Human Body's Systems

Circulatory System

The circulatory system is the body's transport sytem. It is made up of a group of organs that transport blood throughout the body. The heart pumps the blood and the arteries and veins transport it. Oxygenrich blood leaves the left side of the heart and enters the biggest artery, called the aorta. The aorta branches into smaller arteries, which then branch into even smaller vessels that travel all over the body. When blood enters the smallest blood vessels, which are called capillaries, and are found in body tissue, it gives nutrients and oxygen to the cells and takes in carbon dioxide, water, and waste. The blood, which no longer contains oxygen and nutrients, then goes back to the heart through veins. Veins carry waste products away from cells and bring blood back to the heart , which pumps it to the lungs to pick up oxygen and eliminate waste carbon dioxide.

Digestive System The digestive system is made up of organs that break down food into protein, vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and fats, which the body needs for energy, growth, and repair. After food is chewed and swallowed, it goes down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is further broken down by powerful stomach acids. From the stomach the food travels into the small intestine. This is where your food is broken down into nutrients that can enter the bloodstream through tiny hair-like projections. The excess food that the body doesn't need or can't digest is turned into waste and is eliminated from the body.

Endocrine System The endocrine system is made up of a group of glands that produce the body's long-distance messengers, or hormones. Hormones are chemicals that control body functions, such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The glands, which include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, thymus gland, pineal body, pancreas, ovaries, and testes, release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which transports the hormones to organs and tissues throughout the body.

Immune System The immune system is our body's defense system against infections and diseases. Organs, tissues, cells,

and cell products work together to respond to dangerous organisms (like viruses or bacteria) and substances that may enter the body from the environment. There are three types of response systems in the immune system: the anatomic response, the inflammatory response, and the immune response. • The anatomic response physically prevents threatening substances from entering your body. Examples of the anatomic system include the mucous membranes and the skin. If substances do get by, the inflammatory response goes on attack. • The inflammatory system works by excreting the invaders from your body. Sneezing, runny noses, and fever are examples of the inflammatory system at work. Sometimes, even though you don't feel well while it's happening, your body is fighting illness. • When the inflammatory response fails, the immune response goes to work. This is the central part of the immune system and is made up of white blood cells, which fight infection by gobbling up antigens. About a quarter of white blood cells, called the lymphocytes, migrate to the lymph nodes and produce antibodies, which fight disease.

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system is also a defense system for the body. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces white blood cells, and generates disease-fighting antibodies. It also distributes fluids and nutrients in the body and drains excess fluids and protein so that tissues do not swell. The lymphatic system is made up of a network of vessels that help circulate body fluids. These vessels carry excess fluid away from the spaces between tissues and organs and return it to the bloodstream

Muscular System

The muscular system is made up of tissues that work with the skeletal system to control movement of the body. Some muscles—like the ones in your arms and legs—are voluntary, meaning that you decide when to move them. Other muscles, like the ones in your stomach, heart, intestines and other organs, are involuntary. This means that they are controlled automatically by the nervous system and hormones—you often don't even realize they're at work. The body is made up of three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth and cardiac. Each of these has the ability to contract and expand, which allows the body to move and function. . Skeletal muscles help the body move. Smooth muscles, which are involuntary, are located inside organs, such as the stomach and intestines.

air enters your nose or mouth and goes down a long tube called the trachea. the nervous system is your body's control system. smell. There are three parts of your nervous system that work together: the central nervous system. and nerves. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. and processes nerve impulses throughout the body. It sends. carbon dioxide passes into the lungs and is exhaled. and lungs. or bronchioles. which tell your brain about things you see. or primary bronchi. such as hert beat and digestion.Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. At the same time. Sperm from the male fertilizes the female's egg. The bronchioles end in the alveoli. hear. It sends out nerve impulses and analyzes information from the sense organs. The trachea branches into two bronchial tubes. the peripheral nervous system. or air sacs. Its motion is involuntary Nervous System The nervous system is made up of the brain. The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary action. receives. Reproductive System The reproductive system allows humans to produce children. which go to the lungs. the spinal cord. These nerve impulses tell your muscles and organs what to do and how to respond to the environment. or ovum. taste and feel. Respiratory System The respiratory system brings air into the body and removes carbon dioxide. One of the most important systems in your body. trachea. When you breathe in. It includes the nose. and the autonomic nervous system. The primary bronchi branch off into even smaller bronchial tubes. Oxygen follows this path and passes through the walls of the air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream. It carries the nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. The fertilized egg travels from the fallopian tube to the uterus. Skeletal System . in the fallopian tube. where the fetus develops over a period of nine months. The peripheral nervous system includes the craniospinal nerves that branch off from the brain and the spinal cord.

what would you see? Hundreds of bones. Urinary System The urinary system eliminates waste from the body. If you could peek inside your own body. urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. It shapes the body and protects organs. in the form of urine. doing all kinds of different things Skin Main job: To protect your internal (inside) organs from drying up and to prevent harmful bacteria from getting inside.The skeletal system is made up of bones. nails. hair colors. Marrow. many white blood cells. Dermis: Inner layer of living tissue. fatty tissue that produces red blood cells. which is soft. and other immune system cells. How much: The average person has a total of six pounds of skin. and trillions of cells. The kidneys remove waste from the blood. containing nerves and blood vessels. miles of blood vessels. The waste combines with water to form urine. body shapes and sizes — but we all look alike inside. Bones . and sweat glands. When the bladder is full. Everyone is unique. Human Body Anatomists are people who study the human body. ligaments and tendons. is found inside bones. We have different skin colors. The skeletal system works with the muscular system to help the body move. all of which are constantly working together. hair. From the kidneys. urine is discharged through the urethra. Main layers: Epidermis: Outer layer of skin cells.

it is 20 inches long in a 6-foot-tall person. arms. Main job: To make involuntary or voluntary body movement possible. or thigh bone. Main job: To give shape to your body. like the three bones in your inner ear and the vertebrae in your spine. Kinds of Bones Long bones are thin. the average person's muscles work as hard as if they were placing 2. they are found in your legs. Flat bones are flat and smooth. Irregular bones. They are strong and flexible. and fingers.The largest bone in the body is the femur. The smallest bone is the stirrup bone. it is . come in many different shapes. Main job: To allow bones to move in different directions. Joints Bones don't bend. How many: At birth you had more than 300 bones in your body. like your ribs and shoulder blades.1 inch long. they are found in your feet and wrists. As an adult you'll have 206. Muscles Every day. . Ligaments Main job: These bands of tough tissue hold joints together. in the ear. Short bones are wide and chunky. It is the joint that allows two bones next to each other to move. because some fuse together.400 pounds on a 4-foothigh shelf.

Smooth muscles control your internal movements. such as moving food around in your intestines. liver. spleen. digestive. You have more than 400 voluntary muscles.How many: Your body has more than 650 muscles. and urinary. that fill your body's chest and abdominal cavity. Main job: To hold your muscles to your bones. Tendons Your fingers are mostly powered by muscles in your palm and wrist. lungs. How many: The viscera are made up of 10 organs. is to pump blood through your body. Tendon fact: Tendons look like rubber bands. Viscera This term refers to the organs. or heart. They belong to many different systems: respiratory. Kinds of Muscles Skeletal muscles move your bones. where they assist the flow of blood. large intestine. These muscles are also found in the blood vessels. Main job: To provide your body with food and oxygen and to remove waste. small intestine. including the trachea or windpipe. Smooth muscles are involuntary. Each muscle does only two things: contract when being used and expand when resting. The job of the cardiac muscle. gallbladder. They are called voluntary muscles because you decide when to move them. it never stops working during your lifetime. and bladder. The cardiac muscle is involuntary. Glands . stomach.

