Westfalia Separator Food Tec

Mechanical Separation Division

Processing Lines for the Edible Oil Industry
Claiming the Top

List of Contents
4 6 7 8 9 9 10 12 14 16 18 18 20 21 22 22 24 25 26 26 28 28 30 Oils and Fats Processing Chemical Refining Physical Refining Clarification of Press Oil Degumming Water Degumming Simple Acid Degumming Special Degumming Super- / Uni-Degumming TOP-Degumming Neutralization Standard Neutralization Neutralization of Undegummed Oils Miscella Refining Winterization Wet-Dewaxing Cold Refining Polishing Filtration Fractionation Dry Fractionation Processing of By-Products Soapstock Splitting Westfalia Separator CapitalCare

The centrifuge is always to be found at the heart of the installation. ranging from a separator with a daily capacity of 10 tonnes for operators of small oil mills right through to separators with capacities of more than 1600 tonnes per day for large re-fineries. Satisfied customers throughout the world have placed their trust in this know-how and technological potential. The practical production processes and technologies must be as varied as the different types of oil. We not only supply the mechanical separation facility. The quality of the final product depends on the refining method and the nature of the crude oil. Westfalia Separator offers a wide range of solutions designed to boost value in this respect.Oils and Fats Processing Robust – Reliable – Efficient Vegetable oil is one of the most important primary foods and therefore requires maximum quality. Westfalia Separator Food Tec therefore designs and manufactures a “customized” solution which is tailored to meet the requirements of the specific application. every customer is able to find the best solution in economic and technological terms for his specific production tasks. 4 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . Whether a self-cleaning separator with a maximum level of automation or a discontinuously operating system. we of course also supply all other components and systems necessary for an efficient and reliable production line. developed together with the customers in the course of demanding day-to-day operations.

/ diglycerides Fatty acids Glycerine Soap Fatty alcohols Our core competence in edible oil refining: Press oil clarification Degumming Neutralization Dewaxing Fractionation Soapstock splitting Food Tec 5 Westfalia Separator . for making biodiesel) Epoxidized oils Mono.: Soybean oil Rapeseed oil Sunflower oil Animal fat Cottonseed oil Corn oil Fish oil Special applications: Ni-catalyst removal Lecithin deoiling Bleaching earth deoiling Re-refining of used frying fats Our competence in oleochemical applications: Transesterification (e. g.Processing of e. g.

Seed Beans Pressing Extraction Animal feed Press oil clarification Water degumming Drying Lecithin Neutralization Soapstock Soapstock splitting Winterization Split fatty acids Bleaching Deodorization Edible oil Grey colour is the core business of Westfalia Separator 6 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . The neutral oils are subsequently bleached and deodorized.Chemical Refining Different Processes – One Solution Two processes have been developed for refining edible oils and fats. The resultant sodium soaps are separated by means of separators. including oils of low quality. the decision as to which process is to be used depends on the types and qualities of crude oil to be processed. Chemical refining is the traditional method. This method can be used for reliably refining virtually all crude oils. with the exception of castor oil. where the free fatty acids of the crude oils are neutralized with caustic soda.

however. the free fatty acids are removed by distillation in one stage during deodorizing. Westfalia Separator is able to supply suitable process lines for both processes. or which complement centrifuge lines. this is only possible to a limited extent with some crude oil qualities. for instance cottonseed oil or fish oil. are fundamentally not suitable for physical refining. A fundamental criterion for using this method is that the crude oils should be degummed as effectively as possible. Other oils. we have limited ourselves to the processes in which centrifuges are used. Food Tec 7 Westfalia Separator .Seed Beans Pressing Extraction Animal feed Press oil clarification Water degumming Drying Lecithin Acid degumming Winterization Bleaching Deodorization Fatty acids Edible oil Grey colour is the core business of Westfalia Separator Physical Refining In the alternative method of physical refining.

