You are on page 1of 36

unit #2

turbine speed governing system

fig. 2.1 shows a schematic of a speed governing system of a


∆X A~ ∆Pref steam in

linkage mechanism
B ∆X D
∆x c ~ ∆Pg E
A To turbine
pilot valve ∆X E ~ ∆Pv
∆x B ~ ∆f
Main piston


speed governor

Hydraulic amplifier

fig. 2.1 schematic of speed governor system

the flyball governor is the heart of the system. it senses the change
in speed (frequency). as the speed increases, flyballs move
outwards and the point b on the linkage mechanism moves
downwards. the reverse happens when the speed decreases.
the hydraulic amplifier comprises a pilot valve and a main piston
arrangement. low power level pilot valve movement is converted
to high power level piston valve movement. this is necessary in
order to close or open steam valve against high pressure steam.

in the linkage mechanism, abc is a rigid link pivoted at b and cde is

a rigid link pivoted at d.this link mechanism provides a movement
to the control valve in proportion to change in speed. it also
provides a feedback from the steam valve movement.

the speed changer provides a steady state power output setting for
the turbine. its downward movement opens the upper pilot valve so
that more steam is admitted to the turbine under steady conditions.
the reverse happens for upward movement of speed changer.

raise command: a moves downward, c moves upwards , d moves

upwards. then upper valve is opened, e moves down. more steam is
let into the turbine as control valve opens more.

lower command: a moves upwards , c moves downwards, d moves

downwards. lower valve opens , e moves up , less steam is let into
the turbine as control valve closes.

the incremental movements of the 5 linkage points are measured in

mm but in our analysis , they are expressed as power increments
expressed in mw.

governor :
in the flyball governor system, when f is more than the reference ,
∆f is positive , the flyballs move outwards and b moves
downwards. c moves downward, d moves downward, lower pilot
valve opens and e moves up. control valve closes and less steam is
let in. the governor output command is measured by the
position change ∆X C .
the governor has two inputs: (1) changes in the reference
power setting (2) changes ∆f in the speed (or frequency ) of the
generator as measured by ∆x B . the governor equations are given
∆Pg = ∆Pref − ∆f MW

in terms of laplace transforms,

∆Pg ( s) = ∆Pref ( s) − ∆f ( s)

r has the dimension of hz/mw and is referred to as regulation or


hydraulic valve actuator ;

referring to fig. 2.1 , by controlling the position measured by the

coordinate xe of the control valve, we can exert control over the
flow of high pressure steam through the turbine.a downward small
movement of the linkage point e increases the steam flow by a
small amount, whcih measured in valve power , represents a mw
increment ∆Pv . this flow increase translates into a turbine power
increment ∆PT in the turbine.

very large mechanical forces are needed to position the main valve
against the high steam pressure and these forces are obtained via
several stages of hydraulic amplifiers.the input to this amplifier is
the position xd of the pilot valve. the output is the position xe of the
main piston. the position of the pilot valve can be affected via the
linkage system in 3 ways: (1) directly by the speed changer: a
small downward movement of the linkage point a corresponds to
∆P ref
an increase in the reference power setting. (2) indirectly
via feedback due to position changes of the main piston. (3)
indirectly via feedback due to position changes of linkage point b
resulting from speed changes.

the input position ∆X D of the valve actuator increases as a result

of an increased command but decreases due to increased
valve output ∆Pv . equal increases in both and ∆Pv shall
result in ∆X D = 0 . hence,

∆X D = ∆Pg − ∆Pv MW

for small changes ∆X D , the oil flow into the hydraulic motor is
proportional to position ∆X D of the pilot valve. thus the following
relationship for the position of the main piston.

∆P v = K H ∫ ∆X D dt
kh depends on orifice and cylinder geometries and fluid pressure.

∆X D
∆Pv ( s) = K H
∆X D ( s) = ∆Pg ( s) − ∆Pv ( s)

(∆Pg ( s) − ∆Pv ( s))

∆Pv ( s) = K H
∆Pv ( s) K H 1 1
GH = = =
∆Pg ( s) s  K H  1 + sTH
1 + 
 s 

TH =
KH is the hydraulic time constant with a typical value of
0.1 sec.

turbine -generator response:

the turbine power pt keeps balance with electromechanical air gap

power pg resulting in zero acceleration and a constant speed or
frequency. if the difference power, ∆PT − ∆PG is positive , the
turbine generator unit will accelerate , if negative , it will

turbine power increment ∆PT entirely depends on the power

increment ∆Pv and the response characteristics of the turbine.

