in canyon) almost like a d when in between 2 vowels r with a roll of the tongue almost like a th when in between 2 vowels hard h g. except s or n. [e]. there are several regional dialects and accents so pronunciation rules may not apply to all countries. If a word ends in a vowel. 3. an accent is written over the vowel so that you will know to stress that syllable. or s or n. [i]. the stress is on the last syllable. [u] Be sure that you do not pronounce a diphthong as we do in English (the extra yuh or wuh sound at the end). This tutorial is mostly concerned with the language that is spoken in Mexico and Spain. Spanish stresses a certain syllable in a word.

e f g h i ay ay-fay hey n ñ o q ay-nay v x y z bay chee-kah vay doh-blay ah-kees ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah ayn-yay w oh pay koo ah-chay p ee The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch. ésa. Plural los (lohs) unos (oon-ohs) estos esos aquellos Fem. with a few exceptions: la mano (hand). ése. aquélla. -tad. if you want to use the demonstrative pronouns. Singular la (lah) una (oon-ah) esta esa aquella the some these those those Masc. Use the aquelforms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing. which are used before a verb. but they are still separate letters in the alphabet. SUBJECT PRONOUNS noh-soh-trohs / we noh-soh-trahs boh-soh-trohs / tú too you (informal) vosotros / vosotras you all boh-soh-trahs él / ella /usted ail / ay-yah / he / she / it / ellos / ellas /ustedes ay-yohs / aythey / they / yo yoh I nosotros / nosotras . el problema (problem). such as chica (Mexico and Peru) or corta (Argentina and Chile). but in Latin America most dialects just use bay and an adjective. you can say oo-bay for v. éstos. an this that that el (ail) un (oon) este ese aquel Fem. Other feminine words end in -ción. add an accent on all of the first e's: éste. aquéllas. aquéllos. la foto (photo). Demonstrative adjectives (listed above) are used before a noun. with a few exceptions: el mapa (map). or -tud. Singular the a. ésos. -dad. 4. ésas. ARTICLES & DEMONSTRATIVES Masc. 5. Use the ese forms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing. Plural las (lahs) unas (oon-ahs) estas esas aquellas El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable. ésta. Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that. Words that end in -o and -or are generally masculine. ll or rr to be separate letters in dictionaries. éstas. aquél. Words that end in -a are generally feminine. In Spain. They can be used in general and abstract ways.

Nosotras andvosotras refer to a group of all females. or its origin. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs.to be past fuí I was fuiste you were fué he/she/it was fuimos we were fuisteis you were fueron they were estar . Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries.oo-sted you (formal) yahs / oo-stedays you (plural) Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. TO BE & TO HAVE present I am you are he/she/it is we are you are they are ser . its basic characteristics.to be past estuve I was estuviste you were estuvo he/she/it was estuvimos we were estuvisteis you were estuvieron they were tener . Ser is used to identify or describe. It tells what something is.to have past tuve I had tuviste you had tuvo he/she/it had tuvimos we had tuvisteis you had tuvieron they had future I will be you will be he/she/it will be we will be you will be they will be future I will be you will be he/she/it will be we will be you will be they will be future I will have you will have he/she/it will have we will have you will have they will have soy eres es somos sois son seré serás será seremos seréis serán present estoy I am estás you are está he/she/it is estamos we are estáis you are están they are present tengo tienes tiene tenemos tenéis tienen estaré estarás estará estaremos estaréis estarán I have you have he/she/it has we have you have they have tendré tendrás tendrá tendremos tendréis tendrán Highlighted forms are only used in Spain. . Ustedes can also be abbreviated to Uds. Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels. 6. Usted can be abbreviated to Ud. as well as ellas.

It's three o'clock.to be nice. Los libros son de Juan. Uses of Estar Location/position Temporary condition/state State of health Form progressive tense El libro está en la mesa. El teléfono fue inventado por Bell. La ventana está abierta. He is a carpenter. Many common expressions using the verb "be" in English use the verb "tener" in Spanish (but not all): to be afraid to be against to be at fault to be careful to be cold to be curious to be happy to be hot to be hungry tener miedo estar en contra tener la culpa tener cuidado tener frío ser curioso/a estar contento/a tener calor tener hambre to be in a hurry to be jealous to be lucky to be patient to be sleepy to be successful to be thirsty to be tired to be ___ years old tener prisa. La casa es grande. ser callado. Son las tres. Charles is poor.to be in good health. Es carpintero. John is sick.Uses of Ser Identify person/object Inherent characteristics or qualities Nationality/Occupation Telling time Express ownership Impersonal expressions Passive voice El edificio es un templo.to be tan. estar de prisa tener celos tener suerte tener paciencia tener sueño tener éxito tener sed estar cansado/a tener ___ años 7. Sometimes changing the verb can completely change the meaning: ser aburrido means to be boring. estar moreno . The house is large. Michael is studying. The book is on the table. The window is open. Miguel está estudiando. while estar aburrido means to be bored. The building is a temple. Others include: ser bueno . It is necessary.to be discrete. Carlos es pobre. Juan está enfermo. The telephone was invented by Bell. estar bueno .to be silent. Es necesario. estar callado . QUESTION WORDS what qué which cuál(es) .to have brown hair. ser moreno . The books are John's.

