THE

MARIA REGINA

SERIES-—NO. 3.

The Mystical Body of Christ
AND

The Reorganization of Society

by REV. DENIS FAHEY, C.S.Sp., D.D., D.Ph.,
B.A. (Civil and Constitutional History, Political Economy and General Jurisprudence), Professor of Philosophy and Church History, Holy Ghost Missionary College, Kimmayc, Dublin.

"About the ' r i g h t s of man,' as they are called, the people have heard enough: it is time they should hear of the Rights of God."
(Encyclical Letter, Tanictsi, On Christ Our Redeemer, Pope I^o X I I I , Nov. 1st, 1900).

1945 THE FORUM PRESS, CORK

Biblio!èque Saint Libère
http://www.liberius.net © Bibliothèque Saint Libère 2008. Free to reproduce for any non-profit purpose.

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST and THE REORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY

Imprimi potest: D. MURPHY, C.S.Sp. Praep. Prov. Hib.
?

Nihil obslat: PATRICIUS SJ3XT0N, D.D., V.G., Censor Deputatus. Imprimatur: * DANIEL, Episcopus Corcagiensis. Corcagiae, Jan. 26, 1943.

Printed

in

Ireland.

Dedication
To t h e I m m a c u l a t e H e a r t of t h e V i r g i n M a r y , M o t h e r of G o d ; t o S t . J o s e p h , P r o t e c t o r of t h e U n i v e r s a l C h u r c h ; t o S t . T h o m a s A q u i n a s , t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ' s C h o s e n T e a c h e r of O r d e r ; to S t . T e r e s a of t h e Child J e s u s , t h e H e r a l d of t h e l o v i n g F a t h e r h o o d of G o d t o a n u n g r a t e f u l w o r l d , t h i s b o o k is h u m b l y a n d l o v i n g l y d e d i c a t e d b y t h e a u t h o r .

" Q u e e n of t h e M o s t H o l y R o s a r y , H e l p of C h r i s t i a n s , R e f u g e of t h e H u m a n R a c e , W e h u m b l y p r o s t r a t e O u r s e l v e s b e f o r e t h e e , c o n f i d e n t of o b t a i n i n g m e r c y a n d of r e c e i v i n g g r a c e a n d b o u n t i ­ ful a s s i s t a n c e in t h e p r e s e n t c a l a m i t y , n o t b e c a u s e of O u r o w n m e r i t s b u t s o l e l y t h r o u g h t h e g r e a t g o o d n e s s of i h y M a t e r n a l Heart. " W e , a s c o m m o n F a t h e r of t h e C h r i s t i a n f a m i l y , a s V i c a r of H i m t o w h o m w a s g i v e n all p o w e r in h e a v e n a n d o n e a r t h a n d f r o m w h o m W e h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e c a r e of all t h e s o u l s , r e d e e m e d b y H i s P r e c i o u s Blood, t h a t people the entire world, to thy I m ­ m a c u l a t e H e a r t , in t h i s t r a g i c h o u r of h u m a n h i s t o r y , W e confide Ourselves and consecrate not only Holy Church, the Mystical B o d y of t h y S o n , w h i c h suffers a n d b l e e d s in s o m a n y p l a c e s , a n d is s o r e l y t r i e d i n s o m a n y w a y s , b u t a l s o t h e e n t i r e w o r l d , t o r n b y fierce s t r i f e a n d c o n s u m e d vyith a fire of h a t e , v i c t i m of its o w n w i c k e d n e s s " ( E x t r a c t from P o p e Pius X I P s Broadcast to P o r t u g a l , 31st O c t o b e r , 1942).
1

Preface
T H E AIM OF THIS BOOK.
T

I n m y b o o k , The Mystical Body of Christ in the Modern World a f t e r h a v i n g t r e a t e d s u c c i n c t l y of t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r , I s t r e s s e d especially the opposition to t h a t Divine P l a n o w i n g to t h e e x i s t e n c e in t h e w o r l d of f o r c e s o r g a n i z e d for t h e diffusion of Naturalism or Anti-Supernaturalisni. N a t u r a l i s m is in p r a c t i c e t h e s a m e t h i n g a s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , t h e Catholic C h u r c h , i n s t i t u t e d by O u r Divine L o r d J e s u s Christ as t h e visible e x p r e s s i o n as well as the divinely-accredited e x p o n e n t of t h e D i v i n e P l a n f o r o r d e r in t h e w o r l d . T o t h a t D i v i n e P l a n f o r o r d e r t h e r e n e i t h e r is n o r c a n be a n y m a n - m a d e a l t e r n a t i v e . M a n has n o t even g o t the r i g h t to p r o p o s e an a l t e r n a t i v e . His d u t y is s i m p l y t o t r y t o g r a s p w h a t G o d h a s i n s t i t u t e d a n d t o b o w d o w n h i s h e a d in h u m b l e a c c e p t a n c e . T h u s a l o n e c a n h e fully a c k n o w l e d g e G o d ' s R i g h t s , l i e m a y d e b a t e o n h o w b e s t t o a r r a n g e t h e s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h G o d ' s P l a n , i n t h e v a r y i n g c o n c r e t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of d i f f e r e n t e p o c h s , b u t n o t a b o u t w h e t h e r h e o u g h t t o a c c e p t G o d ' s P l a n o r d r a w u p his o w n s c h e m e . T h e w o r l d m u s t c o n f o r m to O u r L o r d , n o t H e t o it. In this book I have m o r e especially stressed Christ's p r o g r a m m e f o r o r d e r i n t h e w o r l d a s e l a b o r a t e d b y t h e C h u r c h . I t is t h e d u t y of t h o s e w h o b e l i e v e in a n d l o v e O u r L o r d n o t t o w h i t t l e d o w n His p r o g r a m m e but to preach the integral truth and to urge the world to the one course befitting creatures—humble submission t o o r d e r . " T h e g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g a n d t h e s e c u r i t y of S t a t e s / ' w r i t e s P o p e L e o X I I I in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Tametsi, " demand t h a t m e n s h o u l d be b r o u g h t b a c k t o H i m f r o m w h o m t h e y o u g h t n e v e r t o h a v e d e p a r t e d , t o H i m w h o is t h e w a y , t h e t r u t h a n d t h e life, a n d n o t o n l y isolated individuals b u t h u m a n society as a whole. C h r i s t O u r L o r d m u s t b e r e i n s t a t e d as t h e R u l e r of h u m a n s o c i e t y . I t b e l o n g s t o H i m a s d o all its m e m b e r s . All t h e e l e m e n t s of t h e c o m m o n w e a l t h — l e g a l c o m m a n d s and prohibitions, p o p u l a r insti­ tutions, schools, m a r r i a g e , home-life, the w o r k s h o p and the man­ s i o n , all m u s t b e g o t t o c o m e t o t h a t f o u n t a i n a n d i m b i b e t h e life t h a t comes from H i m . . . . T h o s e w h o s e minds refuse to ack­ n o w l e d g e Christ, a r e o b s t i n a t e l y s t r i v i n g against God T h e l a w of C h r i s t o u g h t t o h o l d s w a y in h u m a n s o c i e t y a n d in c o m m u n i t i e s , s o a s t o be t h e t e a c h e r a n d g u i d e of p u b l i c n o less

II

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

t h a n p r i v a t e life. T h i s b e i n g d i v i n e l y a p p o i n t e d a n d p r o v i d e d , n o one m a y resist with impunity. • . . " B y t h e l a w of C h r i s t w e m e a n n o t m e r e l y t h e p r e c e p t s of n a t u r a l morality, or those t h a t the ancients received by revelation, all of w h i c h J e s u s C h r i s t p e r f e c t e d a n d r a i s e d t o t h e h i g h e s t p l a n e , by His explanations, His interpretations and His sanctions. We m e a n , b e s i d e s , all t h e r e s t of H i s d o c t r i n e a n d in p a r t i c u l a r all H i s i n s t i t u t i o n s . Of t h e s e t h e C h u r c h is t h e chief. I n d e e d , w h a t i n s t i ­ t u t i o n of C h r i s t is t h e r e t h a t * h e d o e s n o t fully e m b r a c e a n d i n ­ clude? B y t h e m i n i s t r y of t h e C h u r c h , s o g l o r i o u s l y f o u n d e d b y H i m , H e w i l l e d to p e r p e t u a t e t h e office a s s i g n e d t o H i m b y H i s F a t h e r , a n d h a v i n g , o n t h e o n e h a n d , c o n f e r r e d u p o n h e r all effect­ ual aids for h u m a n salvation, on t h e other, H e o r d a i n e d w i t h the u t m o s t e m p h a s i s t h a t all m e n s h o u l d b e s u b j e c t to h e r as t o H i m ­ self, a n d z e a l o u s l y follow h e r g u i d a n c e in e v e r y d e p a r t m e n t of life. ' H e that h c a r c t h you, h e a r c t h m e ; and he t h a t despiseth y o u , d e p i s e t h m e ' ( S t . L u k e , x , 1 6 ) . S o t h e l a w of C h r i s t is a l w a y s t o b e s o u g h t f r o m t h e C h u r c h , a n d t h e r e f o r e a s C h r i s t is f o r m e n t h e W a y , s o l i k e w i s e t h e C h u r c h is t h e w a y . H e is so in H i m s e l f a n d b y H i s o w n n a t u r e , s h e b y H i s c o m m i s s i o n a n d b y a s h a r e in H i s p o w e r . O n this a c c o u n t t h o s e w h o w o u l d s t r i v e for s a l v a t i o n apart from the Church, wander from the way and are struggling i n v a i n . G o v e r n m e n t s a r e in m u c h t h e s a m e c a s e a s i n d i v i d u a l s : t h e y a l s o w i l l i n e v i t a b l y r u n t o t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n if t h e y d e p a r t from the W a y . "
7

N o w t h i s o n e n e s s of t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r s e t f o r t h b y t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a n d t h e p a r a m o u n t n a t u r e of G o d ' s R i g h t s a r e difficult i d e a s for t h e m o d e r n m i n d t o g r a s p , b e c a u s e of t h e r a v a g e s of r e l i g i o u s i n d i ( T e r e n c e a n d t h e diffusion of F r e n c h r e v o ­ l u t i o n a r y i d e a s . T h e n a t u r a l i s t i c D e c l a r a t i o n of i h c r i g h t s of m a n h a s o b s c u r e d in m a n y m i n d s t h e g r e a t i r u t h s t h a t m a n ' s t r u e r i g h t s a r e b a s e d o n his d u t i e s t o G o d a n d t h a t his d u t i e s t o G o d c a n o n l y b e fulfilled t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t . A g a i n , m a n y a r e n o t a s f a m i l i a r a s t h e y o u g h t t o be w i t h t h e o u t l i n e s of t h e D i v i n e P l a n s e t f o r t h in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r s of t h e l a s t f o u r P o p e s . A f t e r P o p e P i u s I X h a d c a t a l o g u e d t h e chief e r r o r s of m o d e r n t i m e s a g a i n s t G o d ' s R i g h t s a n d t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t , P o p e s Leo X I I I , Pius X, Benedict X V and Pius XI set o u t the p o s i t i v e p r o g r a m m e b y w h i c h G o d ' s R i g h t s a n d t h e r u l e of C h r i s t t h e K i n g in i t s i n t e g r i t y a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d . MAN'S RESPONSE THE T O GOD'S LOVING or THEOLOGY OF CONDESCENSION

HISTORY.

T o r e m e d y the d i s o r d e r i n t r o d u c e d into the w o r l d by the sin of t h e first A d a m , G o d c a m e o n e a r t h in t h e P e r s o n of O u r L o r d

PREFACE

in

Jesus Christ and put before the Jewish Nation, from which He had taken His Sacred Humanity, the divine programme for the ordered organization .of the world. At the same time, He asked them to be its heralds. Our Lord's programme comprised the establishment of a supernatural, supranational kingdom to safe­ guard His teaching and diffuse the restored Supernatural Life of Grace. Into this kingdom all men of all nations were called upon to enter, while continuing to be subjects of the different natural States and nations. The Jewish nation rejected the Divine Plan for order. As a result of the growth of national self-centredness, they refused to accept that there was any life higher than their national life and they would not hear of the non-Jewish nations coming in as members of the Messianic kingdom, on the same level as themselves. In spite of their persistent opposition, how­ ever, and notwithstanding the weakness of fallen human nature, Western Europe in the 13th century had come to acknowledge God's Rights, in accordance with the Divine Plan He had Him­ self laid down, and had organized society on the basis that man's supreme dignity is his .supernatural and supranational life as a member of Christ. Since then until recently, there has been steady decay, with disastrous consequences. Ilcforc entering upon the consideration of that decay and its sad consequences and quoting what the Popes say about them. let us examine what God dedres to sec in human social organization. All men are called by God to be members of Christ in the supernatural, supranational kingdom of the Catholic Church, and all arc meant to lead ordered lives in accordance with that dignity, animating their activities with supernatural charity. Accordingly, God desires harmony and collaboration, not separation and con­ flict, between the two perfect societies, Church and State, to which men are subject. "God has divided between the ecclesiastical and the civil power the task of procuring the well-being of the human race. He has appointed the former to divine, the latter to human things. Each of them is supreme in its own sphere: each is en­ closed within perfectly defined boundaries, delimited in exact con­ formity with its nature and principle. Each is therefore circum­ scribed within a sphere in which it can act and move by its own native right. But, inasmuch as each of these two powers has authority over the same subjects, and as it might come to pass that one and the same thing—related differently, but still remain­ ing one and the same thing—might belong to the jurisdiction and determination of both, therefore God, who foresees all things, and who is the author of these two powers, has marked out the course of each in right correlation to the other. ' For the powers that are are ordained of God.'W Were this not so, deplorable coi
U> Bom.. X I I I , i.

IV

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

t e n t i o n s a n d conflicts w o u l d o f t e n a r i s e , a n d n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y m e n , l i k e t r a v e l l e r s at t h e m e e t i n g of t w o r o a d s , w o u l d h e s i t a t e in a n x i e t y a n d doubt, not k n o w i n g w h a t c o u r s e to follow. Two p o w e r s w o u l d be c o m m a n d i n g c o n t r a r y t h i n g s , a n d it w o u l d b e a d e r e l i c t i o n of d u t y t o d i s o b e y e i t h e r of t h e t w o . B u t it w o u l d b e m o s t r e p u g n a n t to h a v e s u c h a n o p i n i o n of t h e w i s d o m a n d g o o d ­ n e s s of G o d T h e r e m u s t , accordingly, exist b e t w e e n these t w o p o w e r s , a certain o r d e r l y connection, which m a y be c o m p a r e d t o t h e u n i o n of the soul a n d b o d y in m a n . T h e n a t u r e a n d s c o p e of t h a t c o n n e c t i o n c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d o n l y , a s W e h a v e laid d o w n , b y h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e n a t u r e of e a c h p o w e r , a n d b y t a k i n g a c ­ c o u n t of t h e r e l a t i v e e x c e l l e n c e a n d n o b i l i t y of t h e i r p u r p o s e . O n e o f t h e t w o h a s for p r o x i m a t e a n d chief o b j e c t t h e w e l l - b e i n g of t h i s m o r t a l l i f e ; the o t h e r t h e e v e r l a s t i n g j o y s of h e a v e n . " > S t a t e s , of c o u r s e , a s w e l l a s p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c a l l e d u p o n t o a c k n o w l e d g e the o r d e r e s t a b l i s h e d by G o d . " I t is a sin for t h e S t a t e n o t t o h a v e a c a r e f o r r e l i g i o n , a s if it w e r e b e y o n d i t s s c o p e o r of n o p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t ; o r o u t of m a n y f o r m s of r e l i g i o n t o a d o p t t h a t o n e w h i c h c h i m e s w i t h i t s f a n c y ; (or tor arc bound absolutely to )vorship God in that to aif which lie has shoum to he. His will H e n c e civil s o c i e t y , e s t a b l i s h e d for t h e c o m m o n w e l f a r e , s h o u l d n o t o n l y s a f e g u a r d t h e w e l l - b e i n g of t h e c o m ­ m u n i t y , b u t h a v e also a t h e a r t t h e i n t e r e s t s of its i n d i v i d u a l m e m ­ b e r s , in s u c h w i s e a s n o t in a n y w a y t o h i n d e r , b u t in e v e r y m a n ­ n e r t o r e n d e r a s e a s y a s p o s s i b l e , t h e p o s s e s s i o n of t h a t h i g h e s t a n d u n c h a n g e a b l e g o o d f o r w h i c h all s h o u l d s e e k . W h e r e f o r e , f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , c a r e m u s t e s p e c i a l l y be t a k e n t<> p r e s e r v e u n h a r m e d a n d u n i m p a i r e d t h e r e l i g i o n w h e r e o f t h e p r a c t i c e is t h e l i n k c o n ­ necting man with God." T h e r i g h t o r d e r of t h e w o r l d d e m a n d s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n b y S t a t e s of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a n d s u p r a n a t i o n a l C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . It is c l e a r l y a n i n s u l t t o G o d t o p u t m a n - m a d e r e l i g i o n s o n t h e s a m e l e v e l a s t h e r e l i g i o n i n s t i t u t e d by G o d . O t h e r f o r m s of d i v i n e w o r s h i p m a y b e t o l e r a t e d . " T h e C h u r c h , i n d e e d / ' w r i t e s P o p e L e o XI 1.1, " d e e m s it u n l a w f u l t o p l a c e t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s of d i v i n e w o r s h i p o n t h e s a m e f o o t i n g a s t h e t r u e r e l i g i o n , b u t docs not, o n that a c c o u n t , c o n d e m n t h o s e r u l e r s w h o , for t h e s a k e of s e c u r i n g s o m e g r e a t go'ocl o r of h i n d e r i n g s o m e g r e a t evil, p a t i e n t l y a l l o w c u s t o m o r u s a g e t o b e a k i n d of s a n c t i o n for e a c h k i n d of r e l i g i o n h a v i n g i t s p l a c e in t h e S l a t e . A n d in fact t h e C h u r c h is w o n t to t a k e e a r n e s t h e e d t h a t n o o n e s h a l l be f o r c e d to e m b r a c e the Catholic faith a g a i n s t his will."<
(2 ( 3 ) 4)

In p r o p o r t i o n as t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r l y c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e (2) Pope Leo X I I I , E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Immortal e Del, On the Constitution of States. (3) Pope Leo X I I I , E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Immortale Dei, On the tian Constitution of States. (4) Ibid. tian Chris­ Chris­

PREFACE

v

tween the two powers is realized, there flourishes that relative peace and happiness that can be ours on the way to heaven. When, on the other hand, the Divine Plan is combated and opposed, the world inevitably suffers. The Sovereign Pontiffs insist upon this. " There was once a time," writes Pope Leo XIII, " when States were governed by the principles of the Gospel teaching. Then it was that the power and divine virtue of Christian wisdom had diffused itself throughout the laws, institutions, and morals of the people, permeating all ranks and relations of civil society. Then, too, the religion instituted by Jesus Christ, established firmly in befitting dignity, flourished everywhere, by the favour of princes and the legitimate protection of magistrates: and Church and State were happily united in concord and friendly interchange of good offices. The State, constitu­ ted in this wise, bore fruits beyond all expectation, whose remembrance is still, and always will be, in renown. A similar state of things would certainly have continued had the agreement of the two powers been lasting. Even greater results might have been justly looked for, had obedience been given to the authority, teaching and counsels of the Church, and especially had this submission been marked by greater and more unswerving loyalty. For that should be regarded in the light of an ever-changeless law which Tvo of Chartres wrote to Pope Pas­ chal I I : ' When the kingdom and priesthood are at one, in complete concord, the world is well ruled, and the Church flourishes, and brings forth abundant fruit. But when they are at variance, not only smaller interests prosper not, but even things of greatest moment fall into deplorable deca} 7 Pope Pius XI proclaims the same great truth when he quotes the following passage from Pope Leo XIII: "It is generally agreed that the Founder of the Church, Our Lord Jesus Christ, wished the spiritual power to be distinct from the civil, and each to be free and unhampered in doing its own work, not forgetting, however, that it is expedient to both, and in the interest of every­ body, that there be a harmonious relationship If the civil power combines in a friendly manner with the spiritual power of the Church, it necessarily follows that both parties will greatly benefit. The dignity of the State will be enhanced, and with reli­ gion as its guide, there will be at hand a safeguard and defence which will operate to the public good of the faithful.
r t ( 5 )

<6) Encyclical Letter, Immortale Dei, On the OvrtHtiam, Constitution States. (6) Quoted by Pope Pins XI in the Encyclical, Gasti Govnubii* On Christian Marriage, from the Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII, Arcanum Divinae Sapiential, On Christian Marriage. (Cf. the passage of

from Cardinal Antoniano quoted with the highest approval by Pope Pius X I : " The more closely the temporal power of a nation allies itself

VI

THR MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

Pope Leo XI.11 outlines the disastrous consequences of the socalled Reformation and of the French Revolution. " Sad it is to call to mind," he writes, "how the harmful and lamentable rage for innovation which rose to a climax in the sixteenth century, threw first of all into confusion the Christian religion, and next, by natural consequence, invaded the precincts of philosophy, whence it spread amongst all classes of society. From this source, as from a fountain-head, burst forth all those later tenets of un­ bridled licence which, in the midst of the terrible upheaval of the last century [the 18th|, were wildly conceived and boldly pro­ claimed as the principles and foundation of that mnv jitris/rrudvnce which was not merely previously unknown, but was at variance on many points with not only the Christian, but even with the na­ tural law." J lie stigmatizes in particular the rejection by the Stale of its duty to worship God in the way He has laid down and the putting of all religions on the same level, as well as the turning against the One Infallible Teacher of morality, the Catholic Church. "The State does not consider itself bound by any duty towards God. Moreover, ii believes that it is not obliged to make public profession of any religion; or to inquire which of the very many religions is the only true one: or to prefer one religion to all the rest; or to show to any form of religion special favour; but, on the contrary, is bound to grant equal rights to every creed pro­ vided public order be not disturbed by any particular form of reli­ gious belief To exclude the Church, founded by God Himself, from the business of life, from the power of making laws, from the training of youth, from domestic society, is a grave and fatal error. A State from which religion is banished can never be well regulated; and already perhaps more than is desirable is known of the nature and tendency of the so-called riril philosophy of life and morals. The Church of Christ is the true and sole teacher of virtue and guardian of morals. She it is who preserves in their purity the principles from which duties llow." The rupture of the unity of the Divine Plan was followed by
(7 (8)

with the spiritual, and the more it fosters and promotes the latter, by so much the more it contributes to the conservation of the common­ wealth. . . . How grave therefore is the error of those who separate things so closely united, and who think that they can produce good citizens by ways and methods other than those which make for the formation of good Christiana! For h»b human prudence say what it will and reason as it pleases, it is impossible to produce true temporal peace and tranquillity by things repugnant or opposed to the peace and happiness of eternity " (Encyclical Letter, On the Christian Educa­
tion of
(7)

Youth). Dei, On the Christian Dei, On the Christian Constitution Constitution

of

Encyclical Letter, Imtnortaie States. (8) Encyclical Letter, Imtnortaie of States.

PREFACE

VII

the disastrous effects of liberalistic or independent morality, con­ demned by Leo XIII in the Encyclical just quoted and in the one on Human Liberty, in regard to economics and finance. Pope Pius XI alludes to the failure of State authorites, bereft of sure guidance in the moral sphere, to cope with these effects. " A stern insistence on the moral law, enforced with vigour by civil authority, could have dispelled or per­ haps averted these enormous evils [injustices of Limited Liability Companies. Fraudulent Speculations, etc., etc.] This, however, was too often lamentably wanting. For at the time when the new social order was beginning, the doctrines of ration­ alism had already taken firm hold of large numbers, and an econo­ mic science alien to the true moral law had soon arisen, whence it followed that free rein was given to human avarice. As a result, a much greater number than ever before, solely concerned with adding to their wealth by any means whatsoever, sought their own selfish interests above all things; they had no scruple in com­ mitting the gravest injustices against others With the leaders of business abandoning the true path it is not surprising that multitudes of workingmen, too, sank in the same morass; all the more so, because very many employers treated their work­ men as mere tools, without any concern for the welfare of their souls, indeed without the slightest thought of higher interests."* * In the place of the right order in human affairs, by which money or token wealth is subordinated to the production, distribution and exchange of material goods or real wealth, and the production of material goods is made to subserve family life and the develop­ ment of human personality, the revolt against the Divine Plan has substituted the subordination of family life and human personality to the production of material goods and the domination of pro­ duction by money. Pope Leo XI LI has spoken of the return of usury under another guise as one of the factors contributing to the quasi-enslavement of the proletariat. Those who control money have come to occupy a dominant position in States and their decisions have practically taken the place of those of the guardians of the moral law. This reversal of order with regard to economics, family life and human personality, has partly resulted from, and in part con­ tributed to, the domination of States by naturalistic anti-super­ natural forces. The so-called Reformation sectioned off the Christian life from the life of the citizen, so that political and economic organization left membership of Christ out of account, but it did not set up a supranational organization in the place of the Catholic Church. That was reserved for the French Revolu­ tion, in which was witnessed the first appearance in public of the
9

<> Encyclical Letter, Quadragesima

9

Anno,

On the Social

Order.

VIII

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

n e w ideal of a p u r e l y n a t u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y s t r i v i n g f o r t h e u n i v e r s ­ a l i t y of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . M o d e r n H i s t o r y s i n c e 1789 h a s b e e n , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e a c c o u n t of t h e d o m i n a t i o n of S t a t e a f t e r S t a t e by t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c s u p r a n a t i o n a l i s m of F r e e m a s o n r y , b e ­ h i n d w h i c h h a s b e e n s t e a d i l y l o o m i n g up t h e still m o r e s t r o n g l y o r g a n i z e d n a t u r a l i s t i c s u p r a n a t i o n a l i s m of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n . T h a t is w h y t h e p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y e p o c h h a s w i t n e s s e d , in c o u n ­ t r y a f t e r c o u n t r y , p e r s i s t e n t a t t a c k s on t h e p r o g r a m m e of C h r i s t t h e K i n g in r e g a r d t o t h e C h u r c h , ilie S l a t e , t h e F a m i l y , E d u c a t i o n , the Religious Orders, ihe Press and Private Property. Soon after e v e r y s u c c e s s f u l J u d a e o - M a s o n i c Rev<>lution, s i n c e t h e first in 1789 d o w n t o a n d i n c l u d i n g t h e S p a n i s h R e v o l u t i o n of 1931, t h e w o r l d h a s b e g u n to h e a r of t h e c o u n t r y ' s e n t e r i n g u p o n t h e p a t h of " p r o g r e s s " b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of " e n l i g h t e n e d " r e f o r m s , s u c h a s , t h e s e p a r a t i o n of C h u r c h a n d S t a t e , the l e g a l i z a t i o n of d i v o r c e , t h e s u p p r e s s i o n a n d b a n i s h m e n t <>f r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s a n d c o n g r e g a ­ t i o n s , t h e g l o r i f i c a t i o n of F r e e m a s o n r y , t h e s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of t h e s c h o o l s , t h e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of p r o p e r t y a n d t h e u n r e s t r a i n e d lic­ e n c e of t h e p r e s s . A s t h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r in t h e w o r l d a n d t h e d e n i a l of G o d ' s R i g h t s h a v e s p r e a d , r e s p e c t for m a n ' s p e r ­ sonal r i g h t s has diminished.* * T h e s e r i g h t s are b e i n g denied a n d t h e w o r l d is t h r e a t e n e d w i t h t h e r e t u r n of a s l a v e r y w o r s e t h a n t h a t of A n c i e n t R o m e , in p r o p o r t i o n a s r u l e r s of S t a t e s n o l o n g e r s e e in t h e i r s u b j e c t s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t . A s t h e social o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n of t h e w o r l d h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g l y w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e r u l e of C h r i s t t h e K i n g , h u m a n b e i n g s a r e b e i n g t r e a t e d m o r e a n d m o r e a s m e r e i n d i v i d u a l s c o m p l e t e l y s u b j e c t to t h e S t a l e , j u s t a s in t h e d a y s before Christ. P o p e E e o X I I I s h o w s h o w i n e v i i a b l e all thi> w a s . " N e v e r t o h a v e k n o w n J e s u s C h r i s t in a n y Avav," h e w r i t e s , " i s t h e g r e a t ­ e s t of m i s f o r t u n e s , b u t it i n v o l v e s n o p e r v e r s i t y ' o r i n g r a t i t u d e . B u t , a f t e r h a v i n g k n o w n H i m . to r e j e c t o r f o r g e t H i m , is s u c h a h o r r i b l e a n d m a d c r i m e a s to be s c a r c e l y c r e d i b l e . F o r H e is t h e o r i g i n a n d s o u r c e of all g o o d , a n d j u s t a s m a n k i n d c o u l d n o t b e f r e e d f r o m s l a v e r y but b y i h c s a c r i f i c e of C h r i s t , s o n e i t h e r c a n i t b e p r e s e r v e d b u t b y J lis p o w e r T h e c a s e of g o v e r n ­ m e n t s is m u c h t h e s a m e a s t h a t of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; t h e y a l s o m u s t r u n i n t o fatal i s s u e s if t h e y d e p a r t f r o m t h e W a y I^et J e s u s be e x c l u d e d , a n d h u m a n r e a s o n is left w i t h o u t i t s g r e a t e s t p r o t e c t i o n a n d i l l u m i n a t i o n ; t h e v e r y n o t i o n is e a s i l y l o s t of t h e
10

(it)) The chief of these r i g h t s will he e n u m e r a t e d in the t e x t of P o p e P i u s X I quoted in C h a p t e r F: " T h e r i g h t to life, to bodily i n t e g r i t y , to o b t a i n the necessary m e a n s of e x i s t e n c e ; the r i g h t to tend t o w a r d s h i s u l t i m a t e goal iu the p a t h m a r k e d o u t for him Ivy O w l : the r i g h t of association a n d the r i g h t to possess a n d use p r o p e r t y " ( E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Vitnni Redan pterin. On A theiatic Communism).