Oil glands keep your skin from drying out. Fat cells store fat. which move body parts. Kinds of Glands Endocrine glands make hormones. which regulates your body temperature Cells There are 26 billion cells in a newborn baby and 50 trillion cells in an adult.Main job: To manufacture substances that help your body to function in various ways. communications. such as moving oxygen around your body. taking care of the fuel supply. Sweat glands make perspiration. and waste removal. Nerve cells pass nerve messages around your body. White blood cells fight disease. Main job: To perform the many jobs necessary to stay alive. Red blood cells carry oxygen around your body. Bone cells help build your skeleton by secreting the fibers and minerals from which bone is made. Once you have them you can't get rid of them. They can shrink or grow. Salivary glands make saliva. The Ladder of Life . Some Different Cells The egg is the largest human cell. which helps to digest carbohydrates in your mouth and aids in swallowing. which tell the different parts of your body when to work. Once it is fertilized. Muscle cells are organized into muscles. all other cells begin forming.

Cells themselves are extremely complex. • Some kinds of tissue may be found in more than one system. they are: • The basic building block of every living thing is the cell. By means of electrochemical impulses the brain directly controls conscious or voluntary behavior. and other functions—and influences automatic activities of the internal organs. reproductive. eyes. Organs.The human body is fantastically complex — and fantastically capable. lungs. and circulatory systems. The . Tissues. Some organs. fluid balance. excretory. is part of the muscular. muscle. and nervous systems. Anatomy and Function Occupying the skull cavity (cranium). Most cells are microscopic. posture. It also monitors. • A group of similar cells gathered together is called a tissue. most involuntary behavior— connections with the autonomic nervous system enable the brain to adjust heartbeat. blood pressure. although many functions may involve a number of different areas. simpler units that each serve specific purposes. the adult human brain normally weighs from 2 1/4 to 3 1/4 lb (1– 1. for example. like the heart. perform specific tasks necessary for the body's survival. A headache is felt because of sensory impulses coming chiefly from the meninges or scalp. like the pancreas (which is part of the digestive and endocrine systems) pull double duty. Some examples are the digestive. In invertebrates a group of ganglia or even a single ganglion may serve as a rudimentary brain. fat. through feedback circuitry. The organs of a system may be close together. From the simplest to the most complex. memory. and skin. include bone. and serve countless different functions. self-awareness. respiratory. or spread across the body. the midbrain. It also serves as the site of emotions. It is dependent on smaller. Muscle tissue. such as walking and thinking. • Different kinds of tissue working together in the same place may form an organ. and the forebrain (including the diencephalon and the cerebrum). and thought. • Several organs can work together in a system. The brain brain. Differences in weight and size do not correlate with differences in mental ability. There are no pain receptors in brain tissue. the supervisory center of the nervous system in all vertebrates. come in many different shapes and sizes. and brain. which may be visible to the naked eye. respiratory.5 kg). an elephant's brain weighs more than four times that of a human. Anatomically the brain has three major parts. Every brain area has an associated function. the hindbrain (including the cerebellum and the brain stem).

for example. handle coordination and habitual but acquired skills like chewing and playing the piano. the glia account for an estimated half of the brain's weight. and memory. by vehicle and industrial accidents. The thalamus. the right half controls the left side. The pituitary participates in growth regulation. midbrain. which incorporates the medulla and the pons. and cerebral cortex. Injuries to the brain tend to affect large areas of the organ. The parts of the cerebrum intercommunicate through association tracts consisting of connector neurons. The RAS functions as a sentry. The RAS forms a special system of nerve cells linking the medulla. more damage is caused by resultant swelling (edema) . contains most of the master controls of the body. The left half of the cerebrum controls the right side of the body. and movement. Split vertically into left and right hemispheres. is by far the largest sector of the brain. or inhibit the entire spectrum of muscle and gland activity. form the gray matter. reinforce. for example. the RAS alerts a person when a friend speaks and enables that person to ignore other sounds. receives incoming sensory impulses and routes them to the appropriate higher centers. In many cases. learning. The brain stem. In a noisy crowd. a neuron-rich membrane connecting the two hemispheres of the cerebrum. along with the midbrain. continuations of the membranes that wrap the spinal cord. monitors involuntary activities such as breathing and vomiting. Nerve fibers in the brain are sheathed in a near-white substance called myelin and form the white matter of the brain. memory. Smaller than nerve cells and ten times as numerous. and the reticular activating system (RAS). pons. Its upper surface. which are not covered by myelin sheaths. regulates heartbeat. is a leading cause of death in youth and middle age. sometimes causing major deficits in intelligence. Association neurons account for approximately half of the total number of nerve cells in the brain. Head trauma caused. the cerebral cortex. Cranial blood vessels in the brain have certain selective permiability characteristics that largely constitute the “blood-brain barrier. Above the thalamus extends the corpus callosum. The two inner sheets enclose a shock-absorbing cushion of cerebrospinal fluid. The cerebrum. occupying the rest of the diencephalon. The hypothalamus. In the cortex ultimate analysis of sensory data occurs.” The entire brain is enveloped in three protective sheets known as the meninges. the basal ganglia.cerebellum coordinates muscular movements and. monitors posture. it appears deeply fissured and grooved. The billions of nerve cells in the brain are structurally supported by the hairlike filaments of glial cells. body temperature. Other important parts of the brain include the pituitary gland. The tracts are believed to be involved with reasoning. death is defined as an absence of brain activity as measured by EEG. and fluid balance. occupying the topmost portion of the skull. and motor impulses originate that initiate. The basal ganglia. which forms the major part of the diencephalon. located just above the diencephalon in each cerebral hemisphere. Nerve cell bodies. Brain pathology Clinically.

can lead to meningitis. Both incoming information and outgoing commands traverse the brain and the rest of the nervous system in the form of electrochemical impulses. Neural Pathways Sensory nerve cells feed information to the brain from every part of the body. Certain brain disorders are treated by brain surgeons (neurosurgeons) while others are treated by neurologists and psychiatrists. bipolar disorder. Kuru is a similar prion-borne degenerative brain disease affecting humans. is deadly in cattle and humans and is linked to prions. and encephalomyelitis. or it may simply store the information for later use. or through a combination of treatments. other aspects of mental and somatic function. schizophrenia. Infection of the meninges. which may depend upon experience. and post-traumatic stress disorder are brain diseases that impact personality and. Some infectious diseases affecting the brain are caused by viruses and bacteria. and Down syndrome are all linked to genetic and chromosomal errors. is another major cause of death from brain damage. Both are linked to the ingestion of neural tissue. then sends directives through the motor nerve cells to muscles and glands. Parkinson's disease. The brain evaluates the data. pharmaceutical intervention. and cognition. such as clinical depression. Viral or bacterial causes have been substantiated in multiple sclerosis. or any of numerous other factors. Tay-Sachs disease. During . This interlacing of nerve fibers and their junctions allows a nerve impulse to follow any of a virtually unlimited number of pathways. drug use. The effect is to give humans a seemingly infinite variety of responses to sensory input. caused by the blockage or rupturing of blood vessels in the brain. Lyme disease. motor neurone disease. mood. Parkinson's disease. Some brain disorders are congenital. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also known as mad cow disease). These disorders may be treated by psychiatric therapy. and disease during a mother's pregnancy. causing them to take suitable action. typically. Other problems in the brain can be more accurately classified as diseases rather than injuries. the membrane that covers the brain.than by the impact itself. Stroke. external and internal. as when a person tries not to laugh or cry. memory. such as Alzheimer's disease. encephalopathy. Fragile X syndrome. therapeutic effectiveness varies significantly among individuals. and Huntington's disease are caused by the gradual death of individual neurons. Alternatively. leading to decrements in movement control. Currently only the symptoms of these diseases can be treated. Mental illnesses. the brain may inhibit action. Neurodegenerative diseases. and may explain the tendency in some species to avoid cannibalism. The human brain consists of some 10 billion interconnected nerve cells with innumerable extensions. Malfunctions in the embryonic development of the brain can be caused by genetic factors.