who how when where why quién(es) cómo cuándo dónde por qué how much how many whom whose cuánto (-a) cuántos (-as) a quién(es) de quién(es) 8. CARDINAL & ORDINAL NUMBERS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 30 40 50 60 cero uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez once doce trece catorce quince diez y seis say-roh oo-noh dohs trays kwah-troh seen-koh says see-ay-tay oh-choh new-ay-vay dee-ays ohn-say doh-say tray-say kah-tor-say keen-say dee-ays ee says dee-ays ee see-aydiez y siete tay diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh diez y dee-ays ee new-aynueve vay veinte bayn-tay veinte y bayn-tay ee oo-noh uno veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs treinta cuarenta cincuenta sesenta trayn-tah kuar-ain-tah seen-kuain-tah say-sain-tah first second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twentysecond thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth primero segundo tercero cuarto quinto sexto séptimo octavo noveno décimo undécimo duodécimo décimo tercero décimo cuarto décimo quinto décimo sexto décimo séptimo décimo octavo décimo noveno vigésimo vigésimo primero vigésimo segundo trigésimo cuadragésimo quincuagésimo sexagésimo .

So 101 is ciento uno and 156 would beciento cincuenta y seis. you use ciento. 9. but you need to use y for the rest of the numbers. veintitrés. etc. Also you can use dieciséis. veintidós. and diecinueve for 16. dieciocho. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word.). Additionally. 17. DAYS OF THE WEEK Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday day week weekend today tonight last night yesterday tomorrow my birthday next last day before yesterday day after tomorrow the following day the day before lunes martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo el día la semana el fin de semana hoy esta noche anoche ayer mañana mi cumpleaños próximo / próxima pasado / pasada anteayer pasado mañana el día siguiente la víspera loo-nays mar-tays mee-air-coh-lays hway-bays bee-air-nays sah-bah-doh doh-ming-oh dee-ah say-mahn-ah feen day say-mahn-ah oy es-tah noh-chay ah-noh-chay eye-yair mahn-yahn-ah mee coom-play-ahn-yohs prok-see-moh / mah pah-sah-doh / dah ahn-teh-eye-yair pah-sah-doh mahn-yahn-ah dee-ah see-gwee-ehn-teh vees-peh-rah . you use cien. 21-29 can be written as one word (veintiuno. If it's over 100. Primero and tercero drop the final -o when used directly before a noun. and 19.70 80 90 100 1000 setenta ochenta noventa cien(to) mil say-tain-tah oh-chain-tah noh-bain-tah see-ain-(toh) meel seventieth eightieth ninetieth hundredth thousandth septuagésimo octogésimo nonagésimo centésimo milésimo If you are just saying 100. diecisiete. 18. respectively.

but the rest of the days are referred to using the regular cardinal numbers: el primero de junio but el dos de julio. Months of the year are also all masculine and not capitalized in writing. but at all other times it is required and there is slight change in meaning if it is singular or plural: el lunes = on Monday but los lunes = on Mondays 10. Today is August 1st. Also notice that primero is used for the first of the month. MONTHS OF THE YEAR January February March April May June July August September October November December month first of [a month] year decade century millennium enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre el mes el primero de [month] el año la década el siglo el milenio ay-nair-oh fay-bray-roh mar-soh ah-breel mi-oh hoo-nee-oh hoo-lee-oh ah-gohs-toh sayp-tee-aim-bray ohk-too-bray noh-bee-aim-bray dee-see-aim-bray mais pree-mair-oh day _____ ahn-yoh deh-kah-dah see-gloh mee-leh-nee-oh The preposition en is used with months: en abril = in April. ¿Cual es la fecha de hoy? What is today's date? Hoy es el primero de agosto. The definite article is not used after the verb ser. SEASONS spring summer winter la primavera el verano el invierno in spring in summer in winter en primavera en verano en invierno .Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. 11.

you usually just change the final -o to -a. TIME ¿Qué hora es? What time is it? . COLORS & SHAPES red pink orange yellow green blue light blue purple violet brown black gray white golden silver rojo / roja rosado / rosada anaranjado / anaranjada amarillo / amarilla verde azul celeste morado / morada violeta marrón negro / negra gris blanco / blanca dorado / dorada plateado / plateada dark light oscuro / oscura claro / clara circle square rectangle triangle oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box pyramid el círculo el cuadrado el rectángulo el triángulo el óvalo el cubo la esfera el cilindro el cono el octágono la caja la pirámide All adjectives in Spanish are placed after the noun that they describe and they agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the noun. DIRECTIONS to the right to the left straight ahead north south east west el norte el sur el este el oeste a la derecha a la izquierda todo derecho northeast northwest southeast southwest el noreste el noroeste el sureste el suroeste 13. To change an adjective to the feminine form.autumn el otoño in autumn en otoño 12. Notice that some colors do not change for gender (marrón) or number (gris). simply add an -s. a red house = una casa roja 14. To make an adjective plural.