PREFACE

IX

end for which God created human society, namely, that by the help of their civil union the citizens should attain their natural good, but nevertheless in a way not to conflict with that highest and most perfect and enduring good which is above nature. Their minds busy with a hundred confused projects, rulers and sub­ jects alike travel a devious road, bereft, as they are, of safe guid­ ance and fixed principle."* * M. Maritain has some apposite remarks in this connection. "The terrestrial State being ordained by nature." he writes, "to the moral good of the human being, and therefore necessarily ordained in fact to eternal life as to its last end and to the good of the heavenly city, it is a metaphysical impossibility for the terres­ trial State to attain its peculiar end and true prosperity in opposi­ tion to the good of the Church. Yet it believed that it could. The history of the modern world is the history of that illusion. The results arc before our eyes."< We may look at the decay of social acknowledgment of the Kingship of Christ in Europe in another way. We have seen that Pope Leo XIII stigmatized the rejection by the Stale of the one true religion and the putting of all religions on the same level. Xow all the countries of Western Europe once worshipped the Blessed Trinity in union with Christ as Priest in Holy Mass and strove to organize iheir social life under Christ the King in accord­ ance with thai protestation of homage. Satan succeeded first in getting the countries we now call Protestant to break away from that unity and reject the Mass. Then since the French Revolution, in one Catholic country after another, Satan has succeeded in setting up a native government hostile to the Mass and to the rule of Christ the King. There are still two exceptions—Poland and Ire­ land. It is true that the Mass has been attacked in both these countries and Catholic education has been persecuted, but Satan cannot yet boast that he has got a 'ttalivr Polish or a nafiw Irish Government to insult the Mass and attack the formation of child­ ren as members of Christ. P>ut, as I point out in Chapter XV 1. those two countries, so remarkable for their traditional loyalty to God the Father and Our Lord Jesus Christ, whom He has sent, are weakening in their grasp of order. While other countries that had succumbed to the wiles of Satan and his emissaries in the past, have begun to react and arc returning to Our Lord and His Church, those two countries, in the wake of so many others in the past, have declared themselves indifferent to Him. Article 114 of the Polish Constitutional Law of March 17th, 1921, re-enacted by the Constitutional Law of April 23rd, 1935, states: " The Roman Catholic Faith, being the religion of the great
11 12)

(ID
2

Encyclical Letter, Tametsi,

d ) The Things

On Christ Our that are not Caesar's, p. 4 1 .

Redeemer.

X

TUK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

majority of the nation, occupies a leading position in the State among other religions, which, however, enjoy equal rights/' In Ireland, by Article 44 of the Constitution in operation from De­ cember 29th. 1937, "The State recognizes the special position of the Holy Catholic Apostolic and Roman Church as the guardian of the Faith professed by the great majority of the citizens " and recognizes equally the Protestant Sects and the Jewish Congre­ gations as the Churches of minorities. Thus the Polish State and the Irish State, to put the matter succinctly, declare themselves, as such, indifferent to the struggle between the True Supernatural .Messias and the Natural Messias. " Since the Catholic religion is the only true religion," writes Pope Leo XIIT, " to put the other religions on the same level with it is to treat it with the gravest injustice and offer it the worst form of insult." This phrase of Pope Leo XITT occurs in an Encyclical Letter dealing with Satan's efforts, through secret societies, to undermine the Kingship of Christ in.the world. It is the considered judgement of the great Pontiff on what has been proclaimed, in country after country, to be one of the marks of modern " progress." Pope Pius XI insists upon the same point in the Letter Qiws Priwtts (1925), On the Kinr/ship of Christ. There the Sov­ ereign Pontiff declares that the naturalistic spirit gradually came to infect society and thus "by degrees the religion of Christ was put on the same level as false religions and placed ignominiously in the same category with them." The insult to Christ the King involved in that attitude should make every Catholic resolve to undo it. That it does not is proof of how low we have fallen and of how sadly we have been influenced by our environment. We shall have a clearer understanding of these things at the "last judgement when Christ, who has been cast out of public life, neglected and ignored, will severely avenge such insults."< >
(1:J) 14

ORGANIZED OPPOSITION TO OUR SUPER­ NATURAL LIFE. In this book, as in The Mystical Body of Christ in the .Modern World, 1 have treated at some length of the organized opposition to Our Lord Jesus Christ and to His work of permeating the world with the influence of the Supernatural Life of the Blessed Trinity. The steady decay in social acknowledgment of the Kingship of Christ, which the world has witnessed for the past ISO years, is in great part due to the action of the visible naturalistic forces of the Jewish Nation and Freemasonry, acting under the anti-super(13)

Encyclical Letter, Hunumum

genus.

On

Freemasonry.

(14) Encyclical Letter, Qua ft Primes,

On the King ship of

Christ.

PREFACE

XI

n a t u r a l i n s p i r a t i o n of S a t a n . T h a t a c t i o n o w e s its s u c c e s s in l a r g e m e a s u r e t o s e c r e t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Needless to say, the plotting of secret societies does not suffice to account for everything in his­ tory, for the causes of historical events are very complex. But if these forces are left out of account, modern history becomes a puzzle. T h e a r t of m a n o e u v r i n g h u m a n b e i n g s t o w a r d s a c e r t a i n g o a l , w i t h o u t their b e i n g a w a r e t h a t t h e y are being so m a n o e u v r e d , h a s b e e n b r o u g h t t o a p i t c h of p e r f e c t i o n n e v e r b e f o r e a t t a i n e d . T h e c o n t r o l of m o n e y f a c i l i t a t e s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e p o w e r t o i n f l u e n c e all t h e t e c h n i c a l a g e n c i e s for t h e f o r m a t i o n of p u b l i c opinion—the Press, the Radio and the Cinema. I t is c e r t a i n l y t r u e , a s h a s b e e n r e m a r k e d , t h a t it is in g r e a t m e a s u r e b e c a u s e C a t h o l i c s fail to live fully as m e m b e r s of C h r i s t t h a t O u r L o r d ' s e n e m i e s s u c c e e d in t h e i r d e s i g n s . " If J e w s c o n ­ t r o l t h e f a s h i o n s / ' t h e q u e s t i o n is a s k e d , " w h o w e a r t h e m ? " B u t it is a l s o t r u e t h a t C a t h o l i c s s u c c u m b t o t h e m a c h i n a t i o n s of O u r L o r d ' s e n e m i e s l a r g e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e n o t t r a i n e d for t h e r e a l s t r u g g l e in t h e w o r l d . T h e y l e a v e s c h o o l w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e k n o w l e d g e of t h e o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n t h e y will h a v e to m e e t a n d w i t h t h e i r m i n d s h a z y a b o u t t h e p o i n t s of social o r g a n i z a t i o n for which they m u s t s t a n d and against which a t t a c k s are b e i n g d i r e c t e d . T h e y do n o t r e a l i z e t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n ' s u l t i m a t e a i m is t h e d i s r u p t i o n of C h r i s t ' s o r d e r a n d t h e y a r e n o t a c c u s t o m e d to think that they m u s t co-operate with other y o u n g Catholics f o r O u r L o r d ' s p r o g r a m m e , t h a t t h e y m u s t , for e x a m p l e , m a s t e r t h e c i n e m a a n d p r e v e n t it f r o m u n d e r m i n i n g C h r i s t i a n m a r r i a g e , t h e f o u n d a t i o n of f a m i l y life in t h e i r c o u n t r y . T h u s t h e y d i s p l a y a l a m e n t a b l e l a c k of c o h e s i o n a n d a p i t i a b l e w a n t of e n t h u s i a s m for Christ's i n t e r e s t s , w i t h the result that Catholics w h o stand for i n t e g r a l C h r i s t i a n i t y c a n a l w a y s c o u n t o n finding o t h e r C a t h o l i c s i n t h e s e r v i c e of t h e e n e m y . " M a n y t i m e s , " w r o t e P o p e P i u s X I i n t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Divini Rrdnnptoris, " Our paternal heart h a s b e e n s a d d e n e d b y t h e d i v e r g e n c i e s . . . . w h i c h a r r a y in o p ­ p o s i n g c a m p s t h e s o n s of t h e s a m e M o t h e r C h u r c h . T h u s it is t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , w h o a r e n o t so v e r y n u m e r o u s . . . e n d by pitting Catholics one against the other." MEMBERS OF ONE BODY UNDER OUR HEAD. CHRIST

T h e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e o r g a n i z e d p r o p a g a t i o n of N a t u r a l i s m w i l l d e m a n d an i n t e g r a l g r a s p of o u r c o r p o r a t e o n e n e s s w i t h Christ. W e c o m e into union w i t h O u r L o r d not as isolated in­ d i v i d u a l s b u t a s m e m b e r s of a s u p e r n a t u r a l o r g a n i s m , t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t . E a c h b a p t i z e d C h r i s t i a n e n t e r s i n t o an i n t e r i o r vital relation with Christ through being incorporated into the o r g a n i s m of w h i c h C h r i s t is t h e i n v i s i b l e H e a d . O r , t o e x p r e s s it 6

XII

TIIK MYSTICAL P.ODY OF CHRIST

more in accordance with reality, Christ unites each baptized Christian with Himself by incorporating him or her into a living organism, of which He is the invisible Head. That organism, supernatural and supranational, is desiined lo permeate the whole social life of States and Nations with the spirit of supernatural solidarity in Christ. Of course, the end aimed at by this super­ natural organism in its permeation of Society is the development of the individual member's personality through interior union with Christ. Hut the individual member will develop his interior per­ sonal life only in proportion as he forgets self for the sake of the Head and the whole Iiody. All of us. as members of Christ, must strive lo realize the fulness of St. Paul's expression: " I live, now not I ; but Christ liveth in me " (Gal., II. 20). \n the physical body an individual member can attain its full development only by fulfilling its function in perfect subjection to the head and in complete harmony with the other members, thus co-operating for the good of the whole body, so analogously in the Mystical Hody of Christ, an individual member must, as it were, lose himself in order to find himself really. Many Catholics, un­ consciously influenced by Protestant individualism, not only con­ sider themselves as imitating Christ, our Model, from outside, so to say, but regard themselves as having an isolated individual rela­ tion with Christ. They do not bring home to themselves suffici­ ently that all Christ's members form one organism under Christ, battling for the divine order of the world, and that they can grow up in Christ, only by supplying their quotas of self-sacrifice in their places in the supernatural organism of 1 lis Mystical I>ody. Other Catholics seem to be unconsciously iniluenced by the Lutheran separation of the Christian and the Citizen and consider their spiritual life as a purely interior relation with Christ. The spiritual life is, as it were, sectioned off from ordinary everyday life. They are in danger of allowing the world around them to be organized against Our Lord's programme for order, while they continue to practise their religion more or less unconcernedly. Thev do not sufhcicntlv realize that we enter into vital relation with Christ through being incorporated into a visible organism and that wc must take as the starting-point of our spiritual life the objective fact of this incorporation. We must not. initiate our spiritual life by the soul's looking at itself somewhat after the subjective fashion in which Descartes started intellectual life. The spiritual life is not the life of a *' soul," but the life of a member of Christ, composed of soul and body, occupying a place in an organic unity destined to mould the world for Christ. The whole body grows in charity and union with Christ, when each part supplies what it is destined to give, according to its position and function. In Chapter IV of the Kpistle to the Ephes-

PREFACE

XIII

i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y in v e r s e s 11, 12, 15, 16, St. P a u l i n s i s t s u p o n t h i s p o s i t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . W e h a v e g r o w n a c c u s t o m e d to c o n s i d e r ­ ing ourselves as s e p a r a t e individuals looking at Christ from out­ s i d e , e a c h o n e l i v i n g h i s o r h e r i n d i v i d u a l life w i t h C h r i s t . W e m u s t c o n s i d e r o u r s e l v e s a s w e r e a l l y a r e , t h a t is, a s o n e w i t h C h r i s t a n d a s b e i n g m o v e d b y H i m a s a b o d y for t h e m o u l d i n g a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i e t y . In t h i s w a y did t h e e a r l y C h r i s t ­ i a n s t r a n s f o r m t h e s o c i e t y of I m p e r i a l R o m e . A n d in t h e s a m e w a y all C a t h o l i c s will b e m a d e r e a d y t o r e s p o n d t o a call s u c h a s w a s m a d e b y P o p e P i u s X t o t h e F r e n c h H i e r a r c h y , in h i s L e t ­ ter on the S H I o n , " A s in t h e conflict of i n t e r e s t s / ' w r o t e t h e P o p e , " a n d m o s t of all in t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t u n j u s t f o r c e s , a man's v i r t u e d o e s n o t a l w a y s suffice t o a s s u r e h i m h i s d a i l y b r e a d , a n d a s t h e s o c i a l m a c h i n e r y o u g h t t o be so o r g a n i z e d a s b y i t s n a t u r a l a c t i o n t o p a r a l y s e t h e e f f o r t s of t h e w i c k e d , a n d t o r e n d e r a c c e s s i b l e t o e v e r y m a n of g o o d w i l l h i s l e g i t i m a t e s h a r e of t e m ­ poral happiness, W e earnestly desire that you should take an a c t i v e s h a r e in o r g a n i z i n g s o c i e t y f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . " T h e r e t u r n of t h e w o r l d t o o r d e r m e a n s i t s r e t u r n t o t h e i n t e g r a l t r u t h of C h r i s t . " W h e n a n o r g a n i s m d e c a y s a n d b e c o m e s c o r r u p t , " w r o t e P o p e L e o X I T I , " i t is b e c a u s e it h a s c e a s e d t o b e u n d e r t h e a c t i o n of t h e c a u s e s w h i c h h a d g i v e n it i t s f o r m a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n . T o m a k e it h e a l t h y a n d flourishing a g a i n it is n e c e s ­ s a r y t o r e s t o r e i t t o t h e v i v i f y i n g a c t i o n of t h o s e s a m e c a u s e s . . . . J u s t as C h r i s t i a n i t y c a n n o t p e n e t r a t e into t h e soul w i t h o u t m a k i n g it b e t t e r , s o it c a n n o t e n t e r i n t o public life w i t h o u t e s t a b ­ lishing order Tf i t h a s t r a n s f o r m e d p a g a n s o c i e t y . . . . so, a f t e r t h e t e r r i b l e s h o c k s w h i c h u n b e l i e f h a s g i v e n t o t h e w o r l d in o u r d a y s , it will b e a b l e t o p u t t h a t w o r l d a g a i n o n t h e t r u e r o a d , a n d b r i n g b a c k t o o r d e r t h £ S t a t e s a n d p e o p l e s of m o d e r n t i m e s . B u t t h e r e t u r n of C h r i s t i a n i t y will n o t be efficacious a n d c o m p l e t e if it d o e s n o t r e s t o r e t h e w o r l d t o a s i n c e r e l o v e of t h e O n e Ploly C a t h o l i c a n d A p o s t o l i c C h u r c h . In t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h C h r i s t i a n i t y is i n c a r n a t e . Jt is i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t p e r f e c t s p i r i t ­ ual s o c i e t y , s o v e r e i g n in i t s o w n o r d e r , w h i c h is t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of J e s u s C h r i s t a n d w h i c h h a s f o r i t s visible h e a d t h e R o m a n Pontiff, s u c c e s s o r of t h e P r i n c e of t h e A p o s t l e s , . . . S o c i e t y s o s a d l y g o n e a s t r a y m u s t r e - e n t e r t h e b o s o m of t h e C h u r c h , if it wishes t o r e c o v e r its well-being, its repose a n d its s a l v a t i o n . "
( 1 5 J

SOME

EXPRESSIONS

OF THANKS.

I a m u n d e r a p a r t i c u l a r o b l i g a t i o n t o M i s s G. M . C o o g a n , of C h i c a g o , w r i t e r of Money Creators a n d Law fid Money Lectures, for g u i d a n c e a n d i n s t r u c t i o n o n t h e s u b j e c t of finance. Jf t h i s (is) Apostolic Letter, March 19th, 1902, Review of his Pontificate,

XIV

THE MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

b o o k p r o v e s helpful t o o t h e r s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n o f m o n e y t o t h e real o r d e r of t h e w o r l d , it is in g r e a t p a r t o w i n g t o Miss Coogan's kindness. She not only assisted m e with books a n d a d v i c e , b u t s p u r r e d m e on t o t h e effort r e q u i r e d t o h e l p t h e p o o r on t h e o n e h a n d a n d t o e n l i g h t e n t h e b e w i l d e r e d o n t h e o t h e r . I m u s t a l s o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r O ' R a h i l l y of U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , C o r k , f o r f r e e l y p u t t i n g his p r o f o u n d l e a r n i n g a t m y d i s p o s a l . I a m o n l y o n e of m a n y w h o m t h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d I r i s h m a n h a s m a d e bis d e b t o r s . 1 b e g to r e t u r n m y m o s t g r a t e f u l t h a n k s to those firms and w r i t e r s from whose books I have quoted at some length. The p e r m i s s i o n t o d o so h a s b e e n m o s t g e n e r o u s l y a c c o r d e d . I n p a r ­ ticular, 1 wish to m e n t i o n the f o l l o w i n g : T h e E c o n o m i c R e f o r m C l u b a n d I n s t i t u t e for The Hoot, of All Evil, b y Sir R e g i n a l d R o w e ; A l f r e d A. Knopf, Inc., N e w Y o r k , f o r America Conquers Britain, b y L u d w e l l D e n n y ; Messr.s. C h a p m a n a n d H a l l , L t d . , for The Polish Jew, by B e a t r i c e C. B a s k e r v i l l e ; M r . G e o f f r e y C r o w t h e r a n d M e s s r s . T h o m a s N e l s o n a n d S o n s , L t d . , for M r . C r o w t h e r ' s b o o k , An Outline of Monet/; M e s s r s . C h a t t o a n d W i n d u s , for The Modern Idolatry, by J e l T r e y M a r k ; M r . A. N. F i e l d . N e l s o n , N e w Z e a l a n d , f o r The Truth about the Slump, All These Things, Un­ taught History of Money, The Truth about New Zealand, and Socialism U nw/fsked; T h e C o n t r o l l e r of TI.M. S t a t i o n e r y Office f o r The Report of the Select Committer on Patent Medicines (H.C. 4 1 4 ) ; K . R . P . P u b l i c a t i o n s , for Ta.r-Bmids or Bondage, by J o h n M i t c h e l l ; T h e F o r u m P r e s s , for Our Daily Bread by P r o f e s s o r J o s e p h R e i l l y ; Dr. D o u g l a s I ' o y d , for Barrier to Health; M i s s G. M . C o o g a n , C h i c a g o , for Money Creators a n d Lawful Money Lectures; Professor Alfred O'Rahilly and the Cork University P r e s s , f o r P r o f e s s o r O ' R a h i l l y ' s b o o k , Money; W e l l s G a r d n e r , B a r ­ t o n & Co.. L t d . , for Professor Skinner alias Montagu Xor?nan, by J o h n T - I a r g r a v e ; T h e F o o d E d u c a t i o n S o c i e t y for Bread in Peace and War; G e o r g e R o u t l e d g e & S o n s , L t d . , f o r The Role of Money, b y P r o f e s s o r S o d d y ; T h e A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on P u b l i c A f f a i r s , F l o r i d a A v e n u e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., for Interest and Usury, b y R e v . IF W . D e m p s c y , S . J . ; F a b e r a n d P a b e r , L t d . , for Alternative to Death, b y t h e E a r l of P o r t s m o u t h ( V i s c o u n t L y m i n g t o n ) ; J . M. D e n t & S o n s , L t d . , for Look, to the Land, b y F o r d N o r t h b o u r n e . I b e g t o m e n t i o n a l s o M e s s r s . S i m o n a n d S c h u s t e r , I n c . , of N e w Y o r k , and T h e C r e s s e t P r e s s , by w h o m p e r m i s s i o n to q u o t e f r o m Wall Street under Oath w a s g r a n t e d on s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h r o u g h t h e k i n d n e s s of a f r i e n d , a n I r i s h p r i e s t r e s i d e n t i n F r a n c e , I w a s a b l e t o g e t in t o u c h w i t h D e s c l e e , D e B r o u w e r e t Cie, P a r i s , for La Juridiction de VBglise sur la Citi, b y l'abbe C h a r l e s J o u r n e l , a n d Philosophic Economique by M o n s i e u r J. Vialaloux; and with Beauchesne et Fils, Paris, for La
y

PREPACK
Mt/sterieuse Internationale Juive, by M. Leon de Poncins.

XV

I beg

to thank both those firms. My friend was not able to get in con­ tact with the Editions Spes, Paris, for. La Legon du Passe, by Mgr. Landrieux. The permission kindly accorded by Messrs. .Burns, Oales and Washbournc, Ltd., to quote from The Persecution of the Catholic Church in the Third Reich, was availed of only for small portions of the translations of two documents, which 1 had previously trans­ lated. In those two passages, the version of the above-mentioned book gave the meaning more accurately. 1 beg to return thanks also to the Editors of The Irish Catholic,
The Standard, and The Irish Ecclesiastical Record, for permission

to republish the portions of the book, which appeared in those periodicals. J wish to make special mention of one book—though I have quoted only a few passages from it—because of the help it has been to me in seeing the history of the world in iis true perspective, that is, in relation to" Our Lord. That book is
La Rot/ante Sociale de A\ S. Jesus-Christ d'apres le Cardinal Pie {The Kingship of Christ according to Cardinal Pie of Poitiers),

by Pere Theotime-de St. Just. Pope Pius X told the students of the French Seminary, Rome, on audience, that he had read and re-read the works of Cardinal Pie, who was Bishop of Poitiers from 1849 to 1880. Other Sovereign Pontiffs, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Benedict XV, have added their encomiums to those of Pius X. I may say that the great Cardinal's ideas permeate every chapter of this book. My gratitude is due to Rev. J. J. Ryan, C.S.Sp., M.A., of Blackrock College, for his kindness in reading the manuscript and for many helpful suggestions. I am also very grateful to the Scholas­ tics of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost for typing the manu­ script, correcting the proofs and compiling the Index. Finally, a special word of thanks is due to the Printers, The Kerryman, Ltd., Tralee, and to the Publishers, The Forum Press, Cork, for their great kindness and consideration. DENIS FAHEY, C.S.Sp. Feast of the Most Pure Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary,

Table of Contents
Page
Preface:

The Aim of this Book—Man's Response to God's L o v i n g C o n d e s c e n s i o n or the
T h e o l o g y of H i s t o r y — O r g a n i z e d Opposi­
tion t o O u r S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e — - M e m b e r s of O n e B o d y u n d e r C h r i s t O u r H e a d — S o m e E x p r e s s i o n s of T h a n k s I

Part THE MYSTICAL

I. OF CHRIST

BODY and

THE

DIYJXE

PLAX

FOR

ORDER.

Chapters Chapter I :

I—V. 1

T h e M y s t i c a l B o d y o f Christ God is S u b s i s t e n t L o v e of O r d e r — G o d ' s Unchanging Purpose—Xaturaiism and Our S u p e r n a t u r a l Life—Social O r g a n i z a ­ tion a n d t h e I n d i v i d u a l M e m b e r of S o c i e t y — H u m a n P e r s o n a l i t y and Individuality— Personality, Individuality and the ' Com­ m o n G o o d — A p p e n d i x : Social J u s t i c e . T h e K i n g s h i p o f Christ in its E s s e n c e T h e P r i e s t h o o d a n d t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t — T h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t — I n O u r L o r d ' s K i n g d o m O u r B l e s s e d M o t h e r is Q u e e n and Mediatrix of all Graces—The

Chapter

II:

26

xvm

TMK MYSTICAL RODY OK CHRIST Church's Participation in the Priesthood and in the Spiritual Kingship of Christ— The Kingship of Christ and Temporal Rulers—Christ's Spiritual Kingship and that of the Church—The Spiritual King­ ship of the Church and Temporal Affairs ---What God Desires--The Thomistic Doctrine on the Relation between Church and State—Two other Theories concern­ ing Church and Slate--The Duty of Catholies to Christ the King—Appendix 1 : Papal Authority in Temporal Affairs— Appendix II: The Scope of the Indirect Power of the Church.

Chapter III:

T h e K i n g s h i p o f Christ i n i t s I n t e g r i t y

58

Meaning of the Integrity of the Kingship of Christ—St. Thomas and Politics—St. Thomas and Economics—State and Pamily The Role of Money in Economics—Three Ways of Dealing in Money—Usury—The Proper Use o f Money—St. Thomas and the Ideal of National Self-Sufficiency— Appendix: Usury and Confessors.

Chapter I V :

P r o g r a m m e of Integral the K i n g s h i p o f Christ

Acceptance

of 84

Social or Practical Modernism—Social Acceptance of the Divine Plan—Acknow­ ledgment of the Spiritual Kingship of the Church's Rulers—Duty of States towards Religious Orders and Congregations-—The Duty of States with Regard' to Secret Societies—Acknowledgment of the Dig­ nity of Christian Marriage—Recognition of Education as the Vormalion of Mem­ bers of Christ—Solidarity of the Mystical Rody Reflected in Economic Organiza­ tion—Money is an Instrument of Econo­ mics—What is Meant bv Liberalism ?— The Return to the Gospel—The Church's Programme for the Rights of God— Appendix: Pope Penedict XV's Peace Proposals, August 1, 1917.

T H E MYSTICAL Chapter V :

BODY OP

CHRIST

T h e H o l y Sacrifice of t h e M a s s a n d t h e K i n g s h i p o f C h r i s t in i t s I n t e g r i t y T h e Relation b e t w e e n the M a s s a n d the K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t — U n i f y i n g I n f l u e n c e of the M y s t i c a l B o d y — T h e U l t i m a t e A i m of R e v o l u t i o n — T h e S o l i d a r i t y of t h e M y s ­ tical B o d y a n d t h e D u t y of C a t h o l i c s — C a t h o l i c S o l i d a r i t y is W e a k e n e d b y I n ­ dividualism and N a t u r a l i s m — P r i e s t s and C a t h o l i c S<ilidarity.

114

Pan THE ORGANIZED

II. TO THE MYSTICAL

OPPOSITION BODY OF and

CHRIST

TO

TIIK

DIYIXK

PLAN

FOR

ORDER.

Chapters C h a p t e r VI :

V I - -X.

T h e O r g a n i z e d O p p o s i t i o n to the M y s t i c a l B o d y of Christ 135 138

Chapter V I I :

T h e Invisible Organized Force—Satan and H i s F e l l o w - d e m o n s Satan's Anti-Supcrnaturalism — Satan's P l a n s for D i s o r d e r — S a t a n ' s H a t r e d of t h e Blessed E u c h a r i s t . First Visible Organized Naturalistic Force —The Jewish Nation T h e J e w i s h N a t i o n ' s R e j e c t i o n of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l M e s s i a s — T h e T r a g e d y of the J cwish N a t i o n — T h e Anti-Superna­ t u r a l I n f l u e n c e of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n — T h e D u a l C i t i z e n s h i p of t h e J e w s — T h e Catholic Church and Anti-Semitism— R e a s o n for S p e c i a l O p p o s i t i o n t o t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n — D i v i n e Providence and the Jewish Nation—The T w o Camps— Jewish Conversions to Christianity— The Jewish Problem, by L o u i s G o l d i n g Appendix: Contrasting Programmes.

Chapter V I I I :

148

xx Chapter TX:

THE MYSTICAL

F50DY O F

CHRIST

The Second Visible Organized Naturalis­ tic F o r c e — F r e e m a s o n r y N a t u r a l ism a n d S u p e r n a t u r a l i s m — T e a c h ­ ing" of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h C o n c e r n i n g t h e N a t u r a l i s m of F r e e m a s o n r y — Final A i m : Naturalistic World-State or World Re­ public- -Masonic Constitutions—Opposi­ tion of breemasonry to the Catholic Church - - Freemasonry and Political A c t i o n -- -M a s o n i c D e c l a r a t i o n s of L o y a l t y -—Is U r i i i s h M a s o n r y a l s o m o v i n g to t h e Left — F r e e m a s o n r y a n d Social j u s t i c e .
0

Chapter X :

Links B e t w e e n Organized Anti-Super­ natural F o r c e s T h e H e a d s h i p of S a t a n A c c o r d i n g to St. Tin>mas — T h e J e w i s h N a t i o n a n d F r e e ­ m a s o n r y — A p p e n d i x : P r a y e r for t h e C o n ­ v e r s i o n of t h e J e w s -I s r a e l ' s P r a y e r of K e p a r a lion I * r a v e r for t h e C< i n v e r s i o n of F r e e m a s o n s . Part OCKHAMISM OR and POLITICAL AND Chapters ECONOMIC XI—XII. DECAY. III. NOMINALISM

Chapter X I :

T h o m i s m and O c k h a m i s m or Nominalism Th< m i i s m Ockhamism or Nominalism— C o n s e q u e n c e s of O c k h a m i s m o r N o m i n a l ­ ism w i t h r e g a r d to F a i t h in t h e M y s t i c a l I!(idy ot C h r i s t — N o m i n a l i s m a n d S e p a r at i s m . N o m i n a l i s m and the A d v e n t of Social Materialism T h e T w o Currents I s s u i n g from O c k h a m ­ i s m — T h e F i r s t C u r r e n t , t h e N<miinalism of D e s c a r t e s — T h e S e c o n d C u r r e n t , t h e N o m i n a l i s m of L o c k e — L o c k e on M o n e y -—Economic Laws become exclusively Physical Laws.