∆PT 1
GT = =
∆Pv 1 + sTT

gt is the transfer function for non-reheat steam turbine .other

turbine types have more complex transfer functions. turbine
response is slow with response time of the order of several
the generator power increment ∆PG depends entirely upon the
changes ∆PD in the load pd being fed from the generator.

∆PG = ∆PD
R ∆f

∆ PG = ∆ PD
- -
∆Pg ∆ Pv ∆PT
∆Pref + ∑ GH GT ∑
+ ∆PT − ∆PG

governor turbine generator


fig. 2.2 open loop turbine speed governor loop

static performance of speed governor :

referring to fig.2.2 , the control loop is open.we can obtain some

interesting information about the static performance of the speed

s → 0, GH (0) = GT (0) = 1

∆PT (0) = ∆Pref (0) − ∆f (0)

case a:

the generator is synchronised to a national network of very large

size , so its frequency will essentially be independent of any
changes in the power output of the individual generator.

since ,
∆f = 0 , ∆PT (0) = ∆Pref (0)

for a generator operated at constant speed , we have direct

proportionality between the turbine power and power setting , in
the steady state.

case b:

now consider the network to be finite. that is, its frequency is

variable. we keep the speed changes setting constant.

that is,

∆Pref = 0


∆PT (0) = − ∆f (0)

for a constant setting of the speed changer , the static increase in

turbine power output is directly proportional to the static frequency

case c:

in the more general case, changes may occur in both the reference
setting and frequency in which case a more general relationship
fig.2.3 shows a static plot of % rated f against % rated pt . the slope
of the lines correspond to r= 0.04 pu.

% rated


104 rated freq at 100% output

102 rated freq at 50%


0 50 100
% rated output

fig.2.3 static speed- power response of speed governor

closing of the alfc loop:

we seek to obtain a mathematical link between ∆PT and ∆f .

certain assumptions are made about the lumped area behaviour. (1)
the system is originally running in its normal state with complete
power balance , that is,

PG0 = PD0 + losses

the frequency is at normal value f . all rotating equipment
represents a total kinetic energy of

Wk ,in = W K0 ,in MW − sec

(2) by connecting additional load objects to the system, the load

∆PG demand increases by ∆PD . the generator immediately

increases its output ∆PG to match the new load., i.e, ∆PG = ∆PD .

(3) there will now be a power imbalance in the area that equals
(∆PT − ∆PD ) MW . the change in speed or frequency will be
assumed uniform throughout the area.

 f 
WK ,in = WK0 ,in  0  MW
f 

(4) the old area load has a frequency dependency that we can lump
into one area parameter d as

D= MW / hz

area power balance requires that the increase in turbine power

equals the sum of the old and new load changes plus the rate of
change of ke.

∆pT = ∆PD + Wk ,in + D∆f

f = f 0 + ∆f ,

2  2
0   f 0 + ∆f    
 = Wk ,in 1 + 2∆f +  ∆f   ≅ Wk0,in 1 + 2∆f

Wk ,in = Wk ,in  
 f
0 
 f 0  f 0   
 f0 

 

2WK0 ,in d
∆PT − ∆PD = 0
(∆f ) + D∆f MW
f dt

by dividing the above equation by the generator rating pr and by

introducing the pu inertia constant

WK0 ,in
H= MW − sec/ MW (or ) sec

2H d
∆PT − ∆PD = (∆f ) + D∆f pu MW
f 0 dt
∆P' s are now measured in pu (base pr) and d in pu mw/hz. h
parameter is independent of system size.typical h values lie in the
range 2-8 sec.

taking laplace transforms of the equation above the previous one,

∆PT ( s) − ∆PD ( s) = 0
s∆f ( s) + D∆f ( s)

∆f ( s) = G p ( s)[ ∆PT ( s) − ∆PD ( s )]

Kp 2H 1
G p (s) = ; Tp = sec; Kp =
1 + sT p f 0D D

fig. 2.4 shows the alfc closed loop.

