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LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE

Lecturer
Itamar Medeiros (Brazil)
BA in Industrial Design;
PgDip in Information Design;
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MSc In Design.

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


Expertise
Multimedia/Web Design,
Photography, Information Design
and Human-Computer Interaction.
LESSON 05:

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


ART LECTURE
learning outcome

Students will learn about the main


periods of western art, making co-
relations with CULTURAL ASPECTS
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of each corresponding historical

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


period.
LESSON 05:

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


CULTURE LECTURE
content

A retrospect of the major periods of


western art, particularly the avant-
garde.
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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


noun

The expression or application of


human creative skill and
imagination, typically in a visual form
such as painting or sculpture,
producing works to be appreciated /50

primarily for their beauty or emotional

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


power : the art of the Renaissance.

Works produced by such skill and


imagination : his collection of
modern art | an exhibition of Tibetan
art | [as adj. ] an art critic.
ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


skill & imagination

Art, being a product of skill and


imagination of those who produce it,
reflects both the technology of its
time, as well as the vision of the
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world of those who produce it.

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


skill & imagination

Artists have -- very often -- being the


first among their peers to give real
meaning to the technological
achievements of their time.
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But they’ve being also the ones who

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capture the spirit of their age.
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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


WESTERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


major periods

Now, let’s look at some of the most


influential periods of western art:

Renaissance;
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Impressionism;

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RENAISSANCE

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


science and enlightening

Cultural movement which brought about


a period of scientific revolution and
artistic transformation, at the dawn
of modern European history.
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A reconnection of the west with

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classical antiquity, the absorption of
knowledge -- particularly
mathematics and experimentalism --
and the focus on the importance of
living well in the present
(humanism)
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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


RENAISSANCE

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Italy; 1400 ~ 1600

An explosion of the dissemination of


knowledge brought on by printing
and the creation of new techniques
in art, poetry and architecture.
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RENAISSANCE

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Italy; 1400 ~ 1600

Artist sought new solutions to formal


and visual problems, devoting time to
scientific experimentation:

Linear Perspective
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A type of perspective used by artists

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in which the relative size, shape, and
position of objects are determined by
drawn or imagined lines converging
at a point on the horizon.
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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


RENAISSANCE

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Italy; 1400 ~ 1600

Aerial Perspective
the technique of representing more
distant objects as fainter and more
blue.
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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


RENAISSANCE

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


art form & objectives

The work of art -- particularly painting --


was supposed to be a window of the
natural world.
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IMPRESSIONISM

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


France: XIX Century

Artists depicted many of their subjects


in life around them rather than in
history, which was then the accepted
source of subject matter.
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Instead of painting an ideal of beauty

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that earlier artists had defined, the
impressionists tried to depict what
they saw at a given moment,
capturing a fresh, original vision that
was hard for some people to accept
as beautiful.
IMPRESSIONISM

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


France: XIX Century

Artists depicted many of their subjects


in life around them rather than in
history, which was then the accepted
source of subject matter.
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Instead of painting an ideal of beauty

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


that earlier artists had defined, the
impressionists tried to depict what
they saw at a given moment,
capturing a fresh, original vision that
was hard for some people to accept
as beautiful.
IMPRESSIONISM

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


France: XIX Century

To achieve the appearance of


spontaneity, impressionist painters
used broken brushstrokes of bright,
often unmixed colors.
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This practice produced loose or

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densely textured surfaces rather
than the carefully blended colors and
smooth surfaces favoured by most
artists of the time
IMPRESSIONISM

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


scientific advances helped
the impressionists
The new availability of oil paint in
metal tubes made painting out of
doors much easier, and new paints
based on artificial pigments provided
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brighter colors, particularly blues,
yellows, and greens.

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Impressionist Painters:

Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Manet, Le déjeuner sur l'herbe
Impressionist Painters:

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Impressionist Painters:

Renoir - La Moulin de la Galette 1876

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Monet, The Rouen Cathedral
Impressionist Painters:

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Monet, Gare St. Lazare
Impressionist Painters:

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


not an imitation of life

The term modern art refer to art of the


20th century mainly in Europe and
the Americas.

Among the 20th century’s most


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important contributions to the

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history of art are the invention of
abstraction, the introduction of a
wide range of new artistic
techniques and materials, and even
the redefinition of the boundaries
of art itself.
MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


abstraction

Art does NOT imitate the appearance


of things.

Art for art's sake; An attempt to make


painting and sculpture ends in
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themselves.

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


Samples . . . .

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Marcel Duchamp – 1917! Salvadore Dali ! ! Piet Mondrian!
!

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MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


what drives it?

The focus on originality;

A fascination with
Modern Technology;
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A fascination with the Primitive;

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


A need to explore and express
popular culture.
MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


the avant-guarde

The term avant-garde, which is often


applied to modern art, comes from a
French military term meaning
advanced guard.
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It suggests that what is modern is what

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


is new, original, or cutting-edge.
MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


the avant-guarde

To be sure, many artists in the 20th


century tried to redefine what art
means, or attempted to expand the
definition of art to include concepts,
materials, or techniques that were
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never before associated with art.

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


Samples . . . .

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Pablo Picasso Robert Smithson Paul klee

Roy Lichtenstein Andy Warhol /50

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MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


the first years

Art historians have related the


fragmentation of form in 20th-
century art to the fragmentation of
society at the time.
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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


the first years

The increasing technological aspirations


of the industrial revolution widened
the rift between the middle and the
working classes.
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Women demanded the vote and equal

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


rights.
MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


the first years

The view of the mind seen by the


founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund
Freud, stipulated that the human
psyche, far from being unified, was
mixed with emotional conflicts and
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contradictions.

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


MODERN ART

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


the first years

The discovery of X rays, physicist Albert


Einstein's theory of relativity, and
other technological innovations
suggested that our visual
experience no longer
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corresponded with science's view

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of the world.
ART NOUVEAU

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


France; 1880 ~ 1910

It found expression in a wide range of


art forms — architecture, interior
design, furniture, posters, glass,
pottery, textiles, and book illustration.
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It was characterized by its devotion to

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


curving and undulating lines,
organic shapes.
ART NOUVEAU

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


France; 1880 ~ 1910

Art nouveau borrowed motifs from


Japanese prints and Gothic
architecture.

Art nouveau was in decline by 1910


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being succeeded by the sleekly

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elegant art deco style.
Gustav Klimt (1862 – 1918)

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Erte

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


Antoni Gaudi (1852 – 1926)

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


ART DECO

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


1920 ~ 1930

The term art deco is a shortening of the


title of a major Paris design
exhibition held in 1925, Exposition
Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et
Industriels Modernes (International
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Exposition of Modern Industrial and

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Decorative Arts), where the style first
became evident.
ART DECO

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


1920 ~ 1930

Art Deco is an elegant style of


decorative art, furniture design and
architecture which began as a
Modernist reaction against the Art
Nouveau style.
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ART DECO

LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


1920 ~ 1930

A conscious effort to simplify the


elaborately curved shapes and
plantlike motifs of art nouveau.
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Art deco retained the tendency of Art

DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE


Nouveau toward abstraction and
repetition of forms but moved away
from the shapes and motifs of the
older style
Art Deco Architecture:

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART


LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART
Art Deco Architecture: The Chrysler Building

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designed by architect William Van Alen, is considered to be one of the

world's great Art Deco buildings.


Art Deco Architecture: Graphic Design, Arts & Crafts

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DESIGN INVESTIGATION & CULTURE LESSON 5: MAJOR PERIODS OF WESTERN ART