and probably laughing. Much more has been learned about the roles of neurotransmitters as well. contains nerve fibers that connect the two halves of the cerebellum. brain stem brain stem. Anatomy and Function The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist. The heart is constructed of a special kind of muscle called myocardium or cardiac muscle. with the apex pointing downward. heart contraction. salivation. Nerve fibers in the brain stem do not readily regenerate. language. or other similar fields. A wall of muscle divides the heart into two cavities: the left cavity pumps . The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity. including self-awareness. perceiving. including breathing.both sleep and consciousness. psychobiology. now often referred to as a part of neuropsychology. which transmits ascending and descending nerve fibers between the spinal cord and the brain. and other abilities. cognitive science. has become much more active in recent years. lower part of the brain. the pons. The nuclei of some of the nerves that originate in the brain are also located in the brain stem. hence injury may result in permanent loss of function. vomiting. New life has been given to the traditional philosophical debate on how to reconcile the seeming contradiction between the richness of subjective experience. It lies obliquely within the chest cavity just left of center. muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. and is enclosed in a double-layered. The medulla also directly controls many involuntary muscular and glandular activities. It is vital in coordinating movements involving right and left sides of the body. adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. with purely scientific explanations of brain function. the ceaseless electrochemical activity in the brain generates brain waves that can be electronically detected and recorded Research Brain research. neuroscientists have been better able to localize specific functions involving thought. Below the pons and continuous with the spinal cord is the medulla. lasting from before birth to the end of life. mental imaging. Aided largely by advanced new imaging techniques such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and the PET (positron emission tomography) scan. The upper segment of the human brain stem. artery dilation. memory. heart heart. membranous sac known as the pericardium.

relax. Each cavity is in turn divided into two chambers. which contracts. Both sides of the heart contract. The embryonic heart rate (EHR) then accelerates linearly for the first month of beating. an increase of 100 BPM in the first month. The human heart begins beating at a rate near the mother’s.3)+6 There is no difference in male and female heart rates before birth Cardiac Cycle Blood flows through the heart in one direction only.5 billion times in an average lifetime. and the semilunar valves in the aorta and the pulmonary artery. Each heartbeat. producing the characteristic “dub” sound. the tricuspid and mitral valves snap shut. The normal heart has a rate of 72 . the pulmonary and aortic valves close up. producing the familiar “lub” sound heard in the physician's stethoscope. the upper ones called atria.2 weeks after the LMP. Early development The human heart beats more than 3. containing large amounts of carbon dioxide. After the 15th week the deceleration slows reaching an average rate of about 145 (+/-25 BPM) BPM at term. valve between the left atrium and left ventricle. The regression formula which describes this acceleration before the embryo reaches 25 mm in crown-rump length or 9. which contracts. In the second phase. The heart is one of the most important components of the human body. a short period of ventricular contraction known as the systole.2 LMP weeks is: Age in days = EHR(0. pumping blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. the bicuspid. about 75-80 beats per minute (BPM). is divided into two phases. It enters the right ventricle. which is the date normally used to date pregnancy. the lower ones ventricles. returns to the right atrium. it decelerates to about 150 BPM (+/-25 BPM) during the 15th week after the LMP. In addition. or about 10 BPM every three days. only one systole and one diastole are felt. Two major coronary arteries regulate this blood supply. This acceleration is approximately 3. forcing the blood into the aorta. It is prevented from backing up by a series of valves at various openings: the tricuspid valve between the right atrium and right ventricle. (early 9th week after the LMP). or mitral. The human embryonic heart begins beating approximately 21 days after conception. After peaking at about 9.blood throughout the body. Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium and enters the left ventricle. a slightly longer period of ventricular relaxation known as the diastole. therefore. from which it is distributed throughout the body. peaking at 165-185 BPM during the early 7th week. empty. or five weeks after the last normal menstrual period (LMP). while the right cavity pumps blood only through the lungs. Venous blood from the body. In the first phase.3 BPM per day. the heart employs a separate vascular system to obtain blood for its own nourishment. and fill simultaneously. or cardiac cycle.

underneath the breastbone The heart is usually felt to be on the left side because the left heart (left ventricle) is stronger (it pumps to all body parts). then finally to the tiny capillaries which feed each cell. The heart is enclosed by a sac known as the pericardium and is surrounded by the lungs. From there. The apex is the blunt point situated in an inferior (pointing down and left) direction. into the lungs (pulmonary circulation) so that carbon dioxide can be dropped off and oxygen picked up (gas exchange). From the left atrium the blood moves to the left ventricle which pumps it out to the body. The function of the right side of the heart (see right heart) is to collect de-oxygenated blood. and the blood is divided between major arteries which supply the upper and lower body. the mass of the heart is 250-350 g (9-12 oz). a subdivision of the thoracic cavity. but in infants the rate may be as high as 120 beats. The (relatively) deoxygenated blood then travels to the venules. A stethoscope can be placed directly over the apex so that the beats can be counted. the heart is usually situated in the middle of the thorax with the largest part of the heart slightly to the left (although sometimes it is on the right. is the name of the heart cavity. or pacemaker. then to the inferior and superior vena cavae and finally back to the right atrium where the process began. Starting in the right atrium. the blood flows through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. from the body and pump per minute. The aorta forks. In normal adults. This happens through a passive process called diffusion. Here it is pumped out the pulmonary semilunar valve and travels through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. The heart is effectively a syncytium. Structure the human body. The pericardium is a double membrane structure containing a serous fluid to reduce friction during heart contractions. see dextrocardia). On both sides. blood flows back through the pulmonary vein to the left atrium. The left lung is smaller than the right lung because the heart occupies more of the left hemithorax. but extremely diseased hearts can be up to 1000 g (2 lb) in mass due to hypertrophy. It consists of four chambers. a meshwork of cardiac muscle cells interconnected by contiguous . the lower ventricles are thicker and stronger than the upper atria. Each heartbeat is stimulated by an electrical impulse that originates in a small strip of heart tissue known as the sinoatrial (S-A) node. It then travels through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle and on to through the aortic semilunar valve to the aorta. The blood travels the arteries to the smaller arterioles. The muscle wall surrounding the left ventricle is thicker than the wall surrounding the right ventricle due to the higher force needed to pump the blood through the systemic circulation. The left side (see left heart) collects oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left atrium. which coalesce into veins. The mediastinum. It is located posterior to the 5th intercostal space in the left mid-clavicular line. and in children about 90 beats. or about three fourths the size of a clenched fist. via the right ventricle. per minute. the two upper atria (singular: atrium ) and the two lower ventricles. in the right atrium.

