∆X A~ ∆Pref steam in
linkage mechanism
lower
C D
B ∆X D
higher
∆x c ~ ∆Pg E
A To turbine
pilot valve ∆X E ~ ∆Pv
∆x B ~ ∆f
Main piston
oil
speed governor
Hydraulic amplifier
the flyball governor is the heart of the system. it senses the change
in speed (frequency). as the speed increases, flyballs move
outwards and the point b on the linkage mechanism moves
downwards. the reverse happens when the speed decreases.
the hydraulic amplifier comprises a pilot valve and a main piston
arrangement. low power level pilot valve movement is converted
to high power level piston valve movement. this is necessary in
order to close or open steam valve against high pressure steam.
the speed changer provides a steady state power output setting for
the turbine. its downward movement opens the upper pilot valve so
that more steam is admitted to the turbine under steady conditions.
the reverse happens for upward movement of speed changer.
governor :
in the flyball governor system, when f is more than the reference ,
∆f is positive , the flyballs move outwards and b moves
downwards. c moves downward, d moves downward, lower pilot
valve opens and e moves up. control valve closes and less steam is
∆Pg
let in. the governor output command is measured by the
position change ∆X C .
∆Pref
the governor has two inputs: (1) changes in the reference
power setting (2) changes ∆f in the speed (or frequency ) of the
generator as measured by ∆x B . the governor equations are given
by
1
∆Pg = ∆Pref − ∆f MW
R
1
∆Pg ( s) = ∆Pref ( s) − ∆f ( s)
R
very large mechanical forces are needed to position the main valve
against the high steam pressure and these forces are obtained via
several stages of hydraulic amplifiers.the input to this amplifier is
the position xd of the pilot valve. the output is the position xe of the
main piston. the position of the pilot valve can be affected via the
linkage system in 3 ways: (1) directly by the speed changer: a
small downward movement of the linkage point a corresponds to
∆P ref
an increase in the reference power setting. (2) indirectly
via feedback due to position changes of the main piston. (3)
indirectly via feedback due to position changes of linkage point b
resulting from speed changes.
∆X D = ∆Pg − ∆Pv MW
for small changes ∆X D , the oil flow into the hydraulic motor is
proportional to position ∆X D of the pilot valve. thus the following
relationship for the position of the main piston.
∆P v = K H ∫ ∆X D dt
kh depends on orifice and cylinder geometries and fluid pressure.
∆X D
∆Pv ( s) = K H
s
∆X D ( s) = ∆Pg ( s) − ∆Pv ( s)
1
TH =
KH is the hydraulic time constant with a typical value of
0.1 sec.
∆PT 1
GT = =
∆Pv 1 + sTT
∆PG = ∆PD
1
R ∆f
∆ PG = ∆ PD
 
∆Pg ∆ Pv ∆PT
∆Pref + ∑ GH GT ∑
+ ∆PT − ∆PG
s → 0, GH (0) = GT (0) = 1
1
∆PT (0) = ∆Pref (0) − ∆f (0)
R
case a:
since ,
∆f = 0 , ∆PT (0) = ∆Pref (0)
case b:
that is,
∆Pref = 0
hence,
1
∆PT (0) = − ∆f (0)
R
case c:
in the more general case, changes may occur in both the reference
setting and frequency in which case a more general relationship
applies.
fig.2.3 shows a static plot of % rated f against % rated pt . the slope
of the lines correspond to r= 0.04 pu.
% rated
frequency
100
0 50 100
% rated output
increases its output ∆PG to match the new load., i.e, ∆PG = ∆PD .
(3) there will now be a power imbalance in the area that equals
(∆PT − ∆PD ) MW . the change in speed or frequency will be
assumed uniform throughout the area.
2
f
WK ,in = WK0 ,in 0 MW
f
(4) the old area load has a frequency dependency that we can lump
into one area parameter d as
∂PD
D= MW / hz
∂f
d
∆pT = ∆PD + Wk ,in + D∆f
dt
as
f = f 0 + ∆f ,
2 2
0 f 0 + ∆f
= Wk ,in 1 + 2∆f + ∆f ≅ Wk0,in 1 + 2∆f
Wk ,in = Wk ,in
f
0
f 0 f 0
f0
2WK0 ,in d
∆PT − ∆PD = 0
(∆f ) + D∆f MW
f dt
WK0 ,in
H= MW − sec/ MW (or ) sec
Pr
2H d
∆PT − ∆PD = (∆f ) + D∆f pu MW
f 0 dt
∆P' s are now measured in pu (base pr) and d in pu mw/hz. h
parameter is independent of system size.typical h values lie in the
range 28 sec.
