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Internal Assignments Advanced Computer Networks th (5 Semester) Assignment Details:

BCIIT/Assignment/ACN/01 Issue Date: 26/09/2011 Submission Date:03/10/2011 Total Marks: 35

5 marks deduction on late submission

Group A: Q1-Q12 (3,5,7,10,14,19,20,21.22.) Group B: Q13-Q24 (23,24,26,38, 42,43,50,51,57)

The assignment had to be submitted handwritten on A-4 Lined sheets. The Assignment topics along with their marks weight age are as under: 1. Draw and explain UNI and NNI cell format of the cells transmitted in ATM network and differentiate among them. [3] 2. Differentiate between repeaters, hubs, bridges, routers, and switches. Clearly state their position in OSI layer.
Hub is typically the least expensive, least intelligent, and least complicated of the three. Its job is very simple: anything that comes in one port is sent out to the others. That's it. Every computer connected to the hub "sees" everything that every other computer on the hub sees. The hub itself is blissfully ignorant of the data being transmitted. For years, simple hubs have been quick and easy ways to connect computers in small networks. Switch does essentially what a hub does but more efficiently. By paying attention to the traffic that comes across it, it can "learn" where particular addresses are. For example, if it sees traffic from machine A coming in on port 2, it now knows that machine A is connected to that port and that traffic to machine A needs to only be sent to that port and not any of the others. The net result of using a switch over a hub is that most of the network traffic only goes where it needs to rather than to every port. On busy networks this can make the network significantly faster. Router is the smartest and most complicated of the bunch. Routers come in all shapes and sizes from the small four-port broadband routers that are very popular right now to the large industrial strength devices that drive the internet itself. A simple way to think of a router is as a computer that can be programmed to understand, possibly manipulate, and route the data its being asked to handle. For example, broadband routers include the ability to "hide" computers behind a type of firewall which involves slightly modifying the packets of network traffic as they traverse the device. All routers include some kind of user interface for configuring how the router will treat traffic. The really large routers include the equivalent of a full-blown programming language to describe how they should operate as well as the ability to communicate with other routers to describe or determine the best way to get network traffic from point A to point B. Repeaters remove the unwanted noise in an incoming signal. Unlike an analog signal, the original digital signal, even if weak or distorted, can be clearly perceived and restored. With analog transmission, signals are restrengthened with amplifiers which unfortunately also amplify noise as well as information.

Bridge: Two partnerships of two players each are needed to play bridge. The four players sit around a table with partners opposite one another. The compass directions are often used to refer to the four players, aligned with their seating pattern. Gateway: A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes, while the nodes that connect the networks in between are gateways. For example, the computers that control traffic between company networks or the computers used by internet service providers (ISPs) to connect users to the internet are gateway nodes.

3. What are the various LAN technologies? Give their standards.

The 802 family of standards from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines various types of LANs. Of these, 802.3 (which is commonly known as the Ethernet) is the most popular LAN technology and is deployed widely throughout the world. Other LAN standards from IEEE include 802.4 (token bus), 802.5 (token ring), and 802.6 (FDDI) The IEEE 802.1 standard provides an introduction to the set of 802 series of standards and defines interface primitives. The IEEE 802 series of standards operate in the layer 1 and layer 2 (i.e., the physical and data link layers), of the seven-layer OSI or the TCP/IP protocol models. The logical link control (LLC) is the upper part of the data link layer and helps establish peer-to-peer logical links between two 802 LAN protocol entities. The LLC layer is common to all 802 LAN protocols, creating a layer of transparency between data link and network layer protocols. This allows several 802 LAN protocols to be defined beneath the LLC layer that differ in their physical layer and media access control (MAC) layer characteristics. The MAC layer is the lower part of the data link layer. The MAC layer defines different addressing formats and specific protocols used to arbitrate access to the 802 LAN system, for the various 802 LAN standards. The MAC address is 48 bits in length and is a layer 2 address, used only in the data link layer. Of the 48 bits, the first two bits are for control and administrative purposes. The next field is the vendor ID, which is generally assigned by the IEEE to any organization that needs it for use on devices such as personal computers, servers, and printers.