such as rheumatic fever. for example infarction affecting the area of the heart that controls the heartbeat. causing the death of the heart muscle supplied by the affected artery. biceps . either singly or in combination. Three long bones form the framework of the arm: the humerus of the upper arm. and endocarditis. and other forms of cardiovascular disease. or they can be inherited. a muscle of the upper arm. angina pectoris. Arteriosclerotic depositions in the coronary arteries result in the narrowing of these vessels. Arm arm. and congenital heart disease. commonly in the valves or septa. The characteristic radiating chest pain. This arrangement permits turning the forearm to bring the hand palm up (supination) or palm down (pronation). Hypertensive. syphilis. any of several abnormalities of the heart and its function in maintaining blood circulation. bends the arm at the elbow. In addition. a life-threatening event called a myocardial infarction. The radius and ulna run parallel but meet at their ends in such a manner that the radius can rotate around the ulna. Heart disease is the cause of approximately half the deaths in the United States each year. Such defects can be precipitated by environmental conditions in the uterus. ultimately resulting in congestive heart failure. and it can become inflamed by rheumatic fever. and with the humerus at the elbow. congenital. In an adult the arm is normally five sixths as long as the leg. and the radius (outer bone) and ulna (inner bone) of the forearm. Congenital defects result from abnormal development of the fetal heart. the heart muscle itself can be affected: hypertensive heart disease (see hypertension) can cause it to enlarge. Disturbances in the normal heartbeat. coronary. or heart attack. can also damage the valves of the heart. respectively. the triceps brachii straightens the arm. such as the presence of the rubella virus. The biceps brachii. The radius and ulna hinge with the bones of the hand at the wrist. Among the most common causes of heart disease are degenerative changes in the coronary blood vessels. upper limb in humans. a condition known as coronary artery disease. Coronary arteries already narrowed by arteriosclerosis are made susceptible to blockage by a clot (coronary thrombosis). can lead to a state in which the heart is unable to expel sufficient blood for the metabolic demands of the body. heart disease heart disease.cytoplasmic bridges. Infectious diseases acquired after birth. can occur by themselves or in conjunction with other heart problems. Movement of the arm across the chest and above the head is accomplished by the pectoral muscles of the chest and deltoid muscles of the shoulder. called arrhythmias. causing insufficient blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle. This relates to electrical stimulation of one cell spreading to neighboring cells. infectious diseases. is the most prominent symptom of this condition.

One head originates on the shoulder blade and two on the upper-arm bone. it is made up entirely of cartilage. the heads swell into the belly. the bones are modified into light. chitinous (horny) insect skeleton is a combination of protective armor and a framework for attachment of the muscles used in rapid movement. The smallest exoskeletons are found on microscopic animals such as diatoms and certain protozoans. Coral reefs are made up of the accumulated exoskeletons of the coral polyp. or points of attachment. an extensor. Uniting part of the way down the arm. The skeleton of birds is especially adapted for flight. the biceps brachii of the upper arm. It works in coordination with the triceps brachii. It provides formidable protection. ribs. any muscle having three heads. Originating in the shoulder area. In addition to its supportive function. skeleton skeleton. as in turning a doorknob. The general arrangement of skeletal parts into skull. The triceps works in coordination with a flexor muscle. or muscle proper. The two basic types of skeleton found among animals are the exoskeleton and the endoskeleton. and must be shed periodically to allow for growth—a process limiting the maximum size of the organism. thus bending the arm at the elbow. . a framework of living material enclosed within the body. the stiff supportive framework of the body. Since contraction of the triceps straightens the arm. flexible. in anatomy. The biceps also controls rotation of the forearm to a palm-up position. When the biceps contracts. but it is bulky and severely restrictive of movement. the muscle is called an extensor. In certain fish. the skeleton provides sites for the attachment of the muscles used in movement and shields vital organs such as the brain and lungs. the tendon is pulled toward the heads. permits larger size coupled with freedom of movement and is characteristic of vertebrate animals. The firm. but especially the triceps brachii at the back of the upper arm. the smaller of the two forearm bones. This tapers to a tendon that rounds the elbow and attaches to the ulna. spinal column. or humerus. The shell of the clam is an exoskeleton composed primarily of calcium carbonate. and appendages is the same in all vertebrates. hollow tubes penetrated by air sacs. or fixed ends of attachment. notably the biceps brachii at the front of the upper arm and the biceps femoris in the thigh.any muscle having two heads. but in most vertebrates it is a mixture of bone and cartilage. the larger of the two forearm bones. the heads of the biceps merge partway down the arm to form a rounded mass of tissue linked by a tendon to the radius. For this reason the biceps is called a flexor. The disadvantage of an exoskeleton is that it is nonliving. The endoskeleton. The size and solidity of the contracted biceps are a traditional measure of physical strength. triceps triceps. It also helps lock the elbow when the forearm pushes forward against resistance.

but to the cartilage of the 7th rib. they run along the entire length of the backbone. the nasals and nasal conchae of the nose. Earlier skulls of human ancestors. the 8th. and spinal column. who use them to trace human evolution. ethmoid. ears. in some lower vertebrates. and hence are known as floating ribs. The occipital bone at the base of the skull forms a complex joint with the first vertebra of the neck. sternum. the eyes. for instance. or lower jaw. Below the 7th rib. the zygomatics. although such diseases as bone cancer may directly affect the skeleton. nose. The adult human cranium. but are attached to the vertebral column in the rear and extend only part of the way around the chest. however. the seams. permitting rotation and bending of the head (see spinal column). These are separate plates of bone in the fetus. the axial and the appendicular skeletons. as well as more powerful jaws. Many diseases associated with the skeleton occur at the joints. In the human there are 12 pairs of ribs. the skeletal structure of the head. The skull houses and protects the brain and most of the chief sense organs. and to the science of physical anthropology. known as the atlas. a flexible section of cartilage connects the rib to the sternum. rib rib. these ribs do not “float. most occurring in symmetrical pairs. i. Each rib is connected to the vertebral column by strong ligaments.. between the bones do not completely knit until the age of 20. skull skull. and 10th ribs are not attached directly to the sternum. the palatines (palate). the vomer (nasal septum). The appendicular skeleton is made up of the upper (shoulder or pectoral) and lower (pelvic) girdles (see pelvis) and the bones of the arms and legs. or sutures.e. 9th. By the age of two years. have been shown to have markedly smaller cranial capacities. ribs. all of these fontanels have been closed over by the growing cranial bones. but by birth they have generally grown sufficiently for most of their edges to meet. The axial skeleton includes the cranium. is formed of fused skull bones: the parietals. ribs enclose the lungs and heart . and are found in most vertebrates.The human skeleton consists of 206 bones held together by flexible tissue consisting of cartilage and ligaments. frontal. It is composed of two basic parts. Study of the fossil skulls of humans and their precursors has made important contributions to evolutionary theory. and occipital. The mandible. jawbone. the most prominent being the soft spot atop a newborn's head. some 14 bones shape the face. than do the Homo sapiens species which exist today.” however. notably the various types of arthritis. Among humans. However. The 11th and 12th pairs of ribs are not attached in front at all. or upper jaw. or malars at the cheeks. elongated. including fishes. In birds and mammals. The ribs of the snake are used in locomotion. The remaining separations are known as fontanels. is not technically part of the skull. temporals. They are the lacrimals at the inner sides of the eyes. or braincase. or breastbone. Ribs occur in pairs. Skeletal remains are vital to physical anthropologists. one of the slender. curved bones that compose the chest cage in higher vertebrates. In the front. and tongue. composed of the facial and cranial bones. Technically. and the maxillae. sphenoid.