or the oil is taken directly from the press to the press oil clarification unit. the solids are returned to the press. the solids are wetted with hot water.Clarification of Press Oil Continuous – Economic The oil which is discharged from expeller presses has various solid content levels depending on the oil seed type and the condition of the press. As a side effect of adding water. In order to support the separation process. Many features for your benefit Continuous solids separation Low cost of automation Lower space requirement Simultaneous degumming Seed Press cake Screw press Water Press oil Foots recycle Decanter Screening tank Cleaned crude oil Solids . if it is stored or sold. these are then removed together with the solids. the oil is usually fed into a settling tank. The decanter – which is a horizontal scroll-type centrifuge – continuously separates the solids from the oil. In order to avoid oil losses. The purified oil is either processed directly or. A water quantity of 1 percent in relation to the oil quantity is normally adequate in this respect. The water is mixed with the oil in the feed pump to the decanter. In order to remove particularly large solid particles. which is also used simultaneously as a buffer tank. In some installations. it should be dried in a vacuum. a vibrating screen is used for pre-cleaning. any phosphatides which are present are hydrated.

is used for this purpose. e.g. which is used as an emulsifier. animal feed. pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. The hydratable phosphatides swell immediately due to the particularly intensive mixing of oil and water. which simultaneously conveys the oil directly to the separator. Lecithin is a valuable side-product. They are either added directly to animal feed or dried in thin-film evaporators and sold in the form of lecithin. and no additional reaction time is necessary.Water Degumming Degumming A gentle-action pump is used for conveying the crude oil to a heat exchanger. The degummed oil is either conveyed directly to the refining stage. which is used for heating the crude oil to the optimum process temperature. or it has to be dried in a vacuum if it is stored or sold. Many features for your benefit Lecithin recovery Reduction of losses in the following refining stages Prevention of tank bottoms in storage tanks Vacuum Steam Hot water Vacuum dryer Sludge Crude oil Mixer Gums Separator Degummed oil . A special centrifugal mixer. A separator is used to continuously separate the phosphatides which are insoluble in oil. A quantity of hot water corresponding to the content of phosphatides in the crude oil is added to the oil and mixed intensively. in the food.

This considerably improves the economy of this method. The crude oil is initially heated to the optimum process temperature in a heat exchanger. hot water is added and mixed.Simple Acid Degumming Degumming This degumming method is suitable for pretreating palm oil. which is mixed intensively with the oil in a centrifugal mixer. After a brief reaction time. The heavy phase which contains phosphatides. proteins. palm kernel oil. Many features for your benefit Reduction of bleaching earth consumption Better end product quality Less fouling of downstream equipment 10 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . coconut and olive oil as well as animal fats with the aim of reducing bleaching earth consumption in the physical refining process. pigments and other impurities is then separated. A metering unit is used for adding a small quantity of phosphoric or citric acid. The oil which is treated in this way is generally sent directly to the bleaching stage and deacidified by means of distillation.

Vacuum Steam Acid Holding tank Hot water Holding tank Vacuum dryer Sludge Crude oil Mixer Mixer Gums Separator Degummed oil Food Tec 11 Westfalia Separator .

Steam Acid Lye Hot water Steam Hot water Holding tank Holding tank Sludge Crude oil Mixer Mixer Gums Separator Mixer 12 Westfalia Separator Food Tec .

Depending on the quality of the crude oil. a certain quantity of hot water is added to the oil. further reduction is recommended by means of washing the oil. some of this acid is neutralized with very dilute caustic soda and sufficient water is simultaneously added for hydration of the phosphatides. or it is dried in a vacuum if it is to be sold or stored. If this is the case. Vacuum Vacuum dryer Sludge Wash water Separator Degummed oil Many features for your benefit This process line can also be used for neutralization (flexibility) The crude or water-degummed oil is initially heated to the optimum hydration temperature. In most cases. with respect to the residual gum content. it is necessary to accept a compromise in comparison with the more demanding acid degumming methods described in the following. The residual phosphatide content which can be achieved in this way may be adequate for some applications. A small amount of phosphoric or citric acid is then added and intensively mixed in the centrifugal mixer. this is then mixed and conveyed to a second separator which continuously separates the wash water. it is possible to decide whether the oil can be refined by chemical or physical means. Food Tec 13 Westfalia Separator . The caustic and water are also mixed together with the oil in the next centrifugal mixer. The mixer conveys the oil through a hydration reactor to the next heat exchanger. However.Special Degumming Degumming This degumming method can be carried out with slightly modified neutralization lines. Phase separation then takes place in a separator to produce gums and oil. The oil which is virtually degummed is then either conveyed directly to the bleaching stage. After an appropriate reaction time. however. which heats the product to the corresponding separation temperature.