The second part of the MAC address is "locally assigned" by the organization that owns the vendor ID. When the IEEE assigns these addresses, they are truly global addresses and ensure that no two stations in the world have the same MAC address. The physical layer defines signaling mechanisms and transmission characteristics for the different LAN standards. For example, in the 802.3 protocol, the physical layer defines data over media such as coaxial cable, copper, and fiber-optic

4. Compare narrowband ISDN and broadband ISDN.

The most important development in the computer communications industry in the 1990s is the evolution of the integrated services digital network (ISDN) and broadband ISDN (B-ISDN). The ISDN and B-ISDN have had a dramatic impact on the planning and deployment of intelligent digital networks providing integrated services for voice, data and video. Further, the work on the ISDN and B-ISDN standards has led to the development of two major new networking technologies; frame relay and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Frame relay and ATM have become the essential ingredients in developing high-speed networks for local, metropolitan and wider area applications. The ISDN is intended to be a worldwide public telecommunications network to replace existing public telecommunication networks and deliver a wide variety of services. The ISDN is defined by the standardization of user interfaces and implemented as a set of digital switches and paths supporting a broad range of traffic types and providing value added processing services. In practice, there are multiple networks, implemented within national boundaries but from the user's point of view, the eventual widespread deployment of ISDN will lead to a single, uniformly accessible, worldwide network. The narrowband ISDN is based on the use of a 64 kbps channel as the basic unit of switching and has a circuit switching orientation. The major technical contribution of the narrowband ISDN effort has been frame relay. The B-ISDN supports very high data rates (100s of Mbps) and has a packet switchingorientation. The major technical contribution of the B-ISDN effort has been asynchronous transfer mode, also known as cell relay. CIRCUIT SWITCHING The circuit switching is the dominant technology for both voice and data communications. Communication via circuit switching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two stations. That path is a connected sequence of links between network nodes. On each physical link, a

channel is dedicated to the connection. The three phases involved in a communication via circuit switching are circuit establishment, information transfer and circuit disconnect. PACKET SWITCHING In a typical data connection much of the time the line is idle. Thus circuit switched approach is inefficient. In packet switching data are transmitted in short packets. Each packet contains a portion of the user's data plus some control information. The control information, at a minimum, includes the information that the network requires to be able to route the packet through the network and deliver it to the intended destination. At each node enroute, the packet is received, stored briefly, and passed on the next node. The advantages of packet switching are line efficiency is greater, data rate conversion is possible and priorities can be used. FRAME RELAY With modern, high-speed telecommunication systems, the overhead in error control is unnecessary and counter productive. To take advantages of the high data rates and low error rates of contemporary networking facilities, frame relay was developed. Whereas the original packet switching networks were designed with a data rate to the end user of about 64 kbps, Frame relay networks are designed to operate at user data rates of up to 2 Mbps. The key to achieving these high data rates are to strip out most of the overhead involved with error control.

5. What are the various open loop and closed loop methods for handling the congestion? [3] 6. What kinds of error are controlled by the Error control mechanisms at the data link layer? [3] 7. Explain leaky bucket algorithm. [3] 8. Explain ATM. [3] 9. Explain Hidden station problem. [3] 10. Draw IPV4 header and explain in detail. [3] 11. A host with IP address and physical address Ox B23455102210 has a packet to send to another host with address and physical address Ox A46EF45983AB. The two hosts are on the same Ethernet network. Show ARP request and reply packet encapsulated in Ethernet frame. [3] 12. Explain RIP protocol in detail. [3] [3] 18. Explain the types of BGP messages. Explain the various fields involved. BGP performs interdomain routing in Transmission-Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks. BGP is an exterior gateway protocol (EGP), which means that it performs routing between multiple autonomous systems or domains and exchanges routing and reachability information with other BGP systems Four BGP message types are specied: A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4): Open message, update message, notication message, and keep-alive message. The open message opens a BGP communications session between peers and is the rst message sent by each side after a transport-protocol connection is established. Open messages are conrmed using a keep-alive message sent by the peer device and must be conrmed before updates, notications, and keep-alives can be exchanged.