Chapter X I I :

THE MYSTICAL I80DY OK CHRIST Part IV. POLITICAL and THE DIV1XK PLAX FOR ORDER. DECAY

xxi

Chapters XIIT—XVI. Chapter XIII :
T h e P r o t e s t a n t Revolt Against Order

267

The Preparation of Wrong National Decisions—Decay in the Intellectual Grasp of Order—Weakening of the Will through the Decay of the V i r t u e s Luther and Ockhamism—Consequences of Lutheranism.
#

Chapter XIV:

T h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n of 1789

278

The Significance of the Revolution— Naturalism ami Revolution—The Declar­ ation of the Rights of Man—The Jewish Nation and the French Revolution—Con­ sequences of the French Revolution—The Opposition between the French Revolu­ tion and the Catholic Church—Responsi­ bility of Freemasonry for Revolutions— Two Currents issuing from the French Revolution.
Chapter X V : T h e B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n of 1917 296

The Role of England in the Rolshevik Revolution—The Role of Germany in the Rolshevik Revolution—The Role of the Jewish Nation in the Rolshevik Revolu­ tion—in) The Jewish Nation guides the Communist Movement—(b) The Jewish Rund and the Rolshevik Revolution—(c) The Difference between the Rolsheviks and the Memheviks—(d) The Central Jewish Organization and the Revolution at Odessa in November, 1905—(c) Tn the Hour of Triumph—(f) The Alliance of Jewish Finance with Communism— Appendix: Lenin's Nationality.

TI1K MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST
Chapter XY7: Reactions against the Naturalism of the French Revolution .... 330

Ordered Reaction implies Acceptance of Christ's Kingship in its Integrity—Po­
land's R e a c t i o n — S p a i n ' s R e a c t i o n — ' P o r ­ tugal's Reaction.

Ireland's Reaction—Widespread Ignor­ ance of the Meaning of Naturalism — Wolfe Tone and the Vicar of Christ— Wolfe Tone and the Jewish Longing for the Natural Messias—Wolfe Tone, Natur­ alism and Anti-SupernaturaUsm—Wolfe Tone's Ignorance of the rcal^leaning of Masonry—James Connolly's Ignorance of the Meaning and the Aim of Commun­ ism -James Connolly's Ignorance " f Catholic Teaching—The Irish Constitu­ tion of 1037—The Irish Monetary Sys­ tem. Germany's R e a c t i o n — Prussia and Judaco-Masonry—German}'"s Reaction is Antagonistic to the Catholic Church — Sources of the German Race-Theory The Lutheran Revolt—The Philosophy of Kant, Fichtc and Ilegel—German Racial Instinct replaces the German Mind as (he Force Moulding the World--Gobincau and II. St. Chamberlain—The < iennan RaceTheory and 1 'ersonal Liberty—Prussian Freemasonry and the National-Socialist Movement.
Italy's Reaction.

Part V. KCONOMrC and TI1K DIVINE PLAN FOR ORDER. DKCAY

Chapters XVII—XXL
Chapter XVI1: S o m e Aspects of Economic Decay 389

The English Revolution of 1688 and the Rank of ICngland—The Jews and William of Orange's Expedition to England—The

THE MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

XXIII

Bank of E n g l a n d , L o c k e , a n d Free­ masonry—Defective Principles adopted b y t h e B a n k of E n g l a n d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e I s s u e of M o n e y — B e r k e l e y ' s R e d i s ­ c o v e r y of s o m e s a n e P r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n i n g M o n e y — F r e n c h E c o n o m i c Life sacrificed in o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e M e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t : (a) F r e d e r i c k the G r e a t and the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n ; ( b ) B i s m a r c k and G a m b e t t a ; ( c ) t h e A t t a c k on t h e C h r i s t i a n F a m i l y b y D i v o r c e ; ( d ) F i n a n c i a l Cost of e l i m i n a t i n g M e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t f r o m F r e n c h S c h o o l s ; f e) Legalized R o b b e r y u n d e r F a l s e P r e t e n c e s : (f) T h e W a r n i n g of t h e G r e a t W a r u n h e e d e d — A p p e n d i x : C a r d i n a l P i c of P o i t i e r s a n d X a p o l e o n I I I . C h a p t e r X V I H : T h e F u n c t i o n i n g of the Gold Standard and E c o n o m i c D e c a y S o m e F i n a n c i a l P r i n c i p l e s of S t . T h o m a s Aquinas—-The Bankers' Discovery—Na­ t i o n a l F i n a n c e a n d t h e Gold S t a n d a r d — • T h e M e a n i n g of 3 nil at ion a n d Deflation-—• S o m e H i s t o r i c a l E x a m p l e s of Planned Deflations—International Trade and the Gold S t a n d a r d — T h e U r g e to W a r and Destruction. Chapter X I X : T h e E c o n o m i c Principles of S t . T h o m a s A q u i n a s a n d t h e F u n c t i o n i n g of t h e Gold Standard ( A ) U s u r y o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e G o l d S t a n d a r d f r o m the p o i n t of v i e w of Efficient Causality—(B) Money as a S t a b l e M e a s u r e of T h i n g s S a l e a b l e , o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e Gold S t a n d a r d f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of F o r m a l C a u s a l i t y — ( C ) T w o T h e o r i e s of M o n e y , T h e Q u a n t i ­ tative T h e o r y and the Qualitative or Com­ m o d i t y T h e o r y , o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e G o l d S t a n d a r d f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of M a t e r i a l C a u s a l i t y — ( D ) T h e P u r p o s e of M o n e y , o r t h e C o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e G o l d S t a n d a r d f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of Final Causality: (a) F a r m i n g ; (b) Ruin of S m a l l O w n e r s a n d M a n u f a c t u r e r s ; ( c )

421

452

XX J \

Tin-; M Y S T I C A L

B O D Y OK

CHRIST

B r e a d ; ( d ) R e g i m e n t a t i o n of M e d i c a l D o c t o r s ; ( c ) A d v e r t i s e m e n t s of P a t e n t M e d i c i n e s ; (f) F a m i l y L i f e . Chapter X X : T h e P o l i t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s of St. T h o m a s A q u i n a s and the F u n c t i o n i n g of the Gold Standard Money-.Manipulat<>r^ a n d G o v e r n m e n t s — The Federal Reserve Sy>tem Naturalis­ tic h o i v e s w o r k i n g for C e n t r a l i / a t i o n — T h e (ierman-J e w i s h I n s p i r a t i o n of t h e J ederal Reserve System—The Federal R e s e r v e B o a r d a n d t h e S t r u g g l e for W o r l d Financial Supremacy.
;

488

Chapter X X I :

T h e P r i n c i p l e s of St. T h o m a s A q u i n a s a n d Monetary Reform General 1 Vinciple.s — X a i i mal < Monetary R e f o r m : ( a ) A b a n d o n m e n t of t h e D o m e s ­ tic G o l d S t a n d a r d : ( b ) I s s u i n g of L a w f u l E x c h a n g e - m e d i u m by S t a t e ; (c) L e n d i n g of L a w f u l E x c h a n g e - m e d i u m by B a n k i n g G u i l d ; f d ) S t a b i l i t y of P r i c e L e v e l ; ( e ) Concluding R e m a r k s on National M o n e ­ tary Reform—International Trade and Money*: ( a ) T h e B a n k for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Settlements and International T r a d e ; (b) International Planning and the Gold S t a n d a r d : UM P r o p o s e d R e f o r m of M o n e ­ t a r y S v s l c m in v i e w of International Trade—I nternational Economic Code— A p p e n d i x : Pope Pius X l P s Five Peace Points—Pope Pius Xfl's Allocution, C h r i s t m a s , 1941 : T h e F i v e . E s s e n t i a l s of a N e w O r d e r — S o m e P'xtracts from Pope Pius XII s Allocution, C h r i s t m a s , 1942: D i g n i t y a n d R i g h t s of t h e H u m a n P e r s o n ; T h e S e n s e of S o c i a l U n i t y a n d e s p e c i a l l y of t h e F a m i l y ; D i g n i t y a n d P r e r o g a t i v e s of L a b o u r ; R e s t o r a t i o n of t h e R u l e of L a w ; C o n c e p t i o n of t h e S t a t e a c c o r d i n g to t h e C h r i s t i a n S p i r i t . Index of Proper N a m e s

520

571

PART

I.

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST and THE DIVINE PLAN FOR ORDER. CHAPTERS I—V.

CHAPTER I.

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST.
GOD IS SUBSISTENT LOVE OF ORDER. G o d is t h e S u b s i s t e n t A c t of I n t e l l i g e n c e of t h e i n f i n i t e l y o r d e r e d B e i n g t h a t is H i m s e l f , s o H e m a y b e d e s c r i b e d a s t h e S u b s i s t e n t G r a s p of I n f i n i t e O r d e r . H e is a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e S u b s i s t e n t A c t of L o v e of t h e I n f i n i t e G o o d t h a t is H i m s e l f . H e is, t h e r e f o r e , S u b s i s t e n t L o v e of Order.* * T h e w o r l d , H i s C r e a t i o n , is i n t e n d e d t o reflect in i t s l i m i t e d w a y t h e I n f i n i t e L o v e of o r d e r of i t s C r e a t o r . St. T h o m a s p o i n t s o u t t h a t the inexhaustible m a g n i f i c e n c e a n d l o v e a b l e n e s s of t h e d i v i n e p e r f e c t i o n s a r e m o r e s t r i k i n g l y b r o u g h t h o m e t o u s b y t h e g r e a t d i v e r s i t y of c r e a t e d t h i n g s , t h a n t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n if G o d h a d b e e n less p r o f u s e in H i s g e n e r o s i t y . " W e m u s t h o l d / ' he writes, " that the dis­ tinction between created things and their multiplicity have been willed by the First M o v e r , God Himself. H e b r o u g h t things into b e i n g , in o r d e r t o m a n i f e s t H i s G o o d n e s s b y c o m m u n i c a t i n g t o t h e m a s h a r e in it. A s H i s P e r f e c t i o n a n d G o o d n e s s could n o t b e a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y o n e c r e a t u r e , H e c r e a t e d m a n y differ­ e n t c r e a t u r e s in o r d e r t h a t t h e D i v i n e B e a u t y m i g h t b e m i r r o r e d f o r t h less inadequately. T h u s o n e c r e a t u r e ' s insufficiency a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e D i v i n e G o o d n e s s is c o m p e n s a t e d in s o m e degree by another. G o o d n e s s , w h i c h in G o d is s i m p l e a n d u n ­ d i v i d e d , is t o b e m e t w i t h in c r e a t u r e s s c a t t e r e d in p r o f u s i o n in a v a r i e t y of f o r m s . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e w h o l e u n i v e r s e reflects t h e Divine Goodness m o r e perfectly than a n y individual c r e a t u r e . " T h e i r r a t i o n a l c r e a t i o n is d e s t i n e d t o m i r r o r f o r t h t h e d i v i n e p e r ­ fections u n c o n s c i o u s l y ; intellectual c r e a t u r e s a r e m e a n t to r e p r o ­ duce t h e m consciously and knowingly. Men (and angels) are
1 ( 2 J

(1) A c c o r d i n g to the definition of St. Thomas, quoted by Pope P i u s X I i n the Encyclical L e t t e r , Quadragesimo Anno, " o r d e r is the u n i t y a r i s i n g from t h e a p t a r r a n g e m e n t of a p l u r a l i t y of objects (Summa Contra Gent., I l l , 71).^ I t m a y also be described as the h a r m o n i o u s a r r a n g e m e n t of t h i n g s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r p r i n c i p l e a n d amongst them­ selves, according' t o p r i o r i t y a n d p o s t e r i o r i t y of n a t u r e , origin, caus­ a l i t y , etc. (2) l a P . , a.l,c. An aspect of this t h o u g h t h a d been already ex­ pressed by the Angelic D o c t o r when he s a i d : " T h e perfection of the whole o r d e r of the 'world is w h a t is best in creation " I a P . , Q.15, a.2,c. Cf. I a P . , Q.65, a.%
, ;

c

2

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

b o u n d t o g r a s p t h e o r d e r of t h e w o r l d w i t h t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e s , a c c e p t i t w i t h t h e i r w i l l s a n d e x p r e s s t h a t a c c e p t a n c e in a c c o r d ­ ance w i t h t h e i r n a t u r e s . God's r i g h t s , as C r e a t o r a n d F a t h e r , to t h a t recognition and that acceptance are irrefragable, and the o n e w a y f o r t h e r a t i o n a l c r e a t u r e t o a t t a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t r u e p e r s o n a l i t y is b y t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n a n d t h a t a c c e p t a n c e . * ^ N o w t h e c e n t r e of o r d e r in t h e a c t u a l w o r l d is O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , f o r i t is t h r o u g h H i m a l o n e t h a t m e n c a n b e i n fully h a r ­ monious relation to God and a m o n g s t themselves. T h e culmin­ a t i n g e x p r e s s i o n of m a n k i n d ' s a c c e p t a n c e of o r d e r is t h e H o l y S a c r i f i c e of t h e M a s s . T h i s is s o b e c a u s e t h e M a s s , b e i n g t h e r e n e w a l of t h e o n e s u p r e m e l y a c c e p t a b l e a c t of s u b m i s s i o n of C a l v a r y , is t h e official a c t of s u b m i s s i o n t o G o d in T h r e e D i v i n e P e r s o n s , o n t h e p a r t of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , in u n i o n w i t h its H e a d . Accordingly, God's r i g h t s a r e r e s p e c t e d in t h e w o r l d , in p r o p o r t i o n a s l o v e of a n d s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e o r d e r e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y a r e e x p r e s s e d b y all a t M a s s a n d find c o n c r e t e r e a l i z a t i o n in t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s t u d y of t h e p h i l o s o p h y ( o r t h e o l o g y ) of h i s ­ t o r y m u s t c o m p r i s e a b o v e all t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of p r o g r e s s o r r e ­ g r e s s in t h e w o r l d ' s a c c e p t a n c e of o r d e r in u n i o n w i t h O u r L o r d i n t h e S a c r i f i c e of t h e M a s s . T h a t t h e i m p o r t of t h e s e l a c o n i c s t a t e m e n t s m a y be fully u n d e r s t o o d , w e m u s t d w e l l a t s o m e l e n g t h in s u c c e s s i v e c h a p t e r s in t h i s o p e n i n g p a r t , o n t h e m e a n i n g of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , of t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t i n i t s e s s e n c e a n d in i t s i n t e g r i t y , a n d of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e H o l y S a c r i f i c e of t h e M a s s . W e s h a l l t r e a t in t h i s first c h a p t e r of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t a n d of t h e o r d e r e d d e v e l o p m e n t of o u r personality t h r o u g h our m e m b e r s h i p thereof.
3

GOD'S UNCHANGING

PURPOSE.

I n h u m a n b e i n g s , t h r e e k i n d s of life a r c t o be f o u n d , — s e n s e life, r a t i o n a l life, a n d S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e . ' S e n s e life, w h i c h w e h a v e in c o m m o n w i t h t h e a n i m a l s , is t h e life of o u r s e n s e s of s i g h t , h e a r i n g , t o u c h , e t c . , i n c l u d i n g a l s o , of c o u r s e , i n s t i n c t , imagination and sense-memory. R a t i o n a l life is t h e life b y w h i c h w e d o m i n a t e o v e r a n d are superior to the b r u t e creation. Both
( 1}

(3) " A c c o r d i n g to the P h i l o s o p h e r s , the final perfection to which the h u m a n soul c a n a t t a i n is t h a t it should u n d e r s t a n d the whole o r d e r of t h e universe a n d its causes. T h i s , they hold, is m a n ' s final end, which we ( C h r i s t i a n s o r T h e o l o g i a n s ) know to he the vision of God in T h r e e D i v i n e P e r s o n s " (St. T h o m a s , De Vcritate, Q.2, a.2). T h e super­ n a t u r a l end is a n elevation a n d p e r f e c t i o n of the n a t u r a l end. W S u p e r n a t u r a l Life is m e a n t to be in all, according to the D i v i n e P l a n , though, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , it. m a y n o t be, because of sin. Vegetative life is left o u t of a c c o u n t in t h i s s t u d y , for i t is n o t subject t o o u r free will.

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

3

of t h e s e f o r m s of life, b e i n g d u e t o u s b y o u r n a t u r e , a r e m e r e l y natural. By Sanctifying Grace, however, we have a created p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e D i v i n e N a t u r e , a s h a r e in t h e D i v i n e L i f e a s i t h a s b e e n lived f r o m all e t e r n i t y b y t h e T h r e e P e r s o n s of t h e M o s t H o l y T r i n i t y . A s t h a t D i v i h e L i f e , i n f i n i t e l y s u p e r i o r t o all n a t u r a l life, i s , of all, t h e m o s t r e a l , s o t h e L i f e of G r a c e i s , in t h e f u l l e s t a n d t r u e s t s e n s e , o u r m o s t r e a l life. D i v i n e G r a c e is life. I t is n o t a m e r e i n a n i m a t e o r n a m e n t , l i k e a l u m i n o u s c o a t i n g of p a i n t , b u t it is life a n d e n e r g y a t t h e i r h i g h e s t a n d s u b l i m e s t . G r a c e is d e s t i n e d t o e n a b l e t h e h u m a n s o u l t o e n t e r i n t o r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y p r e s e n t in it, in t h e o b s c u r i t y of f a i t h h e r e b e l o w in p r e p a r a t i o n for t h e f u l n e s s of v i s i o n h e r e a f t e r in h e a v e n . O u t of l o v e f o r u s h u m a n b e i n g s , G o d w a s n o t c o n t e n t w i t h g i v i n g u s m e r e l y n a t u r a l life, t h a t is, t h e n a t u r a l e q u i p m e n t of s o u l a n d b o d y d u e t o u s a s m e m b e r s of t h e h u m a n r a c e , b u t g a v e u s b e s i d e s a s h a r e in H i s o w n I n n e r L i f e in T h r e e D i v i n e Persons. W h y did H e d o t h i s ? Because H e w a n t e d to come to d w e l l in o u r s o u l s a s o u r g u e s t a n d be w e l c o m e d t h e r e w i t h a l o v e of t h e s a m e " t e x t u r e " o r " q u a l i t y " — t h e e x p r e s s i o n s a r e m a t e r i a l a n d d e f e c t i v e — a s t h a t of t h e H o l y G h o s t for t h e F a t h e r a n d Son. I t w a s b e c a u s e t h e Blessed T r i n i t y w a n t e d to d r a w us i n t o t h e F a m i l y - C i r c l e of G o d a n d e n t e r i n t o r e l a t i o n s of p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p a n d l o v e w i t h u s t h a t t h e L i f e of G r a c e w a s b e s t o w e d u p o n u s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g . W i t h o u t t h e L i f e of G r a c e , w e c o u l d h a v e k n o w n a n d l o v e d G o d a s o u r C r e a t o r , b u t w e could n o t h a v e k n o w n a n d l o v e d G o d in T h r e e D i v i n e P e r s o n s . Without that life w e c o u l d n o t h a v e a s p i r e d t o t h e i n t i m a c y of t h e D i v i n e F a m i l y C i r c l e . I n c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e r e is an infinite difference in o u r destiny. T h e s e d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s of life, h o w e v e r , a r e n o t n o w h a r m o n ­ i o u s l y i n t e r r e l a t e d in o u r b e i n g a s t h e y w e r e in o u r first p a r e n t s . G o d p o u r e d S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e i n t o t h e s o u l s of o u r first p a r e n t s , i n o r d e r , a s h a s b e e n s a i d , t o d r a w n o t o n l y t h e m b u t all t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s i n t o t h e c y c l e of H i s I n n e r L i f e in T h r e e D i v i n e P e r s o n s . A l o n g w i t h h u m a n n a t u r e , S u p e r n a t u r a l Life w a s to be c o m m u n i c a t e d t o e v e r y child of A d a m s o t h a t G o d could be t h e p e r s o n a l f r i e n d of e a c h a n d e v e r y o n e a n d find in h i m a l o v e of o r d e r of t h e s a m e " q u a l i t y " a s in H i m s e l f . A n d t o e n s u r e t h a t this friendship could be easily cultivated, h u m a n n a t u r e w a s n o t left t o be a g r o u p of d i s o r d e r l y t e n d e n c i e s a n d a p p e t i t e s , e a c h a i m i n g a t i t s p r o p e r o b j e c t , i t s o w n g o o d , i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e r i g h t r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r p o w e r s a n d to t h e w h o l e b e i n g . N o ! b y a s p e c i a l p r e t e r n a t u r a l g i f t called t h e Gift of I n t e g r i t y , h a r m o n y was assured. A c c o r d i n g l y , o r d e r e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n of all t h e r e ­ s o u r c e s of t h e t w o n a t u r a l f o r m s of life, s e n s e life a n d r a t i o n a l life, w i t h t h e i n t e r i o r m o v e m e n t of u n i o n w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y in t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l o v e of c h a r i t y w a s i n t e n d e d t o be t h e c h a r a c t e r -

4

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

istic n o t e of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . B y t h e o t h e r p r e t e r n a t u r a l g i f t of I m m o r t a l i t y , o u r first p a r e n t s a n d t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s c o u l d h a v e l i v e d b y f a i t h in u n i o n w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y p r e s e n t in t h e m a n d h a v e m o v e d f o r w a r d to t h e v i s i o n of t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y w i t h ­ o u t p a s s i n g b y t h e s o r r o w f u l g a t e w a y of d e a t h . > If t h e g i f t of S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e h a d m e a n t t h e d i r e c t v i s i o n of G o d , t h e r e w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a n y m e a n i n g in G o d ' s a s k i n g A d a m if h e w i s h e d t o a c c e p t S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e a n d h a p p i n e s s in f r i e n d ­ s h i p w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y , f o r h i m s e l f a n d his d e s c e n d a n t s . I n v i r t u e of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l n a t u r e A d a m w a s a free b e i n g , i n c a p ­ a b l e of b e i n g d e p r i v e d of his f r e e d o m of c h o i c e by t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n y c r e a t e d g o o d , b u t i n c a p a b l e t o o of t u r n i n g a w a y f r o m t h e v i s i o n of G o d face t o face. H e n c e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e w a s a d a p t e d t o his f a c u l t i e s , in o r d e r t h a t in t h e o b s c u r e l i g h t ' o f f a i t h , h e m i g h t give a free a n s w e r to God's l o v i n g q u e s t i o n . W e k n o w by revela­ t i o n t h a t t h e a n s w e r w a s in t h e n e g a t i v e . O u r first p a r e n t s e l e c t e d n o t t o d e p e n d on G o d f o r t h e i r h a p p i n e s s b u t o n t h e m ­ s e l v e s . I n s p i t e of t h e c l e a r n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h e y g r a s p e d o r d e r a n d t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e y c o u l d h a v e a d h e r e d t o it, t h e y r e ­ jected supernatural friendship w i t h God and put themselves instead of G o d in t h e c e n t r e of t h e w o r l d . T h e y did t h i s a t t h e i n s t i g a ­ t i o n of S a t a n w h o , a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r fallen a n g e l s , h a d a l r e a d y m a d e t h e s a m e s e l f - c e n t r e d c h o i c e . T h e fallen a n g e l s ' d e c i s i o n was, however, irrevocable. It was a declaration by the whole b o d y of t h e m t o g e t h e r , of p e r p e t u a l w a r o n a n d u n c e a s i n g o p p o ­ s i t i o n to t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y a n d t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e . > T h e fall of t h e h u m a n r a c e c o u l d b e u n d o n e , b e c a u s e h u m a n b e i n g s can change their minds and the h u m a n race comes into e x i s t e n c e s u c c e s s i v e l y b y p r o p a g a t i o n f r o m t h e first A d a m . * ) It was in f a c t u n d o n e , a n d o r d e r w a s restored to the w o r l d by the Second A d a m , O u r L o r d J esus Christ, Son of the Virgin Mary, our Immaculate Mother. God did n o t a b a n d o n H i s c h e r i s h e d p u r p o s e of c o m i n g t o d w e l l in o u r
(5 (G 7

(5) I n his work, The Holy Ghost, p p . 152-154, Rev. E. L e e n C . S . S p . , p o i n t s o u t the lowering of the ideal of life t h a t comes from the d o c t r i n e of G o d ' s -presence in the soul by Grace being connected in childhood w i t h the image of God as a watchful, i n e x o r a b l e J u d g e , i n s t e a d of a loving tender F a t h e r , longing to dwell a l w a y s in our souls. What a c h a n g e could be w r o u g h t if it were b r o u g h t home to all children from the beginning t h a t God is, indeed, watchful, but watchful r a t h e r for t h e p u r p o s e of d o i n g us good t h a n of finding us at f a u l t ! W h a t a different idea would be h a d of God, if the child were t a u g h t from the b e g i n n i n g t h a t God's v i g i l a n c e was a v i g i l a n c e of love a n d not of dis­ a p p r o v a l — t h e vigilance of the loving f a t h e r and not t h a t of the suspicious w a r d e r ! Too f r e q u e n t l y i t is the idea of God as the j u s t a n d inflexible j u d g e t h a t is stressed in the i n s t r u c t i o n of the young. T h i s is a defective p r e s e n t m e n t of C h r i s t i a n i t y / < > l a P . , Q.64, a.2 a n d l a P., Q.63, a.3. 6 (7) l a P . , Q.64, a.2.
m v 11 7

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

5

souls as our Guest. Adam's refusal to enter into His designs brought about a change of plan for the realization of His aim, but that aim remained the same, and fallen man was raised to the dignity of a member of Christ. Nor was that all. By the manner in which He set about undoing the Fall, God showed also that it was not through cold indifference or lack of affection that He did not prevent the sin of our first parents. Not only did He not remain aloof from the fallen race, but He accepted all the consequences of the Fall for Himself become Man, except the one incompatible with His Divine Nature—Sin. ^ The Supernatural Life of Grace now becomes ours, not at our generation or con­ ception, as would have been the case if Adam had not sinned, but by reason of our being incorporated into Our Lord's Mystical Body by the Sacrament of Baptism. To use the words of Pope Pius XI, Baptism sets up in every­ one in whom there is not an obstinate attachment to mortal sin the circulation of the life-blood of Grace.w We are all one with, the first Adam, our natural head, and receive from him at our con­ ception a fallen nature with its tendency to make of self the centre of life. We are all intended by God to become one with Christ, our Supernatural Head, and to receive the Life of Grace with its tendency to centre life on the Blessed Trinity, through being en­ grafted on Christ by Baptism. St. Paul dwells at some length
ts

(8) When speaking of a change of plan in God. we are using human imperfect language. There is no change in God. St. Thomas treats the point with his customary lucidity: " I answer that the will of God is entirely unchangeable. On this point we must consider that to change the will is one thing; to will that certain things should be changed is another. It is possible to will a thing to be done now and its contrary afterwards; and yet for the will to remain permanently the same': whereas the will would be changed if one should begin to will what before he had not willed; or cease to will what he had previously willed. This cannot ha^rjen, unless we presuppose change either in knowledge or in the disposition of the substance of the wilier. . . . Now it has already been shown that both the substance of God and His knowledge are entirely unchangeable (Q.IX, a.l; XIV, a.T5). Therefore His will must be entirely unchangeable (la P., Q.XIX, a.7). " It was necessary, dearly beloved, that the unchanging' God, whose will cannot lose its kindliness, should accomplish in more obscure and mysterious fashion what in His paternal affection He had first arranged, in order that mankind, urged on to sin by the cunning of the evil one, should not be lost. . . (Second Sermon of Pope St. Leo the Great on the Nativity. Fifth Lesson of Matins for the Feast of the Annuncia­ tion). W " Now every Christian receives the supernatural life, which cir­ culates in the veins of the Mystical Body of Christ, that abundant life which Christ, as He himself says, came to bestow upon the world. Con­ sequently, every Christian ought to diffuse that life to others who either do not possess it or who have it only feebly or merely in appearance " (Letter of Pope Pius XI to the Cardinal Patriarch of Lisbon, Nov.
J1

10,

1933).

6

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

o n t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n o u r s o l i d a r i t y in t h e first A d a m a n d o u r s o l i d a r i t y in t h e S e c o n d A d a m , in t h e E p i s t l e to t h e R o m a n s , V , 1 2 — 2 1 : " W h e r e f o r e as by o n e m a n sin e n t e r e d i n t o this w o r l d , a n d b y s i n d e a t h ; a n d s o d e a t h p a s s e d u p o n all m e n , i n w h o m all have sinned . . . But death reigned from A d a m u n t o M o s e s , even o v e r t h e m a l s o w h o h a v e n o t s i n n e d a f t e r t h e s i m i l i t u d e of t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n of A d a m , w h o is a figure of h i m w h o w a s t o c o m e . B u t n o t a s t h e offence, s o a l s o t h e gift. F o r if b y t h e offence of o n e , m a n y d i e d ; m u c h m o r e t h e g r a c e of G o d , a n d t h e g i f t , b y t h e g r a c e of o n e m a n , J e s u s C h r i s t , h a t h a b o u n d e d u n t o m a n y . A n d n o t a s it w a s by o n e sin, s o a l s o is t h e gift. F o r j u d g m e n t i n d e e d w a s b y o n e u n t o c o n d e m n a t i o n ; b u t g r a c e is of m a n y offences, u n t o justification. F o r if b y o n e m a n ' s o f f e n c e d e a t h r e i g n e d t h r o u g h o n e ; m u c h m o r e t h e y w h o r e c e i v e a b u n d a n c e of g r a c e , a n d of t h e g i f t , a n d of j u s t i c e , s h a l l r e i g n in life t h r o u g h o n e , J e s u s C h r i s t . T h e r e f o r e , a s b y t h e offence of o n e , u n t o all m e n t o c o n d e m n a t i o n ; so a l s o b y t h e j u s t i c e of o n e u n t o all m e n t o j u s t i f i c a t i o n of life. L o r as b y t h e d i s o b e d i e n c e of o n e m a n , m a n y w e r e m a d e s i n n e r s ; s o a l s o b y t h e o b e d i e n c e of o n e , m a n y s h a l l b e m a d e j u s t . . . . A n d w h e r e sin a b o u n d e d , g r a c e did m o r e a b o u n d . T h a t a s sin h a t h r e i g n e d t o d e a t h ; s o a l s o g r a c e m i g h t r e i g n b v j u s t i c e u n t o life e v e r l a s t i n g , t h r o u g h J e s u s C h r i s t O u r Lord."<"» NATURALISM AND OUR S U P E R N A T U R A L LIFE.

