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KMK 1133 Introduction to Linguistics Analysis
What does it mean to KNOW a language?
Recap: Knowing a Language
Have the capacity to produce sounds that signify certain meanings and to understand and interpret sounds produced by others Can speak and be understood by others who know that g g language Knowledge of the sound system Knowledge of words Creativity of linguistic knowledge Knowledge of sentences & non-sentences UNCONCIOUS KNOWLEDGE
So what does it mean to know a language?
Phonetics & Phonology Morphology
Knowing a language means knowing the sounds, the words, and the rules for their combination to express & understand intended p meaning
Semantic Pragmatic Syntax
An important part of linguistic knowledge & constitute a component of our mental grammar
What is a WORD?
The means through which thoughts are conveyed to others and from which thoughts of others are received and comprehended Knowing a word means knowing that a particular q p sequence of sound is associated with a particular meaning Able to segment stream of sounds into individual y words: How may words are there in this utterance?
More on Words
Each word is a sound-meaning unit Each word, stored in our mental lexicon (i.e. mental dictionary) must be listed with its unique phonological representation & with a meaning Each stored word includes other information (i.e. syntactic categories)
Forming grammatical sentences
ThefirstassignmentisdueverysoonsoIhopethat youhavepreparedeverythingthatisrequired )
must no. she. Google. mine. shall. he. not very. few can. could. too and. or. a unit of meaning) . of I. might.More on Words Content Words Words that denote concepts (Lexical) Objects (nouns) Actions (verbs/adverbs) Attributes (adjectives) Ideas (nouns) Function Words Words which specify grammatical relations & have little or no semantic content Conjunctions Prepositions Articles Pronouns Open class Can add new words to the above classes May change category (e. a/an. pronouns & auxiliary verbs (Function Words) Omit inflections (past tense suffix ‘ed’ or third person singular ending ‘s’) s) Omission of function words by Agrammatic Aphasics indicative of the distinction between the organization of content and function words in the brain Possibility that these two classes of words are processed in different brain areas or by different neural mechanism Morphemes? Most elemental unit of grammatical form (sound-meaning unit) One morpheme Boy y Two morphemes Boyish Three morphemes Boyishness Four morphemes Gentlemanliness More than four morphemes Ungentlemanliness Words are made up of morphemes Simple words consist of a single morpheme Complex words consist of more than one morpheme (each contributes some meaning to the overall word) Morphemes: Minimal Units of Meaning? Smallest unit of linguistic meaning or function (i. and so on while Recap: Brain & Language Broca’s Aphasia = Agrammatic Aphasia Frequently lacks articles. prepositions. lots of.e. but (connect two independent clauses) subordinate conjunction in. should. google) Are there other examples of ‘new’ words in your first language? Closed class No addition of new words Estimated only 300 words Function Words (Closed Class) Types Determiners Auxiliary Negation N i Intensifier Connectors Relations Preposition Pronouns Examples articles the. me. some.g. may.
google) Closed class No addition of new words Estimated only 300 words Morphemes? Minimal linguistic unit – arbitrary union of a sound and a meaning that cannot be further analyzed The decomposition of words into morphemes illustrates a fundamental property of human l fh language – discreteness Morpheme – Word .g.or (denotes someone performing action of the verb) un (meaning = not) al (turning root verb into a noun) Open class Can add new words to the above classes May change category (e. Slow. Judge And.definite) music (root) consider (root) -ian (indicates person whose works related to meaning of root) Re (meaning = again) s (plural marker) ed (past tense marker) s (possession) More on Words Content Words Words that denote concepts (Lexical) Objects (nouns) Actions (verbs/adverbs) Attributes (adjectives) Ideas (nouns) Function Words Words which specify grammatical relations & have little or no semantic content Conjunctions Prepositions Articles Pronouns their (Grammatical morpheme – possession of following noun – plural 3rd person ) direct (root) usual (root) propose (root) .Reflection Can you identify ALL the morphemes in the following English sentence? The musicians reconsidered their director’s unusual proposal The (Grammatical morpheme . between Morphemes that must be attached to other morphemes (part of word) Affixation Prefixes (precedes/before) Suffixes (follow after) Infixes (inserted) Circumfixes (begin & end) No attachment Morphemes – minimal linguistic signs in ALL languages. however deployment varies from one language to another . at.Morphology Words have internal structure. and of the rules by which words are formed is known as: • MORPHOLOGY Form (word) Science of box boxes Inflectional morpheme ableunuse usaableun Morphology (part of our grammatical knowledge of a language) Morphological Knowledge Knowledge of the individual morphemes Un Think Able Their pronunciation Their meaning Free (stand alone) or Bound (must be attached to a base morpheme) Knowledge of the rules that combine them into complex words Unablethink Thinkunable Ablethinkun Unthinkable Free & Bound Morphemes? A single morpheme that constitutes a word May constitute words by themselves Child. Google. which is rulegoverned • The study of the internal structure of words.