Super. as extremely fine particles cannot be separated. This concludes the super-degumming stage. After a certain reaction time. This produces a considerable advantage in the subsequent refining process of these oils./ Uni-Degumming Degumming After the crude oil has been heated. under normal conditions. the uni-degumming method. The hydration and agglomeration of phosphatides at low temperature produces a positive side effect for wax-containing oils (e. specially modified phosphatides which subsequently facilitate phosphatide hydration can be added. The oil is cooled for a second time and a small amount of caustic soda is added. However. has been developed for this purpose. a small quantity of citric acid is added to the crude oil and mixed very intensively with the oil. Steam Modified lecithin Acid Crude oil Mixer Mixer Cooling water Lye Mixing tank Many features for your benefit P-content < 10 ppm possible Can be combined with partial dewaxing 14 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . However. g. it may be necessary to remove the phosphatides more efficiently. These can be separated in a clarifier after the oil has been heated. A further process stage. depending on how the oil is to be subsequently treated. during which the fine phosphatide particles agglomerate to form larger particles. After a certain reaction time in an agitator tank. the oil is heated to separating temperature and the gums are separated from the oil in a separator. sunflower oil and corn oil). Some of the wax crystallizes and is separated together with the gums. this is only necessary in exceptional cases. The oil is subsequently dried in a vacuum. the oil is cooled and the necessary quantity of water is added for hydrating the phosphatides. Mixing of the caustic with the oil in a special mixing tank is followed by a further reaction time in an agitator tank.

Cooling water Steam Hot water Hydration tank Sludge Mixer Gums Separator Steam Vacuum Vacuum dryer Gums Agglomeration tank Clarifier Degummed oil Food Tec 15 Westfalia Separator .

Following intensive mixing and a brief reaction time. After mixing in a centrifugal mixer and the gums are separated from the oil in a separator. This enables the fine particles to be continuously separated with the water. Because very fine phosphatide particles cannot be separated. a certain amount of water is again added to the oil. Steam Acid Holding tank Crude oil Mixer Many features for your benefit P-content < 10 ppm possible Short retention times Very compact installation 16 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . In order to avoid oil losses. this phase is recycled into the feed of the first centrifuge. Following a brief reaction time.TOP-Degumming Degumming The crude oil is initially heated to the optimum process temperature and a small quantity of acid is added. The oil which is degummed in this way is subsequently dried. the mixture is conveyed to a high-performance clarifier which is able to generate an extremely high g-force thanks to its special design. where the fine gum particles are separated together with most of the phosphatides. some of the acid is neutralized with dilute caustic soda.

Lye Water Holding tank Vacuum Vacuum dryer Mixer Sludge Sludge Mixer Gums Separator Clarifier Degummed oil .

e. one wash stage is adequate.Standard Neutralization Neutralization This method is suitable for neutralizing pre-degummed edible oils or oils which originally only have a low phosphatide content. in order to remove most of the gossypol. a low residual soap content can also be achieved by acidifying the wash water with citric or phosphoric acid. In order to condition the non-hydratable phosphatides. for poor-quality crude oils High product quality guaranteed All oils can be processed 18 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . A second washing is only necessary. if very low residual soap contents are required. The oil is initially heated to the optimum process temperature. Conditioning Steam Acid Neutralization Lye Holding tank Crude oil Hot water or Lye Mixer Steam Mixer Wash water Washing or re-refining Separator Many features for your benefit Very reliable process. and the sodium soap is separated.g. For this purpose. and it must therefore be further reduced by one or two washings. This oil should always be neutralized in 3-stage installations. dilute caustic soda is added in order to neutralize the free fatty acid and the phosphoric acid. a small quantity of concentrated phosphoric acid is added and intensively mixed with the oil. Self-cleaning separators are mostly used for separating the sodium soap. However. In general. the neutralized and washed oil is subsequently vacuum-dried. However. the mixture is either conveyed directly to the first separator or it passes through a further reaction tank. the residual soap content in the neutral oil is still too high for the subsequent process stages. The soapy wash water is removed in a further separator. This mainly applies to cottonseed oil. hot water is added to the oil and intensively mixed. Depending on the subsequent bleaching method. Following a brief reaction time. The free fatty acids are saponified with caustic soda. After mixing with the oil. The latter is recommended only for oils with a relatively high phosphatide content. A second caustic treatment of the neutral oils is only advisable in exceptional cases.