A c c o r d i n g l y , w e all c o m e i n t o t h e w o r l d , g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r ­ a t i o n , d e p r i v e d n o t o n l y of t h e p r e t e r n a t u r a l g i f t s of I n t e g r i t y a n d I m m o r t a l i t y , b u t a l s o of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e . T h e l o s s of t h e g i f t of I n t e g r i t y l e a d s t o t h e r e v o l t of t h e p a s s i o n s a g a i n s t r e a s o n a n d a g a i n s t t h e D i v i n e L i f e ; t h e loss of t h e G i f t of I m m o r ­ t a l i t y l e a d s t o s u f f e r i n g , d i s e a s e a n d d e a t h . O w i n g t o t h e l o s s of S u p e r n a t u r a l Life and our c o n s e q u e n t aversion from God, our in­ t e l l i g e n c e is d a r k e n e d , o u r will is w e a k e n e d a n d o u r s e n s e - l i f e is i n c l i n e d t o r e v o l t a g a i n s t o r d e r . I t is t r u e t h a t o u r n a t u r e is n o t c o r r u p t e d in i t s e l f a s L u t h e r a n d t h e J a n s e n i s t s h e l d . T h e pri­ m o r d i a l i n c l i n a t i o n of o u r n a t u r e is t o G o d a n d t h a t e s s e n t i a l i n ­ clination remains. I t is, h o w e v e r , w e a k e n e d by o r i g i n a l sin, s o t h a t t h e c o n c r e t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of o u r m o r a l life, e v e n a f t e r t h e D i v i n e L i f e of G r a c e h a s b e e n r e s t o r e d t o u s in do) I I H a P . , Q.3, a.8, St. T h o m a s says it was most fitting t h a t the Second Person of the Blessed ' T r i n i t y should become m a n , because the W o r d , like the concept or idea of the a r t i s t , is the e x e m p l a r cause of all t h a t God has made. J u s t as the a r t i s t , by the intelligible form of h i s a r t , whereby he produced his m a s t e r p i e c e , restores it when it has fallen i n t o r u i n , so God restores the o r d e r of the world d i s t u r b e d by sin. " God indeed was in C h r i s t reconciling the world to Himself " ( I I Cor., V, 19).
n

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

7

Baptism, are generally selfish with a disordered love of self. Our concrete judgements are liable to be erroneous, and we are exposed in our acts of will to make of self the centre of Iife.< > We are bound to grasp the order of life, accept it and express it. yet we easily lose sight of the ideal of living the whole of life here below in union with the Blessed Trinity as members of Christ, in pre­ paration for the intimacy of heaven. God's desire, then, is to draw us all into union with Himself in Three Divine Persons, through our willing acceptance of the duty of living life in full subjection to Our Lord as His members. But God's wish is in continual danger of being thwarted by our tendency to turn against His impulses and make of self the centre of life, in this way hamper­ ing the development of our personality. We have to struggle with the aid of Divine Grace to acknowledge God's rights to the full and not place self on the same level as God or on a higher level. Even if there were no organized naturalistic or anti-supernatural forces at work in the world, striving to mould social institutions to active hostility to the Supernatural Life, there arc anti-super­ natural tendencies in ourselves (hat have to be combated by selfdiscipline and social organization. We may speak of those forces or tendencies that are in each of us, as unorganized anti-supernatural or naturalistic forces, in contrast with the organized forces, visible and invisible, that are working for Naturalism. What is meant by Xaturalism? We can best describe it by contrasting it with the supernatural ideal of the Catholic Church. This supernatural ideal affirms: firstly, that the Life of Grace, a share in the Inner Life of the Blessed Trinity, is infinitely higher than the natural life of human reason; secondly, that the loss of Supernatural Life on account of the first Adam's fall has been repaired through membership of the Mystical Body of the Second Adam, Our Lord Jesus Christ, who in the existing order is the unique Source of that Life; and, thirdly, as a logical consequence, that it is only through cultivation of our membership of Our Lord's Mystical Body that we can be good and true men as we ought to be. Accordingly, minds imbued with the supernatural ideal will proclaim that the Catholic Church, the Mystical Body of Christ, is infinitely higher and nobler than any natural society, while in­ sisting at the same time that ordered love of country and native land must be sedulously cultivated. They will aim, not as isolated individuals, but fully conscious of their royal dignity as members of a living organism, at permeating all social life, political and economic, with the spirit of membership of Christ. Naturalism, on the other hand, is described as follows by Pope Leo XIII: " The fundamental doctrine of the Naturalists, which
u

Cf. L* Amour de Dieu, et la Croix de Jesus, pp. 305-315, by Pere Garrigou-Lagrange,. O.P.

8

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

t h e y sufficiently m a k e k n o w n b y t h e i r v e r y n a m e , is t h a t h u m a n n a t u r e a n d h u m a n r e a s o n o u g h t in all t h i n g s t o b e m i s t r e s s a n d g u i d e . L a y i n g this d o w n , t h e y c a r e l i t t l e for d u t i e s t o G o d , o r pervert them by erroneous and vague opinions. F o r they deny t h a t a n y t h i n g h a s b e e n t a u g h t b y G o d : t h e y a l l o w n o d o g m a of r e l i g i o n o r t r u t h w h i c h c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e h u m a n i n ­ t e l l i g e n c e , n o r a n y t e a c h e r w h o o u g h t t o be b e l i e v e d b y r e a s o n of his a u t h o r i t y . . . . I t is t h e s p e c i a l a n d e x c l u s i v e d u t y of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h fully t o s e t f o r t h in w o r d s t r u t h s d i v i n e l y r e c e i v e d and, besides offering o t h e r divine helps to salvation, to t e a c h t h e a u t h o r i t y of h e r office, a n d t o d e f e n d t h e s a m e w i t h p e r f e c t p u r ­ ity. . . ."< " W h a t Naturalists o r Rationalists a i m a t in p h i l ­ o s o p h y , t h a t t h e s u p p o r t e r s of Liberalism, carrying out the prin­ c i p l e s laid d o w n by N a t u r a l i s m , a r e a t t e m p t i n g in t h e d o m a i n of m o r a l i t y a n d politics. T h e f u n d a m e n t a l d o c t r i n e of R a t i o n a l i s m is t h e s u p r e m a c y of h u m a n r e a s o n , w h i c h , r e f u s i n g d u e s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e d i v i n e a n d e t e r n a l r e a s o n , p r o c l a i m s its o w n i n d e p e n d e n c e , a n d c o n s t i t u t e s itself t h e s u p r e m e p r i n c i p l e a n d s o u r c e a n d j u d g e of t r u t h . H e n c e t h e s e f o l l o w e r s of L i b e r a l i s m d e n y t h e e x i s t e n c e of a n y d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y t o w h i c h o b e d i e n c e is d u e , a n d p r o c l a i m t h a t e v e r y m a n is a l a w u n t o h i m s e l f ; f r o m w h i c h a r i s e s t h a t ethical system which they style independent morality, and which, u n d e r t h e g u i s e of l i b e r t y , e x o n e r a t e s m a n f r o m a n y o b e d i e n c e t o t h e c o m m a n d s of G o d , a n d s u b s t i t u t e s a b o u n d l e s s l i c e n c e . "
I2) ( 1 3 >

A c c o r d i n g l y , N a t u r a l i s m affirms t h a t o u r h i g h e s t life is t h e life of r e a s o n , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y , d e n i e s t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a n y s u c h t h i n g s a s a fall f r o m , o r l o s s of, S u p e r n a t u r a l Life o r , a t l e a s t , t h a t w e c a n k n o w of it. N a t u r a l i s m a l s o l o g i c a l l y affirms t h a t it is a m a t t e r of i n d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r o n e w o r s h i p s O u r L o r d J e s u s Christ or denies that l i e instituted a supranational society to set f o r t h t h e D i v i n e F l a n f o r o r d e r in t h e w o r l d a n d t o diffuse t h a t Divine Life by which alone w e can be really good m e n as w e o u g h t to be. T h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n Naturalism, Rationalism and Liberalism is e x c e l l e n t l y o u t l i n e d b y P e r c G a r r i g o u - L a g r a n g e , O . P . (De Revelatione, V o l . I, P- 2 2 1 ) . H e w r i t e s : " A l t h o u g h "the t e r m N a ­ t u r a l i s m is f r e q u e n t l y u s e d w i t h t h e s a m e s i g n i f i c a t i o n a s R a t i o n a l ­ i s m , it r a t h e r d e s i g n a t e s t h e f o u n d a t i o n of R a t i o n a l i s m . For N a t u r a l i s m is p r o p e r l y t h e n e g a t i o n of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e e l e v a ­ t i o n of o u r nature t o t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l o r d e r , a n d R a t i o n a l i s m is t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s d o c t r i n e t o human reason a s L i b e r a l i s m is i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o human liberty. H e n c e R a t i o n a l i s m h a s its p r o x ­ i m a t e f o u n d a t i o n in N a t u r a l i s m , j u s t a s o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e v i r t u e of f a i t h is f o u n d e d in g r a c e . If N a t u r a l i s m s i g n i f i e s n o t < ) Encyclical Letter, Ilum&num < > Encyclical Letter, Libcrtas,
13 12

genus, on F r e e m a s o n r y . on H u m a n Liberty.

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

9

m e r e l y t h e d e n i a l of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of k n o w i n g t h e o r d e r of s u p e r ­ n a t u r a l t r u t h , b u t t h e d e n i a l of t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e of t h a t o r d e r , t h e n i t h a s i t s f o u n d a t i o n in P a n t h e i s m . I n o r d e r t h a t n o t r u t h s h o u l d b e a b o v e t h e p o w e r s of o u r r a t i o n a l n a t u r e , o u r n a t u r e m u s t be identified w i t h the Divine N a t u r e . " M e n i m b u e d w i t h t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e will i n s i s t t h a t t h e h i g h e s t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n is t h e i n d i v i d u a l S t a t e o r t h e w h o l e g r o u p of S t a t e s t e n d i n g t o c o a l e s c e i n t o t h e w o r l d - s t a t e . They will a i m a t e l i m i n a t i n g e v e r y v e s t i g e of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e f r o m social o r g a n i z a t i o n . F o r t h o s e w h o a r e a w a r e of t h e i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e w o r l d of r e s p e c t for t h e R i g h t s of G o d a n d w h o u n d e r ­ s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g of t h e R e d e m p t i o n , N a t u r a l i s m is t h e f o r e ­ r u n n e r of d e c a y a n d d e a t h . W e s e e , t h e n , t h a t t h e r e a r e in u s f r o m B a p t i s m t w o c u r r e n t s of life, s o t o s a y . T h e r e is t h e c u r r e n t of n a t u r a l life, c o m i n g t o u s f r o m t h e first A d a m , w i t h i t s t e n d e n c y t o r e v o l t a n d selfc e n t r e d n e s s , a n d t h e r e is t h e c u r r e n t of S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e c o m i n g from Our Lord J e s u s Christ, the Second Adam, which aims at the o r d e r e d s u b j e c t i o n of o u r w h o l e life t o H i m in v i e w of u n i o n w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y . B y o u r n a t u r a l g e n e r a t i o n w e f o r m p a r t of t h e p r o g e n y of t h e first A d a m . By our supernatural regenera­ t i o n in t h e S a c r a m e n t of B a p t i s m , w e a r e e n g r a f t e d o n O u r L o r d J e s u s Christ and incorporated into His Mystical B o d y . Because of o u r n a t u r a l d e s c e n t , o u r p e r s o n a l life a n d o u r s o c i a l life, b o t h political and economic, are exposed to disorder and confusion. O w i n g t o t h e c o n t i n u o u s s t r e a m s of S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e c o m i n g from O u r L o r d ' s Sacred H u m a n i t y into our souls, more abundantly n o w t h a n before the Fall, w e a r e enabled to strive to b r i n g about s u p e r n a t u r a l o r d e r in o u r life a n d t o s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t N a t u r a l i s m .
( 1 4 ) ( 1 5 )

SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND T H E INDIVIDUAL M E M B E R OF SOCIETY. A s m a n is b y n a t u r e a social b e i n g , a n d as t h e a v e r a g e m e m b e r of s o c i e t y is, t o a n a l m o s t i n c a l c u l a b l e e x t e n t , a t t h e m e r c y of his s u r r o u n d i n g s , h e m u s t b e s u s t a i n e d , in his efforts t o c u l t i v a t e his p e r s o n a l i t y , b y a social f r a m e w o r k p e r m e a t e d b y t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l o u t l o o k . T h a t f r a m e w o r k in itself, of c o u r s e , is n o t e n o u g h , b u t t h e o r d e r of life d e m a n d s t h a t w e s h o u l d e v e r a n d a l w a y s s t r i v e f o r i t s r e a l i z a t i o n , t o t h e b e s t of o u r a b i l i t y . O u r d u t y t o G o d
T

(14) Cone. T r i d . , c a n . 3 ; S.T. I a I l a e , Q.81, a.4. Cf. Donzinger, 101-102. (15) Above the brotherhood of h u m a n i t y a n d f a t h e r l a n d , " said Pope P i u s X I , in his Allocution to the S p a n i s h Refugees, 14th Sept., 1936, " t h e r e is a b r o t h e r h o o d which is infinitely more sacred a n d m o r e p r e ­ cious, the brotherhood which makes us one in Christ, o u r Redeemer, n a m e l y , o u r k i n s h i p i n the Catholic Church, the Mystical Body of Christ."
11

10

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

a n d t o o u r f e l l o w m e n d e m a n d s t h i s , b e c a u s e s o c i e t y is d e s t i n e d for t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of h u m a n n a t u r e . I t is i n t e n d e d b y t h e C r e a t o r to acknowledge His R i g h t s a n d to co-operate h a r m o n i ­ o u s l y in c o m p l e t i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n of a m e m b e r of C h r i s t , b e g u n in t h e f a m i l y . A s s u c h , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n in all i t s f o r m s is m e a n t to accept God's plan for o r d e r l y h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t and c o - o p e r a t e w i t h H i m in a i d i n g its i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s t o g r a s p t h e o r d e r of t h e w o r l d a n d a c c e p t it, i n s t e a d of c a u s i n g d i s o r d e r and confusion by opposing and t h w a r t i n g Him. As m a n needs the h e l p of a social f r a m e w o r k b a s e d on t h e a c c e p t a n c e of t h e K i n g ­ s h i p of C h r i s t , s o s o c i e t y , in v i r t u e of i t s c r e a t u r c h o o d , is b o u n d to build up t h a t f r a m e w o r k . R o p e L e o X I I I , in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Imtnortaie Dei, is v e r y e m p h a t i c c o n c e r n i n g t h i s o b l i g a t i o n i n c u m b e n t on society. " N a t u r e and r e a s o n , " he w r i t e s , " which c o m m a n d e v e r y individual d e v o u t l y t o w o r s h i p G o d in holiness, b e c a u s e w e b e l o n g to H i m a n d m u s t r e t u r n t o H i m , s i n c e f r o m H i m w e c a m e , bind a l s o t h e civil c o m m u n i t y b y a l i k e l a w . M e n l i v i n g t o g e t h e r in s o c i e t y a r e u n d e r t h e p o w e r of G o d n o l e s s t h a n i n d i v i d u a l s a r c , a n d s o c i e t y , n o t less t h a n i n d i v i d u a l s , o w e s g r a t i t u d e t o G o d , w h o g a v e it b e i n g a n d m a i n t a i n s it, a n d w h o s e e v e r - b o u n t e o u s g o o d n e s s e n r i c h e s it w i t h c o u n t l e s s blessings. S i n c e , t h e n , n o o n e is a l l o w e d t o be r e m i s s in t h e s e r v i c e d u e t o G o d , a n d s i n c e t h e chief d u t y of all m e n is t o c l i n g t o r e l i g i o n in b o t h ils t e a c h i n g a n d p r a c t i c e — n o t s u c h r e l i g i o n as t h e y m a y h a v e a p r e f e r e n c e for, b u t t h e r e l i g i o n w h i c h G o d e n j o i n s , a n d w h i c h certain and m o s t clear m a r k s s h o w to be the one and only true r e l i g i o n — i t is a p u b l i c c r i m e t o a c t a s t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e n o G o d . S o , t o o , it is a s i n f o r t h e S t a t e n o t t o h a v e a c a r e f o r r e l i g i o n , a s s o m e t h i n g b e y o n d i t s s c o p e , o r a s of n o p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t : o r o u t of m a n y f o r m s of r e l i g i o n t o a d o p t t h a t o n e w h i c h c h i m e s in w i t h i t s f a n c y : for w e a r c b o u n d a b s o l u t e l y t o w o r s h i p G o d in t h a t w a y w h i c h H e h a s s h o w n t o be H i s will. . . . H e n c e civil s o c i e t y , established for the c o m m o n welfare, should not only s a f e g u a r d the w e l l - b e i n g of t h e c o m m u n i t y , b u t h a v e a l s o a t h e a r t t h e i n t e r e s t s of i t s i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s , i n s u c h w i s e a s n o t in a n y w a y t o h i n d e r , b u t in e v e r y m a n n e r t o r e n d e r a s e a s y a s p o s s i b l e , t h e p o s s e s s i o n of t h a t h i g h e s t a n d u n c h a n g e a b l e g o o d f o r w h i c h all should seek." T h e c i t i z e n s of a S t a t e a r e o b l i g e d t o r e n d e r t o G o d t h e t h i n g s t h a t are God's and to Caesar the things t h a t are Caesar's, b u t C a e s a r , t o o , t h a t is, t h e S t a t e a s a n o r g a n i z e d c o m m u n i t y , is b o u n d t o fulfil i t s d u t y to G o d . If it d o c s n o t , it will fail in i t s d u t y t o its c i t i z e n s , for it will n o t a i d t h e m a s it s h o u l d t o develop their personality. "When the State," writes Pope L e o X H 1 , " refuses to give to God w h a t belongs to God, by a necessary consequence, it refuses to give to its citizens t h a t to which they, as men, have a right. F o r , w h e t h e r

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

11

o n e l i k e s i t o r n o t , t h e t r u e r i g h t s of m a n s p r i n g p r e c i s e l y f r o m h i s d u t i e s t o w a r d s G o d . H e n c e i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e S t a t e , b y fail­ i n g in t h i s w a y t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t of its i n s t i t u t i o n , finally b e c o m e s false t o itself a n d d e n i e s t h a t w h i c h is t h e r e a s o n of its o w n e x i s t e n c e . " T h e r e s u l t s of t h e S t a t e ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o G o d a r e d i s a s t r o u s . " W h e n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e w o r l d , " w r i t e s V A b b e J o u r n e t , " is o u t of h a r m o n y w i t h t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l e n d of m a n , s c a r c e l y a n y b o d y except the saints and m a r t y r s can avoid m o r t a l sin a n d a b i d e in c h a r i t y . B u t w h e n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e w o r l d is a d ­ j u s t e d t o t h e d e m a n d s of t h e D i v i n e L i f e of s o u l s , t h e n t h o u s a n d s of C h r i s t i a n s c a n live a n d die in t h e l o v e of God. T h e y a r e s t r o n g e n o u g h t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e i r d u t y in t h e c o m p a n y of o t h e r s a n d t o p e r f o r m a c t s of h e r o i c v i r t u e a t c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o n a l m o m e n t s , b u t t h e y w o u l d h a v e been too w e a k to b r e a s t the frightful a n t i - s u p e r ­ n a t u r a l c u r r e n t of a p e r v e r t e d n a t u r a l i s t i c w o r l d . C h a r i t y , t h e n , u r g e s u s t o s t r i v e f o r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of a C h r i s t i a n t e m p o r a l order."< > I t is q u i t e t r u e t h a t n a t i o n s o r s o c i e t i e s do n o t g o t o h e a v e n . H u m a n b e i n g s g o t o h e a v e n o n e b y o n e , t o live i n t h e F a m i l y C i r c l e of t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y . B u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r of s o c i e t y lives u n d e r t h e n e v e r - c e a s i n g influence of his e n v i r o n m e n t , in w h i c h , if w e m a y n o t s a y t h a t h e is s u b m e r g e d , h e is. a t l e a s t , deeply plunged. S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n is r e q u i r e d t o aid t h e d i s ­ c i p l i n i n g of self a g a i n s t t h e unorganized t e n d e n c i e s of f o r m a l i s m a n d n a t u r a l i s m t h a t a r e in all of u s . I t is still m o r e i n d i s p e n s ­ a b l e in o r d e r t o c o m b a t t h e organized, a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s t h a t a r e i m b u e d w i t h opposition to O u r L o r d ' s p r o g r a m m e for t h e w o r l d . If C a t h o l i c s c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h i n c u l c a t i n g t h e p r i ­ v a t e p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n a n d a l l o w t h e i r social i n s t i t u t i o n s t o b e m o u l d e d b y t h o s e o r g a n i z e d naturalistic and anti-supernatural f o r c e s , t h e n , l i t t l e b y l i t t l e , t h e a v e r a g e m e m b e r of s o c i e t y will s u c c u m b t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of his s u r r o u n d i n g s . H e will g r a d u a l l y c e a s e t o live a s a m e m b e r of C h r i s t , t h o u g h he m a y r e t a i n t h e n a m e of C h r i s t i a n .
( 1 6 ) 17 ( 1 3 )

I n c o u n t r i e s w i t h a C a t h o l i c m a j o r i t y a n d an a g e - l o n g C a t h o l i c tradition, S a t a n and his fellow-demons, w h o form the o r g a n i z e d invisible a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e , p r o f i t b y t h e l a c k of v i g i l a n c e o n t h e p a r t of C a t h o l i c s in r e g a r d t o s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d g r a d u a l l y s a p belief in t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e a n d in t h e r e a l i t y of t h e F a l l . T h u s it h a s o f t e n t i m e s h a p p e n e d t h a t t h e w o r k of t h e visible f o r c e s , a i m i n g a t t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of N a t u r a l i s m , h a s m e t U6) Encyclical L e t t e r , Au milieu des sollicitudes (1892). (W) L'Ordre Social Chretien, in Nova et Vetera (1931), p . 377. (18) The t e n d e n c y to f o r m a l i s m is the tendency to be c o n t e n t with the e x t e r n a l accomplishment o f the rites o f religion w i t h o u t e n t e r i n g i n t o the i n n e r s p i r i t o f them.

12

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

w i t h l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e in c o u n t r i e s n o m i n a l l y C a t h o l i c . O n t h e one h a n d , then, Catholics faithful t o w h a t t h e y p r o f e s s a t M a s s , m u s t e v e r s t r i v e t o p e r m e a t e t h e f r a m e w o r k of s o c i e t y w i t h t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e , so t h a t t h e o r d i n a r y m a n m a y be a l w a y s a i d e d to a c t a s a m e m b e r of C h r i s t , a n d n o t find h i m ­ self, f r o m t h e m o m e n t h e l e a v e s C h u r c h , u r g e d b y a n t i - s u p e r ­ n a t u r a l c u r r e n t s to r e v o l t a g a i n s t C h r i s t . On the other hand, C a t h o l i c s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e n o t sufficient of t h e m s e l v e s t o m a i n ­ t a i n s o c i e t y C a t h o l i c . T h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e r e q u i s i t e is a f o r m a t i o n of t h e y o u t h of b o t h s e x e s w h i c h will b e p e n e t r a t e d t h r o u g h a n d t h r o u g h w i t h t h e d o c t r i n e of m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t . T h a t f o r m a ­ t i o n will a l o n e e n s u r e w h o l e - t i m e C a t h o l i c i s m a n d will e n a b l e t h e m t o d r a w f r o m t h e i r u n i o n w i t h O u r L o r d in M a s s a n d H o l y C o m m u n i o n t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l o v e t h a t is r e q u i r e d t o diffuse t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y t h e s e n s e of t h e i n d w e l l i n g of t h e B l e s s e d Trinity, through incorporation into Christ, and to w o r k unceas­ ingly for t h e p r o g r a m m e s e t forth by Christ. I t w a s t h e sense of t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y as c o - o f f e r e r s a n d c o - v i c t i m s w i t h C h r i s t in t h e M a s s t h a t n e r v e d C a t h o l i c s for t h e l o n g s t r u g g l e for t h e r e f o r m of t h e p a g a n w o r l d . " It w a s C h r i s t i a n i t y , " w r i t e s P o p e P i u s X I in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Divini Redemptoris, t h a t first affirmed t h e r e a l a n d u n i v e r s a l b r o t h e r h o o d of all m e n of w h a t e v e r r a c e and condition. . . . Not bloody revolution but the inner force of t h e C h u r c h ' s t e a c h i n g m a d e t h e p r o u d R o m a n m a t r o n s e e i n h e r s l a v e a s i s t e r in C h r i s t . " F o r t h e r e t u r n of t h e m o d e r n w o r l d t o C h r i s t , w e m u s t i n s i s t u p o n t h e s a m e g r e a t t r u t h of o u r o n e ­ n e s s in C h r i s t .
11

HUMAN

PERSONALITY

AND

INDIVIDUALITY.

I t w o u l d g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o c l e a r n e s s of t h o u g h t in r e g a r d t o t h e q u e s t i o n s i n v o l v e d in t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of o r d e r in t h e w o r l d , if t h e T h o m i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n personality a n d individuality w e r e fully g r a s p e d a n d c o n ­ s i s t e n t l y k e p t in v i e w . T h e n e g l e c t of e i t h e r of t h e s e a s p e c t s of t h e w h o l e t r u t h , b u t e s p e c i a l l y of t h e f o r m e r , l e a d s t o e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t a r c d i s a s t r o u s for h u m a n h a p p i n e s s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n r u n s t h r o u g h all St. T h o m a s ' s e x p o s i t i o n of t h e o r d e r of b e i n g . A s m a t t e r is t h e p r i n c i p l e of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , it is c l e a r t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l h u m a n b e i n g , a s s u c h , is a p a r t . " E a c h p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n is c o m p a r e d t o t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y a s a p a r t to the w h o l e . " " N o w , in n a t u r a l t h i n g s , " h e w r i t e s e l s e w h e r e , " e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h , a s s u c h , n a t u r a l l y b e l o n g s t o a n o t h e r , is p r i n ­ c i p a l l y a n d m o r e s t r o n g l y i n c l i n e d t o t h a t o t h e r t o w h i c h it b e ­ l o n g s , t h a n t o w a r d s itself. . . . F o r w e s e e t h a t a p a r t b y a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n r i s k s itself f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e w h o l e ,
( l 0 )

(16) H a I l a e , Q.64, a.2.