It's hailing. It's cold. It's foggy. Son las nueve menos diez. Son las diez menos cuarto. Hace frío. It's cloudy.. Hace viento. . Es medianoche. Son cuarto para las diez.. It's one. Son las dos/tres/cuatro. It's misty. Truena. Son las ocho y cuarto. It's humid. It's raining. Son las tres y media / treinta. It's sunny.. Hace mal tiempo. Está nublado. It's chilly. Hay niebla. It's 5:05 It's 8:15 It's 9:45 It's 9:45 (common in Mexico) It's 8:50 It's 8:50 (common in Mexico) It's 3:30 in the morning / AM in the afternoon / PM in the evening / PM exactly / sharp At what time? What's the weather like? The weather's nice. Llovizna. Hace calor. It's sprinkling. Hay granizo.Es la una. Hace sol. It's noon. It's midnight. It's two/three/four. Nieva.. de la mañana de la tarde de la noche en punto ¿A qué hora? 15. It's snowing. Llueve. Hay humedad. Hace fresco. Es mediodía. WEATHER ¿Qué tiempo hace? Hace buen tiempo. Son las cinco y cinco. It's windy. Hay neblina. It's thundering. It's hot. Son diez para las nueve. The weather's bad.

close to far from in front of below. FAMILY & ANIMALS family parents husband wife father / dad mother / mom son daughter children brother sister brothers & sisters only child (m) only child (f) kid / boy kid / girl half-brother half-sister father-in-law mother-in-law la familia los padres el marido / el esposo la mujer / la esposa el padre / el papá la madre / la mamá el hijo la hija los hijos el hermano la hermana los hermanos el hijo único la hija única el muchacho la muchacha el medio hermano la media hermana el suegro la suegra cousin (m) cousin (f) cousins relatives stepfather stepmother stepbrother stepsister stepson stepdaughter godfather godmother baby teenager boy girl boys & girls man woman adult el primo la prima los primos los parientes el padastro la madrastra el hermanastro la hermanastra el hijastro la hijastra el padrino la madrina el bebé el adolescente el niño la niña los niños el hombre la mujer el adulto . 17. through. since There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles. and de and el combine to form del. from in.16. along. among towards. over without al lado de alrededor de cerca de lejos de delante de debajo de en frente de detrás de encima de hasta desde beside. in order. A and el combine to form al. on between. by for. via on. PREPOSITIONS a con contra de en entre hacia para por sobre sin at. until from. alongside of around near. under opposite behind above. to with against of. on top of till. about for.

or y. 20.brother-in-law sister-in-law son-in-law daughter-in-law grandfather grandmother grandparents grandson granddaughter grandchildren uncle aunt aunts & uncles nephew niece nieces & nephews el cuñado la cuñada el yerno la nuera el abuelo la abuela los abuelos el nieto la nieta los nietos el tío la tía los tíos el sobrino la sobrina los sobrinos twins (m) twins (f) dog cat bird fish gold fish horse goat pig cow rabbit turtle mouse deer duck los gemelos las gemelas el perro el gato el pájaro el pez la carpa dorada el caballo la cabra el cerdo la vaca el conejo la tortuga el ratón el ciervo el pato 18. Singular nouns that end in -z change the z to c and add -es to form the plural: la luz → las luces 4.to know people conozco conocemos conoces conocéis conoce conocen 19. add -es to make it plural: el papel → los papeles 3. FORMATION OF PLURAL NOUNS saber . POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES Initial Forms singular plural singular Terminal Forms plural . If a singular noun ends in a consonant. A few nouns that have an accent in the singular will lose it in the plural: el lápiz → los lápices 1.to know facts sé sabemos sabes sabéis sabe saben If a singular noun ends in a vowel. TO KNOW PEOPLE & FACTS conocer . just add -s to make it plural: la casa → las casas 2. a vowel with an accent.

" etc. de ella.. except in direct address. of yours. de ellos and de ellas. Because su and sus can have so many meanings. de él. it corresponds to the English "of mine. hijo mío? What are you doing.my mi your tu your/his/her/its su our your your/their mis tus sus nuestros / nuestro / nuestra nuestras vuestros / vuestro / vuestra vuestras su sus mío / mía tuyo / tuya suyo / suya nuestro / nuestra vuestro / vuestra suyo / suya míos / mías tuyos / tuyas suyos / suyas nuestros / nuestras vuestros / vuestras suyos / suyas Remember that vuestro forms are only used in Spain (just as the vosotros subject pronoun & verb conjugations are only used in Spain).. When used with the indefinite article. and the noun must be preceded by the definite article. el libro mío my book Qué haces. los libros de ellos their books The terminal forms are placed after the noun. de + a pronoun may be used following the noun: de Ud. my son? un amigo mío a friend of mine . de Uds.

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