Sludge Mixer Soapstock Separator Vacuum Hot water Vacuum dryer Sludge Sludge Mixer Wash water Washing Separator Drying Neutralized oil Food Tec 19 Westfalia Separator .

Dilute caustic soda is then added in order to neutralize the free fatty acids. It is necessary to ensure that adequate water is present with the caustic in order to hydrate the phosphatides. the acid is added in the feed tank with an agitator upstream of the installation. However. The neutral oil is washed in order to further reduce the residual soap content. The process is a combination of degumming and neutralization. Many features for your benefit Prior water degumming not necessary Good end product quality Lye Steam Steam Hot water Holding tank Sludge Crude oil (conditioned with acid) Sludge Mixer Soapstock Separator Mixer Wash water Separator 20 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . a certain quantity of hot water is added to the oil. mixed in a centrifuge and separated into wash water and oil in a separator. In some cases. For this purpose. a small quantity of phosphoric or citric acid is added to the crude undegummed oil. several hours reaction time must be taken into consideration. The intensive mixing enables the reaction time to be reduced to a few minutes. Following a reaction time of several minutes in special retention mixers. a more effective method is to add the acid upstream of a centrifugal mixer. The residual humidity of the oil is further reduced in a vacuum drier. the oil is heated and added directly to the first separator in order to separate the soapstock.Neutralization of Undegummed Oils Neutralization This method has become established mainly in the USA for refining soybean oil. For conditioning the non-hydratable phosphatides.

all installation parts. The miscella temperature is then briefly set below the evaporation point. and the necessary quantity of caustic soda is added in order to neutralize the free fatty acids. The soapstock is separated in the separator. and it is not necessary to wash the oil after hexane evaporation. Because of the high specific density difference between miscella and soapstock. or in the first stage of hexane evaporation. Due to special safety considerations. the centrifuge is even blanketed with inert gas. Mixing is followed by a reaction time in special retention mixers. it is recommended that an acid is added before the caustic. Many features for your benefit Low losses Good gossypol removal for cottonseed oil No waste water if the soapstock can be added to the meal Less fouling of hexane evaporation columns Vacuum Steam Acid Holding tank Lye Holding tank Neutralized miscella Sludge Vacuum dryer Miscella Mixer Neutralized oil Mixer Soapstock Separator Food Tec 21 Westfalia Separator . It enables most of the gossypol to be removed with simultaneously low neutralization losses. the separating efficiency is at its optimum level. are explosion-proof. If it is necessary to treat oils with a higher phosphatide content. and in particular the centrifuge. The miscella which discharges from the oil seed extraction stage is pre-concentrated either by adding the press oil.Miscella Refining Neutralization This method was originally developed for neutralizing cottonseed oil. Because of the risk of explosion posed by hexane.

which crystallize at lower temperatures and result in turbidity in the oil. Wet winterization in combination with neutralization is suitable for removing these waxes. A small quantity of caustic soda is again added in order to set a specific residual soap content in the oil. This soap is subsequently required as a wetting agent during crystallization in order to bind the waxes to water. the oil is conveyed to the actual winterizing stage. After the soapstock is separated in the first separator. contain waxes (long-chained fatty alcohols or fatty acid esters). Wax crystals form in two to four crystallization tanks Steam Acid Lye Steam Lye Holding tank Sludge Crude oil Mixer Mixer Soapstock Separator Mixer Hot water 22 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . in order to condition the gums. an acid is initially added and the free fatty acids are then neutralized with caustic soda.Wet-Dewaxing Winterization Some vegetable oils. This means that. such as sunflower or corn oil. After mixing of caustic and oil. The crude oil is initially neutralized (see under neutralization). the product is cooled to the crystallization temperature.

the oil is carefully heated and conveyed to a separator which continuously separates the waxy water. the oil is heated. The oil is washed again in order to further reduce the residual soap content. For this purpose. In order to reduce the viscosity.connected in series. it is separated in a further separator. which is added to the crystallizers. Due to the soap in the oil. the corresponding quantity of hot water is added. Many features for your benefit Integration of winterizing in neutralization Fully continuous operation Removal of very high wax amounts possible Steam Hot water Vacuum Vacuum dryer Sludge Sludge Wax Water Separator Cooling water Wash water Separator Neutralized and winterized oil Chilled water Crystallizer Food Tec 23 Westfalia Separator . after intensive mixing. these wax crystals bind to the water. Vacuum drying then takes place.

