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Engineering Mathematics I (ENG1113) September 2011

Dr. Abdulkareem Sh. Mahdi 2/10/2011

**Tutorial 5 Mathematical Modelling
**

Summary: 1) A mathematical model is an equation or a set of equations that describe a real situation such as an Engineering system or process. The act of setting up these equations and solving them is called mathematical modelling. 2) There are 3 main stages in mathematical modelling: Develop the mathematical equations Solve the equations Interpret the result 3) Most engineering problems are based upon one of the following three underlying fundamental principles Equilibrium: Force equilibrium, flux equilibrium, and chemical equilibrium. Conservation laws: conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of momentum. A potential drives a flux: examples: Ohm’s law of electrical current flow and Fourier’s law of heat conduction. 4) When solving a problem ask yourself among other questions the following: What is the overall purpose of the problem? What information is known? What information must be determined? What fundamental engineering principles apply to problem? What will be the overall solution strategy? 5) Problem-Solving Technique: Problem statement Properties Schematic Assumptions & Approximations Physical laws

Calculations

Reasoning and Verification

Discussion.

6) In the engineering study, there are three approaches: Analytical, Experimental, and Semi-empirical approaches. 7) Some recommended steps to follow when we use the analytical approach in engineering study: Identify the real problem Choose the laws and/or simplifying assumptions Formulate the mathematical equations Obtain the mathematical solution of the model (Solve the model) Interpret the solution and validate the model (Interpret the model) Use and present the model (Use the model). 7) There are three fundamental dimensions: Mass, Length and Time (M, L and T respectively). All mechanical quantities can be expressed in terms of powers of M, L and T. A physical requirement is that dimensional homogeneity holds, that is both sides of an equation have the same dimensions.

1) Transposition a) Transpose the expression V = A + 2πh 2

(

)

3 2

to make h the subject.

b) A trapezium has height h and parallel sides of length a and b. If the distance d of the centre of area from the side of length a is given by d =

h (2b + a) , express b explicitly in terms of a, d and h. 3 ( a + b)

**H i) The flow of water through a pipe is given by Q = (3d )5 , where Q is the flow of water through a pipe of L
**

length L and diameter d, with an associated head loss of H. You are designing the cooling system for a heat treatment quench furnace. Rearrange the formula above to determine what pipe diameter, d, is necessary to achieve a flow Q over a distance L given an acceptable head loss H.

Tutorial 5

1

Taylor’s University School of Engineering

Engineering Mathematics I (ENG1113) September 2011

Dr. Abdulkareem Sh. Mahdi 2/10/2011

ii) A system transfer function, T(s), is defined by T ( s ) =

G(s) . Express G(s) explicitly in terms of the other functions. 1 + N ( s )G ( s )

2) Dimensional Analysis -1 -2 -3 -1 a) Show the dimensions of (1) pressure are ML T , (2) density are ML , (3) momentum are MLT . b) If V is a volume, M is a mass, ρ is a density, x is a length, A is an area and k is a dimensionless constant, which of the following equations is dimensionally consistent? (2) V = A + M (3) A = V + M (4) x = kA . (1) A = k + ρA V x M V x ρ x ρ c) The period T of a pendulum of length l is given by T = 2π l / g where g is acceleration due to gravity. Show that the formula has dimensional homogeneity. i) Derive the dimensions of the following (1) Power, (2) Impulse, (3) kinetic energy, (4) potential energy, (5) work. ii) If V has a dimension of L , D has a dimernsion of L, and ρ the dimensions of ML , what are the dimensions of