2H
∆PT ( s) − ∆PD ( s) = 0
s∆f ( s) + D∆f ( s)
f
where
Kp 2H 1
G p (s) = ; Tp = sec; Kp =
1 + sT p f 0D D
1
R
∆ PD (s)
 
∆ Pg ∆ Pv
+ ∑ ∆ PT ∑
− KI GH GT
Gp(s)
s ∆ Pref + ∆ f (s)
primary
secondary
solution:
∂PD0 10
D= = = 16.67 MW / hz
∂f 0.6
in pu of area capacity,
16.67
D= = 8.33 x10 −3 pu MW / hz
2000
2H 2 x5
Tp = 0
= −3
= 20 s
f D 60 x8.33 x10
1
Kp = = 120 Hz / pu MW
D
1
∆f = ∆Pref − ∆f G H GT − ∆PD G P
R
(∆Pref = 0)
for a constant reference input ,
− GP
∆f ( s) = ∆PD ( s)
1
1 + G P G H GT
R
M
∆PD ( s ) =
s
using final value theorem , we obtain the static frequency drop
lim −Kp −M
∆f ss = ( s∆f ( s) ) = = hz
s→0 Kp 1
1+ D+
R R
1
β = D+
R
−M
∆f = hz
ss β
problem : find the static frequency drop for the 2000 mw system
of the previous example following a 1% load increase, that is,
∆PD = M = 20MW = 0.01 pu .
solution: given
D = 8.33 x10 −3 puMW / hz
R = 2.4hz / pu MW
1 1
β = D+ = 8.33 x10 −3 + = 0.425 puMW / hz
R 2.4
− M − 0.01
∆f 0 = = = −0.0235 hz
β 0.425
then,
β = D = 8.33 x10 −3
− 0.01
∆f ss = = −1.2 Hz
0.00833
or 2% of normal value.
−Kp
1 + sT p M MRK p 1 1
∆f ( s ) ≅ =− −
1 Kp s R+ Kp s R+Kp
1+ s+
R 1 + sT p RT p
1 1
∆f ( s) ≅ −0.0235 −
s s + 2.55
∆f (t ) ≅ −0.0235 (1 − e −2.55t ) hz
0.02
0.03
0.04
TH = 0.3 s; TT= 80ms
1 t
∆t = ∫ ∆fdt
f ss 0
integral control
∆Pref = − K I ∫ ∆fdt
ace= ∆f
M
∆PD ( s ) =
s
assume that the turbine dynamics and speed changer dynamics are
instantaneous. putting
KI
∆Pref ( s) = − ∆f ( s)
s
from fig. 2.4, we can get,
Kp M
∆f ( s) = −
Tp Kp
1 +
R K I K p
2
s +s +
Tp Tp
2 2
K Kp
1+ p K K 1 +
Charc . Eq. = s + R + I p − R
2T p Tp 2T p
if
2
K
KI K p 1 + p
> R
Tp 2T p
K I < K I ,crit
where
2
1 Kp
K I ,crit = 1 +
4T p K p R
e − β1t , e − β 2t .
0 t sec
 0.02
no integral control
increasing K I
the integral controller meets the first three of the specified control
requirements. the fourth requirement can be met only by the
application of the optimal dispatch equation involving ordinary
differential equations(odes). the primary alfc loop makes the initial
coarse readjustment of frequency. by its actions, the various
generators in the control area track the shifting load and share it in
proportion to their size. the primary loop responds in about 2 to 20
sec depending upon the turbine type and size. the secondary alfc
loop takes over the fine adjustment of the frequency by resetting ,
through the integral action, the frequency error to zero.this loop is
slower and goes into action only when the primary loop has done
its job. response time may be of the order of one minute. economic
dispatch control can be viewed as an additional tertiary control
loop. as the control decisions in this loop are based upon the
solution of odes, a central digital computer is placed at the energy
control centre which is linked to various power plants via
communication channels. every 5 min, the central computer is
provided with the mw settings in the power plants. these settings
are compared with the optimal settings derived from a run of the
type of optimal dispatch program. if there is any deviation from the
optimal values, instructions to the plants are sent to readjust the
mw outputs via the speed changer.
V10 V20
P120 =
X
(
Sin δ 10 − δ 20 )
0 0
where δ 1 and δ 2 are the angles of end voltages v1 and v2
respectively. for small deviations in the angles δ1 and δ 2 , the tie
line power changes with the amount
V10 V20
∆P12 ≅
X
( )
cos δ 10 − δ 20 ( ∆δ 1 − ∆δ 2 ) MW
V10 V20
T0 =
X
(
cos δ 10 − δ 20 ) MW / rad
∆P12 = T 0 (δ 1 − δ 2 ) MW
1 d 0 1 d
∆f = (δ + ∆δ ) = ( ∆δ ) hz
2π dt 2π dt
∆δ = 2π ∫ ∆fdt rad
2πT 0
∆P12 ( s) = { ∆f1 ( s) − ∆f 2 ( s)}
s
+
1 ∆P12
∑ 2πT 0 s

∆f 2
∆P12 = − ∆P21 MW
we consider the tie line power positive in the direction out from the
area in question. when we work with multiarea systems, it is
always convenient to consider the tie line power positive in the
direction out from the area in question.