∆ PD (s)
- -
∆ Pg ∆ Pv
+ ∑ ∆ PT ∑
s ∆ Pref + ∆ f (s)



fig. 2.4 alfc closed loop

control area: most power systems normally control their generators

in unison. the individual control loops have the same regulation
parameters . if also, the individual generator turbines tend to have
the same response characteristics, then it is possible to let the
control loop represent the whole system which is referred to as a
control area.

problem: determine the primary alfc loop parameters for a control

area having the following data: rated capacity= pr = 2000 mw,
normal operating load= pd0=1000mw. inertia constant
h= 5 s; regulation r= 2.4 hz/pu mw (all area generators). we shall
assume that the load frequency dependency is linear meaning that
the old load would increase , say, 1 % for 1 % frequency increase.


∂PD0 10
D= = = 16.67 MW / hz
∂f 0.6

in pu of area capacity,

D= = 8.33 x10 −3 pu MW / hz

2H 2 x5
Tp = 0
= −3
= 20 s
f D 60 x8.33 x10

Kp = = 120 Hz / pu MW

static response of primary alfc loop

one of the basic objectives of the loop is to maintain constant

frequency in spite of changing loads.

 1  
∆f =  ∆Pref − ∆f G H GT − ∆PD G P
 R  
(∆Pref = 0)
for a constant reference input ,

− GP
∆f ( s) = ∆PD ( s)
1 +  G P G H GT

for a step load change of constant magnitude ∆PD = M

∆PD ( s ) =
using final value theorem , we obtain the static frequency drop

lim −Kp −M
∆f ss = ( s∆f ( s) ) = = hz
s→0 Kp 1
1+ D+

β is defined as area frequency response characteristic (afrc)

β = D+
∆f = hz
ss β

problem : find the static frequency drop for the 2000 mw system
of the previous example following a 1% load increase, that is,
∆PD = M = 20MW = 0.01 pu .

solution: given
D = 8.33 x10 −3 puMW / hz

R = 2.4hz / pu MW

1 1
β = D+ = 8.33 x10 −3 + = 0.425 puMW / hz
R 2.4

− M − 0.01
∆f 0 = = = −0.0235 hz
β 0.425

or 0.04 % of normal frequency based on a pu value of 60 hz..

problem : what would the frequency drop in the previous example

have been if the speed-governor were nonexistent or open?

solution: opening the loop means , setting



β = D = 8.33 x10 −3

− 0.01
∆f ss = = −1.2 Hz

or 2% of normal value.

dynamic response of alfc loop

the static response of the alfc loop yielded important information

about frequency accuracy. the dynamic response of the loop will
inform about the tracking ability and stability of the loop. dynamic
response for a step load is obtained by taking inverse transform of
∆f (s). g g and g contain at least one time constant each , the
h, t p
denominator will be of 3rd order.

we can simplify the analysis by assuming that action of speed

governor and the turbine generator are instantaneous compared
with the rest of the power system. so, we approximate th =tt=0. so,

−Kp  
 
1 + sT p M MRK p 1 1 
∆f ( s ) ≅ =−  −
1 Kp s R+ Kp s R+Kp 
1+ s+ 
R 1 + sT p  RT p 

substituting the values from the previous problem,

1 1 
∆f ( s) ≅ −0.0235 − 
 s s + 2.55 

inverting the transforms,

∆f (t ) ≅ −0.0235 (1 − e −2.55t ) hz

the plot of ∆f (t ) appears in fig. 2.5.

∆ f (t ) TH , TT neglected
0.01 ∆ f ss =0.0235 hz


TH = 0.3 s; TT= 80ms

fig. 2.5 response of ∆f (t )

observations: (1) the overall closed loop system time constant

equals only 1/ 2.55= 0.393 sec which is considerable reduction
from the value of tp=20 sec. the speed up is the result of the
feedback arrangement of the speed governor. (2) system can be
made faster by reduction of r , by increasing the static loop gain.
also, the static frequency error reduces by the reduction of r. (3) the
turbine transient response is not purely governed by a single
exponential function but there is a large transient frequency dip. (4)
the speed governor gives a reasonable performance with a static
frequency drop of only 2.4 hz between zero and full load and a
settling time of the order of 3 sec.