3 -3

d (ρV ) ? dD

iii) The continuity equation is given by ρAv = m where v = velocity, r = fluid density and A = cross-sectional area. Find & the dimensions of m . If the fluid is incompressible (ρ = constant) the continuity equation is reduced to Q = Av & what are the dimensions of Q. What we call m and Q in fluid mechanics. & iv) A student is trying to remember the form of Bernoulli's equation, which relates the pressure p and speed of flow u of a fluid of density ρ to the height above a datum z, but cannot decide which of the following four is the correct version. Use dimensional checks to select the correct form. 2 2 2 2 (a) p + ρz + u /2 = const., (b) p + gz + u /2 = cons., (c) p + ρgz + ρu /2 = const., (d) p + ρgz + u /2 = const. 3) Mathematical Modelling a) A variable y depends on two other variables w and z. The following facts are known: (i) when w increases, y decreases, (ii) when z increases, y increases, (iii) when w and z are both zero, y is also zero. If a, b and c are positive constants, which of the following models are consistent with the facts? (a) y = cz/w, (b) y = bz - aw + c, (c) y = az – bw, (d) y = aw + bz. b) The strength of a rectangular beam is proportional to its width and to the square of its depth. Find a mathematical model that expresses the strength of the beam in terms of its depth and width that can be cut from a log of circular cross-section with diameter, D. Reduce the obtained mathematical model so that the strength of the beam is expressed in terms of its depth or its width only. c) A wall of length L has a curved top edge, the height of which can be modelled as a quadratic (second order polynomial) function of the distance along the wall. The wall is of height b at its middle point, and height a at both ends. Derive an equation relating the height of the wall h to the distance x from one end of the wall, and a and b.

i) A model predicts a quantity F from the equation F =

ax

(c − bx)

where a, b and c are positive parameters and x is a

variable taking values between 0 and c . What happens to F as b (a) a increases? (b) b increases? (c) c increases?

(d) x increases?

ii) You may have heard of a magic trick that goes like this: Take any number. Add 5. Double the result. Subtract 6. Divide by 2. Subtract 2. Now tell me your answer, and I’ll tell you what you started with. Pick a number and try it. You can see what is going on if you let x be your original number and follow the steps to make a formula f(x) for the number you end up with. [Ans.: f ( x ) = 2(x + 5) − 6 − 2 ]

2

Tutorial 5

2

Taylor’s University School of Engineering

Engineering Mathematics I (ENG1113) September 2011

Dr. Abdulkareem Sh. Mahdi 2/10/2011

iii) A box with an open top is to be constructed from a rectangular piece of cardboard with dimensions a in. by b in. by cutting out equal squares of side x at each corner and then folding up the sides as in the figure. Express the volume V of the box as a function of a, b and x. [Ans.: V = x (a - 2x)( b - 2x)] iv) A wall of length L has a curved top edge, the height of which can be modeled as a sine wave (first positive half) function of the distance along the wall. The wall is of height b at its middle point, and height a at both ends. Derive an equation relating the height of the wall h to the distance x from one end of the wall, and a and b. [Ans.: h = a + (b-a) sin (πx/L)]

SOME CHALLENGES

a (V − b ) = RT . Expand this equation to get a cubic polynomial in V. V2

Ans: V 3 − V 2

C.1) Van der Waal's Equation is P +

RT a ab + b + V − =0 P P P

−0.35 − CV1−0.35 , where C.2) The work done, W, on the face of a piston by a gas is given by W = CV2 C = PV11.35 = P2V21.35 1 − 0.35 (P and V are pressure and volume respectively and C is a constant. Show that − 0.35W = P2V2 − P1V1 .

C.3) The torque T exerted by an induction motor is given by T =

ARs . Obtain the ratio s/R explicitly in terms of R + X 2s2 A, X and T only. Check your answer, by assuming s and R have the same dimensions, and also A and T. What can you infer about X?

2

C.4) The temperature distribution θ(x) along an air-cooled heat exchanger fin of length L is given by θ (x ) = Ae kx + Be− kx where A, B and k are constants and x is the distance along the fin. A and B can be evaluated from kL -kL A + B = θ0 and Ae + Be = θL where θ0 is the temperature at the base of the fin, and θL is the temperature at length L. Show that θ − θ e − kL cosech(kL) (i) A = LkL 0 −kL = θ L − θ 0 e −kL e −e 2 Heat exchanger θ 0 e kL − θ L wall (ii) B = kL − kL e −e θ sinh(kx) + θ 0 sinh[ k ( L − x)] . (iii) θ (x ) = L sinh( kL)

(

)

Fins

Tutorial 5

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