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

13

a s t h e h a n d w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n e x p o s e s itself to a b l o w t o s a v e t h e w h o l e b o d y . A n d b e c a u s e r e a s o n copies n a t u r e w e find t h i s a c t i o n r e p r o d u c e d in v i r t u o u s s o c i a l a c t i o n . A g o o d c i t i z e n will n o t h e s i t a t e t o e x p o s e h i m s e l f t o t h e d a n g e r of d e a t h t o s a v e t h e S t a t e . A n d if t h e c i t i z e n w e r e a n a t i v e ( o r n a t u r a l p a r t ) of t h e S t a t e in q u e s t i o n , t h e i n c l i n a t i o n t o m a k e t h e sacrifice w o u l d b e natural. A c c o r d i n g l y , b e c a u s e G o d is t h e U n i v e r s a l G o o d , a n d b e c a u s e a n g e l s a n d m e n a n d all c r e a t u r e s , l o o k e d a t f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of t h e i r b e i n g a n d e x i s t e n c e , a r e of God a n d b e l o n g t o G o d , it f o l l o w s t h a t a n g e l s a n d m e n b y n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n l o v e God m o r e t h a n themselves." > O n the o t h e r hand, for St. T h o m a s , " a m a n is n o t o r d a i n e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l c o m m u n i t y of w h i c h h e f o r m s p a r t , i n r e g a r d t o h i s w h o l e b e i n g a n d t o all t h a t is h i s . . . . f o r all t h a t a m a n is a n d all t h a t h e c a n a c c o m p l i s h a n d c a n p o s s e s s m u s t be o r d a i n e d to G o d . " T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y is i n ­ t e n d e d t o a i d m a n , c o n s i d e r e d f o r m a l l y as a p e r s o n d e s t i n e d for God, to a t t a i n union w i t h Him. > As an i n d e p e n d e n t whole, m a n e m e r g e s a b o v e t h e o r d e r of s o c i e t y , a n d t h e c o m m o n t e m p o r a l g o o d is o r d a i n e d t o h i m .
(20 l 2 1 J (22

T h e h u m a n b e i n g is t h e r e f o r e b o t h a n individual a n d a person. I n d i v i d u a l i t y is b a s e d o n m a t t e r a n d t h e r e f o r e b e l o n g s t o m a n b e ­ c a u s e of his a n i m a l n a t u r e . H u m a n n a t u r e , like a n i m a l n a t u r e , b u t u n l i k e a n g e l i c n a t u r e , c a n b e f o u n d r e a l i z e d in i n n u m e r a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s of t h e s a m e s p e c i e s , a n d t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e n e c e s ­ s a r i l y in r e l a t i o n w i t h o n e a n o t h e r . In other words, they are o b l i g e d t o f o r m s o c i a l g r o u p s ( s o c i e t i e s ) . F i r s t in o r d e r c o m e s t h e f a m i l y , a n d t h e n civil s o c i e t y , w h i c h h a s for o b j e c t the d e v e l o p m e n t of life. O n a c c o u n t of his m a t e r i a l n a t u r e a n d t h e m o d e of p r o p a g a t i o n of t h a t n a t u r e , t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t m e m b e r s of t h e s a m e s p e c i e s , m a n r e s e m b l e s t h e low er a n i m a l s . B e c a u s e m a n is a n individual of t h e h u m a n
r ( 2 3 )

(20) l p Q . . 5 . Cf. H a I l a e , Q.61, a . l ; H a I l a e , Q.64, a . 5 ; a n d H a I l a e , Q.65-, a . l . St. T h o m a s s a y s : " Where one being is the^whole cause of the existence a n d goodness of another being, t h a t being is n a t u r a l l y more loved by the other t h a n itself, because, as we said above, each p a r t n a t u r a l l y loves the whole more than itself : a n d each indivi­ d u a l n a t u r a l l y loves the good of the species more t h a n its own i n d i v i d u a l good. Now God is n o t only the good of the species, b u t is absolutely the U n i v e r s a l G o o d ; hence e v e r y t h i n g in its own way n a t u r a l l y loves God more t h a n i t s e l f " ( l a P . , Q.60, a.5, ad 1). (21) I H a e , Q.21, a.4, ad 3. Cf. M a r i t a i n , Three Reformer*, pp. 193-196. (22) We speak formally, when we consider not the subject of c e r t a i n characteristics, b u t the characteristics themselves, or r a t h e r the subject looked a t from t h a t p o i n t of view. (23) T h e social theory of Hobbes. the Social C o n t r a c t of Rous­ seau, Socialism a n d Communism, in stressing the resemblance of h u m a n society t o a beehive, dwell exclusively on the a n i m a l n a t u r e of m a n . T h e i r m a t e r i a l i s t philosophy denies m a n ' s personality.
a M 6 0 ) a a

14

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

species, he is an individual in society, a component part of the whole formed by the family or by civil society. From this point of view, he is ordained to the welfare of the State or social group as to the good of the whole of which he forms a part; he is sub­ ordinated to the Common Good which, as such, is of a nobler order than the good of the individual. He is thus, as an individual, directly ordered to society and through society to God, for society, being God's creature, is bound in the nature of things to acknow­ ledge its due subordination to God. On the other hand, this due acknowledgment of dependence on God, on the part of the social groups of which he forms a part, is required for the proper development of man's personality. Per­ sonality belongs to man because of his having an immaterial soul. Alone among visible beings, man can grasp with his intelligence and love with his will God, the Supreme Good, and the order of the world subject to Him. Thus, while all other visible beings move to their end, because they are impelled thereto by the cur­ rent of the world in which they are immersed, man alone can rise above that current and enter into direct relation with God. He is not immersed in the movement of the universe and in this re­ spect resembles the angels. > Every human being, as a person, is ordained directly to God, and as such, society exists for him. The political and economic arrangements of society are therefore meant to subserve the spiritual and eternal interests of the human person. Accordingly, as in the actual order of the world, the human person is destined to supernatural union with God, the Divine Plan for harmonious social development, through member­ ship of Our Lord's Mystical Body, must be grasped and accepted. Man as an individual is for society, but society is for the person, "The good of the community (the Common Good) . . . is super­ ior to the good of the individual looked at from the point of view of the terrestrial values according to which the individual forms part of the community. But these terrestrial values themselves are inferior to the dignity of the person. . . . The person stands out above the level of the society of which the individual forms a part."<«>
(24

(24) Liberalism, Romanticism, the philosophy of Locke, and the state of nature as described by Rousseauist-Masonic revolutionary oratory, with their stressing o f the independence o f the individual human unit, misinterpret this resemblance of man to the angels. Both the Liberalistic writers and legislators, as well as the Socialists and Communists mentioned in a previous note, start from one and the same false prin­ ciple of the autonomy of the. Individual, thus confusing the whole basis of social organization, namely, the distinction between man as a person
and man as an individual. Cf. Vulture Lutinc, et Ordre Social, by

R. P. Gillet, O.P., pp. 40-5&
(25) J)u Regime* Temporel et de la Liherte, by J. Maritain, p. 63, and Three Reformers (English edition) pp. 22, 194. Cf. Ha Hae, Q.64, a.2; la Hae, Q.21, a.4, ad 3.

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

15

" M a n h a s a s p i r i t u a l a n d i m m o r t a l s o u l . H e is a p e r s o n , m a r ­ v e l l o u s l y e n d o w e d b y h i s C r e a t o r w i t h gifts of b o d y a n d m i n d . H e is a t r u e ' m i c r o c o s m / a s t h e a n c i e n t s said, a w o r l d in m i n i a ­ t u r e , w i t h a v a l u e f a r s u r p a s s i n g t h a t of t h e v a s t i n a n i m a t e c o s m o s . G o d a l o n e is h i s l a s t e n d , in t h i s life a n d t h e n e x t . B y s a n c t i f y i n g g r a c e he is r a i s e d t o t h e d i g n i t y of a s o n of G o d , a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e K i n g d o m of G o d in t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of Christ. In consequence he has been endowed by God with m a n y a n d v a r i e d p r e r o g a t i v e s : t h e r i g h t t o life, t o b o d i l y i n t e g r i t y , t o o b t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y m e a n s of e x i s t e n c e ; t h e r i g h t t o t e n d t o w a r d h i s u l t i m a t e g o a l in t h e p a t h m a r k e d o u t for h i m b y G o d ; t h e r i g h t of a s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e r i g h t t o p o s s e s s a n d u s e p r o p e r t y . . . S o l i k e w i s e a r e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d f u n d a m e n t a l p r e r o g a t i v e s of t h e f a m i l y fixed a n d d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e C r e a t o r . I n t h e E n c y c l i c a l on Christian M a r r i a g e a n d in O u r o t h e r E n c y c l i c a l on ICducat i o n , c i t e d a b o v e , W e h a v e t r e a t e d t h e s e topics a t c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h . . . . B u t G o d h a s l i k e w i s e d e s t i n e d m a n f o r civil s o c i e t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i c t a t e s of h i s v e r y n a t u r e . I n t h e p l a n of t h e C r e a t o r , s o c i e t y is a n a t u r a l m e a n s w h i c h m a n c a n a n d m u s t u s e t o r e a c h h i s d e s t i n e d e n d . S o c i e t y is f o r m a n , n o t m a n for s o c i e t y . T h i s m u s t n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d in t h e s e n s e of l i b e r a l i s t i c I n d i v i d u a l ­ i s m , w h i c h s u b o r d i n a t e s s o c i e t y t o t h e selfish u s e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; b u t o n l y in t h e s e n s e t h a t b y m e a n s of an o r g a n i c u n i o n w i t h s o c i e t y a n d b y m u t u a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h e a t t a i n m e n t of e a r t h l y w e l f a r e is p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e r e a c h of all. F u r t h e r , i t is s o c i e t y w h i c h a f f o r d s t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of all t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d social g i f t s b e s t o w e d o n h u m a n n a t u r e . . . . M a n c a n n o t be e x e m p t e d from his divinely-imposed obligations t o w a r d civil s o c i e t y , a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a u t h o r i t y h a v e t h e r i g h t to coerce h i m w h e n he refuses w i t h o u t reason to do his d u t y . S o c i e t y , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c a n n o t d e f r a u d m a n of h i s G o d - g r a n t e d r i g h t s , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t of w h i c h W e h a v e i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , o r m a k e t h e i r u s e i m p o s s i b l e . I t is t h e r e f o r e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i c ­ t a t e s of r e a s o n t h a t all e a r t h l y t h i n g s s h o u l d be for t h e u s e a n d b e n e f i t of m a n , a n d s o , through him, be referred to the Creator. T h i s a c c o r d s w i t h t h e w o r d s of t h e A p o s t l e of t h e G e n t i l e s , w h o w r i t e s to the Corinthians on Christian salvation: ' A l l things are y o u r s , a n d y o u a r e C h r i s t ' s , a n d C h r i s t is G o d ' s . While Com­ m u n i s m impoverishes h u m a n personality by inverting the t e r m s of t h e r e l a t i o n of m a n t o s o c i e t y , t o w h a t lofty h e i g h t s is m a n not elevated by reason and Revelation! >
{ 2 6 ) , ( 2 7 ) ,J(28

A m a n w i l l b e fully a n d a c t u a l l y a p e r s o n , e n j o y i n g t h a t i n d e ­ p e n d e n c e of e x i s t e n c e a n d c o n s e q u e n t i n d e p e n d e n c e of a c t i o n w h i c h b e l o n g s t o h i m , a s s u c h , in p r o p o r t i o n as t h e life of r e a s o n a n d
(27)

Ehcycl., Casti connubii, I Cor., I l l , 23. <28) E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Divini

Dec. 31, 1930. Red&mptoris, On Atheistic Communism.

16

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST
( 2 9 )

f r e e - w i l l d o m i n a t e s in h i m o v e r t h a t of t h e s e n s e s a n d p a s s i o n s . W i t h o u t t h a t d o m i n a t i o n , h e will r e m a i n a s l a v e t o p a s s i n g e v e n t s and circumstances, always carried a w a y by every passing sensei m p r e s s i o n a n d b e r e f t of t h a t s e l f - m a s t e r y w h i c h s h o u l d b e h i s . I n a w o r d h e will s h o w t h a t d e p e n d e n c e o n m a t t e r w h i c h c o m e s f r o m h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . B y h i s individuality he is essentially d e ­ p e n d e n t on a certain e n v i r o n m e n t , a certain climate, a certain descent. T o d e v e l o p o n e ' s individuality m e a n s t o l e a d a selfish e x i s t e n c e , to b e c o m e a s l a v e to o n e ' s p a s s i o n s , s t r i v i n g t o m a k e o n e s e l f t h e c e n t r e of e v e r y t h i n g , a n d in t h e e n d b e c o m i n g d e p e n d ­ ent on a thousand and one ephemeral things which bring a miser­ a b l e p l e a s u r e of a m o m e n t . Personality, on the other hand, grows, i n p r o p o r t i o n a s t h e soul lifts itself a b o v e t h e w o r l d of s e n s e a n d a t t a c h e s itself m o r e a n d m o r e , b y t h e i n t e l l e c t a n d will, t o t h a t w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e life of a s p i r i t u a l b e i n g , n a m e l y , k n o w l e d g e a n d l o v e of t h e S u p r e m e l y P e r f e c t B e i n g a s H e is in H i m s e l f . G o d a l o n e p o s s e s s e s -personality in t h e full s e n s e of t h e w o r d , f o r H e a l o n e is fully i n d e p e n d e n t , in H i s B e i n g a n d in H i s A c t i o n . O n l y H e w h o is b e i n g itself h a s a n e x i s t e n c e t h a t is i n d e p e n d e n t , n o t m e r e l y of m a t t e r , b u t a l s o of e v e r y t h i n g t h a t is n o t H i m s e l f . A c c o r d i n g l y , o u r p e r s o n a l i t y is d e v e l o p e d in p r o p o r t i o n a s o u r life t e n d s t o w a r d s G o d a n d is a s s i m i l a t e d t o G o d ' s life, t h a t is, in t h e a c t u a l o r d e r , in p r o p o r t i o n a s w e live in u n i o n w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y p r e s e n t in us b y G r a c e t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t a n d s t r i v e t o s h a r e in t h e life of i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d l o v e of t h e T h r e e Divine Persons. P e r s o n a l i t y in t h e o r d e r of a c t i o n is t h u s G o d c e n t r e d n e s s in o p p o s i t i o n t o s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s . A s all t h i n g s t e n d t o w a r d s G o d b y t h e i r n a t u r e , p e r s o n a l i t y in a c t i o n i m p l i e s a firm g r a s p of t h a t o r d e r e d t e n d e n c y a n d a n i n t e n s e l o v e of t h e o r d e r thus grasped. T h i s l o v e will m a n i f e s t itself b y a c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , t h a t is, by t h e p o w e r of s u p p r e s s i n g t h e i n c l i n a t i o n t o m a k e self t h e c e n t r e of life a n d of r e s p e c t i n g t h e t e n d e n c y of all b e i n g s t o G o d , t h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h e U n i v e r s e . < > Every s i n is a c o n s c i o u s d i s o r d e r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n of s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s . A s t h e m o v e m e n t of e v e r y b e i n g is t o w a r d s G o d , in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p o w e r s b e s t o w e d o n it, t h e c o n s c i o u s v o l u n t a r y d i r e c t i o n g i v e n t o h i s b e i n g b y a s i n n e r in a sinful a c t is in o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s n a t u r e .
30

(29) " Persona eat per se siibsistews et per se operans." (30) The p r o x i m a t e p r i n c i p l e of l i b e r t y thus d i s p l a y e d i n the conquest of self is i n t h e infinite vastness of the will, by which a m a n r e m a i n s m a s t e r of his p r a c t i c a l decisions. T h e root p r i n c i p l e of l i b e r t y is in the intelligence, which g r a s p s the very idea of good a n d so can d o m i n a t e the a t t r a c t i o n of every object not completely e x e m p t from imperfec­ t i o n . F a c u l t i e s t h a t g r a s p the o r d e r of being' a n d the idea of good u l t i m a t e l y have their source in a being t h a t is i n d e p e n d e n t of m a t t e r . Cf. I a P., Q.18, art. 3, a n d IMeu, by P e r e G a r r i g o u - L a g r a n g e , O . P . , p. 624.

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST
31

17

He goes against order and prefers a partial passing good to God, thus lowering the level of his personality/ ' This is what the Saints understood. They realized that by Sanctifying Grace they had been made partakers of the Life of God as He is Himself, and were thus enabled to lift themselves up to that Life in which the fulness of personality is to be found. Grace, being a participation of the Divine Nature coming to them from Our Lord, Head of the Mystical Body, enabled them, on their level and with their limitations, to substitute progress­ ively in the order of action, that is, of knowledge and love, Our Lord's interior and exterior attitude, for their human self-centred way of judging and willing. Our Lord enjoyed the vision of the Blessed Trinity face to face in His human soul and all His exterior actions were animated with the supernatural love of the Triune God springing from that vision. So His life was perfectly ordered and completely centred on God. The Saints likewise as members of Christ strove to live with God in Three Divine Persons present in them in the obscurity of faith and animated all their dealings with their fellow-members of Christ's Mystical Body, actual and potential, with the same supernatural love of the Triune God. The Saints strove to die to self in order that God might reign in them. They ever sought the will of God instead of their own will, to love God infinitely more than themselves and above all. They grasped thoroughly that self-centredness is the great obstacle to the development of our most real Life, the Life of Our Head in us. On account of our self-centredness, we either do not grasp the objective order, that is, the lines of action in­ cumbent on us, or if we see them, we refuse to sacrifice ourselves in the way indicated. By the sacrifice of self, the Saints acquired in a certain sense what God has by nature, namely, complete in­ dependence with regard to all created things. They sought their own good of course, but in perfect order, that is, as became mem­ bers of the Mystical Body of Christ loving their own particular good in perfect subjection to God, the Common Good of the Universe. PERSONALITY, INDIVIDUALITY AND THE COMMON GOOD. To the paramount rights of God correspond duties on the part of man, and these duties to God are the foundation of the true (31) Venial sin is a violation of order in regard to what leads to the end, in other words, a fault which does not make of self the end of life to the exclusion of God. By it, therefore, we do not withdraw our­ selves completely from subjection to the guidance of Christ, our Head. By mortal sin we reject completely the rule of Christ, for by it we make of self the end of life. " Peccatum veniale est inordinatio exsistens circa ea quae sunt ad finem, servato debito ordine ad finem. Peccatum mortale est deordinatio circa finem ipsum," Cf. Ia Ilae, Q.89, a.3 et a.4.
D

18

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF
32

CHRIST

r i g h t s of man.< > T h u s t h e d u t y of t e n d i n g t o G o d in t h e w a y H e h a s l a i d d o w n , n a m e l y , a s a m e m b e r of C h r i s t , is t h e f o u n d a t i o n of t h e t r u e r i g h t s of m a n a s a h u m a n p e r s o n . B e c a u s e all m e n a r e c a l l e d t o love a n d s e r v e t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y a s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t , f r e e d o m t o w o r s h i p t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y , in t h e C a t h o l i c w a y God desires, and to develop their personality after the model of Christ, are indisputable h u m a n rights. N o w a sufficiency of w h a t t h e b o d y r e q u i r e s , is n o r m a l l y i n d i s p e n s a b l e , a s a s e c o n d a r y a n d q u a s i - i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n , f o r t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y . S o c i e t y o u g h t , t h e r e f o r e , t o be o r g a n i z e d w i t h a v i e w t o s e c u r e t h e b e c o m i n g m i n i m u m of p e r s o n a l r i g h t s f o r all a n d f o r e a c h of i t s m e m b e r s . A s t h e d u e f u n c t i o n i n g of s o c i e t y i s t h u s a n i n t e r m e d i a r y e n d in v i e w of t h e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e s u p r e m e e n d of h u m a n p e r s o n s , w h i c h is t h e p o s s e s s i o n of G o d in T h r e e D i v i n e P e r s o n s , all of u s , a s i n d i v i d u a l s , a r e b o u n d t o k e e p a l w a y s i n v i e w t h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h e s o c i e t y , t h a t is, w e all, b o t h r u l e r s and ruled, a r e b o u n d to p r a c t i s e Social J u s t i c e . > I t is o n l y t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t t h a t w e c a n c o n s i s t e n t l y k e e p i n v i e w t h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h e s o c i e t y i n all o u r a c t i o n s , a n d
(33

( ) M a n ' s r i g h t s being founded on his dutievS to God, he has n o t a right to reject the D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r a n d go a g a i n s t God, either a s a n i n d i v i d u a l o r as a member of society. Good faith excuses from f o r m a l sin but does not confer r i g h t s on e r r o r : these belong to t r u t h •alone. M a n h a s not a right to d o wrong. I t is true t h a t he h a s the r i g h t as a p e r s o n not to be forced to accept w h a t he does not as y e t see t h a t he o u g h t to accept, b u t t h a t is a very different t h i n g . T h e r e c a n be no such t h i n g as a r i g h t in o p p o s i t i o n to God's rights. A m a n m a y be excused from fulfilling his d u t y to God t h r o u g h i n c u l p a b l e i g n o r a n c e , but a man has not a r i g h t to go a g a i n s t his d u t y to God. t ) Social or Legal J u s t i c e is the v i r t u e which enables u s to sub­ o r d i n a t e to the Common Good the acts of all the v i r t u e s . " I t is p r i ­ m a r i l y in the prince o r ruler as chief c o m m a n d e r and secondarily i n t h e subjects as agents of execution " ( H a H a e , Q.58, a.6). Cf. I l a H a e , Q.58, a.5, 6, 7; a n d l a H a e , Q.60, a.3, ad 2. Cf. also Conscience Chretienne et Justice So dale, by R. P . Gillet, O . P . , p p . 134-142. " H e who seeks the Common Good of the g r o u p to which he belongs, by that very fact seeks his own good also, a n d t h a t for two reasons. F i r s t l y , because the good of the i n d i v i d u a l c a n n o t be complete unless t h e Common Good of the g r o u p , family* c i t y a n d c o u n t r y , t o which he belongs, be assured. H e n c e M a x i m u s V a l e r i u s ( F a c t , et Diet. Mem., lib. 4, c a p . 6) says of the a n c i e n t R o m a n s t h a t they p r e f e r r e d t o be p o o r i n a wealthy state r a t h e r t h a n be wealthy in a poor one. Secondly, since a man forms a c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t of a family a n d a state, if he acts p r u d e n t l y with r e g a r d t o the Common Good, he will necessarily l e a r n t o seek his own good r i g h t l y , so t h a t i t m a y be a d v a n t a g e o u s to the Common Good. F o r the p a r t s m u s t be a r r a n g e d so as to s u i t the whole. A s St. A u g u s t i n e expresses i t in the t h i r d c h a p t e r of the Confessions: ' I t is unbecoming for a p a r t n o t to fit h a r m o n i o u s l y i n t o the whole ' " ( H a I l a e , Q. 47, a. 10). W i t h r e g a r d to the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of t h e Common Good t o the e n d of the h u m a n person, see M a r i t a i n , Du Regime Tempo ret et de la Liberie*, p p . 50, 51, a n d J'Abbe J o u r n e t , V Union des Sglises, p. 266.
33

32

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

19

work steadily for the reign of Social Justice. It is only through full acknowledgment of the Rights of God as proclaimed" by Christ and His Church that the rulers of States will be able to practise Social Justice and respect the personal rights of their subjects without essential deviations from order. Human personality will not be respected as it ought to be, unless fhe Rights of God are fully upheld, and the great triumphs of mankind in the realm of physical science will be utilized to reduce men to the level of mere individuals. Hence the Rights of God are the foundation of the duties and, consequently, of the rights of the human person, and those rights are, in their turn, the foundation of the duties of the individual member of society. For, in order that society may be able to re­ spect the personal rights of its members, the citizens must fulfil their duties with regard to society. All must respect the legitim­ ate authority which is directly charged with safeguarding the Common Good, and obey the just laws made in view of that Good. Since, in the nature of things, the Common Good is ordained for the development of the personality of the citizens, all, both rulers and ruled, are bound to work for it, in order to have the right to make use of it in their turn. The more we love God as it is our personal duty as members of Christ to do, the more fully we shall be urged by our charity to discharge all our individual duties to the Common Good. Then, we in our turn shall be aided by it in the development of our personality. On account of our individual inequalities, however, we cannot all serve the Common Good in the same way nor with the same intensity. A child and an adult, a woman and a man, an ignorant man and a learned one, cannot render the same services to society. Neither have they the same claims upon it. Each member of society can demand respect for his fundamental rights as a human person which, as we have seen, it belongs to Social Justice to secure. > But, once these rights have been safeguarded, each
(34

<W) P o p e P i u s XI insists u p o n the necessity of Social J u s t i c e in the Encyclical on Atheistic Communism. H e stresses the fact t h a t the citizens m u s t fulfil their d u t i e s to the society, in order t h a t the society m a y be able to p r o v i d e for the p e r s o n a l r i g h t s of its i n d i v i d u a l members, b u t lays g r e a t e r emphasis u p o n the p r i m a r y obligation of the r u l e r s to p r a c t i s e Social Justice. " Besides commutative j u s t i c e , " he writes, there is also social justice w i t h its own set obligations, from which n e i t h e r e m p l o y e r s nor working men can escape. Now it is of the very essence of social justice to d e m a n d from each i n d i v i d u a l all t h a t is necessary for the common good. B u t j u s t as in the l i v i n g o r g a n i s m it is impossible to p r o v i d e for the good of the whole unless each single p a r t a n d each i n d i v i d u a l member is given what it needs for the exercise of its p r o p e r functions, so it is impossible to care for the social o r g a n i s m a n d the good of society as a whole unless each p a r t a n d each i n d i v i d u a l member t h a t is to say, each i n d i v i d u a l m a n in t h e d i g n i t y of his h u m a n personality—is s u p p l i e d with all t h a t is necessary for the exercise
11

20

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

member of society has a right to share in the Common Good in proportion to his or her social value, that is, in proportion to the services rendered lo the Common Good. These services vary with individual capacities and services. The State must never forget, in the proportionate distribution of social favours that the family is the nucleus of society. Family life must be favoured and strengthened by every possible m e a n s / Accordingly, since society exists for the development of per­ sonality, in and through Christ, society, on which man as an in­ dividual is so dependent, must be organized along the lines indi­ cated by Our Lord Himself.<W in this way alone will the indi­ vidual members be as efficaciously aided as they should be in grasping the order of the world, accepting it and expressing it in life. Thus alone also will Social Justice be respected and we shall have a social organization capable of harmonizing the fundamental equality of human persons as members of Christ with the inevit­ able inequality of individual conditions, in which the members of the Mystical Body arc destined to work out their salvation. Admitting the inevitable inequality of human conditions, Liberal­ ism denies, in practice, the essential equality of human persons and the fundamental rights of human personality, by the legalized oppression of the weak and the feeble. Admitting the specific or essential equality of human beings, the Socialists and Communits, in their insane attempts to do away with individual inequali­ ties, also legalize the denial of human personality. Both Liberal­ ism and Communism reach this level of degradation, because, owing to imperfect philosophy, they confuse the true freedom of the human person with an impossible independence of the human
351

individual.

What are the lines of social organization indicated by Christ when He founded the Kingdom of His Mystical Body? To answer this question we must begin by an explanation of the Kingship of Christ in its essence. This will be the subject matter of the next chapter, in which w e shall treat also of the relation between the Kingship of Christ and His Priesthood. Then, in the following chapters, we shall see the meaning of the Kingship of Christ in its integrity and set forth the outlines of social organization in sub­ jection to Christ the King.
r

of his social functions. If social justice be satisfied, the result will be an intense activity in economic life as a whole, pursued in tranquillity and order." Cf, Appendix on Social Justice.
(35) Cf. Culture 40-56. Latine et Ordre Social,

by R. P. Gillet, O.P., p p .

W> " The true good is the common good regulated according to divine justice " (la Ilae, Q.92, a.l).

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

21

A P P E N D I X .
SOCIAL JUSTICE.

T H E MEANING OF SOCIAL JUSTICE. T h e T h o m i s t i c d o c t r i n e o n t h e m e a n i n g of S o c i a l J u s t i c e h a s b e e n e x p o s e d w i t h his c u s t o m a r y l u c i d i t y b y R. P . Gillet, O . P . , i n a l e c t u r e g i v e n b y h i m o n t h e o c c a s i o n of t h e Semaine Socialc de Franee a t T o u l o u s e in 1921. > S t . T h o m a s , h e s a y s , u s e s t h e t e r m L e g a l J u s t i c e t o d e s i g n a t e t h e v i r t u e w h i c h h a s for s p e c i a l o b j e c t t h e public i n t e r e s t or the C o m m o n Good, and which enables both rulers a n d ruled to subordinate their private interests to the Com­ m o n G o o d as t h e y should. L e g a l Justice, according to the Angelic D o c t o r , is a v i r t u e p e r f e c t i n g a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e w i l l / ) a m o v ­ i n g o r p r o p e l l i n g v i r t u e , of w h i c h t h e e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n is t o directt o t h e C o m m o n G o o d t h e a c t s of all t h e v i r t u e s , o r , a s h e s a y s e l s e w h e r e , all t h e a c t s of t h e v i r t u e s / *
(1 2 3

I t is b y t h e a n a l y s i s of t h i s v i r t u e of L e g a l J u s t i c e t h a t S t . T h o m a s b e g i n s his T r e a t i s e o n J u s t i c e . H e first a s k s t h e q u e s ­ t i o n w h e t h e r J u s t i c e is a g e n e r a l v i r t u e a n d r e p l i e s as f o l l o w s : " J u s t i c e h a s as end to r e g u l a t e t h e relations b e t w e e n m e n . N o w a m a n m a y b e l o o k e d u p o n in r e l a t i o n t o a n o t h e r in t w o w a y s , either individually or socially. By the latter t e r m w e m e a n t h a t a m a n m a y b e in r e l a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r m a n i n a s m u c h a s h e s e r v e s a s o c i a l g r o u p a n d t h r o u g h t h e g r o u p all t h o s e w h o b e l o n g t o it. F o r it is e v i d e n t t h a t all t h o s e w h o live in s o c i e t y a r e r e l a t e d t o it a s t h e p a r t s t o t h e w h o l e . N o w , t h e p a r t , a s s u c h , is s o m e t h i n g of t h e w h o l e . T h u s t h e g o o d of e v e r y v i r t u e , b o t h of t h e v i r t u e s w h i c h p e r f e c t u s p e r s o n a l l y a n d t h o s e w h i c h p e r f e c t us in o u r relation w i t h others, should b e directed to the C o m m o n Good t o w h i c h J u s t i c e o r d a i n s u s . I t f o l l o w s f r o m t h i s t h a t t h e a c t s of all t h e v i r t u e s d e p e n d o n J u s t i c e w hich d i r e c t s m a n t o t h e C o m m o n G o o d . A c c o r d i n g l y , J u s t i c e is a g e n e r a l v i r t u e . " * *
T 4

N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r of L e g a l J u s t i c e d o e s n o t p r e v e n t it f r o m b e i n g a special v i r t u e . J u s t as C h a r i t y can be t e r m e d a g e n e r a l v i r t u e b e c a u s e it d i r e c t s t o t h e D i v i n e G o o d n e s s t h e a c t s of all t h e v i r t u e s , s o l i k e w i s e L e g a l J u s t i c e is a g e n e r a l v i r t u e i n a s m u c h a s it o r d a i n s t h e a c t s of all t h e v i r t u e s t o t h e (i) T h e lecture deals with the 'whole question of social responsibility in r e g a r d to investments. Only the p a r t t r e a t i n g of Social J u s t i c e is here s u m m a r i z e d . < > H a H a e , Q.58, a.4. 2 < > H a H a e , Q.58, a. 5, a.7; l a H a e , Q.60, a.3, ad 2. * < > H a H a e , Q.58, a.4, a.5, a . 6 , a . 7 ; l a H a e , Q.60, a.3, ad 2. *

22

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

Common Good. Since we know that in the supernatural order a virtuous act is meritorious only inasmuch as it is under the in­ fluence of Charity, so we can conclude that individual virtues would cease to be virtues, if they did not bear the impress of Legal Justice and receive its fruitful impulsion. The general func­ tion of Charity does not prevent it from being in its essence a special virtue, since it has for special object the Divine Goodness. We must say exactly the same thing about Legal Justice. It is in its essence a special virtue, for it has for special object the Common G o o d / It is only after having thus set forth the general function and the special object of Legal Justice that St. Thomas puts himself the question whether, besides this virtue, there are not other vir­ tues of justice having for object, not the Common Good or the good of the whole group, but the private good of the individuals composing the group. He answers this question in the affirma­ tive and distinguishes two kinds of Particular Justice: Commuta­ tive Justice and Distributive Justice. Commutative Justice regul­ ates the relations of justice between individuals. Distributive Jus­ tice regulates the distribution of the Common Good to the sub­ jects, by the authority in the society, according to their social value and the rights which flow from i t / That the most import­ ant virtue of justice for St. Thomas is Legal Justice is abundantly clear from the fact that the two forms of Particular Justice, Com­ mutative Justice and Distributive Justice, arc subject to its direc­ tion like all the other moral virtues, as they too must be directed to the Common Good/ Between the Common Good of a society and the particular good of its individual members, there is the same specific difference as between the whole and its parts. The Common Good does not differ from the particular good merely as regards quantity. It is not a sum-total arrived at by the addition of the particular goods of the members, but a whole of a special kind which surpasses this sum-total in moral value as the society itself surpasses the mere collection of its individual members/ Therefore we must say that Legal Justice, in spite of its general motive function, is a special virtue which has for object the Common Good towards which it directs the acts of all the virtues. The other moral vir­ tues, in spite of the particular character of their object, are social virtues in so far as Legal Justice makes them serve the Common
51 Gj 71 81

Good/9

1

< Ha M (6) Ha (7) Ha (8) H a <> Ha
9

Ilae, Q.58, a.6. Ilae, Q.58, a.7. Ilae, Q.58, a.7, ad 1. Ilae, Q.58. a.7, ad 2. Ilae, Q.58, a.6 (conclusion of the article).