physical interpretation of results: suppose there is an increase in

load by 20 mw. immediately the additional load demand is
obtained from stored k.e. the speed drops because of the decrease
in k.e. the governor action takes place and steam valve opens to
produce increased power the speed is dropping, the old
load decreases at a rate of d= 1000/60 = 16.67 mw/hz. the released
power from the old load means less power needs to be generated.
so, this can be considered as direct contribution to the new load
demand. in short, the demand increase of 20 mw is made up by 3
components:(1) 'borrowed' ke from the rotating system machines
(2) increased generation (3) 'released' old custom load. eventually,
the speed will level off at a new constant value. the ke will be
constant. the new 20mw load increase will be contributed by the
last two components only. the static speed drop being 0.0235 hz,
we can compute these contributions.(1) the regulation is 4 % or
2.4hz/pu mw. increase in generation after the new steady state is
reached = 0.0235/2.4=0.0098 pu mw= 0.0098x2000=19.6 mw. (2)
since the old load decreases at the rate of 16.67 mw/hz , the speed
drop of 0.0235 hz will release 0.0235x16.67=0.4 mw. so, these 2
components add up to 20 mw.

the secondary alfc loop

to achieve much better frequency constancy, we must manipulate

the speed changer in accordance with some suitable control

suggested control system specification: (1) the control loop must

be characterised by a sufficient degree of stability. (2) following a
step load change, the frequency error should return to zero. this is
referred to as isochronous control. the magnitude of the transient
frequency deviation should be minimized. (3) the integral of the
frequency error should be minimized (4) the individual generators
in the control area should divide the total load for optimum

comments on the above specification: (1) stability is always a

problem in closed-loop control. the tighter the error specifications,
the greater the risk that the proposed loop will turn unstable. (2)
isochronous control guarantees that the static frequency error
following a step load change will vanish. but there will be a
transient frequency error. the time error of synchronous clocks is
proportional to the integral of the frequency error.

1 t
∆t = ∫ ∆fdt
f ss 0

the first three specifications are taken care of by a control action

with a response time of the order of a few seconds or half a minute.
when these control requirements are met , one attends to the fourth
economic requirement. this is usually done by a slower economic
dispatch control scheme having response time of the order of a
minute or longer.

integral control

we let the speed changer be commanded by a signal obtained by

first amplifying and then integrating the frequency error , i.e.,

∆Pref = − K I ∫ ∆fdt

unit of ki is pu mw/hz. the signal fed to the integrator is referred to

as area control error (ace) as

ace= ∆f

the integrator output and thus speed changer position attains a

constant value only when the frequency error has been reduced to
zero. ki controls the speed of response of the integral action

analysis of loop response : suppose there is a step load change in

∆PD . that is,

∆PD ( s ) =

assume that the turbine dynamics and speed changer dynamics are
instantaneous. putting

∆Pref ( s) = − ∆f ( s)
from fig. 2.4, we can get,

Kp M
∆f ( s) = −
Tp  Kp 
1 + 
 R  K I K p
s +s  +
Tp Tp

the denominator of the above equation constitutes the characteristic

equation for the closed loop of fig. 2.4. this can be put as

2 2
 K   Kp 
 1+ p  K K  1 + 
Charc . Eq. =  s + R  + I p − R 
 2T p  Tp  2T p 
   
   

 K 
KI K p 1 + p 
> R 
Tp  2T p 
 
 

then the characteristic. eq. is of the form ( s + α ) + ω where α , ω

2 2

are both real. this corresponds to complex conjugate roots of the

characteristic equation in the left half of the complex plane
resulting in two time responses of the form:

e −αt cos ωt , e −αt sin ωt.

the system response will be oscillatory in this case as shown in fig.

if however, we use subcritical gain setting as when

K I < K I ,crit


1  Kp 
K I ,crit = 1 + 
4T p K p  R 
 

then the roots of the characteristic . eq. correspond to real roots in

the left half of the complex plane, resulting in time responses

e − β1t , e − β 2t .

with the overall response overdamped as shown in fig. 2.6. in both

cases, ∆f (t ) approaches zero in the steady state.
f (hz)
complex roots

0 t sec

real roots (subcritical gain setting)

- 0.01

- 0.02
no integral control

increasing K I

fig.2.6 output frequency response with integral control for step


general comments : if we use subcritical gain settings, we obtain

sluggish non-oscillatory response of the control loop. this means
that the time integral of the frequency deviation is relatively large.
in practice, this setting is more often used as the generator need not
respond to rapid load fluctuations and hence less equipment wear.
when a sudden load increase sets in , the frequency starts falling
off at an exponential rate. during these time intervals, integral
controller has not yet been activated. after a certain time, integral
controller comes into action and lifts the frequency back to its
original value.