expanding the chest cavity. ischium. injury. may lead to serious deformities later in life. and. forming the back of the pelvis. During inhalation the ribs move upward and farther apart. It consists of segments known as vertebrae linked by intervertebral disks and held together by ligaments. it also forms the base for numerous muscle attachments. In human beings. infections. the spinal cord of a human adult is about 18 in. Backbone (spinal column) spinal column. and pubis. in whom a number become fused into two immovable bones. and between 3 and 5 fused caudal. technically known as the vertebral column. In the human pelvis there are two large hip bones. It receives the weight of the upper body and distributes it to the legs. Extending from the first lumbar vertebra to the medulla at the base of the brain. and a bony arch. bony column forming the main structural support of the skeleton of humans and other vertebrates. The arches are positioned so that the space they enclose is in effect a tube. a condition that reflects the child-bearing function in women. tumor formation. if not treated. the illium. Scoliosis is one relatively common disease which affects the spinal column. It houses and protects the spinal cord. The 24 movable vertebrae are the 7 cervical (neck). the spinal column of the child contains more vertebrae than the adult. spinal cord spinal cord. and 5 lumbar (loin). and puncture or slippage of the cartilage disks. The spine is subject to abnormal curvature. During exhalation their downward motion aids in expelling air from the lungs. connect the hip bones at the back of the central cavity. (45 cm) long. The bodies of the vertebrae form the strong but pliable supporting column of the skeleton. basin-shaped structure that supports the organs of the lower abdomen. the sacrum and the coccyx. The 12 pairs of ribs that make up the front of the chest are linked to the thoracic vertebrae. roughly cylindrical in cross . Each vertebra has a somewhat cylindrical bony body (centrum). pelvis pelvis. the vertebral canal. and within it the spinal fluid circulates. arthritic disorders. The remaining vertebrae include 5 fused sacral. the cord is a double-layered tube. a fibrous band connects them at the front. also known as the vertebral column or backbone. The fused terminal segments of the spine. known as the sacrum and coccyx. each consisting of three fused bones. bony. See skeleton. the part of the nervous system occupying the hollow interior (vertebral canal) of the series of vertebrae that form the spinal column. a number of winglike projections. Structurally. The hip bones form a ring around a central cavity. 12 thoracic (back of chest).and assist in the process of breathing. In women the pelvis is wider and has a larger capacity than in men. Ligaments and muscles are attached to various projections of the vertebrae. It involves moderate to severe lateral curvature of the spine.

The outer layer consists of white matter. Connecting with the cord are 31 pairs of these spinal nerves. These are bundled into specialized tracts that conduct impulses triggered by pressure. which connects it to the throat. Conversely. with filaments varying in length in a manner somewhat analogous to harp strings. without recourse to the brain. middle. or pinna. which houses the sound-analyzing cells of the ear. lies the central canal through which circulates the cerebrospinal fluid. running the length of the cord and extending into the brain.section. The Hearing Process In the course of hearing. i. the meninges. and other sensory stimuli or conduct motor impulses activating muscles and glands. The cochlea is a coiled. myelin-sheathed nerve fibers. fluid-filled tube divided into the three canals: the vestibular. or labyrinth. Anchored in the Corti structure are some 20. The outer ear is the visible portion.. and the vestibule. anvil (incus).000 hair cells. tympanic. and inner parts. The spinal cord mediates the reflex responses to some sensory impulses directly. Three protective membranes. Nerve fibers in the spinal cord usually do not regenerate if injured by accident or disease. i. the arachnoid lies in the middle. separated from the outer ear by the eardrum. setting in motion the fluid of the cochlea. organ of hearing and equilibrium.. to which the spinal nerves are attached. which feed sensory impulses into the spinal cord. ear ear. which in turn relays them to the brain. The basilar membrane forms a partition between the cochlear canal and the tympanic canal and houses the organ of Corti. Because of their shapes. Air reaches the middle ear through the Eustachian tube. or auditory tube. connected at their base with the auditory nerve. or ossicles. as when a person's leg is tapped producing the knee jerk reflex. and the dura mater is the outside layer. which houses the organs of equilibrium.e. The inner layer. heat. and stirrup (stapes). The middle ear. wrap the spinal cord and cover the brain—the pia mater is the innermost layer.e. The alternating changes of pressure agitate the basilar . which pass the impulses to muscles and glands. pain. motor impulses generated in the brain are relayed by the spinal cord to the spinal nerves. or gray matter. it includes the skin-covered flap of cartilage known as the auricle. contains three small bones. The sound waves are concentrated by passing from a relatively large area (the eardrum) through the ossicles to a relatively small opening leading to the inner ear. these bones are known as the hammer (malleus). The inner ear. contains the cochlea. and cochlear canals. sound waves enter the auditory canal and strike the eardrum. is primarily composed of nerve cell bodies. The human ear consists of outer. Within the gray matter. and the opening (auditory canal) leading to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). causing it to vibrate. Here the stirrup vibrates. These are the sensory hearing cells.

The utriculus sends indications of the position of the head to the brain and detects stopping and starting. though some scientists believe that loudness is determined by the intensity of vibration of the basilar membrane. This movement stimulates the sensory hair cells to send impulses along the auditory nerve to the brain. Balance and Orientation In addition to the structures used for hearing. It is not known how the brain distinguishes high-pitched from low-pitched sounds. which in turn send varying patterns of stimulation to the brain. The sensory hair cells of the saclike utriculus and sacculus project into a gelatinous material that contains lime crystals. It can bring about permanent hearing loss. allowing infection to spread and preventing fluids in the middle ear from draining. gelatinous mass. the inner ear contains the semicircular canals and the utriculus and sacculus. sound waves are transmitted directly to the inner ear by causing the bones of the skull to vibrate. The hair cells project into a thick. the progressive decay of the inner ear's hearing nerve. the gelatin and crystals exert varying pressure on the sensory cells. As in the cochlea. deafness . although modern medication is generally able to clear up the disease. i.e. and the hair cells are bent by being driven through the relatively stationary fluid. while the third determines horizontal movements like rotation. There are three fluid-filled semicircular canals: two determine vertical body movement such as falling or jumping. otitis media probably results from Eustachian tubes that are shorter and more horizontal than in adults. When the head is moved. the canals move also. How the brain distinguishes between loud and soft sounds is also not understood. and presbycusis. that houses sensory hair cells. involving excessive bone growth in the middle ear. Each canal contains an area at its base. the auditory canal and the middle ear are bypassed. When the head is tilted in various positions. Other ear diseases include otosclerosis. moving the hair cells. In a small portion of normal hearing. Disorders of the Ear One of the most common ear diseases is known as otitis media.membrane on which the organ of Corti rests. This kind of hearing. called bone conduction. the sensory hair cells stimulate nerve impulses to the brain. a middle ear disorder.. Most common among young children. One theory proposes that the sensation of pitch is dependent on which area of the basilar membrane is made to vibrate. called the ampulla. is utilized in compensating for certain kinds of deafness and plays a role in the hearing of extremely loud sounds. but the thick fluid lags behind. the chief organs of balance and orientation.

device used in some forms of deafness to amplify sound before it reaches the auditory organs.deafness. In some cases of deafness both the conductive and the nerve mechanisms are disturbed. conductive deafness and sensorineural deafness. exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli. sensitivity. creating a need for an efficient means of oxygen delivery to cells and excretion of carbon dioxide from cells. improving the comfort. many hearing aids are customized to amplify only those noises (e. which then transmits the vibrations to the auditory nerve of the cochlea. this is not possible. Some are small enough to fit into an arm of a pair of eyeglasses. The air-conduction hearing aid amplifies sounds and directs them into the ear toward the tympanic membrane. The ear normally perceives sounds in the range of 20 to 20. Respiratory function Energy production from aerobic respiration requires oxygen and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Today. The lungs also have non respiratory functions. In larger organisms.800 vibrations per second is said to be hard of hearing. The bone-conduction hearing aid. and are usually battery powered. and aesthetic quality of the devices. Modern hearing aids are electronic.. this process of gas exchange can take place entirely by simple diffusion. The Lung The lung is the essential respiration organ in air-breathing vertebrates. A person who cannot detect sound at an amplitude of 20 decibels in a frequency range of from 800 to 1. In small organisms. hearing aid hearing aid. the most primitive being the lungfish. high frequency) that the user has difficulty hearing. They consist of mechanical replacements for ineffective hair cells in the inner ear. Cochlear implants have been developed for use by certain totally deaf people. Two major adaptations made it possible for organisms to attain great multicellularity: an . which transform sound vibrations into electronic impulses that stimulate the auditory nerve. Its principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream. In recent years. This exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny. placed behind the ear. and to excrete carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. such as single-celled bacteria.000 vibrations per second. a number of advancements have been made to hearing aids. partial or total lack of hearing.g. It may be present at birth (congenital) or may be acquired at any age thereafter. There are two principal kinds of deafness. only a small proportion of cells are close enough to the surface for oxygen from the atmosphere to enter them through diffusion. They contain a tiny receiver and a transistor amplifier. or into the outer ear. channels sound waves to the adjacent bony part of the skull.