An update message is used to provide routing updates to other BGP systems, allowing routers to construct a consistent view of the network topology. Updates are sent using the TransmissionControl Protocol (TCP) to ensure reliable delivery. Update messages can withdraw one or more unfeasible routes from the routing table and simultaneously can advertise a route while withdrawing others. The notication message is sent when an error condition is detected. Notications are used to close an active session and to inform any connected routers of why the session is being closed. The keep-alive message noties BGP peers that a device is active. Keep-alives are sent often enough to keep the sessions from expiring. 19. Explain the various query messages in ICMP. Also draw and explain the packet formats. The IP (Internet Protocol) relies on several other protocols to perform necessary control and routing functions: Control functions (ICMP) Multicast signaling (IGMP) Setting up routing tables (RIP, OSPF, BGP, PIM, ) The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a helper protocol that supports IP with facility for Error reporting Simple queries ICMP messages are encapsulated as IP datagrams:

20. Describe the various links in OSPF.

1.Point-to-point Link:
On point-to-point links such as High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) runs as a point-to-point network type. This network type is enabled by default. This document shows sample configurations for OSPF over a point-to-point link. The other network types that OSPF supports are Point to Multipoint, Broadcast, and Non-Broadcast. In order to check the network type of an interface that runs OSPF, issue the show ip ospf interface command.

2.Transient Link:
In OSPF, a transient link is a network with several routers attached to it. The data can enter through any router and can leave through any router. All LANs and WANs with two or more routers are of this type. In transient networks, each router has many neighbors. 3.Stub Link: A stub interface could be a loopback interface or any other point-to-point or multipoint interface on which there are no OSPF neighbors.

4. Virtual Link:
Virtual link is a logical connection to create virtual adjacency between two areas using the least cost path.Two conditions must be fulfilled to apply a virtual link between different areas.

One area must be area 0 (backbone area) to create virtual link. One area must be common area between two endpoint routers to create virtual links.

21. What are the various components of a CISCO Router? Explain them briefly.
In order to configure and troubleshoot a Cisco internetwork, you need to know the major components of Cisco routers and understand what each one does. Table as below describes the major Cisco router components.


Description Stored in the microcode of the ROM, the bootstrap is used to bring Bootstrap a router up during initialization. It will boot the router and then load the IOS. Stored in the microcode of the ROM, the POST is used to check the basic functionality of the router hardware and determine which POST (power-onself-test) interfaces are present. Stored in the microcode of the ROM, the ROM monitor is used for ROM monitor manufacturing, testing, and troubleshooting. Called the RXBOOT or bootloader by Cisco, the mini-IOS is a small IOS in ROM that can be used to bring up an interface and load a Cisco Mini-IOS IOS into flash memory. The mini-IOS can also perform a few other maintenance operations. Used to hold packet buffers, ARP cache, routing tables, and also RAM the software and data structures that allow the router to function. (randomaccessmemory) Running-config is stored in RAM, and the IOS can also be run from RAM in some routers. ROM (read-onlymemory) Used to start and maintain the router. Used on the router to hold the Cisco IOS. Flash memory is not erased Flash memory when the router is reloaded. It is EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable read-only memory) created by Intel. Used to hold the router and switch configuration. NVRAM is not NVRAM (nonvolatileRAM) erased when the router or switch is reloaded. Used to control how the router boots up. This value can be seen with the show version command and typically is 02102, which tells Configurationregister the router to load the IOS from flash memory as well as telling the router to load the configuration from NVRAM.