economic dispatch control

the integral controller meets the first three of the specified control
requirements. the fourth requirement can be met only by the
application of the optimal dispatch equation involving ordinary
differential equations(odes). the primary alfc loop makes the initial
coarse readjustment of frequency. by its actions, the various
generators in the control area track the shifting load and share it in
proportion to their size. the primary loop responds in about 2 to 20
sec depending upon the turbine type and size. the secondary alfc
loop takes over the fine adjustment of the frequency by resetting ,
through the integral action, the frequency error to zero.this loop is
slower and goes into action only when the primary loop has done
its job. response time may be of the order of one minute. economic
dispatch control can be viewed as an additional tertiary control
loop. as the control decisions in this loop are based upon the
solution of odes, a central digital computer is placed at the energy
control centre which is linked to various power plants via
communication channels. every 5 min, the central computer is
provided with the mw settings in the power plants. these settings
are compared with the optimal settings derived from a run of the
type of optimal dispatch program. if there is any deviation from the
optimal values, instructions to the plants are sent to readjust the
mw outputs via the speed changer.

alfc of multi control area systems (pool operation)

practically, the problems of frequency control of interconnected

areas or power pools are more important than those of isolated
areas as all power systems are tied together with neighbouring
areas. main advantage of pool operations is mutual assistance. the
basic operating principles followed are: (1) under normal
operating conditions each pool member or control area should
strive to carry its own loads except such scheduled portions of
other member's loads as have been mutually agreed upon. (2) each
control area must agree upon adopting regulating and control
strategies and equipment that are mutually beneficial under both
normal and abnormal situations. the advantages of belonging to a
pool are evident under emergency conditions.

advantages of pool operation : (1) when there is a sag in

frequency due to sudden load change, the needed energy is being
borrowed from the ke of the system. so, larger the system, the more
ke it possesses, and therefore the more energy can be temporarily
borrowed for a given speed drop. (2) system size also reduces the
need for reserve power among the pool members.a system that
operates alone as a single area must provide power to handle not
only the anticipated peaks, but also the sudden requirements due
to equipment failures. (3) the peak demand occurs at various hours
of the day in various areas , so the pool members can benefit from
a reduced need of reserve capacity by a scheduled arrangement of
energy interchange.

the two area system

let us consider a system of 2 control areas, of the type modelled

earlier, interconnected via a relatively weak tie-line.the areas are
generally of different size and characteristics. assuming that the
interconnection is a weak tie line , we represent the frequency
deviation in the two areas as ∆f1 and ∆f 2 .

modelling the tie-line:

in normal operation the power on the tie line is

V10 V20
P120 =
Sin δ 10 − δ 20 )
0 0
where δ 1 and δ 2 are the angles of end voltages v1 and v2
respectively. for small deviations in the angles δ1 and δ 2 , the tie
line power changes with the amount

V10 V20
∆P12 ≅
( )
cos δ 10 − δ 20 ( ∆δ 1 − ∆δ 2 ) MW

we define the synchronising coefficient of a line as

V10 V20
T0 =
cos δ 10 − δ 20 ) MW / rad

the tie line power deviation is

∆P12 = T 0 (δ 1 − δ 2 ) MW

the frequency deviation ∆f is related to the reference angle ∆δ by

the formula

1 d 0 1 d
∆f = (δ + ∆δ ) = ( ∆δ ) hz
2π dt 2π dt

∆δ = 2π ∫ ∆fdt rad

∆P12 = 2πT 0 ( ∫ ∆f1dt − ∫ ∆f 2 dt ) MW

2πT 0
∆P12 ( s) = { ∆f1 ( s) − ∆f 2 ( s)}

a block diagram representation of the tie line is shown in fig. 2.7.

∆f 1

1 ∆P12
∑ 2πT 0 s
∆f 2

fig. 2.7 representation of tie line

if losses are neglected,

∆P12 = − ∆P21 MW

we consider the tie line power positive in the direction out from the
area in question. when we work with multi-area systems, it is
always convenient to consider the tie line power positive in the
direction out from the area in question.

fig. 2.8 shows a block diagram representation of two area system.