Finally. A small amount of acid is added to the crude oil without prior heating. The caustic quantity required for neutralizing the free fatty acids is admixed with the oil. the required wash water quantity is added and.Cold Refining Winterization This process is an alternative to winterization preceded by neutralization. The dewaxed neutral oil has to be washed to reduce the soap content. after thorough mixing with the oil. The oil is gently heated to reduce the viscosity before the soapstock is separated in a centrifuge along with the waxes. it is separated again in a second centrifuge. Many features for your benefit Compact installation Effective wax removal Acid Lye Holding tank Sludge Crude oil Mixer Chilled water Mixer Crystallizer Hot Soapstock/ water wax Separator Steam Hot water Vacuum Vacuum dryer Sludge Mixer Washing water Separator Neutralized and dewaxed oil 24 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . However. Sunflower oil is therefore an ideal product for this application. use of the process is confined to oils with a relatively low FFA content as the oil losses are otherwise too high. The oil then flows through crystallizers with a residence time of several hours. After thorough mixing and a short retention time the oil is cooled. It is first heated. the oil is dried in a vacuum dryer.

It is then filtered using filter aid. the entire winterizing method offers economical advantages in comparison with methods which only use filtration. Despite this additional filtration. The major advantage is that much less filter aid is used and longer filter cycles are achieved. For this purpose. If particularly strict process guarantees are applicable. Many features for your benefit Minimizing consumption of filter aids Higher filtration speed Longer filter cycles Food Tec 25 Westfalia Separator . the oil is cooled again and allowed to crystallize for several hours. additional polishing filtration is necessary for coldstable oils.Pressure leaf filter Winterized oil Crystallizer Bleached or deodorized oil Pre-coating pump Pre-coating and body feed tank Filter aid Mixer Chilled water Filter aid slurry pump Polishing Filtration Winterization The wet winterizing method described above does not guarantee that 100 percent of all waxes are always removed. this process is carried out either after bleaching or after deodorizing.

The fractionation process consists of two stages. The crystallization is a batch process. This separation is done with a specially designed nozzle separator. are discharged continuously through nozzles in the periphery of the bowl. The aim is to produce stearin crystals which can be separated from the liquid olein phase. If these contain a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. where the oil/fat is first heated above the melting point. Then a slow. The stearin slides down into a melting tank. Fractionation is a process to split fats and oils into a liquid part. having slightly higher density. and a solid fraction. The stearin crystals. where it is liquefied and pumped to further processing or storage. the stearin. the olein. the products tend to partly crystallize at ambient temperature. whereas the lighter olein is clarified in the disk stack of the bowl and likewise continuously discharged from the centrifuge under pressure.Dry Fractionation Fractionation Oils and fats are a mixture of different triacylglycerols. the crystallization and the separation of the olein and stearin. Many features for your benefit Fully continuous stearin /olein separation Adjustable stearin and olein quality during separation Low installation and maintenance costs Hermetically closed system No cooled room for separator required 26 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . because there is no detergent or solvent added to the product. following a specific cooling curve adapted to the kind of oil / fat. controlled cooling takes place. as in case of some other known processes. The process is called dry fractionation.

Oil Steam Olein M Heating / cooling Nozzle separator Heating / cooling Melting vessel Stearin Crystallizer Condensate Heater Food Tec 27 Westfalia Separator .