1 1
∆ P21 + ∆ Pref , 2 ∆ P21 
+ +
∑ GI 2 ∑ GH 2 GT2 ∑ GP 2 ∆f2
+  ∆ PT 2 
B2 1
R2 ∆f2 ∆ PD 2
v 0 + ∆v1 v 0 + ∆v 2
∆v1 ↔ ∆f1
∆v 2 ↔ ∆f 2
∆Pref ,1 = ∆Pref , 2 = 0
we assume that the loads in each area are suddenly increased by
constant incremental steps.
∆PD1 = M 1 ; ∆PD 2 = M 2
we shall analyse the static changes that result in frequency and tie
line power. let us call these changes ∆f 0 and ∆P12
respectively.
1
∆PT 1,0 = − ∆f 0
R1
1
∆PT 2,0 = − ∆f 0
R2
1
− ∆f 0 − M 1 = D1∆f 0 + ∆P12,0
R1
β1 M 2 − β 2 M 1
∆P12,0 = −∆P21,0 = puMW
β1 + β 2
afrc of each are
1
β1 = D1 +
R1
1
β 2 = D2 +
R2
d1=d2=d
r1=r2=r
β1 = β 2 = β
we get
M1 + M 2
∆f 0 = −
2β
M 2 − M1
∆P12,0 = −∆P21,0 = puMW
2
M2
∆f 0 = − hz
2β
M2
∆P12,0 = puMW
2
problem :
area 2 has the same parameters but in terms of the 10gw base. for
a 20 mw load increase that takes place in area 1 , find the static
frequency drop and tie line power change.
solution:
choose 2000 mw as our power base.
1
β1 = 8.33 x10 − 3 + = 0.425 puMW / hz
2.4
β 2 has the same numerical value based on 10 gw. based on 2 gw,
β1 M 2 − β 2 M 1
∆P12,0 = = −0.00833 puMW
β1 + β 2
comparing with one area case, this drop in frequency is 1/6 of that
in single area case (see previous problem).there is an added
delivery of 16.7 mw from the larger area.this is how frequency
support is accomplished.
dynamic response of 2 area system
even with the very simple turbine model that we have used, the
two area system is of 7th order. we perform an approximate
analysis based upon the following assumptions.
(1) consider the case of two equal areas. (2) consider the turbine
controller to be fast relative to the inertia part of the system, ie., we
set gh=gt=1
(3) neglect system damping ,i.e, we assume the load not to vary
with frequency ,i.e., we set d1=d2=0. since
Kp 1
G p (s) = =
1 + sT p 2H
D+s
f0
f0
G p1 = G p 2 =
s(2 H )
0 2
(ω 2 − α 2 ) 2πf T f
0 0
ω0 = = − 4 RH
H
assume that the tie line has a capacity of 0.1 pu (10% of area
capacity) and is operating at a power angle of 45 .
V1 V2
T0 = cos( δ 1 − δ 2 )
X
that is,
T 0 = 0.1 cos 45 = 0.0707
∆f (t )
sec
0
∆f 1 (t )
with integral control
∆f 2 (t )
0 sec
P21 (t ) ∆P21, 0
thus aces are ACE1 = ∆f1 ; ACE 2 = ∆P21 . these ace's would
be fed via slow integrators on to the respective speed changers. in
early days , one area was designated to reset the system frequency
and the others would be responsible for their own 'net
interchanges'. this arrangement resulted in wild swing between
generating limits.
tie line bias control is based upon the principle that all operating
members must contribute their share to frequency control in
addition to taking care of their own net interchange.
we would add the additional outer loops in fig. 2.8 when we add
the rest control to two area system.
ACE 2 = ∆P12 + B2 ∆f 2
ki1, ki2 are integrator gains . b1 & b2 are frequency bias parameters.
the minus sign indicates that there is an increase in generation if
either its frequency error or its tie line power increment is negative.
the chosen strategy will eliminate the steady state frequency and tie
line deviations. following a step load change in either area , a new
static equilibrium can be achieved only after the speed changer
commands have reached constant values. but for this, it requires
that both integrands be zero ,i.e.,
∆P12,0 + B1∆f 0 = 0
∆P21,0 + B2 ∆f 0 = 0
∆f 0 = ∆P12,0 = ∆P21,0 = 0