∆ PD1
R1 ∆ PT 1
1 -
+ - ∆ f1
∑ GI 1 +
∑ GH1 GT1 + ∑ G P1
+ ∆ Pref ,1 -
∆ P12 ∆ P12
∆ P12 1
2π T 0 ∑
∆ P12 -

-1 -1
∆ P21 + ∆ Pref , 2 ∆ P21 -
+ +
∑ GI 2 ∑ GH 2 GT2 ∑ GP 2 ∆f2
+ - ∆ PT 2 -
B2 1
R2 ∆f2 ∆ PD 2

fig. 2.8 block diagram representation of two area system

the powers in the single area diagram were expressed in pu of area

rating. the parameters r,d and h were based on the same base
power. when 2 or several areas, generally of different ratings are
involved we must refer all powers and parameters to the one
chosen base power.
mechanical analog of 2-area system

Relatively weak spring(analog of weak tie line)

Engine 1 Engine 2 load 2

load 1

v 0 + ∆v1 v 0 + ∆v 2

fig. 2.9 mechanical analog of 2-area system

in the mechanical analog of fig. 2,.9 of the 2 area system we have

the following analogies:

∆v1 ↔ ∆f1

∆v 2 ↔ ∆f 2

tie spring power ↔ tie line power

static response of 2-area system

we shall investigate the response of the 2-area system with fixed

speed changer positions.

∆Pref ,1 = ∆Pref , 2 = 0
we assume that the loads in each area are suddenly increased by
constant incremental steps.

∆PD1 = M 1 ; ∆PD 2 = M 2

we shall analyse the static changes that result in frequency and tie
line power. let us call these changes ∆f 0 and ∆P12

∆PT 1,0 = − ∆f 0

∆PT 2,0 = − ∆f 0

− ∆f 0 − M 1 = D1∆f 0 + ∆P12,0

we obtain from the above

β1 M 2 − β 2 M 1
∆P12,0 = −∆P21,0 = puMW
β1 + β 2
afrc of each are
β1 = D1 +

β 2 = D2 +

if we assume identical area parameters



β1 = β 2 = β

we get

M1 + M 2
∆f 0 = −

M 2 − M1
∆P12,0 = −∆P21,0 = puMW

if a step load change occurs only in area 2, we get

∆f 0 = − hz

∆P12,0 = puMW

the last two equations depict the advantages of pool operation:

(1) 50% of the added load in area 2 will be supplied by area 1 via
the tie line.
(2) the frequency drop will be only half that which would be
experienced if the areas were operating alone.

problem :

a 2 gw control area (1) is interconnected with a 10gw area (2). the

2 gw area has the system parameters

r= 2.4 hz/ pu mw ; d= =8.33 x 10-3pumw/hz

area 2 has the same parameters but in terms of the 10gw base. for
a 20 mw load increase that takes place in area 1 , find the static
frequency drop and tie- line power change.

choose 2000 mw as our power base.
β1 = 8.33 x10 − 3 + = 0.425 puMW / hz
β 2 has the same numerical value based on 10 gw. based on 2 gw,

β 2 = 5ββ 1 = 2.125 puMW / hz

also, m1= 20/1000=0.01 pu mw

M + M2
∆f 0 = − 1 = 0.00392 Hz
β1 + β 2

β1 M 2 − β 2 M 1
∆P12,0 = = −0.00833 puMW
β1 + β 2

comparing with one area case, this drop in frequency is 1/6 of that
in single area case (see previous problem).there is an added
delivery of 16.7 mw from the larger area.this is how frequency
support is accomplished.
dynamic response of 2 area system

even with the very simple turbine model that we have used, the
two area system is of 7th order. we perform an approximate
analysis based upon the following assumptions.

(1) consider the case of two equal areas. (2) consider the turbine
controller to be fast relative to the inertia part of the system, ie., we
set gh=gt=1
(3) neglect system damping ,i.e, we assume the load not to vary
with frequency ,i.e., we set d1=d2=0. since

Kp 1
G p (s) = =
1 + sT p 2H

putting d=0 as above, we have

G p1 = G p 2 =
s(2 H )

using the above, the tie line power can be derived as

πf 0T 0 { ∆PD 2 ( s) − ∆PD1 ( s)}

∆P12 ( s) =
H 2 f0 2πf 0T 0
s + s+
2 RH H

(1) the denominator is of the form

s 2 + 2αs + ω 2 = ( s + α ) 2 + ω 2 − α 2

where α > 0. the system is stable and damped.

(2) following a disturbance , the system will oscillate at the

damped angular frequency

 0 2
(ω 2 − α 2 )  2πf T   f  
0 0
ω0 = =   −  4 RH  
 H    

(3) the system damping is strongly dependent upon the α

parameter. since f and h are constants , the damping will be a
function of the r parameters. low r values will give strong damping
;high r values result in weak damping. the system will perform
undamped oscillations of frequency ω 0 = ω , R → ∞ . that is, if
the speed governor is nonexistent.

problem : consider 2 equal areas each having the parameter r= 3

hz/pu mw, h=5 sec, f0=60 hz.

