Insulin (Latin insula, "island", as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. Apart from being the primary effector in carbohydrate homeostasis, it also has a substantial effect on small vessel muscle tone, controls storage and release of fat (triglycerides) and cellular uptake of both amino acids and some electrolytes. In this last sense, it has anabolic properties. Its concentration (more or less, presence or absence) has extremely widespread effects throughout the body. Insulin is used medically in some forms of diabetes mellitus. Patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus depend on exogenous insulin (injected subcutaneously) for their survival because of an absolute deficiency of the hormone; patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus have either relatively low insulin production or insulin resistance or both, and a non-trivial fraction of Type 2 diabetics eventually require insulin administration when other medications become inadequate in controlling blood glucose levels. Insulin structure varies slightly between species. Its carbohydrate metabolism regulatory function strength in humans also varies. Pig insulin is particularly close to the human one. The exact sequence of amino acids comprising the insulin molecule, the so-called primary structure, was determined by British molecular biologist Frederick Sanger. It was the first protein the structure of which was completely determined. For this he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1958. In 1967, after decades of work, Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the spatial conformation of the molecule, by means of X-ray diffraction studies. She also was awarded a Nobel Prize.

INSULIN 3D structure

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HISTORY of Insulin
Insulin Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas. It was isolated in 1921-22 at the University of Toronto. The scientists involved in the research were Dr. Fredrick Banting, Charles Best (a medical student at the time of the discovery), Professor J. J. R. Macleod and Dr. James Collip. On June 3, 1934, Dr Frederick Banting the co-inventor of insulin was knighted for his medical discovery. Insulin Process Discovery of Insulin Brief biographies of the scientists (Banting, Best, Macleod and Collip) surrounding the discovery of insulin and treatments for diabetes. It provides descriptions of their experiments via a scrapbook of old newspaper clippings, pictures, and a voice recording. There is a list of books,videos, and links available on the subject of diabetes. Insulin Process Banting, Macleod, Best and Collip invented the process for insulin in 1922 which became the treatment for diabetes. A Great Canadian Breakthrough: The Discovery of Insulin

Helen Free and the Home Diabetes Test Helen Free Helen Free invented the home diabetes test. Helen Free In the mid-1940s, Alfred Free and Helen Murray were both chemists working together in the biochemistry research group at Miles Laboratories, Inc. Married in 1947, they continued their collaboration, becoming two of the world’s leading experts on urinalysis the highlight of which was Helen Free's invention of the home diabetes test. Seeking Medical Knowledge about Diabetes and Insulin? Diabetes at About The best of online resources for diabetes patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers, from your Guide to diabetes, Paula Ford-Martin. Insulin Use in Diabetes A collection of relevant, timely, and informative internet resources on insulin use from your About Guide to Diabetes. Diabetes Overview Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone with type 1 diabetes died within a few years after diagnosis. Although insulin is not considered a cure, its discovery was the first major breakthrough in diabetes treatment. Seniors and Diabetes Information about the risks of diabetes on the health of seniors. Includes information about the complications of diabetes, including periodontal disease, heart disease, foot care and stroke. Diabetes and Eating Disorders Researchers have discovered a link between Eating Disorders and Diabetes.

Dr. Fredrick Banting Link:

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