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST LEGAL OR SOCIAL JUSTICE,

23

Why does St. Thomas use the expression Legal Justice rather than Social Justice? He himself gives the reason. It is called Legal Justice, he says, because it keeps a man in harmony with the law whose function is precisely that of directing the acts of all the virtues to the Common Good/ > In order to understand the importance of this answer, we must go back to St. Thomas's Treatise on Laws. We know that for him every law, whether eternal, natural or human, is an order in accordance with right reason made with a view to the Common Good. The binding force of human law springs from the fact that it aims at the Common Good and it loses its power to oblige in conscience if it does not do so. On the other hand, all human positive laws drawn up and promulgated in view of the Common Good oblige in con­ science/ ! Since St. Thomas, then, employs the expression, Legal Justice, for General Justice, because it is the function of law to regulate the actions of man in view of the Common Good, he could just as well have used the term Social Justice. Why is this so? Because, according to him, the Common Good is the proper object of society. It is precisely for this reason that he says that Legal Justice " is found primarily in the ruler as chief commander and secondarily in the subjects as agents of execution."* ) The rulers are directly charged with safeguarding the Common Good of society; it belongs to them to make and promulgate the laws re­ gulating the conduct of their subjects and aiming exclusively at the Common Good. Social Justice is, therefore, primarily the virtue of rulers of societies, but it is also the virtue of the sub­ jects, that is, of all those who form part of a society and precisely because they form part of it. Though the law regulates the acts of all the virtues in view of the Common Good, it cannot regulate every act. It is not even desirable that it should attempt to do so. Continual State-intervention is not good, either- from the moral or the economic aspect. By paralysing individual initiative, legal constraint will prove hurtful to the Common Good instead of favourable. The subjects must become conscious of their obliga­ tions as members of society and must show themselves just towards all by directing all their virtuous acts to the Common Good, both those that are regulated by law and those that are not. In the latter case, it is their sense of equity which will enable them to act as they should/ *
10 11 12 18

<H>) Ha Hae, Q.58, a.5 (conclusion of the article).
OU 7a H a e , Q.96, a.4.

U2) Ha Ilae, Q.58, a.6. (13) In this connexion we must remember that for St. Thomas " it was a most certain doctrine that the love of God must always be on the

24

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

C o n s i d e r e d f r o m t h i s p o i n t of v i e w , S o c i a l J u s t i c e is s e e n t o be a s o v e r e i g n v i r t u e e x e r c i s i n g its c o n t r o l o v e r t h e t h o u g h t s , t h e s e n t i m e n t s a n d t h e a c t s of t h e c i t i z e n s a n d s u b j e c t i n g t h e m t o its g e n e r a l impulsion. F a r from a n n i h i l a t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , it combats only individualism. It d e m a n d s that the citizens should s e r v e t h e s o c i e t y in o r d e r t o h a v e t h e r i g h t t o m a k e u s e of it. T h e y m u s t d i r e c t t o t h e C o m m o n G o o d t h e u t i l i z a t i o n of all t h e i r m a t e r i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d m o r a l r e s o u r c e s , in o r d e r t h a t t h e C o m ­ m o n G o o d m a y r e t u r n t o e a c h of t h e m a n d e n a b l e all w i t h o u t d i s ­ t i n c t i o n t o d e v e l o p t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y a s fully a s p o s s i b l e , t h a t i s , t o r e a l i z e t h e f u l n e s s of t h e i r h u m a n i d e a l by r e s e m b l a n c e t o C h r i s t . T h a t is t h e e n d for w h i c h m e n live in s o c i e t y . Of c o u r s e , all t h e m e m b e r s of a g r o u p h a v e n o t t h e s a m e s o c i a l value. S o m e a r c m o r e moral, or m o r e intelligent, or m o r e active, o r s t r o n g e r t h a n o t h e r s , a n d t h i s will b e a sufficient m o t i v e f o r t h e s o c i a l a u t h o r i t y t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e C o m m o n G o o d in p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l v a l u e of t h e d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . All, h o w e v e r , w h a t ­ e v e r m a y be t h e i r s o c i a l v a l u e as c i t i z e n s in t h e s o c i e t y of w h i c h t h e y are m e m b e r s , have the same h u m a n value. All a r c m e n c r e a t e d t o t h e i m a g e of G o d a n d c a l l e d t o b e m e m b e r s of C h r i s t , a n d all, if t h e y o b s e r v e S o c i a l J u s t i c e , w i l l h a v e t h e r i g h t t o r e ­ c e i v e f r o m t h e C o m m o n G o o d w h a t is s t r i c t l y n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o live in a m a n n e r b e f i t t i n g h u m a n p e r s o n s . T w o r e m a r k s m u s t b e a d d e d in c o n c l u s i o n . I n t h e first p l a c e , w e have seen above t h a t the laws e n a c t e d by rulers a n i m a t e d by t h e v i r t u e of S o c i a l J u s t i c e s h o u l d n o t a t t e m p t t o r e g u l a t e all t h e a c t s of t h e i r s u b j e c t s . T h e y s h o u l d d e m a n d w h a t is n e c e s s a r y / * a n d s h o u l d , in a d d i t i o n , f a v o u r t h e e d u c a t i o n of t h e c i t i z e n s a s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t / * I n t h i s w a y , t h e s u b j e c t s will b e h e l p e d
1 4 1 5

increase : T h i s is e v i d e n t from the very form of the c o m m a n d m e n t , Thou shall love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart: the whole^ is the same as the perfect . . . The end of the commandmeiit is charity, as the Apostle says ( I T i m . , I, 5) a n d the end is not subject- to a measure, b u t onlv such t h i n g s as are subject to the end ' ( I l a I l a e , Q.184, a.3). A n d t h a t is why the perfection of c h a r i t y falls u n d e r a c o m m a n d m e n t a n d why everyone, according to his state of life, is s t r i c t l y bound to s t r i v e after the perfection of c h a r i t y " ( P o p e P i n s X I , Encyclical L e t t e r , On St. Thomas as Guide of Studies, 1923). W i t h the increase of C h a r i t y will go the increase of the m o r a l v i r t u e s , i n c l u d i n g Social J u s t i c e . Hi) " Jfc is of the essence of social justice to d e m a n d from each i n d i v i d u a l all t h a t is necessary for the Common Good " ( P o p e P i u s X I , Encyclical Letter. On Atheistic Communion). (i5) Civil society, established for the common welfare, should n o t o n l y safeguard the well-boms of the community, but also have a t h e a r t the interests of its i n d i v i d u a l members, in such wise ns not in any way to hindrr, hut in every way to render as easy as possible the possession of t h a t highest and unchangeable good for which all should seek (Pope Leo X I I I , Encyclical, On- the Christian Constitution of States).
(( 7;

(

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

25

to tend to the perfection of human personality. In the second place, it is only through full acknowledgment of the Rights of God, proclaimed by Christ and His Church, that rulers of States are enabled to practise Social Justice, and respect the personal rights of their subjects. Accordingly, we need not be astonished that increasing opposition on the part of States to the Divine Plan for order is accompanied by widespread elimination of those rights of the person and the family mentioned in the lext quoted above from. Pope Pius XPs Encyclical Letter, On Atheistic Communism. W In proportion as those rights are denied by the State, human beings are treated as mere individuals subject to the State.
{

u«> Cf. p. 15.

CHAPTER

II.

T H E KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ITS ESSENCE.
THE PRIESTHOOD AND THE KINGSHIP OF CHRIST.U)

Our Supernatural Life of Grace comes to us from Our Lord Jesus Christ, Head of His Mystical Body, the Catholic Church, while we continue to receive our disordered natural life from the first Adam. Our Lord is our Supernatural Head. For not only did the Son of God, when He came into this world, take to Himself a human body, which with His human soul constitutes His Sacred Humanity; but He is, moreover, assuming another body, a many-membcred one, of which we all become members by the character of Baptism. Our Lord is ever seeking to draw all human beings into the unity of that Body, so that they too may stand for His programme and face life in the ordered way He Himself faced life when on earth. Our Lord has a twofold claim to the acceptance of His pro­ gramme as Head, and this constitutes an important difference between Him and earthly leaders. He is Head of the human race by a twofold title. First of all, He is Plead in virtue of the Hypostatic Union, that is, in virtue of the substantial union of the human nature with the Divine Nature in the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity. Then again, because of the rejection of His programme by His own nation, He laid down His life, so that He has not only a natural right to the ordered submission of the human race but also a dearly-acquired right. This is what Pope Pius XI insists upon so strongly, in the Encyclical, On The King­ ship of Christ. " Christ's Kingship/' he writes, " is founded on the incfTahle Hypostatic Union. Hence it follows that Christ is to be adored by angels and men, not only as God, but that angels and men must obey and be subject to His sovereignty as man. Thus by virtue of the Hypostatic Union, Christ has power over all creatures. But what rellection can give us more pleasure and joy than the rellection that Christ is our King, not only by natural but by acquired right, by virtue of His Redemption? . . . We are no longer our own property, since Christ has purchased us _U) In treating of the relation between the Priesthood and the King­ ship of Christ, free use has been made, with the kind permission of the author, of Le Mysttre du Christ, by Rev. C. V. Heris, O.P., and of articles by the same distinguished writer.

KINGSHIP with a great price

O F CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

27
mem­

(I Cor., V I , 20): o u r very bodies a r e the
2

bers of Christ

( I Cor., V I , 15).< >

I t is a d o c t r i n e c o n s t a n t l y i n s i s t e d u p o n b y S t . T h o m a s t h a t t h e i m p e r f e c t is f o r t h e p e r f e c t , a n d t h a t i n f e r i o r b e i n g s in t h e s e r v i c e of s u p e r i o r b e i n g s a c h i e v e in t h e m a n d b y t h e m t h e i r r e t u r n t o G o d , t h e final e n d of all t h i n g s . B y r e a s o n of t h i s o r d e r a n d h i e r a r c h y of b e i n g , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t it b e l o n g s t o t h e m o r e p e r ­ f e c t t o r u l e a n d g o v e r n t h e l e s s p e r f e c t . A n d if C h r i s t , b y t h e H y p o s t a t i c U n i o n , is a t t h e s u m m i t of c r e a t i o n , i t is H i s r i g h t t o r u l e i t a n d t o c o n d u c t a l l c r e a t u r e s t o t h e i r e n d . S u c h is t h e r e a s o n i n g of t h e A n g e l i c D o c t o r . " F o r if, a s S t . A u g u s t i n e s a y s in / / / De Trinitate, t h e i n f e r i o r a n d less p e r f e c t b e i n g s in a n y o r d e r a r e r u l e d b y G o d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y of t h e h i g h e r a n d m o r e p e r f e c t , t h e n w e m u s t affirm t h a t all c r e a t u r e s a r e r u l e d a n d g o v e r n e d b y t h e s o u l of C h r i s t w h i c h is a t t h e s u m m i t of creation. " N o w S t . T h o m a s d i s t i n g u i s h e s a t w o f o l d f u n c t i o n of t h e g r a c e of H e a d s h i p , a n a l o g o u s t o t h e d o u b l e role e x e r c i s e d b y t h e h e a d , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e m e m b e r s of t h e b o d y . " T h e h e a d , " h e w r i t e s , " h a s a t w o f o l d i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e m e m b e r s : a n interior influence, b e c a u s e t h e h e a d t r a n s m i t s t o t h e o t h e r m e m b e r s t h e p o w e r of m o v i n g a n d f e e l i n g ; a n d a n exterior influence of g o v e r n m e n t , b e ­ c a u s e b y t h e s e n s e of s i g h t a n d t h e o t h e r s e n s e s w h i c h r e s i d e in it, t h e h e a d d i r e c t s a m a n in h i s e x t e r i o r action."< > T h e interior i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d b y C h r i s t is t h a t ofVHis P r i e s t h o o d , b y w h i c h t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e is c o m m u n i c a t e d t o s o u l s . G r a c e c o m e s from G o d alone as P r i n c i p a l Cause, from the S a c r e d H u m a n ­ ity as I n s t r u m e n t a l Cause united to the Divinity, through the S a c r a m e n t s as i n s t r u m e n t a l causes s e p a r a t e d from the Divinity. T h e exterior influence e x e r c i s e d b y C h r i s t is t h a t of H i s S p i r i t u a l K i n g s h i p , b y H i s g o v e r n m e n t a n d d i r e c t i o n of H i s s u b j e c t s . H e r e w e h a v e t h e b r o a d o u t l i n e s of t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o f u n c t i o n s of o u r S u p e r n a t u r a l H e a d .
( 3 ) 4

I t is n o t a l w a y s e a s y , h o w e v e r , w h e n t r e a t i n g of O u r L o r d ' s a c t s , t o s e p a r a t e t h o s e w h i c h a r e r e f e r r e d t o o n e o r o t h e r of t h e s e t w o p r e r o g a t i v e s of H i s P r i e s t h o o d a n d H i s K i n g s h i p . T h e t a s k is all t h e l e s s e a s y , b e c a u s e , a t t i m e s , a n a c t m a y b e r e f e r r e d t o both. F o r example, in r e g a r d to the Grace which H e bestows on m a n , C h r i s t d o e s n o t m e r e l y a c t a s a n i n t e r m e d i a r y b u t Pie a l s o b r i n g s H i s g o v e r n i n g a n d directing p o w e r into play. T o merit G r a c e , t o p r o d u c e it a s a n i n s t r u m e n t , a r e e s s e n t i a l l y w o r k s b e ­ l o n g i n g t o C h r i s t ' s P r i e s t h o o d , b e c a u s e t h e i r i m m e d i a t e effect is to unite m a n to God a n d because God always remains the prin­ ts) C h r i s t is H e a d of the angels, b u t the angels have n o t heen redeemed by H i m ( I l i a P . , Q.8, a.4). (3) I l i a P a r s , Q.59, a.6, a d 3. U) U l a P a r s , Q . 8 , a.6.

28

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

cipal author of this union. To arrange the order to be observed in this sanctification of souls, to accomplish God's designs in the work of the Redemption, thus organizing the plan of salvation, all this supposes a hierarchical power altogether different from the sacerdotal power, but not exclusive of it. While it belongs, then, to Christ as Priest to merit Grace, to Christ as King it pertains to establish a just proportion in the distribution of Grace to the faithful so that " the whole body being compacted and fitly joined together, by what every joint supplieth/' may continue to grow and develop in loving union with God in charity. As a consequence of the doctrine outlined in the previous par­ agraph, there is an important difference between Christ as King and earthly rulers. The difference in question is intimately con­ nected with the fact of His also being High-Priest of redeemed humanity. In the ordinary course of events, it pertains to the King, on account of the powers vested in him, to conduct his sub­ jects as a body to their social end in a visible manner: but it is not the king who is called upon to bestow on them the vital force or the physical capacity required for the attainment of the end. These he takes for granted. The role of the earthly king is to rule, not to transmit life to his subjects. Now the mission of Christ our Redeemer not only establishes Him as Guide in the development of the Supernatural Life, but also as the Source of that Life. . He is destined to corhmunicate to men as a universal cause, the Grace with which His Sacred Humanity is filled to overflowing. This docs not mean that the Grace of Christ is the principal physical and efficient cause of that of other men. It does mean that the Sacred Plumanity is not only an inexhaustible source of merit and satisfaction for the world, but also a perfect instru­ ment in the hands of the Word for the transmission of the Divine Life. This sanctifying role belongs to Christ as Priest. The priest is called upon to be an intermediary between God and men. He presents the supplications of men to God and offers up their sacri­ fices, while in return he communicates to men God's gifts and benefits. When Christ merits for us and satisfies for us by the oblation of His sufferings and death, He acts as Priest and not as King. When He communicates through His Humanity, the in­ strument of the Word, the graces of pardon and regeneration and when He teaches the truth which transforms souls, again He acts as Priest and not as King. But He is not Priest in the ordinary way. He need not "offer sacrifice first for his own sins, and then for the pcople's."< Our Lord has not to expiate for Himself nor beg for the divine mercy. Again, His Humanity is not an inert and passive instrument of the Word in the work of our sanctificat5) fi)

(5> Ephcsians, IV, 16.

<> Hebrews, VII, 27. «

KINGSHIP

O F C H R I S T IN

ESSENCE.

29

t i o n . I t is fully c o n s c i o u s of I t s r o l e . I t r e m a i n s f r e e , e v e n w h e n , i n full a c c o r d w i t h t h e D i v i n e W i l l , I t p l a c e s I t s e l f u n d e r t h e o m n i ­ p o t e n t i n f l u e n c e of t h a t W i l l t o p r o d u c e G r a c e for u s . Our Lord a s M a n p o s s e s s e s p e r f e c t k n o w l e d g e of t h e m y s t e r i e s of p r e d e s ­ t i n a t i o n , a n d t h u s , i t is w i t h a full u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e e t e r n a l d e s i g n s of G o d o n t h e w o r l d t h a t H e freely c o n c u r s in t h e w o r k of R e d e m p t i o n . A s w e h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n , in t h e b e s t o w a l of G r a c e O u r Lord's Kingship functions along with His Priesthood. In o r g a n i z i n g t h e p l a n of s a l v a t i o n f o r m e n , in d r a w i n g t h e m t o H i m ­ self a n d in g r o u p i n g t h e f a i t h f u l a r o u n d H i m in H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y , O u r L o r d a c t s n o t m e r e l y a s P r i e s t a n d M e d i a t o r b u t as K i n g . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , c e r t a i n a c t s w h i c h b e l o n g exclusively to C h r i s t in H i s r o l e a s K i n g . T h e s e w e s h a l l n o w s e t f o r t h . THE KINGSHIP OF CHRIST.

T o C h r i s t t h e K i n g i t b e l o n g s t o s e t b e f o r e t h e faithful t h e c o m m o n e n d for w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d s t r i v e , a n d t o p o i n t o u t t o t h e m t h e m e a n s t o a t t a i n it. I t m a y b e o b j e c t e d t h a t s u c h t e a c h ­ i n g p e r t a i n s also to H i s P r i e s t h o o d . W e can reply, h o w e v e r , t h a t in t h i s c o n n e x i o n it is n o t q u e s t i o n of p r o m o t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e i n t e r i o r life b u t of g u i d i n g t h e e x t e r i o r a n d visible m o v e ­ m e n t of t h e w h o l e M y s t i c a l T>ody t o w a r d s i t s final g o a l . The t e a c h i n g w e s p e a k of is d e l i v e r e d b y a n a u t h o r i t y w h i c h c o m m a n d s and legislates. I t is n o t s i m p l y a m o r a l e x h o r t a t i o n d i s p o s i n g s o u l s t o c o m e u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e of G r a c e . T h i s p a r t of t h e r o l e of C h r i s t ' s K i n g s h i p c o n s i s t s , t h e n , in t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n of t h e o r d e r w h i c h G o d ' s l o v e w a s h e s t o s e e o b s e r v e d in t h e w o r l d . I t is a l s o f o r C h r i s t t h e K i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o p e r s a n c t i o n s for the precepts H e imposes and to r e w a r d and punish His sub­ j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r d e s e r t s . H e it is w h o m u s t r e w a r d fidelity in t h e o b s e r v a n c e of t h e o r d e r i n s t i t u t e d b y G o d ' s l o v e a n d p u n i s h o b s t i n a t e revolt against t h a t o r d e r and resistance to His rule. F i n a l l y , i t is for C h r i s t t h e K i n g t o c o n q u e r H i s K i n g d o m a n d d e f e n d H i s faithful s u b j e c t s a g a i n s t the visible enemies w h o join f o r c e s w i t h t h e i n v i s i b l e e n e m y , S a t a n . It h a p p e n s a t t i m e s in t h e n a t u r a l o r d e r t h a t , a s a r e s u l t of t h e b a d will of h i s s u b j e c t s o r t h e o p p o s i t i o n of h i s e n e m i e s , t h e K i n g is o b l i g e d , if h e w i s h e s t o e x e r c i s e fully his p r e r o g a t i v e s a s h e a d , t o b r i n g h i s s u b j e c t s i n t o c o m p l e t e s u b j e c t i o n first of all, b e f o r e h e s e t s o u t t o c o n q u e r h i s e n e m i e s . T h e K i n g of s o u l s t o o is o f t e n o b l i g e d t o w i n s o u l s b y d r a w i n g t h e m f r o m sin. O n c e t h e y a r e H i s , H e m u s t g u a r d t h e m a g a i n s t t h e s n a r e s w h i c h t h e w o r l d a n d t h e devil n e v e r c e a s e t o set for t h e m , a n d H e m u s t p r e s e r v e t h e m also from their o w n passions. A s K i n g , t o o , O u r L o r d is c o n t i n u a l l y o f f e r i n g g r a c e s of l i g h t a n d s t r e n g t h t o all, e v e n t o H i s d i r e s t e n e m i e s , t o g e t t h e m t o

30

THE MYSTICAL BODY O F

CHRIST

c o m e into His camp a n d c o - o p e r a t e w i t h H i m in e s t a b l i s h i n g a s o c i a l o r d e r t h a t will s u s t a i n t h e w e a k a n d s a f e g u a r d t h e s t r o n g in t h e i r efforts t o r e p r o d u c e in t h e m s e l v e s o n t h e i r l e v e l H i s life of B e t h l e h e m , N a z a r e t h , a n d C a l v a r y . H e a i m s n o t m e r e l y a t t h e c o n q u e s t of i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s of s o c i e t y b u t a t t h e c o n q u e s t of s o c i e t y itself, s o t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s m a y b e a i d e d in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e s a m e p r i n c i p l e h o l d s w h e n , t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n of H i s a m b a s s a d o r s in p a g a n l a n d s , n a m e l y , His missionaries, H e proceeds to b r i n g n e w realms under H i s sway. H e w a n t s not m e r e l y to convert individuals, b u t to o r g a n ­ ize s o c i e t y in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e D i v i n e P l a n , s o t h a t t h e c o n ­ quest m a y be lasting. Of c o u r s e , in t h i s w o r k H e e x p e c t s t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n of H i s l i e u t e n a n t s , t h e C h r i s t i a n T e m p o r a l R u l e r s , in t h e t e r r i t o r y u n d e r t h e i r s w a y . A s G o d w a n t s all m e n t o b e s a v e d through the One Mediator, Jesus Christ, H e wants co-operation a n d u n i o n b e t w e e n all t h o s e w h o s h a r e in O u r L o r d ' s P r i e s t h o o d a n d H i s K i n g s h i p d o w n t h e a g e s . " F o r t h i s is g o o d a n d a c c e p t a b l e in t h e s i g h t of G o d , o u r S a v i o u r , w h o will h a v e all m e n t o b e s a v e d a n d t o c o m e t o t h e k n o w l e d g e of t h e t r u t h . F o r t h e r e is o n e G o d , a n d o n e m e d i a t o r of G o d a n d m a n , t h e m a n C h r i s t J e s u s , w h o g a v e H i m s e l f a r e d e m p t i o n f o r all."* ) T h e y a r e all m e a n t , e a c h in h i s o w n p l a c e , t o live a s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t .
7

IN OUR LORD'S KINGDOM OUR B L E S S E D M O T H E R IS Q U E E N AND M E D I A T R I X O F A L L GRACES. O u r B l e s s e d M o t h e r is Q u e e n of O u r L o r d ' s K i n g d o m . " G o d h a s c o n s t i t u t e d H e r Q u e e n of H e a v e n a n d E a r t h , " s a i d P o p e P i u s I X in t h e B u l l , lneffahilis Deus, in w h i c h h e defined t h e d o g m a of the Immaculate Conception. I n t h e E n c y c l i c a l , Ad diem ilium laetissimum ( 2 n d F e b . , 1904), o n t h e o c c a s i o n of t h e fiftieth a n n i ­ v e r s a r y of t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h a t s a m e s u b l i m e t r u t h , P o p e P i u s X t a u g h t t h a t M a r y is a l w a y s a n d e v e r y w h e r e t h e a s s o c i a t e of H e r D i v i n e S o n in t h e w o r k of o u r s a l v a t i o n : " A s s u r e d l y t h e d i s p e n s ­ i n g of t h e s e t r e a s u r e s [ a m a s s e d b y O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t f o r u s b y H i s D e a t h ] b e l o n g s t o n o b o d y b u t C h r i s t f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of r i g h t , f o r t h e y w e r e p u r c h a s e d b y H i s D e a t h a l o n e , a n d H e , of n a t u r a l r i g h t , is M e d i a t o r b e t w e e n G o d a n d m a n . Y e t , b e c a u s e of t h e u n i o n of a n g u i s h a n d s o r r o w b e t w e e n M o t h e r a n d S o n this a u g u s t V i r g i n h a s b e c o m e for t h e whole w o r l d the m o s t powerful M e d i a t r i x and A d v o c a t e with H e r only Son. T h e F o u n ­ t a i n , t h e r e f o r e , is C h r i s t a n d of H i s f u l n e s s w e h a v e all r e c e i v e d . . . . B u t M a r y , as S t . B e r n a r d t r u l y o b s e r v e s , is t h e A q u e d u c t ; o r , S h e is, o n e m a y s a y , t h e M y s t i c N e c k , w h i c h c o n n e c t s t h e H e a d w i t h t h e B o d y a n d c o n v e y s t o all t h e m e m b e r s of t h e B o d y t h e e n e r g i z i n g influence of t h e H e a d . F o r , a s S t . B e r n a r d i n e of S i e n n a < > I T i m . , I I , 3-6. *

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

31

says, She is the Neck of our Head by which He communicates to His Mystical Body all spiritual gifts." Let us now see who are the representatives and lieutenants of Christ in the task of aiding human beings to love order and thus mirror forth the life of God on their level. We shall begin by representing the Divine Plan for order in diagrammatic form as follows:—
GOD (in Three Divine Persons)
V

Our Lord Jesus Christ Who, as Head of His Mystical Body, the Catholic Church, Super­ natural and Supranational, is High-Priest and King of redeemed humanity.

His Priesthood is shared in by the Pope, Bishops and Priests, through the sacramental character . of Order, and by the faith­ ful, thanks to the char­ acters of Baptism and Confirmation.

His Kingship is both Spiritual and Temporal. The Spiritual Kingship comprises the Right of Intervention in Temporal Affairs. The Temporal Royalty of Our Lord is universal. Our Blessed Mother is Queen of His Kingdom.

V

V

The Spiritual Kingship of Christ is shared in by the Pope and the Bishops.

The Universal Temporal Kingship of Our Lord is shared in" by the Rulers of States and Nations.

Politics.

Economics

T H E CHURCH'S PARTICIPATION IN THE PRIESTHOOD AND IN THE SPIRITUAL KINGSHIP OF CHRIST.