email endanger. enable ill-advised. Examples washable h bl useful Examples slowly Examples orchestrate ripen.g. become Examples lioness. The Muskogean Language From Chickasaw.Free & Bound Morphemes? Lexical content morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts Morphemes added to base Derivational Inflectional which lead to derivation of new Morphemes Morphemes words with new meaning – Morphemes that have strictly derived word grammatical functions. sociology. number. gender. paint + er = painter Addition of each new affix – form a new stem & a new word E. p ill-expressed unilateral.g. paint. Oklahoma .ess -ology Suffix (form adjective) -able bl -ful Suffix (form adverb) . marking properties – tense. ling. waitress. unicycle overconfident overeat ultramodern ultrasound ultraman Suffixes (Bound Morphemes) Suffix (form nouns) . read. foolishness The Bontoc Language from the Philippines a morphological family of words derived from the root port. Internet put in make badly one too much extreme beyond Examples e-book.g. encircle enrich. ceive Core element of meaning (free morpheme) Stem – formed/derived when a root morpheme (or stem) is combined with an affix E. harden Infixes & Circumfixes (Bound Morphemes) Morphemes that are inserted into other morphemes Fikas (strong) Kilad (red) Fusul (enemy) Fumikas (to be strong) Kumilad (to be red) Fumisul (to be an enemy) • Morphemes that are attached to a base morpheme both initially & finally chokma (he is good) palli (it is hot) lakna (it is yellow) ikchokmo (he isn’t good) ikpallo (it isn’t hot) iklakno (it isn’t yellow) Roots & Stems (morphologically complex word – root +1≤ affixes) Root – a lexical content morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts E.ly Suffix (form verb) -ate -en Mainly added to nouns nouns Mainly added to verb b noun Mainly added to adjective Mainly added to noun adjective Usual meaning female study of Usual meaning can b (d ) be (done) full of Usual meaning in an (adjective) way Usual meaning causative make. etc Derivational Morphemes Prefixes (Bound Morphemes) Prefix e en ill uni over ultra Mainly added to nouns nouns adjective past participles adjective noun adjective verb adjective noun Usual meaning Electronic.
are two different forms of the "same" word. p.) Creates new words from existing ones.ly Suffix (form verb) -ate Mainly added to ( ) Verb (wash) Mainly added to Adjective (slow) Mainly added to Noun (orchestra) Usual meaning can be (done) ( ) Usual meaning in an (adjective) way Usual meaning causative Examples washable Examples slowly Examples orchestrate Hierarchical Structure of Words Tree Diagram – to represent hierarchical organization of words The adding of morphemes (bound) must be done according to a fixed order Morphological Rules Derived words Derivational Morphology Derivational morphemes makes new words from old ones (Crystal. such as singular/plural or past/present tense. is a matter of grammar and thus the business of inflectional morphology. 90. the choice between them.Roots & Stems Root believe Believe + able Un+ believe + able System system + atic Un + system+ atic Un+ system +atic + al Un+ system +atic + al + ly Verb Verb + suffix Prefix + verb + suffix noun Noun + suffix Prefix + noun+ suffix Prefix + noun+ suffix + suffix Prefix + noun+ suffix + suffix+ suffix Stem Word Root Stem Stem Stem Word Rules of Word Formation Derivational Morphology A new word with a new meaning is derived when bound morpheme (s) are added to the base Suffix (form adjective) -able Suffix (form adverb) . Thus Boy and boys. p. 90. often with a change in meaning Inflectional Morphemes Inflectional morphemes: vary (or "inflect") the form of words in order to express grammatical features. for example.) . singular vs. (Crystal. plural.
third person Subject-verb agreement Singular. Tense. second person. perfect (completed) -ation (organization) -al (facial) -ize (memorize) -ic (alcoholic) ( ) -un (unsure) -ous (victorious) -s Plural -s Possessive -ed Past -ing Progressive g g -er Comparative -est Superlative Word Coinage Invention of totally new terms Typical sources = invented trade names for commercial products E. indirect object Recap: Derivational & Inflectional Locating an event in time relative to moment of speaking Present. object.g. how are new words formed? . colgate Can you suggest anymore trade name that has become household use? Apart from the derivational process. kleenex. plural Grammatical properties Never change the syntactic categories of the words or morphemes to which they are attached to peanuts Case.Inflectional Morphology Morphology that interacts with syntax (sentence structure) Some examples are: person number gender case tense aspect Person & Number Grammatical features distinguishing entities referred to in an utterance First person. past Temporal characteristic of event Progressive. Aspect Roles of participants in an event Subject.
Borrowing Taking over of words from other languages Karaoke (Japanese) Tattoo (Tahitian) Yogurt (Turkish) Sarong (Malay) Compounding Joining of two separate words to form a single form Bookcase Fingerprint Sunburn Wallpaper Blending Combining two separate forms to present a single new term Joining the beginning of one word & joining it to the end of other word Smog (smoke & fog) Motel (motor & hotel) Modem (modulator/demodulator) Clipping Reducing to a shorter form a word of more than one syllable condominium (condo) public house (pub) fanatic (fan) Clipping of names . or by removing what is mistakenly thought to be an affix. mathematician) Fahrenheit (German scientists) Back-Formations Created by removing an affix from an already existing word.Words from Names (Proper Names) Eponyms = words derived based on the name of real. fictional. character or place Sandwich (Earl of Sandwich) Jeans (from the Italian city. Genoa) Braille (Loius Braille – French teacher. as pea from the earlier English plural pease. as vacuum clean from vacuum cleaner. mythical person.
category change) Sit on a chair Chair the meeting In Summary Morphemes Bound Affix Open Class (content/lexical) Inflectional Free Closed Class (function/grammatical) Derivational Word formation Prefix Suffix Suffix End of Unit 3 .e.Conversion Changing the word function (i.