ω0 = (75.3T 0 − 1.0) rad / sec

assume that the tie line has a capacity of 0.1 pu (10% of area

capacity) and is operating at a power angle of 45 .

V1 V2
T0 = cos( δ 1 − δ 2 )
that is,
T 0 = 0.1 cos 45  = 0.0707

the oscillating frequency is thus

ω0 = ( 75.3x0.0707 − 1.0) = 2.1 rad . / sec or 0.33Hz

the dynamic response of a two-area system subject to a step-load

increase in area 2 is given in fig. 2.10. the data are as follows:
th1=th2=0; r1= r2= 2.4 hz/pu mw; tt1=tt2=0;
d1=d2=8.33 x10-3 pumw/hz.

∆f (t )


∆f 1 (t )
with integral control
∆f 2 (t )

0 sec
P21 (t ) ∆P21, 0

with integral control

fig.2.10 dynamic response of two area system to step load in

area 2
tie line bias control

it is evident from dynamic response of fig. 2.10, that some form of

reset (integral ) action must be added to the two area system. the
persistent static frequency error is intolerable for the same reason
as single area case. also, a persistent static error in tie line power
flow is "coadvertent exchange" which means that one area would
have to support the other on a steady state. various methods of
reset action have been tried out., e.g., in two area system , we
could have the arrangement that area 1 be responsible for
frequency reset and area 2 takes care of tie line power.

thus aces are ACE1 = ∆f1 ; ACE 2 = ∆P21 . these ace's would
be fed via slow integrators on to the respective speed changers. in
early days , one area was designated to reset the system frequency
and the others would be responsible for their own 'net
interchanges'. this arrangement resulted in wild swing between
generating limits.

tie line bias control is based upon the principle that all operating
members must contribute their share to frequency control in
addition to taking care of their own net interchange.

tie line bias control of 2-area system

we would add the additional outer loops in fig. 2.8 when we add
the rest control to two area system.

ACE1 = ∆P12 + B1∆f1

ACE 2 = ∆P12 + B2 ∆f 2

the speed changer commands will be of the form

∆Pref ,1 = − K I 1 ∫ ( ∆P12 + B1∆f1 )dt

∆Pref , 2 = − K I 2 ∫ ( ∆P21 + B2 ∆f 2 )dt

ki1, ki2 are integrator gains . b1 & b2 are frequency bias parameters.
the minus sign indicates that there is an increase in generation if
either its frequency error or its tie line power increment is negative.

static system response

the chosen strategy will eliminate the steady state frequency and tie
line deviations. following a step load change in either area , a new
static equilibrium can be achieved only after the speed changer
commands have reached constant values. but for this, it requires
that both integrands be zero ,i.e.,

∆P12,0 + B1∆f 0 = 0

∆P21,0 + B2 ∆f 0 = 0

these conditions can be met only if

∆f 0 = ∆P12,0 = ∆P21,0 = 0

by choosing B = β (i.e.afrc) , satisfactory overall performance of

the interconnected system can be produced. the integrator gain
constant must be chosen small enough not to stimulate the area
generators to chase load offsets of short duration. following the
immediate excursions which are determined by the primary speed
governor loops of each area, the secondary integrator loops of each
area go into action and reset both the frequency and tie line power
back to original values.
tie line bias control of multi- area systems

in reality, a control area is interconnected with several tie lines to

neighbouring control areas, all part of the overall power pool.
consider i-th control area. its net interchange equals the sum of the
megawatts on all ‘n’ outgoing tie lines. as the area control error
acei ought to be reflective of the total exchange of power , it should
thus be chosen of the form
ACEi = ∑ ∆Pij + Bi ∆f i
j =1

the reset control is implemented by sampled data techniques. at

sampling intervals of , say, one second, all tie line power data are
fed into the central energy control centre where they are added and
compared with predetermined contracted interchange megawatts.
in this way, the sum error of the above equation is obtained. this
error is added to the biased frequency error and the ace is
obtained.the ace is communicated with all area generators that
are participating in the secondary alfc. if optimum dispatch is
employed, a tertiary slower outer loop is added as discussed.