As we have seen, the interior influence by which the Super­ natural Life is communicated to souls comes from God alone as

32

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

Principal Cause, from the Sacred Humanity of Christ as Instru­ mental Cause united to the Divinity, and from the Sacraments and their Dispensers as instrumental causes separated from the Divinity. The Pope, Bishops and Priests are destined to organize the worship of Christ's Mystical Body and to administer the Sacra­ ments by their participation in the Priesthood of Christ through the sacramental character of Order. The faithful are prepared to take part in the worship instituted by Christ and to receive the Sacraments by the participation of Christ's priesthood bestowed on them by the sacramental character of Baptism. By the sacra­ mental character of Confirmation, the baptized faithful are pre­ pared to make public confession of their faith and also to defend Christian worship. This Sacrament is the one which equips Christians for the work of Catholic Action under the Church's Hierarchy. " B y Baptism," writes St. Thomas, "a man in his in­ dividual capacity receives the power to accomplish what concerns his own salvation, but, in Confirmation, he receives the power to do all that concerns the defence of religion against the enemies of the faith."< > To undo the Fall in regard to individual men and so restore order under the new Head, God wants to draw all men into union with Our Lord in the renewal of the expression of submission of Calvary in Holy Mass. He wishes that worship to be animated with the supernatural love of charity springing from the Life of Grace, which is a participation of the Inner Life of the Blessed Trinity. Ploly Mass is meant to be the worship of the Father by members of Christ renewing on their level His filial attitude. All the Sacraments confer the Divine Life of Grace, by which we share, in and through membership of Christ, in the Inner Life of God in Three Divine Persons. Three of them, namely, Baptism, Confimation and Order, confer, in addition, special characters, which are participations in the Priesthood of Christ. Through the power which the characters confer, men, in and through Christ, can offer fitting worship to the Blessed Trinity. "The Sacraments of the New Law serve a double purpose. They act, first of all, as a remedy for sin, and secondly, they equip the soul in regard to what concerns the worship of God, according to the rite insti­ tuted by Christ. When anyone is appointed to a certain charge, he is usually distinguished from others by some rank or sign in­ dicative of his function."* * On the one hand, therefore, when the Church, through her priesthood and the Sacraments, communicates Grace to us, she is only the instrument used by Christ to vivify our souls. But when, on the other hand, the Church governs in the name of Christ,
8 9

(8) I l i a P., Q.72, a.5. (»> I l i a Pars, Q.63, a.L

Cf. ibid., a . 3 and a.6.

KIXGSHIP

O F C H R I S T IN

ESSENCE.

33

s h e is t r u l y a p r o p e r a n d p r i n c i p a l , t h o u g h s u b o r d i n a t e , c a u s e o f h e r g o v e r n m e n t a n d d i r e c t i o n of s o u l s . H e n c e , a s S p o u s e of C h r i s t a n d T r u e R e g e n t of s o u l s o n e a r t h , s h e h a s t h e r i g h t t o d e m a n d that we should recognize her authority, obey her laws and accept her guidance. As the Church has not received purely T e m p o r a l Royalty from her Divine Founder, we are treating here of S p i r i t u a l K i n g s h i p o n l y . A s t h e m i s s i o n of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , s u p e r n a t u r a l a n d s u p r a n a t i o n a l , is t h e s p i r i t u a l o n e of t h e o u t ­ p o u r i n g of t h e D i v i n e L i f e , s o t h e K i n g s h i p in w h i c h t h e P o p e a n d B i s h o p s , a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of C h r i s t , h a v e p a r t , is p u r e l y S p i r i t u a l . T h e P o p e a n d B i s h o p s a l o n e s h a r e in t h e S p i r i t u a l R o y a l t y of O u r L o r d : t h e y a l o n e a r e t h e R u l e r s of t h e C h u r c h . P r i e s t s a n d t h e o r d i n a r y f a i t h f u l do n o t s h a r e in O u r L o r d ' s S p i r i t u a l R o y a l t y , t h o u g h t h e y do s h a r e in H i s P r i e s t h o o d by t h e c h a r a c t e r s of O r d e r a n d B a p t i s m , as w e h a v e j u s t e x p l a i n e d . T o t h e P o p e a n d t h e B i s h o p s it b e l o n g s t o c o n t i n u e t h e m i s s i o n of C h r i s t t h e K i n g d o w n t h e a g e s by h o l d i n g u p b e f o r e t h e w o r l d t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l i d e a l of life t o be lived b y all m e n a n d l a y i n g d o w n t h e l a w s a n d p r e c e p t s t o be o b s e r v e d in o r d e r t h a t t h a t life m a y n o t be l o s t . T o t h e m it b e l o n g s t o r e g u l a t e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of all t h e m e a n s c o n f i d e d t o t h e C h u r c h b y O u r L o r d for t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e L i f e of G r a c e , t o e s t a b l i s h fitting s a n c t i o n s for all offences t h a t j e o p a r d i z e t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h a t life, a n d , finally, t o c a r r y o r t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e p o w e r s of evil, by e v e r y f o r m of a p o s t o l a t e , f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e of C h r i s t . I n a w o r d , to t h e P o p e a n d t h e B i s h o p s it b e l o n g s to p r o c l a i m t h e o r d e r t h a t G o d w a n t s all m e n to a c c e p t l o v i n g l y a n d to s a f e ­ guard that order. N o w , in o r d e r t o s a f e g u a r d it, t h e S p i r i t u a l K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t m u s t c o m p r i s e t h e p o w e r of i n t e r v e n t i o n in t e m p o r a l affairs in v i e w of efficaciously o p p o s i n g e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d h i n d e r t h e p r o g r e s s of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e a n d of o b t a i n ­ i n g f r o m t h e r u l e r s in t h e civil o r d e r t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t h e r e f o r . T h i s r i g h t of t h e R u l e r s in the s u p e r n a t u r a l o r d e r t o i n t e r v e n e in t h e s t r i c t l y n a t u r a l s p h e r e is m e a s u r e d b y t h e d e m a n d s of t h e D i v i n e L i f e of s o u l s . I t is for t h e C h u r c h a l o n e to j u d g e w h a t is n e c e s s a r y in t h e m a t t e r of social o r g a n i z a t i o n in o r d e r t o s a f e g u a r d t h e Life of G r a c e . T h i s is called t h e Indirect Power of t h e C h u r c h in t e m p o r a l affairs. O n a c c o u n t of its i m p o r t a n c e , w e s h a l l e n t e r i n t o s o m e d e t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s P o w e r in a l a t e r section. T H E KINGSHIP OF CHRIST AND T E M P O R A L RULERS.

T h o u g h O u r L o r d ' s K i n g s h i p is p r i m a r i l y s p i r i t u a l , a n d as s u c h , s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e diffusion and s a f e g u a r d i n g of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of m e n , y e t H e is a l s o K i n g of t h e U n i v e r s e . H i s T e m p o r a l R o y a l t y is U n i v e r s a l , n o t p a r t i c u l a r , t h a t is, n o t r e -

34

'Villi

MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

stricted to any one race or nation. Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius XI insist both on the reality of Christ's Temporal Sovereignty and on its universality. In the Encyclical Letter, On The King­ ship of Chris/, we read: "That Christ's kingdom is in a special manner spiritual and concerned with things spiritual, is quite plain from the extracts from Scripture above quoted: and Christ's own line of action confirms this view. For on many occasions when the Jews, and even the Apostles themselves, wrongly supposed that the Messiah would emancipate the people and restore the kingdom of Israel, He effectively rejected that idle hope and fancy. When the admiring throng surrounded Him and would have pro­ claimed Him king, lie refused that title and honour by taking flight and lying in concealment. In presence of the Roman gov­ ernor, He declared His kingdom was not of this world. . . . He, however, would be guilty of shameful error who would deny to Christ as man authority over civil affairs, no matter what their nature, since by virtue of the absolute dominion over all creatures He holds from the Father, all things are in His power. "Nevertheless, during His life on earth lie refrained altogether from exercising such dominion, and despising the possession and administration of earthly goods. He left them to (heir possessors then, and He does so to-day. It is well said: Son eripit mortalia qui reyna flat, eaelestia—He does not seize earthly kingdoms Who gives heavenly kingdoms. And so, the empire of our Redeemer embraces all men. To quote the words of Our immortal Prede­ cessor, Pope Leo XIII : ' His ICmpirc manifestly includes not only Catholic nations, not only those who were baptised and be­ long to the Church by right, though error of doctrine leads them astray or schism severs them from her fold: but it includes also all those who are outside (he Christian faith, so that irulj' the human race in its entirety is subject to the power of [esus Chrisl.'<"> "Nor in this connexion, is there any difference between in­ dividuals and communities, whether family or State, for collectivi­ ties are just as much under the dominion of Christ as individuals. The same Christ ussuvcdly is the source of the individual's salva­ tion and of the community's salvation: 'Neither is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given to men whereby we must be saved/' . . . / / rulers therefore, of
fl0) 121
t

nations wish to preserve their own authority and to promote and increase their country's prosperity, let them not refuse, themselves and their people, to give public observance of reverence and obedi­ ence to the rule of Christ. ... If men recognised, both in public

and private life, Christ's royal power, wonderful blessings would * > Hymn for the Feast of (he Epiphany. ™ Hi) Rik-YcIicaJ Letter, Annum- Sanctum, Alav 25, 1899. '12) Acts, IV, 12.

KINGSHIP

OF CHRIST

IN

ESSENCE

35

i m m e d i a t e l y be v o u c h s a f e d t o all s o c i e t y , s u c h a s , t r u e l i b e r t y , discipline, tranquillity, concord and peace. For Our Lord's royal d i g n i t y , j u s t a s it i n v e s t s t h e h u m a n a u t h o r i t y of p r i n c e s a n d r u l e r s w i t h a r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e , e n n o b l e s t h e c i t i z e n ' s d u t y of obedience. . . . If p r i n c e s a n d m a g i s t r a t e s d u l y e l e c t e d be c o n ­ v i n c e d t h a t t h e y r u l e n o t b y t h e i r o w n r i g h t , b u t by t h e m a n d a t e a n d in t h e p l a c e of t h e D i v i n e K i n g , a s s u r e d l y t h e y will e x e r c i s e t h e i r a u t h o r i t y holily a n d w i s e l y , a n d , in m a k i n g l a w s a n d a d m i n ­ i s t e r i n g t h e m , t h e y will t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e c o m m o n g o o d , a n d a l s o t h e h u m a n d i g n i t y of t h e i r s u b j e c t s . T h e r e s u l t will b e o r d e r a n d s t a b l e t r a n q u i l l i t y , for t h e r e will be n o c a u s e of d i s c o n ­ t e n t r e m a i n i n g . M e n m a y s e e in t h e i r k i n g o r in o t h e r r u l e r s of t h e S t a t e , b e i n g s like t h e m s e l v e s , u n w o r t h y p e r h a p s a n d o p e n t o b l a m e , b u t t h e y will n o t f o r t h a t r e a s o n d e n y t h e i r r i g h t t o c o m ­ m a n d if t h e y s e e r e f l e c t e d in t h e s e r u l e r s t h e a u t h o r i t y of C h r i s t , God and m a n . "
( 1 3 )

All authority is f r o m G o d , " for t h e r e is n o p o w e r b u t f r o m God. . . . he t h a t r e s i s t e t h the p o w e r , resisteth the order willed by God." ) C h r i s t " h o l d s a b s o l u t e d o m i n i o n o v e r all c r e a t . i r e s f r o m t h e F a t h e r , " t h e r e f o r e all a u t h o r i t y on e a r t h is a p a r t i c i p a ­ t i o n of C h r i s t ' s a u t h o r i t y . Of c o u r s e , it is in itself a n d in i t s e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e t h a t a u t h o r i t y c o m e s f r o m God. T h e mode of accession t o p o w e r m a y b e e i t h e r l e g i t i m a t e o r i l l e g i t i m a t e ; in t h e f o r m e r c a s e , it c o m e s f r o m G o d , in t h e s e c o n d , f r o m t h e p e r v e r t e d a m b i t i o n of h u m a n b e i n g s . F i n a l l y , t h e exercise of p o w e r m a y be in c o n f o r m i t y w i t h o r c o n t r a r y t o G o d ' s laws.* ) W h e n a G o v e r n ­ m e n t h a s been declared legitimate by the Church, t h a t does not m e a n t h a t t h e C h u r c h g u a r a n t e e s t h a t all t h e a c t i o n s of s u c h a G o v e r n m e n t a r c in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e m o r a l l a w . J u s t a s a f a t h e r w h o is lawful h e a d of a h o u s e h o l d m a v a c t w r o n g l y , so a l s o a l e g i t i m a t e G o v e r n m e n t m a y a c t w r o n g l y t o w a r d s its s u b j e c t s .
( 1 4 15

O u r L o r d , then, as the S o v e r e i g n R u l e r a n d S u p r e m e J u d g e of all K i n g s a n d R u l e r s , h a s t h e r i g h t t o r u l e t h e m a s a b o d y , t o d i c t a t e H i s l a w s to t h e m , t o r e w a r d o r p u n i s h t h e m for t h e g o o d o r b a d u s e of t h e i r p o w e r . T o t h e r u l e r s of t h e e a r t h it b e l o n g s t o l e g i s l a t e in civil a f f a i r s , t o d e t e r m i n e s a n c t i o n s for t h e i r l a w s a n d t o j u d g e t h e i r s u b j e c t s g u i l t y of t r a n s g r e s s i o n s of t h e s e l a w s . O u r L o r d r e s e r v e s t o H i m s e l f t h e r i g h t of p r o n o u n c i n g t h e final j u d g e m e n t o n t h e L a s t D a y o n t h e p u r e l y civil a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of all e a r t h l y r u l e r s a s well as o n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e . All T e m p o r a l R u l e r s will h a v e t o r e n d e r an a c c o u n t of t h e i r s u b ­ j e c t s in m a t t e r s p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l . All will, in a d d i t i o n , be j u d g e d o n t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h t h e y b e h a v e d t o w a r d s t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r , in p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r k n o w l e d g e of it. (13) Encyclical Letter, Quw Prima*. H4) Horn., X I I I , 1, 2. U5) Cf. Comment, S. Thomae in Ep. ad Pom.

( X I I I , 1).

36

TlfK MYSTICAL ROOY OK CHRIST

The objective order of the existing world demands that the temporal prosperity of society should be sought in such a way as to favour the development of the true personality of the members by the advance of their Supernatural Life and love. Temporal Rulers must seek the natural Common Good of the States subject to them in a manner calculated to aid their subjects in the develop­ ment of supernatural charily as members of Christ, so that they (the subjects) may advance steadily in love of God in Three Divine Persons, and attain the goal of eternal life. " Civil society," writes Tope Leo XJ11, " established for the common welfare, should not only safeguard (he well-being of the community, but have also at heart the interests of its individual members, in such wise as not in any way to hinder, but in every way to render as easy as possible the possession of that highest and" unchangeable good for which all should s e e k . Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Source of Supernatural Life of which the effect is resemblance to Himself, will judge, not only the sub­ jects of rulers, but rulers themselves, on their attitude towards Him. "The very celebration of the Feast (of the Kingship of Christ)," writes Pope Pius XI, "by its annual recurrence, will serve • to remind nations that not only private individuals but State officials and rulers are bound by the obligation of worship­ ping Christ publicly and rendering Him obedience. They will be thus led to reflect on that last judgement, in which Christ, who has been cast out of public life, despised, neglected and ignored, will severely revenge such insults; for I lis kingly dignity demands
,,(H;)

that the constitution Divine commandments

of the whole State should and Christian principles,

conform to whether in

the the

making of laws, the administration of justice, or in the moulding of the minds of the young on sound doctrine and upright morals." "Christ Our Lord must be reinstated as the Ruler of human society. It belongs to Him, as do all its members. St. Thomas teaches that " kings are anointed at their coronation to acknowledge the fact that they receive from Christ the gift of their powers and that they are meant to reign under Christ over a Christian people." >
<17) ,,fl8> (19

CHRIST'S

SPIRITUAL THK

K I N G S H I P AND T H A T
CHURCH.

OF

A few words about the extent of the inlluence of Christ's Royalty compared with that of the Church will be opportune here. Since the Sacred Humanity of Christ is immediately united to the < * Encyclical Letter, Immortal*- Dei, On the Christian
of States.
U7) HR)
16

Constitution

Encyclical Letter, Qua* l*rimax. On the Kingship of Christ. Encyclical Letter, Tametsi, On- Christ our Redeem* r.
IV Sent., dist, 19, Q.T, a.l; Q.O, a.2.

KINGSHIP

O F C H R I S T IN

ESSENCE.

37

W o r d , His R o y a l t y a s well a s H i s P r i e s t h o o d r e c e i v e t h e r e b y a f u l n e s s , a u n i v e r s a l i t y a n d a p e r f e c t i o n w h i c h can be p a r t i c i p a t e d in b y t h e C h u r c h o n l y in a l i m i t e d w a y . T e m p o r a l affairs as s u c h , m a t t e r s purely political, a r e under O u r Lord's jurisdiction b u t do n o t fall u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the C h u r c h , w h i c h is c o n c e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e D i v i n e L i f e of s o u l s . C h r i s t is t h e S o v e r e i g n L o r d of all R u l e r s , C h r i s t i a n a n d n o n - C h r i s t i a n , a n d j u d g e s all their actions. It is o n l y in so far a s t h e political a n d e c o n o m i c p r o g r a m m e s of Catholic rulers concern the Divine Life and the e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n of s o u l s t h a t t h e C h u r c h , t h a t is, t h e P o p e a n d t h e R i s h o p s , lias the r i g h t t o p r o n o u n c e o n t h e m . The Church g i v e s j u d g m e n t on m a t t e r s t h a t a r c purely spiritual, like t h e a d ­ m i n i s t r a t i o n of the S a c r a m e n t s , o r partially spiritual (mixed mat­ t e r s , s u c h as t h e p r o g r a m m e s of s c h o o l s a n d the effects of m a r ­ r i a g e ) , o r on m a i l e r s w h i c h t h o u g h t e m p o r a l by n a t u r e y e t a r e accidentally spiritual on a c c o u n t of t h e s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d . S t . T h o m a s p o i n t s o u t t h a t C h r i s t r u l e s t h e m e n of all p l a c e s , t i m e * a n d S t a t e s , w h i l e t h e R u l e r s of the C h u r c h e i t h e r g o v e r n o n l y in c e r t a i n p l a c e s f o r a l i m i t e d t i m e , like t h e R i s h o p s , o r w i t h ­ o u t l i m i t a s to p l a c e , b u t o n l y for a l i m i t e d t i m e , as is t h e case w i t h t h e P o p e , t h e r u l e of b o t h t h e P o p e a n d t h e B i s h o p s b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d to h u m a n b e i n g s h e r e b e l o w / ' In a d d i t i o n . C h r i s t c o m m a n d s by His o w n a u t h o r i t y , for all t h i n g s a r e s u b j e c t to H i m . T h e R u l e r s of t h e C h u r c h h a v e o n l y the a u t h o r i t y c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e m by C h r i s t . It f o l l o w s f r o m w h a t w e h a v e said, t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e w h i c h C h r i s t e x e r c i s e s on t h e w o r l d , b y H i s K i n g s h i p a s w e l l as by H i s P r i e s t h o o d , s u r p a s s e s in e x t e n t a n d c o m p a s s , e v e n h e r e b e l o w , t h e i n f l u e n c e of l h c visible C h u r c h . All m e n , c o n t i n u e s St. T h o m a s / - ' b e l o n g to C h r i s t , e v e n t h o u g h t h e y b e h e r e t i c s o r p a g a n s , a n d on t h e m C h r i s t can a c t in a n invisible m a n ­ n e r , by p r o v i d i n g t h e m w i t h t h e h e l p t h e y n e e d for c o n v e r s i o n , e v e n b y r a i s i n g t h e m t o t h e D i v i n e Life, if t h e i r i n c u l p a b l e i g n o r ­ ance keeps them outside the one T r u e Church.
2 0 1

I n t h e s e d a y s of m e n t a l c o n f u s i o n , the o n e n e s s of the D i v i n e P l a n a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , the M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , is t h e a r k of s a l v a t i o n for all, c a n n o t be o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d . P o p e P i u s EX u r g e d t h e R i s h o p s of the w h o l e w o r l d t o do all in t h e i r p o w e r " t o k e e p m e n ' s m i n d s free f r o m t h e i m p i o u s a n d f a t a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e w a y of e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n c a n b e f o u n d in a n y r e l i g i o n w h a t e v e r . " — ' T h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y t r u t h t h a t t h e r e a r e s o u l s in g o o d faith ( m t s i d e t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h m u s t , h o w e v e r , lie s t r e s s e d a l o n g w i t h it. In t h e s a m e a l l o c u t i o n , t h e P o p e d e c l a r e d ; " It is of faiih that no o n e can be s a v e d o u t 1

I l i a P., Q.S. a.G. '2D I l i a P.. Q.8, a . 3 , <•. et ad t. (£2) Singular! qu<i<h?m, December 9th. .1854.

38

T H E MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

s i d e t h e A p o s t o l i c R o m a n C h u r c h , t h a t t h i s C h u r c h is t h e o n e a r k of s a l v a t i o n , a n d t h a t h e w h o d o e s n o t e n t e r t h e r e i n will b e o v e r ­ w h e l m e d by t h e d e l u g e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , it must, a l s o b e h e l d a s c e r t a i n t h a t t h o s e w h o a r e i n v i n c i b l y i g n o r a n t of t h e T r u e R e l i ­ g i o n i n c u r no g u i l t on t h a t a c c o u n t in G o d ' s s i g h t . N o w w h o will d a r e to c l a i m t h a t h e c a n i n d i c a t e t h e l i m i t s of i n v i n c i b l e i g n o r ­ a n c e , in \ i e \ v of t h e n a t u r e a n d v a r i e t y of p e o p l e s , c o u n t r i e s , c h a r ­ a c t e r s a n d so man_\' o t h e r f a c t o r s ? " In t h e O u t l i n e of t h e Dor/mafic Constitution of the Church, c i r c u l a t e d a m o n g s t t h e F a t h e r s of t h e V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , w e r e a d : . . . W e r e p r o v e a n d d e c l a r e d e t e s t a b l e t h e d o c t r i n e , w h i c h is b o t h i m p i o u s a n d c o n t r a r y t o r i g h t r e a s o n , of o n e r e l i g i o n b e i n g a s g o o d a s a n o t h e r . B y t h i s d o c t r i n e t h e c h i l d r e n of t h i s w o r l d , s u p p r e s s i n g tin* d i s t i n c t i o n of t r u t h a n d e r r o r , e i t h e r p r o c l a i m t h a t t h e g a t e w a y to e t e r n a l life is w i d e o p e n t o all, no m a t t e r t o w h a t r e l i g i o n t h e y b e l o n g , o r d e c l a r e t h a t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t r u t h of a r e l i g i o n w e c;in o n l v h a v e m o r e o r l e s s p r o l l a b l c o p i n i o n s , n o t c e r t i t u d e . "< ^> T h e Church a l w a y s r e m a i n s the \isible centre from w h i c h the D i v i n e L i f e , w h i c h is f o u n d in its f u l n e s s in C h r i s t , is diffused b y H i m t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . T h a t D i v i n e Life of S a n c t i f y i n g G r a c e , c o m i n g f r o m C h r i s t , is e v e r d r a w i n g t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e C h u r c h t o e n t e r h e r visible fold. Hy d i v i n e r i g h t t h e C h u r c h is u n i v e r s a l , a n d s h e is e v e r s t r i v i n g to h a v e h e r i n f l u e n c e h e r e b e l o w c o - e x t e n ­ s i v e w i t h t h a t of l l e r D i v i n e H e a d a n d F o u n d e r . H u m a n b e i n g s a r c s u b j e c t to t h e P r i e s t h o o d a n d k i n g s h i p of C h r i s t w h i l e y e t o u t s i d e t h e C h u r c h , b u t in o r d e r to r e a p t h e full benefit for t h e i r s o u l s of this s u b j e c t i o n t o O u r L o r d , t h e y m u s t be fully i n c o r ­ p o r a t e d i n t o C h r i s t , in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o r d e r H e H i m s e l f h a s e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e y m u s t be c h i l d r e n of t h e C h u r c h .
l

Tl IK SIM KIT UAL KINGSHIP OF T H E CHURCH AND T E M P O R A L AFFAIRS. W e m u s t , first of all, d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n temporal m a t t e r s and spiritual m a t t e r * . Temporal m a t t e r s are those which are ordained t o t h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h e S t a t e a s to t h e i r i m m e d i a t e a n d p r o x i ­ m a t e e n d . T h e i n t e l l e c t u a l a n d m o r a l a c t i v i t y of a g e n e r a l w h o s t u d i e s t h e b e s t m e t h o d of d e f e n d i n g b i s c o u n t r y a g a i n s t a t t a c k , t h a t of a s t a t e s m a n w h o d e l i b e r a t e s on h o w t o m a i n t a i n o r d e r in t h e S t a t e , t h a i o " a c i t i z e n w h o p a y s h i s t a x e s , t h a t of a f a r m e r w h o s o w s and r e a p s , t h a t of a l i g h t - b o u s e k e e p e r w h o c a r r i e s o u t h i s lonely task-, all t h e s e a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h temporal affairs. T h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h e S t a t e is substantially natural, b u t it is b o t h moral a n d material. P o l i t i c a l Life, b e i n g t h e s o c i a l life of t h e r a t i o n a l a n i m a l , m a n , is b o t h moral a n d m.aferu/l. As the social
l

(23) Chap. v n .

Cf. C h a p . VI.

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

39

life of a person, who grasps the order of being, and sees it is in­ cumbent on him to observe that order, it must be moral. As the social life of an animal who is an individual of a species like other animals, it is material and must take account of the production and distribution of wealth, as a prerequisite condition for the vir­ tuous life of the multitude. Man as man, however, does not live on bread alone nor even is that his chief need. The State must look after roads and railways, treaties regarding imports and ex­ ports, and such like, but that is not its whole domain. Its prin­ cipal care must be to combat with all its might everything that tends to lower the moral dignity of man, everything that is an obstacle to the development of his personality through member­ ship of Our Lord's Mystical Body. "Two things are required for a good life on the part of the people,' writes St. Thomas, in a text which will be quoted at length further on, " the chief requisite is virtuous action . . . the other requisite, which is secondary and quasi-instrumental in character, is a sufficiency of material goods, the use of which is necessary for virtuous action."* Spiritual matters are those ordained to the supernatural Com­ mon Good of the Church, the Mystical Body of Christ, as to their proximate and immediate end. This supernatural Common Good is the personal union of all members with the Blessed Trinity through growth in resemblance to Christ. Spiritual matters are either regularly and habitually spiritual and supernatural—the two words (spiritual and supernatural) are used synonymously in these explanations—or they may be exceptionally supernatural and spiritual, though habitually temporal. Again, matters that are regularly supernatural and spiritual may be so entirely and ex­ clusively, such for example, arc measures concerning the preaching of the Gospel and the proper administration of the Sacraments, or they may be so only partially. These latter are what are usually called mixed matters, as they concern both the Church and the Civil Authority. Such matters are, for example, the effects of marriage, which are partly religious and partly temporal, and the teaching in schools and universities which aims at forming Christ­ ian citizens. The matters that are regularly and by their nature temporal become spiritual accidentally in certain exceptional cir­ cumstances because of their morally necessary connexion in those circumstances with the Supernatural Life of souls. Corporeal things can be supernatural, not of course in their substance (quoad substantiam), but by the end towards which they are directed, and the manner in which they are referred to the Kingdom of God (quoad modern).* '
1 24 5 25

(24) De Regimine

l*riiieipum,

lib. I, c.15.

(25) " Ecclesiastical punishments, such as censures, must be spiritual, not indeed in the sense in which spiritual is opposed to corporeal, but in the sense i n which it i s opposed to natural, and is the same as super-

40

71 lb] M Y S T I C A L B O D Y O F

CHRIST

We are now in a position to explain precisely in what the Indirect Power of the Church consists. The Rulers of the Church have jurisdiction, that is, power in the proper sense of the term, over the matters that are regularly spiritual, whether they be so entirely and exclusively or only partially ("on the religious side). They also have it over matters that are regularly temporal but which become spiritual in certain exceptional circumstances. When the participation which the Rulers of the Church have in the Spiritual Kingship of Christ is concerned with matters of this last category, it is called the Indirect Power. The spiritual jurisdic­ tion of the Church, in these cases, instead of being concerned with matters that arc regularly spiritual, is exercised over matters that are regularly o r directly temporal, but exceptionally or in­ directly spiritual. This is (he reason of the use of the term In­ direct Power to designate the right of the Rulers of the Church to intervene in these matters. It is not a power superadded to and distinct from the Spiritual Kingship of Christ in which they share. It is comprised within the orbit of that Spiritual Royalty and has received the name of Indirect Power because the matters with •which it deals are only indirectly, that is, exceptionally, spiritual, on account of special circumstances. " ft is question of real power, that is to say. of a power of jurisdiction, which gives orders and not merely advice, which can command and not merely persuade, \\ is question of an indirect power. This means that the Church has power over temporal mat­ ters, not directly or as such, but indirectly, that is. in view of the spiritual interests involved. Direct power over temporal matters belongs to the State. The Church has direct power over spiritual matters, but indirect over temporal matters because she deals with them only in so far as spiritual interests are involved. . . . If, instead of the expression spiritual power over matters regul­ arly temporal but become spiritual ratiune peerali,' the more suc­ cinct expression * temporal power (jurisdiction) ratione peccali,*^ is employed, then one can sav that the Pope has two jurisdictions spiritual jurisdiction and in certain cases temporal jurisdiction, in other words, that he has two powers: direct power and indirect
4

natural,

whether that supernatural be corporeal or not " (John of St.
t. VII, p. 5 1 3 ) .