the bronchi and bronchioles. The bronchi continue to divide within the lung. In the mammal. and after multiple divisions. by increasing volume and thus decreasing pressure. the larynx. In combination with other physiological measurements. the diaphragm (in addition to the internal intercostal muscles). internalized respiratory system that centralized the task of obtaining oxygen from the atmosphere and bringing it into the body. Non respiratory functions In addition to respiratory functions such as gas exchange and regulation of hydrogen ion concentration. Another name for this inspiration and expulsion of air is ventilation. birds and mammals a more complicated musculoskeletal system is used. the reverse occurs. whence it could rapidly be distributed to all the circulatory system. • filter out gas micro-bubbles occurring in the venous blood stream during SCUBA diving decompression. the trachea (also called the windpipe). Oxygen from the air inside the alveoli diffuses into the bloodstream. In air-breathing vertebrates. which the lungs flank and nearly enclose. During normal breathing. A network of fine capillaries allows transport of blood over the surface of alveoli. expiration is passive and no muscles are contracted (the diaphragm relaxes). and the terminal branches of the respiratory tree. the vital capacity can help make a diagnosis of underlying lung disease. A person's vital capacity can be measured by a spirometer (spirometry). shock-absorbent protection for the heart. give rise to . a large muscle. the lungs also: • influence the concentration of biologically active substances and drugs used in medicine in arterial blood • filter out small blood clots formed in veins • serve as a physical layer of soft. which provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange. The drawing and expulsion of air is driven by muscular action. and by reducing volume and increasing pressure. birds and mammals this often consists of the nose. air flows into the airways down a pressure gradient. in early tetrapods. air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles. drive ventilation by periodically altering the intra-thoracic volume and pressure. whereas in reptiles. Anatomy In humans. the pharynx. and a large. The lungs of mammals are a rich lattice of alveoli. it is the two main bronchi (produced by the bifurcation of the trachea) that enter the roots of the lungs. and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the alveoli. both across thin alveolar membranes. respiration occurs in a series of steps. Air is brought into the animal via the airways — in reptiles. Vital capacity is the maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation.efficient circulatory system that conveyed gases to and from the deepest tissues in the body.

Human lungs are located in two cavities on either side of the heart.bronchioles. Bronchi. the two are not identical. Bone fractures heal naturally. The bronchial tree continues branching until it reaches the level of terminal bronchioles. hexagonal divisions of the lungs that are the smallest subdivision visible to the naked eye. The cardiac notch is a concave impression molded to accommodate the shape of the heart. which lead to alveolar sacks. and lungs (Cardiac notch labeled at bottom left). with three lobes on the right and two on the left. compact layer that functions as the basic supportive tissue of the body. and it is here that gas exchange actually occurs. Bones assume a variety of sizes and shapes. important in the formation of blood cells. Alveolar sacs are made up of clusters of alveoli. The connective tissue that divides lobules is often blackened in smokers and city dwellers. Both are separated into lobes. The individual alveoli are tightly wrapped in blood vessels. This is the reason that individuals can smoke for years without having a noticeable decrease in lung function while still or moving slowly. As oxygen requirements increase due to exercise. reducing the incidence of bone fracture and breakage in childhood. which sheaths most bones. like individual grapes within a bunch. The inorganic. or mineral. it contains numerous microscopic canals permitting the passage of blood . all bone tissue has a three-layered composition. The outer layer is a tough membrane called the periosteum. Though similar in appearance. Deoxygenated blood from the heart is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. decreases in bone mass may lead to an increased vulnerability to fractures. bronchial tree. The organic content is a gelatinous material called collagen. phosphate and carbonate minerals. however. Long bones (such as those in the arms and legs) are hollow. As the body grows older. where oxygen diffuses into blood and is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the hemoglobin of the erythrocytes. the skeleton is composed largely of cartilage and is therefore pliable. A spongy layer forms the interior. while the left lung contains a cardiac notch. Many respiratory illnesses are the result of bacterial or viral infection of the lungs bone bone. allowing the body to match its CO2/O2 exchange requirements. Surrounding the spongy. Although bone appears solid. Lungs are to a certain extent 'overbuilt' and have a tremendous reserve volume as compared to the oxygen exchange requirements when at rest. hard tissue that forms the skeleton of the body in vertebrate animals. inner layer is a hard. in situations like these only a small portion of the lungs are actually perfused with blood for gas exchange. The lobes are further divided into lobules. which makes it hospitable for bacteria. the inner spaces being filled with marrow . although they are often aided through restriction of movement in the affected area. The oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins to be pumped back into systemic circulation. a greater volume of the lungs is perfused. The medial border of the right lung is nearly vertical. The environment of the lung is very moist. In the very young. content of bone is mainly calcium.

fat-storing yellow marrow displaces red marrow in the shafts of the long bones of the limbs. as well as to gain insight on the normal functioning of the cells of the bone marrow. or it can be allogeneic. Erythrocytes (red blood cells). it is most common in thin white women after menopause. while an equivalent number are destroyed by the spleen. osteoporosis osteoporosis. Diseases of the marrow. or injury to it from metallic poisons can interfere with the production of erythrocytes. Bone marrow transplantation. such as leukemia or multiple myeloma. In children. an extremely strong variety which makes up the enlarged ends of the bone. is a technique that infuses healthy bone marrow into a patient whose bone marrow is defective. and all but one kind of leukocyte (white blood cell) are manufactured in human red marrow. The major complications are graft-versus-host disease (as a result of allogeneic transplantation) and infections that occur before the transplanted marrow begins to produce leukocytes. which constitutes the shaft. the pelvic bones. in which a small sample of bone marrow is obtained by aspiration through a thin needle. Bone marrow transplants are most frequently undergone for leukemia. and then reinserted. Red marrow is the principal organ that forms blood cells in mammals. after that point there is a gradual reduction in bone mass as bone is not replenished as quickly as it is resorbed. platelets. Although osteoporosis can occur in anyone. A bone marrow biopsy. bone marrow bone marrow.vessels and nerve fibers. the vertebrae. disorder in which the normal replenishment of old bone tissue is severely disrupted. The marrow releases about 10 million to 15 million new erythrocytes every second. consisting of healthy bone marrow obtained from a closely related donor. In postmenopausal women the production of estrogen. soft tissue filling the spongy interiors of animal bones. anemia. excessive alcohol . such as a sibling . a hormone that helps maintain the levels of calcium and other minerals necessary for normal bone regeneration. and cancellous. Smoking. may be used to aid in the diagnosis of leukemia. the bones contain only red marrow. treated. resulting in an accelerated loss of bone mass of up to 3% per year over a period of five to seven years. severe forms of anemia. osteopenia results when bone-mass loss is significant but not as severe as in osteoporosis. Bone mass is typically at its greatest during a person's mid-twenties. Two types of bone are present in most bones: compact. and other blood disorders. resulting in weakened bones and increased risk of fracture. In adults red marrow remains chiefly in the ribs. causing anemia. consisting of bone marrow removed from the patient. and disorders of the immune system. including humans . drops off dramatically. and the skull. As the skeleton matures. The transplant can be autologous.