During a reaction time under these conditions. frequently have a significant effect on the splitting process during the formation of stable emulsions during phase separation. which are then separated continuously in a static decanting vessel. soap and oleochemical industries.Soapstock Splitting Processing of by-products During the chemical neutralization of oils and fats. part of the phosphatides and the neutral oil in the soapstock saponify. The soapstock breaks down into fatty acid and water. This can be split into fatty acids and water by means of acidification with strong acids (sulphuric or hydrochloric acid). The de-fatted water is subsequently neutralized with caustic soda. In the splitting tank. so-called soapstock (sodium soaps of the free fatty acids) is obtained as a by-product. Fatty acids are a valuable product in the animal feed. The acid water is conveyed to a fat separator with an upstream flotation chamber. This can be prevented to a large extent by means of secondary saponification. the pH value is reduced by adding a strong acid. separated together with the sodium soaps during the neutralization process. The phosphatides. After saponification. Many features for your benefit Fully continuous operation Lower level of emulsion Water Sulphuric acid Intermediate tank Splitting tank Split fatty acid Saponification column Steam Heat exchanger Condensate Flotation tank Soapstock Neutralization tank Effluent Decanting tank Caustic soda 28 Westfalia Separator Food Tec . For this purpose. The split fatty acid can be directly processed. dilution water can be added in an intermediate tank before the soapstock is conveyed to the actual splitting process. the soapstock is exposed to higher temperatures and pressures.

800 t / d Food Tec 29 Westfalia Separator . 1200 t / d RSE 220: Separator with Flat Belt Drive.RSE 60: Separator with Gear Drive. Capacity: max. Capacity: max. Capacity: max. 150 t / d RSE 300: Separator with Direct Drive.

30 Westfalia Separator Food Tec .

Westfalia Separator is one of the leading companies in the world in the field of mechanical separation technology and also operates in numerous other fields. suitably qualified specialists identify solutions which are specifically tailored to their requirements. Food Tec 31 Westfalia Separator . pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. dairy technology and vegetable oil processing. energy. production and assembly. support. this means increased availability. original spare part procurement and repair. customers not only benefit from traditional services such as inspection. Working closely with customers. Quality is Westfalia Separator’s programme Of course. they also benefit from pro-active solutions which avoid risk. separators and decanters can be used in even more areas of application than beverage technology. Westfalia Separator CapitalCare supports customers’ installations and develops solutions to production problems before they occur. From project planning. request information as required concerning processing systems for applications in the chemical. online and offline monitoring with Westfalia Separator WEWATCH®. the starch industry.g. Westfalia Separator has more than 50 sales and service companies and a further 60 sales partners worldwide. a quick response is guaranteed. maintenance and repair for fixed prices and the possibility of boosting process efficiency. Process Efficiency Westfalia Separator CapitalCare draws on decades of experience in the rendering of services related to centrifugal separation technology. modernization. If a technical problem does occur or a spare part is required. oilfield industry and environmental technology. right through to comprehensive support for their systems. customers’ employees learn how to handle high-tech installations. industrial biotechnology. marine. or upgrading to reflect state-of-theart technology and offer the option of boosting performance as required. Westfalia Separator CapitalCare means: comprehensive service right from the very first discussion. Optimum support guaranteed In advanced training programmes and training sessions on site or in Westfalia Separator’s modern training centre. oils and fats recovery. For investors. e. customers receive comprehensive protection with Westfalia Separator CapitalCare. Do not react – take pro-active measures With Westfalia Separator CapitalCare. maintenance. Please.Westfalia Separator CapitalCare – Increased Availability. Budget Reliability.

Binding information.de www.Beverage Technology Dairy Technology Oils and Fats Processing Chemicals.com Westfalia Separator Food Tec Take the Best – Separate the Rest A company of GEA Group . Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Oils and Fats Recovery Starch Technology and Industrial Biotechnology Marine Energy Oilfield Industry Environmental Technology Engineering Second Hand Machinery Cross-Flow Filtration with Ceramic Elements Service The information contained in this brochure merely serves as a non-binding description of our products and is without guarantee. Printed on chlorine-free bleached paper 9997-9801-030/1007 EN Printed in Germany Subject to modification Westfalia Separator Food Tec GmbH Werner-Habig-Straße 1 59302 Oelde (Germany) Phone +49 2522 77-0 Fax +49 2522 77-2089 foodtec@gea-westfalia. in particular relating to capacity data and suitability for specific applications. can only be provided within the framework of concrete inquiries.westfalia-separator.

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