but a seven-year study of more than 36. A vitamin D receptor gene that affects calcium uptake and bone density has been identified. This section of the human leg contains two long bones. Osteoporosis has no early symptoms and is usually not diagnosed until a fracture occurs. leg leg. in humans. and the different forms of this gene appear to correlate with differences in levels of bone density among osteoporosis patients. which is the longest bone in the body. 2 lateral incisors. The disorder also has a genetic component. the specialized cells that form new bone. is administered in some cases. typically in the hip. which consists of the biologically active region of human parathyroid hormone. a diet high in protein and sodium also speed calcium loss. a flat triangular-shaped bone. forms a ball and socket joint where it meets the hipbone. Treatment can slow the process or prevent further bone loss. These number 20 in all: 2 central incisors. spine. both the hind and fore limbs are referred to as legs. 2 canines. calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaws of vertebrates that perform the primary function of mastication. Calcitonin. teeth. teeth teeth. or wrist. and 4 premolars in each jaw. including weight training. A diagnostic bone density test is thus recommended as a preventive measure for women at high risk. or milk. At about six years of age. Exercise. and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of bone-mass loss. surrounds and protects this joint. a bone in the foot. the preliminary teeth begin to be shed as the permanent set replaces them. Estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women is effective but has potential side effects. has been found to strengthen bones directly and to improve muscle strength and balance and thus minimize the chance of falls. Dietary and supplemental calcium and vitamin D are usually recommended for people at risk.000 women over 50 that was released in 2006 found that supplements conferred little benefit. a thyroid hormone. In quadrupeds. hard. the human leg is that portion of the extremity between the foot and the thigh. The kneecap (patella). The upper end of the tibia joins with the lower end of the thighbone (femur) and forms a hinged joint. Properly. bisphosphonates that decrease bone resorption. the deciduous. stimulates the activity of osteoblasts. Nonhormonal drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis include alendronate (Fosamax) and risedronate (Actonel). Humans and most other mammals have a temporary set of teeth. one of the paired limbs of an animal used for support of the body and for locomotion. the tibia and the fibula. The last of the . a selective estrogen receptor modulator that can increase bone mineral density. The upper end of the femur. and raloxifene (Evista). to form the ankle joint.consumption. Teriparatide (Forteo). they usually erupt between the 6th and 24th months. The lower end of both tibia and fibula join with the talus.

this tissue extends to the tip of the root by means of a canal. The center of the crown is filled with soft. which attacks the enamel. The most common disorder that affects the teeth is dental caries (tooth decay). other communities have added fluorides to their reservoirs. Among all mammals. the pulp of the teeth. and one or more roots embedded in a gum socket. the hardest substance in the body. especially sufficient calcium. A widely accepted explanation of the process of tooth decay is that salivary bacteria convert carbohydrate particles in the mouth into lactic acid. but instead have a substance known as vitrodentine. and in some persons do not erupt at all. fluoridation fluoridation. known as the periodontal membrane. The jawbone serves as a firm anchor for the root. especially during the first eight years of childhood. Frederick S. and. though much harder. while the crown portion has an additional layer of enamel. a testament to their high mineral content and resistance to deterioration over time. The portion of the gum surrounding the root. the tooth consists of a crown. The permanent teeth generally number 32 in all: 4 incisors. if wisdom teeth develop) molars in each jaw. In 1931 the substance was identified as a fluoride. and 4 (or 6. and other scientific organizations. and vitamins D and C. Human canines are the smallest found in any mammal. if left untreated. cushions the tooth in its bony socket. discovered that an unknown substance in the local drinking water caused a mottling or staining of the teeth and that these teeth also showed fewer cavities. 4 bicuspids. teeth are the most frequently found remains. In the study of fossil remains done in paleontology and physical anthropology. dentin. phosphorus. it was found that a fluoride level in drinking water of about one part per million was high enough to reduce tooth decay but low enough to prevent teeth from becoming mottled. similar to dentine. Surrounding the pulp and making up the greater bulk of the tooth is a hard.permanent teeth (wisdom teeth) may not appear until the 25th year. In the early 1900s. In some communities fluorides are a natural constituent of the water supply. in the 1930s. attempts at fluoridation have met with resistance . the American Medical Association. McKay. dentin. pulpy tissue containing blood vessels and nerves. process of adding a fluoride to the water supply of a community to preserve the teeth of the inhabitants. Although studies have proven that fluoridation at levels of one part per million is safe. Tooth enamel ordinarily contains small amounts of fluorides and when the amount is augmented through the intake of fluoridated water. Such action has the support of the American Dental Association. Regular cleansing and semiannual dental examinations are important in preventing dental caries and gum disorders. tooth decay can be greatly reduced. Most nonmammalian vertebrates do not have the outer layer of enamel on their teeth. a Colorado dentist. bony substance. the portion visible in the mouth. Fluoridation of public water supplies and use of fluoride toothpastes also help prevent caries. The root portion has an overlayer of cementum. Proper diet is necessary for the development and maintenance of sound teeth. Later. 2 canines.

including incisors for nipping or cutting. number. Herbivorous animals have well-developed incisors. and that those who wish to prevent tooth decay through fluorides can do so individually by adding the compound to their beverages or by using toothpaste and other dental substances to which fluorides have been added. Most exocrine glands. teeth were derived from bony body scales similar to the placoid scales on the skin of modern sharks. canines that are either smaller than those of carnivores or absent altogether. used to cut grass and other vegetation. however.g. organ that manufactures chemical substances. e. The endocrine glands. The mammals have heterodont dentition. The teeth of sharks. and broad. Carnivorous animals have relatively small incisors.g. canines for piercing. flat premolars and molars for grinding food.. produce hormones that are secreted directly into the bloodstream. Tooth structures such as those found in humans are restricted to certain vertebrates. so that half the teeth in a region are always functional. and reptiles. A gland may vary from a single cell to a complex system of tubes that unite and open onto a surface through a duct. which are primitive vertebrates. mammals. most fish. Its opponents say that it constitutes compulsory medication.e. A simple exocrine gland may consist only of a tube lined with secretory cells. or teeth of different basic types. many Americans drink artificially fluoridated water. Only part of the dentition of mammals is usually replaced. dentition dentition. all teeth are identical. In some herbivores. During the course of evolution. old tooth loss and new tooth growth follow wavelike patterns down the length of jaw and affect alternate teeth at any one time.. and relatively thin. the incisors of rodents grow out at the base as fast as they wear down at the tip. as in the sebaceous glands of the skin and the digestive glands of the intestinal mucosa. sharp premolars and molars. and fluoridation programs have been started in other countries as well. Fish and reptiles that have teeth have homodont dentition. i. e. and pituitary. sometimes with serrated edges and sometimes flattened for crushing shelled prey. gland gland. and arrangement of the teeth of humans and other animals. and premolars and molars for shearing and grinding. kind. the hardest structures in the body. release their secretions through ducts. adrenals. and some amphibians. Teeth. consist of simple conelike structures. In many lower vertebrates the individual teeth are replaced throughout the animal's life. the thyroid. some open directly onto a body surface. Despite such resistance. so they cut vegetation by the combined action of the tongue and lower incisors. that is. Omnivorous animals such as man have less specialized dentition. the salivary and lacrimal glands. long and strong canines. However. the upper canines are absent.. In more . used for severing muscle and other tissues. have been well preserved as fossils and have played an important role for paleontologists and physical anthropologists in the study of human evolution. that the amount of fluorine taken into the body cannot be controlled.and controversy. used for grasping rather than for cutting. Exocrine glands secrete their substances onto an external or internal body surface.

e.. pancreas. Pituitary Control The master gland. such as progesterone from the female ovary. other glands including sweat glands. and digestive juices. metabolic rate. the pituitary secretes at least five hormones that directly affect the other endocrine glands. luteinizing hormone (LH). ovary. which regulates the uterine lining. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Some endocrine hormones. spiderwebs. the liver. located at the base of the brain. slowing. thyroid gland.complex types. The regulation of body functions by the endocrine system depends on the existence of specific receptor cells in target organs that respond in specialized ways to the minute quantities of the hormonal messengers. and those substances are used in the vicinity of the gland. and luteotropic . clumps of cells produce the secretion and a duct or system of ducts discharges the secreted material. In contrast. The hormones are secreted directly into the internal environment. The endocrine system includes the pituitary gland. and activities of the target organ. lubricants like mucus and tears. the blood levels of the various hormones. Among the substances produced by exocrine glands in humans are sweat. the gland that regulates many of the other endocrine glands. By accelerating. ovaries. The endocrine glands appear unique in that the hormones they produce do not pass through tubes or ducts. is the pituitary. sexual rhythms.g. adrenal gland. There are specialized exocrine glands in the animal world that produce such substances as the shells of bird eggs. affect nearly all body cells. endocrine system The body control system composed of a group of glands that maintain a stable internal environment by producing chemical regulatory substances called hormones. Some glands have dual functions. Simple glands are also common in the plant kingdom. and kidney are also sometimes considered endocrine organs. and the cocoons of the silkworm larvae. which manages thyroid gland activity. salivary glands. Such structures are called mixed glands.. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). and testis produce both a secretion that is emitted through a duct and a hormone that is taken up by the blood. affect only a single organ.e. and reproduction. pancreas. or maintaining enzyme activity in receptor cells. and testes . where they are transmitted via the bloodstream or by diffusion and act at distant points in the body. Also called the hypophysis. parathyroid glands. The thymus gland. such as thyroxine from the thyroid gland. The amounts of hormones are maintained by feedback mechanisms that depend on interactions between the endocrine glands. and glands of the gastrointestinal system secrete the substances they produce through ducts. others. It secretes thyrotropin. The sweet nectar of flowers and the resinous pitch of pine trees are substances produced by plant glands. hormones control growth and development. pineal gland. i. and three gonadotropic hormones. which regulates activity of the adrenal cortex. Hormones act by regulating cell metabolism.

the adrenal medulla. the outer part of each of the two adrenal glands. and LTH are integrated into the complex monthly cycles of ovulation. located behind the thyroid. secretes insulin. LTH also contributes to lactation. and FSH initiates sperm formation in the testes. The Thyroid Gland The thyroid. all of which control the growth and reproductive activities of the sex glands. In females. which controls growth in all tissues. LH. or pigment-producing cells. fat. produces thyroxine. called the islets of Langerhans. The pituitary hormone LH regulates testosterone production. which controls the development of the male sex organs as well as secondary sex characteristics. and melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Other Endocrine Glands The other endocrine glands are not directly controlled by the pituitary. These substances regulate salt concentration in body fluids and glucose. substances connected with the autonomic nervous system that help the body to respond to danger or stress. which regulates the . secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. which regulates the activity of the melanocytes. The adrenal cortex. The pituitary also produces substances that do not act directly on other endocrine glands: somatotropic hormone. and other steroids. The most important function of progesterone is to prepare the uterine lining for implantation of a fertilized egg. cortisol. produces aldosterone. oxytocin. Estrogen controls growth of the sex organs and breasts and regulates secondary sex characteristics. which stimulates uterine contraction and helps regulate milk production by the breasts. The inner portion of the gland. antidiuretic hormone (ADH). secrete a hormone that regulates calcium and phosphate metabolism. located below the larynx and partially surrounding the trachea. and calcitonin. which controls the rate of water excretion in the urine. The endocrine portion of the pancreas.hormone (LTH). and protein metabolism. The four parathyroid glands. and menstruation. Adrenal Gland The adrenal gland is another endocrine gland regulated by the pituitary. FSH. or growth hormone. production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries and corpus luteum. The Sex Hormones The testes produce the male sex hormone testosterone. which is responsible for maintaining proper calcium serum levels in the body. which controls the metabolic rate of most body cells.

g. cold. heat. which helps regulate the body's internal clock. regulates blood pressure. which stimulates red blood cell production. and other stimuli release CRF. with other substances.level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and glucagon. processes lymphocytes in newborn animals. The pineal gland produces a substance called melatonin. called the hypothalamus. pain. causing ACTH to be produced by the pituitary. The hypothalamus secretes pituitary-regulating substances in response to nervous system stimuli including smell. mediates between the two systems. The kidney produces a glycoprotein called erythropoietin. stress. seeding the lymph nodes and other lymph tissues. cortisol inhibits the production of hypothalamic CRF. which raises blood sugar level. Similar chemical regulatory mechanisms operate in the regulation of the sex and thyroid hormones. which in turn stimulates the production of the adrenal hormone cortisol. or adrenocorticotropic hormonereleasing factor. taste. from the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic activity is also regulated by other body substances. The kidney is sometimes considered an endocrine gland because it secretes the hormone renin which. Thus. and emotions. . The thymus. sometimes considered another endocrine gland. it is partly responsible for the development of the organism's immune system.. The Hypothalamus Physiological processes are under nervous system as well as endocrine control and a gland adjacent to the pituitary. e.

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  €¾–f%–n¾ %°   f° –nf–° nf¾ ¾  ¾–f   @ ¯¾  ¾¯ ¯ ¾n°¾  f°  ° n° –f° ½n ¾¾ ¾¯½n ¾°°  °f°¯f¾ ¾ °–  ¯½° ¾f°  ¯½¾¾ ¾ ¾½f ¾½°¾  €   ½¯ °€ –f°¾¯ ¾ ¯¯° ¾¾ ¯ @  ° ¾¾¯ ¯ ¾n°¾  f° ° n° –f°  nf¾ ¾ n  ¾  ¯°  °°n  ¾ ¾f°n ¾  –f ¾  ½ ¾¾ @  ° ½ n ¾f –n½ °nf  ½ ° n¾¯f ¾   n ½ n° @ ½° f–f°  ½ n ¾f¾ ¾f°n nf ¯ f°° n ½¾ –f     ¾° °fnn    @ ½ff¯¾  9¾–nf½n ¾¾ ¾f ° ° ¾¾¾ ¯f¾ f¾ ° n° n°f° f–f° f ©fn °  ½f nf  ½ff¯¾ ¯ f ¾  ° ¾¾ ¯¾ @ ½ff¯¾¾ n  ¾ ½f  –f°–¾ ¾f°n ¾° ¾½°¾ ° ¾¾¾ ¯¾¯°n °–¾¯  f¾ ½f° f°  ¯°¾ @¾ ¾ ¾¾ n  f f°  ¾¯  f¾ .

 f  °nn½n¯°   f¾°–€fn €¯ ½ff¯¾ nf¾°–.

@ ½ n   ½f n°° ¾¯f ¾ ½ n°€ f  °f¯° n¾ ¯fn ¯nf –f¯ nf°¾¯¾ ½ f °  –f°€ ¾ f°  ¯° ¾ ½ff¯nfn¾f¾ –f      ¾ ¾f°n ¾  – n¾° ¾ ½ n°€½ff¯n.


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