The Canonists divide the spiritual things of which we a;*e speaking into spiritual things, like prate and the virtues, and things connected with the spiritual, liko rites, fasts, etc. Cf. Codex Juris Canonici, Can. 1553, R.I., No. 1. (»6) The expression ratione perxati has been used to designate every form of intervention on the part of the Church in temporal affairs, in view of the spiritual interests involved, whether it be to forbid sin or prescribe a good action. Cf. La Juridiction de f'ftgline #nr la itt'\ by by M. 1'abbe Journet, p. 103, note.
r

Thomas, Cur&us Theoiogicus*

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

41

power. This formula has become common amongst theologians since the time of St. Robert Rellarmine and Suarez. The tradi­ tional doctrine was not in the least changed. One has on-y to read St. Robert Hellarmine and the theologians who have suc­ ceeded him to be convinced of it, but . . . as the spirit of faith waned and the pretentions of secular governments to direc the whole of life increased, the expression 'indirect power' became less intelligible tu the world. It came to be held to be a second power, a sort of human, political and extra-evangelical power, which the Popes have added in the course of ages to the spiritual power bequeathed by Our Lord to St. Peter. The Indirect Power thus appeared as something out of date and belonging to a past age, which might be freely admired or regretted in our day. but it had ceased to mean the divine, evangelical and spiritual jurisdic­ tion of the Church over temporal matters in so far as they are ordained to spiritual matters/' ' * The restoration of order in the world demands the full recognition of the Spiritual Royalty o" the Rulers of the Church in temporal affairs when spiritual issues are at stake. Pope Leo XIII uses the term m'uti juris when speaking of the usurpation of the civil power in regard to matters like the effects of marriage. " With reference to matters that are of mixed juris­ diction." he writes. " they who administer ihc civil power lay down the law at their own will, and in matters that appertain to religion defiantly put aside the most sacred decrees of the Church '1 hey claim jurisdiction over the marriages of Catholics, even over the bond as well as over the unitv and the indissolubilitv of matri­ mony.""*' The same Pontiff had previously pointed out in his Encyclical Letter, On Christian Marriage, that no one doubts that Jesus Christ, the Founder of the Church, willed her sacred power to be distinct from the civil power, and each power to be free and unshackled in its own sphere: with this condition, however,-—a condition good for both, and of advantage to all men—that union and concord should be maintained between them; and that on those questions which are, though in different ways, of common right and authority, the power to which secular matters have been entrusted should happily and becomingly depend on the other power which has in its charge the interests of heaven. In such arrangement and harmony is found not only the best line of action for each power, but also the most opportune and efficacious method of helping men in all that pertains to their life here, and to their hope of salvation hereafter."' ' Pope Leo X111 here enunciates
1 27 14 29

27* Op. c i t . , pp. 116-118. (28) Encyclical Letter, Immortate <2«i Encyclical Letter, Arcanum

(

Dti. Divinuf

Sa/n'tmiar

(1880).

42

TliK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

the supreme guiding principles for the social organization of the world, viz., distinction of the two supreme authorities of the Church and the Stale and their union by subordination of the lower to the higher. We must complete this explanation of the Spiritual Royalty of the Rulers of the Church by a few words about matters purely civil or temporal as well as about matters doubtfully or problem­ atically spiritual. The Rulers of the Church have no jurisdiction over temporal matters as such. Tt is true that the spiritual mea­ sures taken by the Church in her own sphere may affect matters of this nature, but it will be only by repercussion and by chance. In the case of matters of which the connexion with the diffusion of the Supernatural Life is simply doubtful or problematic, the Church may advise certain measures but she may not enforce them by a command. It is, however, for the Church to appreciate the nature of the connexion between temporal matters and the spiritual life of souls, because she has charge of the supernatural final end of man, the one which dominates all other subordinate ends. As God is Subsistent Love of Order, He wants order every­ where in creation. Accordingly, lie desires orderly collaboration between those who share in the Spiritual Kingship and those who share in the Temporal Kingship of the One Mediator Christ Jesus. Those who share in the Temporal Kingship are the Rulers of the States and Nations in which man, on account of his social nature, must develop. Pope Leo XIII lays down the principles governing this harmon­ ious collaboration of the Church and States. We shall see in par­ ticular that the great Pontiff insists upon the Church's jurisdic­ tion over matters that are regularly temporal when they, excep­ tionally or indirectly, become spiritual, as has been pointed out. "The Almighty, therefore/' writes the Pope, "has appointed the charge of the human race between two powers, the ecclesiastical and the civil, the one being set over divine, and the other over human, things. Kach in its kind is supreme, each has fixed limits within which it is contained, limits which are defined by the nature and special object of the province of each, so that there is, we may say, an orbit traced out within which the action of each is brought into play by its own inherent right. Rut inasmuch as each of these two powers has authority over the same subjects, and as it might come to pass that one and the same thing— related differently, but still remaining one and the same thing— might belong to the jurisdiction and determination of both, there­ fore God, Who forsees all things, and Who is the Author of these two powers, has marked out the course of each in proper relation to the other. 'For (he powers that are, are ordained of G o d /
(30j

Rom., X I I I , 1.

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

43

Were this not so, deplorable contentions and conflicts would often arise, and not infrequently men, like travellers at the meetings of two roads, would hesitate in anxiety and doubt, not knowing what course to follow. Two powers would be commanding contrary things, and it would be a dereliction of duty to disobey either of the two. But it would be most repugnant to think thus of the wisdom and goodness of God. . . . " There must, accordingly, exist, between these two powers, a certain orderly connection, which may be compared to the union of the soul and body in man. The nature and scope of that con­ nection can be determined only, as We have pointed out, by having regard to the nature of each power, and by taking account of the relative excellence and nobility of their purpose. One of the two has for its proximate and chief object the well-being of this mortal life, the other the everlasting joys of heaven. What­ ever, therefore, in things human is of a sacred character,
whatever to which belongs either of its own nature or by reason of the end it is referred, to the salvation of souls, or to the worship

of God, is subject to the power and judgement of the Church. Whatever is lo be ranged under the civil and political order is rightly subject to the civil authority. Jesus Christ has Himself given command that what is Caesar's is to be rendered to Caesar, and that what belongs to God is to be rendered to God."- ' To sum up, then, the Rulers of the Church have no jurisdiction over matters that are merely human and temporal. Their juris­ diction extends exclusively to divine and spiritual matters. These latter, however, may be, in the first place, spiritual by nature, whether completely so, like ecclesiastical matters, such as fasting or the celibacy of the clergy, or partially so, like mixed matters such as education and the effects of marriage. They may, in the second place, be spiritual merely by accident or in exceptional cir­ cumstances. Pope Leo XIII has made a clear distinction between matters that are spiritual by nature and those that are spiritual by reason of their relation^ in certain circumstances, to man's supernatural destiny, and he has insisted that right order demands that all these matters be subject to the judgement of the Church. This is required, in order that the social environment may be not only not prejudicial but favourable to integral membership of Christ. " All the actions of a Catholic, inasmuch as they are either morally good or bad, that is to say, in agreement or disagreement with natural and divine law , come under the judgement and juris­ diction of the Church."< > The Catholic Church alone, in accord­ ance with the Divine Plan, has charge of expounding and safe­ guarding the whole moral law, natural and revealed. Pope Leo
31 T 32

< > Encyclical Letter, Jmmortale Dei. (32) Singulari quadam (Pope Pius X to the German Hierarchy, Sept.
B4, 1912).

ai

44

TIIK M Y S T I C A L

MODY O F

CHRIST

X I I I insists upon this f u n d a m e n t a l t r u t h . " The Church of C h r i s t , " he w r i t e s , " is t h e t r u e a n d s o l e t e a c h e r of v i r t u e a n d g u a r d i a n of m o r a l s . " P o p e Pins XI r e p e a t s Pope Leo's l e a c h i n g : " P u t before p r o ­ c e e d i n g to d i s c u s s t h e s e p r o b l e m s , W e l a v d o w n t h e p r i n c i p l e l o n g s i n c e c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d by P o p e L e o X I I I , t h a t it is O u r r i g h t a n d O u r d u t y to deal a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y w i t h social and e c o n o m i c p r o ­ blems/^ It is n o t , of c o u r s e , t h e office of t h e C h u r c h to l e a d m e n to t r a n s i e n t a n d p e r i s h a b l e h a p p i n e s s o n l y , but to t h a t w h i c h is e t e r n a l : i n d e e d t h e C h u r c h b e l i e v e s t h a t it w o u l d be w r o n g for h e r t o i n t e r f e r e wi I b o u t just c a u s e in s u c h e a r t h l v c< > n e e r n s . ' B u t s h e can n e v e r r e l i n q u i s h h e r G o d - g i v e n t a s k of i n t e r p o s i n g h e r a u t h o r i t y , n o t i n d e e d in t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s , for w h i c h s h e h a s n e i t h e r t h e e q u i p m e n t n o r t h e m i s s i o n , b u t in all t h o s e t h a t h a v e a b e a r i n g on m o r a l c o n d u c t . F o r t h e d e p o s i t of t r u t h e n t r u s t e d t o U s b y G o d , a n d O u r w e i g h t y office of p r o p a g a t i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , a n d u r g i n g , in s e a s o n a n d o u t of s e a s o n , t h e e n t i r e m o r a l l a w , d e m a n d t h a t b o t h social a n d e c o n o m i c q u e s t i o n s be b r o u g h t w i t h ­ in O u r s u p r e m e j u r i s d i c t i o n in so far a s t h e y r e f e r to m o r a l issues."
t 3 3 ) 4 1 4 (35) ( 3 f i )

WHAT COP DKSIUKS. Maplized h u m a n b e i n g s h a v e t o p e r f o r m t w o k i n d s o f tic/ions. a c t i o n s t h a t a r e f u n d a m e n t a l ! } ' a n d s u b s t a n t i a l l v natural from the p o i n t of v i e w of t h e matter w i t h w h i c h tliev a r e c o n c e r n e d , s u c h a s t h e p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d e x c h a n g e of m a t e r i a l g o o d s , a n d a c t i o n s t h a t a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y sifpan,a!urat from t h e p o i n t of v i e w o f t h e matter with which they a r e concerned, such as the r e c e p t i o n of t h e s a c r a m e n t s . Met w e e n t h e e n d s of tfiese t w o s e t s of a c t i o n s , ' t h e r e is i n d i r e c t s u b o r d i n a t i o n not d i r e c t , i n a s m u c h a s t h e n a t u r a l w o r k s o r f o r m s of a c t i v i t y m u s t n o t o n l y n o t p r o v e o b s t a c l e s to t h e o t h e r s b u t m u s t on t h e c o n t r a r v >et u p c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e to t h e m . T h i s is t h e r e l a t i o n w e h a v e s e e n t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e t w o a u t h o r i t i e s , e a c h s u p r e m e in its o w n s p h e r e , t o which h u m a n beings are subject. If w e n o w l o o k a t t h e end w h i c h the s u b j e c t s of t h e s e t w o a u t h o r i t i e s o u g h t to h a v e in v i e w in all t h e i r a c t i o n s , t h e final e n d t o w h i c h t h e y o u g h t to d i r e c t all t h e i r a c t i o n s . * t h e r e is b u t o n e , God loved a b o v e all. God d e s i r e s t h a t all t h e a c t i v i t i e s of
i : ! 7 ;; 8)

Encyclical Letter, Immortale Dei. Kncyclica.l Letter, /tV /*///// X o r a r u a i . (35) Encyclical Letter, Ubi Arcana. (36) Encyclical Letter, Quadragesima Anno. 'M)End here means the end to which by its n a t u r e a work o r form of activity is directed, the fitiis operis, to use the scholastic expression. (38) ]i] rf here means the finis operant is. what t h e p e r s o n i n t e n d ^ <.i is a i m i n g at.
l n

KTXGSHIP OF CHRIST IX ESSEXCK.

45

human beings should be the fruit of infused moral virtues and be animated b y supernatural charity. Thus e v e n matters that are substantially natural a r e intended b y G o d t o be the fruit of activi­ ties that are substantially supernatural. > W e m a y express this another w a y . T h e Supernatural Life, by which w e can animate human actions concerning e v e n matters themselves temporal o r natural, comes to us through membership of Christ. All human beings are meant to be drawn into membership of Christ's Mystical Body and when incorporated are intended to act fully as H i s members with His attitude, interior and exterior. H i s interior attitude is o n e of supernatural union with the Blessed Trinity ex­ pressing itself exteriorly with perfect prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance. All the actions of Christ's members, whatever be their matter, are intended by God the Father to be subject t o Christ and s o supernatural b y their animating force. "Whatever a Catholic does," writes Pope Pius X, " e v e n in temporal matters, he h a s n o t the right to neglect his supernatural interests, n a y m o r e , the prescriptions of Catholic teaching oblige him t o direct everything towards the Sovereign Good as towards the latt end of all things." * G o d desires that the Common Good of the State, political and economic, should be sought b y those in auihority in such a manner as to favour the development of the Supernatural Life of the citizens.
f39 140

THE

THOMISTIC DOCTRINE ON THE RELATION BETWEEN CHURCH AND STATE.

T h e doctrine of the relation between the t w o authorities in­ stituted by God for the government and direction of the human race, which has b e e n exposed in this chapter, is t h a t of t h e essential sovereignly of the State and its accidental subordination to the Church. T h i s is the teaching of St. Thomas, which has b e ­ c o m e the common doctrine of theologians. For St. Thomas,
141 ]

(39) This is a very brief summary of Billot, De Ecclesia, pp.
4l

Vol. I I ,

Encyclical Letter, Singulari quadam. < > The whole question has been admirably treated in the excellent work of Pabbe Journet, already quoted, namely, La Juridiction de VSglise itur la Cite (Paris, Desclee). A summary of his conclusions is given here. He points out that St. Thomas in Comment, in 71 Sent., disfc, 44, distinguishes between two kinds of subordination, namely, essential or absolute subordination and accidental or relative, and then goes on to describe the subordination^ of the State to the Church as relative, in two texts, of which one will be quoted here. Father Cappello, S.J., while highly approving of the doctrine exposed, objects to Tabbe Journet's use of the word accidental. He says that matters fall per accident under the jurisdiction essentially inherent in the Church, hut that the subordination itself cannot be spoken of as accidental. The objection is to the suitability of the words used to express the doctrine, not to the doctrine itself. Cf. Sunimn Juris Publici tfectesiastici, p. 299.

46

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

the spiritual power and the temporal power are both supreme, independent and sovereign, each in its own sphere, but the political power is subordinate to the ecclesiastical power, inasmuch and in so far as the matters with which the former power is concerned, and which are regularly temporal, become spiritual accidentally by reason of the circumstances. Following his usual procedure of looking at all things from God's side downwards, not from man's side upwards, the Angelic Doctor says: " Both the spiritual author­ ity [of the Church] and the secular authority |of the State] are derived from the authority of God. Accordingly, the secular power is subject to the spiritual power /// so far as it has been placed under it by God, that is to say, in those things which con­ cern the salvation of souls. Hence, in those matters, the spiritual authority must be obeyed rather than the secular. Where it is question of purely civil matters, the secular power must be obeyed rather than the spiritual, according to the expression: 'Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's \"< > "The secular power is not subject to the spiritual power uni­ versally and from every point of view. Thus, in (purely] civil matters the ruler of the state must be obeyed, and likewise in military matters the head of the army, rather than the bishop, who ought not to occupy himself with these things or with other temporal affairs, except in so far as spiritual interests are involved. But if anything in temporal affairs constitutes [becomes | an obstacle lo the eternal salvation of his subjects, the bishop who intervenes by a command or a prohibition docs not put his sickle into another's harvest. //'* arts by his own rightful divinelyconstituted authority. Where the eternal salvation of. men is at stake, all secular powers are subject to the spiritual power." St. Robert Bellarmine, at a later date, used the comparison of the body and the soul or the flchh and the spirit to illustrate and explain the accidental subordination of the temporal to the spirit­ ual authority. The body and the soul (or the llesh and the spirit), explains the learned Jesuil Doctor, have distinct functions and are even found separate from one another in the angels and the animals deprived of reason. In the animals we find flesh without spirit; in the angels wc find spirit without flesh." Nevertheless, they are found united and joined together in the unity of the human person in such wise that the soul commands and the body obeys. The soul has the right of chastising the body and keeping it in subjection, by fasts and other means, lest it may hamper the activity of the spirit. The soul may even compel the body to sacrifice itself and sacrifice everything that it holds dear, up to and including life itself, as the martyrs have done, if this is indis­ pensable in order that the soul may attain its end.
42 f43J

(42) Comment,

in 11 Sent., dist. 44.
in

Cf. Cardinal Cajetan, Comment,

Ha Ilae, Q.60,

a.6.

KJXGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

47

In the same way, and for similar reasons, since the Catholic Church is the Mystical Body of Christ, there must exist between the ecclesiastical and the civil power a union and ordered relation such that, when the eternal salvation of souls is concerned, the ecclesiastical authority may direct the political authority and command it to take a certain course of action. If necessary, the ecclesiastical authority can and ought to compel and force it to do so, lest the political authority may become an obstacle to the attainment of the supernatural final end of man. So the terres­ trial kingdom must be at the service of the heavenly kingdom.<«> M. Tabbe journet points out that this comparison, so dexter­ ously utilized by St. Robert Bellarminc, perfectly illustrates the problem of the jurisdiction of the Church and the accidental sub­ ordination of the State. It does not, however, as aptly bring out the fact that all the civic activity of a baptized person, though concerned with what is substantially natural, is intended to pro­ ceed in its entirety from supernatural charity animating the in­ fused virtues of prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance, and so be purified and elevated. The Thomistic doctrine represents the traditional teaching of the Church. *' "It can be affirmed with certitude that the Thomis­ tic teaching is the normal doctrine of the Middle Ages. It may have been deformed in times of crisis, but it has always been set forth again, in its integrity, precisely and correctly, later on." Both the ecclesiastical and secular power are from God. Now, whatever is from God, Who is Subsistent Love of Order, is in order. Accordingly, since "the divine right which comes from God does not destroy the human right which has its origin in man's rational nature, the two powers must be harmoniously interrelated in a manner respectful of their God-given natures. ' The tra­ ditional doctrine provides for this without sacrificing anything
W5) (4( (47) ( J8)

mystery of the Cross is thus applied to eocial organization, adds M. 1'abbe Journet. < ) La Juridivtion de Vfiglise sur la f-itr by M. Tabbe Journet, p. 161, note. <W Billot, S.J., Be Ecclesia, Vol. II, p. 86, says that St. Robert Bcllarmine, in the preface to his treatise against Barclay, quotes more than seventy authors, including St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, St. Antoninus, St. Bernard, St. Rayinundus, Caietanus, Turrccremata, Soto, Bannez, Molina, Hugh of St. Victor, Alexander of Hales, and Reginald Pole.
4fi

has written in his Be Romano

'Ihis is a free rendering of a part- of what St. Robert Bellarmine
Vontifice, lib. V, cap. 6. The great

arde, p. 77.

U7) Recherche*

sur VEsprit

Politique

de la Iiefor?ne
%

t

by G. de Lagjus humanum

<48) "Jus autem divinum quod est ex gratia non tollit quod <xt ex natural} ration* " ( I l a I l a e , Q.10, a. 10).

48

TIIK MYSTICAL

MODY OK

CHRIST

either of the essential natures of the two powers in question or of the order of the world. The other opinions fail to do this as we shall see.
T W O O T H E R T H E O R I E S CONCERNING T H E RELATION B E T W E E N CHURCH AND STATE.

Over against the Thomistie doctrine of the accidental subordin­ ation of the Siatc to ihe Church, in view of the harmonious co­ operation between the two powers instituted by God to guide and govern man, there arc two other opinions. The first proclaims that the subordination of the State to the Church is rather metaphorical tha?i real: the second asserts, on the contrary, that the subordination of the State is essential. If, instead of speaking of the "accidental subordination of the Stale/' we speak of the "indirect power of the Church/' then, the corresponding phrase in the theory of the " metaphorical subordination of the State " will be " the directive power of the Church/' in the theory of " essential subordination" it will be " the direct power of the Church." In the expression "indirect power/' the word "power" signi­ fies jurisdiction and the word "indirect" signifies that this juris­ diction can be exercised in political matters only if the interests of religion demand the intervention o f the Church. Now the par­ tisans of the "directive power" deny to the Church a true power of jurisdiction giving the Church the right to intervene authorita­ tively in political matters when the interests of religion demand it. They sacrifice the real order of the world, for " the tem­ poral ruler . . . must be guided, helped and corrected in matters committed to bis care by that higher power established to lead men to their loftier, eternal end/** The partisans of the "direct power of the Church in temporal affairs" deny that the Church's power is indirect and concerned with temporal affairs only in cer­ tain circumstances. Hence they falsify the real nature of both the powers established by God.' It is not necessary to dwell at length on this latter opinion, held by a few medieval writers, namely, that the Rulers of the Church have jurisdiction over temporal affairs as such. In this view the dependence of the State would be essential and absolute instead of relative and accidental. The Church has always rejected this doctrine of the "direct power' of the Church over temporal affairs.' '
491 301 1 51

(49) Suarcz, I)ffi»x. Fidn\ i\5. f501 Cf. La Juritfirtinn dr Vfcgliw p p . 124, 125.

aur la <'it<\ \tv l'abbe Journet,

(51) " Those who defended this doctrine w e r e either lawyers little versed in theology or little known theologians such as Aiigustinus TriumphuB, Alvarus IVIagius, etc. In so far as their reasons prove

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

49

The partisans of the directive power hold that the Church has a primacy of honour but not of jurisdiction in regard to those civil questions in which the interests of souls are at stake. The Church, according to them, possesses the power of persuading but not of commanding. The word " power " in the expression " di­ rective power " is thus to be taken, not in its proper sense, but in a figurative or metaphorical sense. Many liberal Catholics are partial to this opinion and try to explain the historical events of the Middle Ages by asserting "that the Sovereign Pontiffs then intervened authoritatively in political affairs, not by reason of their authority as Vicars of Christ, but exclusively because of the public law of the Europe of that day. The tacit or express con­ sent of Christian peoples had made the Roman Pontiff the Supreme Arbiter even of political matters. The worthlessness of these assertions, however, will be abundantly evident from even a cur­ sory examination of the documents of the period. "The Sovereign Pontiffs continually appeal to the power of binding which was conferred on St. Peter, to the authority of Jesus Christ whose place on earth they take . . . If by the public law of the Middle Ages is meant the acceptance and profession of the truth of the Divine Plan enshrined in the Gospel, and which was then universally acknowledged, it is true to say that this w a s the condition which allowed of the de facto exercise of the in­ direct power of the Sovereign Pontiffs. If. however, it is to be understood in the sense that the authority of the Sovereign Pon­ tiffs had its source in a law introduced by the will of the people, that assertion is erroneous. . . . Accordingly, all these attempts at explanation are of no value and are a clear proof of the pre­ sence of that deplorable fear of the integral truth which is the special malady of liberal Catholics. For, since the minds of their contemporaries are so imbued with the poison of the principles of the French Revolution that to most of them the principles we have been enunciating about the subordination of politics to religion seem to be ridiculous paradoxes, those weak Catholics do not dare to go against the tide and seek to whittle down the integral truth. They think, in their cowardice, that there is no other way to undertake the defence of the past than to seek the explanation of those illustrious events of the Church's history, which are repugnant to modern ideas and prejudices, in contingent anything, they prove rather the absolute inanity of the opinion de­ fended (Billot, S.J., De Evrhxia, v o l . II, p. 8 0 ) . Of course, in studying the Papal power in the Middle Ages, we must distinguish between the spiritual jurisdiction of the Popes, of which alone it is question here, and the temporal jurisdiction exercised by the Sovereign Pontiffs over some Christian States, such as Hungary, of which they were the Suzerains and Protectors. Cf. l'abb£ Journet, op. cit, pp. 191 and foil.
n

F

50

TIIK MYSTICAL IJODY OF CHRIST

and mutable human law. That is purely and simply to be ashamed of the Gospel. From such a crime against His Majesty, may God preserve us! " Father Cappcllo, S.J., passes judgement on the Thomistic teaching 'and on the two other theories of which we have been speaking as follows: " T h e theory of the direct power is false. The theory of directive power cannot be admitted. The doctrine
( 5 2 )

of

the indirect

power

is common,

certain

and Catholic

doctrine.

This [the Indirect Power) is an essential right of the Church, since it springs from the Church's nature, s o it is clear that it cannot be lost either b y custom or prescription, nor in any way restricted or changed."' >
53

THE

DUTY OF CATHOLICS TO CHRIST THE KING.

in the present state of the world, the exercise of the Indirect Power of the Church is hampered, but all Catholics, rulers and subjects alike, should proclaim with one voice the inalienable rights of the Church and show themselves ready to accept all the consequences that follow from them. These rights arc simply a part of the Church's participation in the Spiritual Kingship of Christ. Catholics, therefore, should unite in proclaiming the unchangeable order of the Divine J Man. God entrusted the exposition o f this order to St. Thomas, and we find it outlined in The Dogmatic Constitution of the Church which was drawn up for discussion at the Vatican Council. In this outline we read: " We . . . teach that those who govern should follow the same rule of the divine law in the exercise of their power. For the divine law, whether manifested b y the light of reason or by supernatural revelation, has been instituted n o t only for private citizens and their actions but also for those who are at the bead of states, and for the discharge of public duties, for social and political action. . . . And it belongs to the supreme teaching office of the Church to judge of the laws of human c o n ­ duct even for civil society and public affairs, inasmuch as it is for the Church to determine all questions of morals and to decide what is licit or illicit."***
Billot, .S.J., l)eJiwh*ia vol. I I , p p . 87, 88. Snmma Juris Ptthliri ftn'tetiia.stict\ p. 330. The theory of the direct power ' is contrary to the common teach­ ing. The theory of the 'directive power,' taken in the strict sense, does not appear to he in conformity with the teaching of the Syllabus | of Pope Pius IX"], the decrees of the Sovereign Pontiffs, and the vast majority of theologians (Smnma Apologetics dp, Ecdesia Catholica (1900) liy Fere de GrooL O.F., quoted by Fabhe Jouruet in La Juridirfion fit- rftglixr xttr la Cite, p. 170, note). '5-1) CF. Canon XII of the same Constitution: " If anyone shall say that Our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, has conferred on His
<52>
% 11 1

KINGSHIP

OF CHRIST

IN

ESSENCE.

51

T h e C o u n c i l h a d t o d i s p e r s e b e f o r e t h e s e p o i n t s c o u l d be d i s ­ c u s s e d , b u t t h e Schema had been printed and circulated a m o n g s t t h e F a t h e r s of t h e C o u n c i l . A c c o r d i n g l y , w e m a y s a y t h a t w e h a v e in t h e m a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of t h e m i n d of t h e C h u r c h on t h i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of O u r L o r d ' s K i n g s h i p . O n e of t h e r e a s o n s w h y t h e F e a s t of t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t w a s i n s t i t u t e d w a s t o b r i n g a b o u t u n i o n a m o n g s t C a t h o l i c s in s t a n d i n g for H i s R i g h t s . T h e y s h o u l d close t h e i r r a n k s on t h i s q u e s t i o n a n d n o t a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s to be d i v i d e d a n d d r a w n , in e v e r y c o u n t r y in g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r n u m b e r s , i n t o t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c c a m p of t h e e n e m i e s of Our Lord. Jf C a t h o l i c s w e r e at o n e in s e e k i n g first t h e i n t e r e s t s of C h r i s t , H e a d of t h e M y s t i c a l R o d y , t h e y w o u l d e x e r c i s e a p o w e r f u l i n ­ f l u e n c e o n t h e w o r l d . T h e y w o u l d , for i n s t a n c e , d r a w m a n y o u t ­ s i d e t h e C h u r c h f r e e l y t o r e c o g n i z e t h e m o r a l a u t h o r i t y of t h e R o m a n P o n t i f f as i n d i s p e n s a b l e for m a i n t a i n i n g p e a c e in a n y f u t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n of S t a t e s . " F o r no h u m a n i n s t i t u t i o n e x i s t s w h i c h c a n i m p o s e u p o n t h e n a t i o n s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o d e , a d a p t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e w h i c h , in t h e M i d d l e A g e s , r u l e d t h a t s o c i e t y of n a t i o n s w h i c h w a s k n o w n a s C h r i s t e n d o m . . . . B u t t h e r e is a d i v i n e i n s t i t u t i o n , w h i c h can g u a r a n t e e t h e s a n c t i t y of t h e l a w of n a t i o n s , an i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h , e m b r a c i n g all n a t i o n s a n d t r a n s c e n d i n g t h e m , is e n d o w e d w i t h s u p r e m e a u t h o r ­ i t y a n d e v o k e s v e n e r a t i o n t h r o u g h its p l e n a r y p o w e r s of r u l e — t h e C h u r c h of C h r i s t . B e c a u s e of its divine m i s s i o n , of i t s n a t u r e , of its c o n s t i t u t i o n , a n d t h e p r e s t i g e w h i c h t i m e h a s c o n f e r r e d u p o n it, it a l o n e h a s s h o w n itself e q u a l t o so g r e a t a t a s k , and far f r o m s u c c u m b i n g t o t h e o n s l a u g h t of w a r , it h a s e m e r g e d w i t h \ i g o u r marvellously increased." *
f55

W i t h o u t t h e a c k n o w l e d g m e n t of the r u l e of C h r i s t , p e a c e t h a t r e l a t i v e p e a c e w h i c h is p o s s i b l e in t h i s fallen w o r l d , c a n n o t be a t t a i n e d h e r e b e l o w . T h e R o m a n Pontiff, t h e V i c a r of C h r i s t , a n d t h e B i s h o p s of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , a r e t h e r e p r e s c n t a t h e s of Christ's Spiritual Kingship. I t is t h r o u g h t h e m t h a t H i s R o y a l W i l l is p r o c l a i m e d t o t h e w o r l d . If t h i s g u i d a n c e is n o t a c c e p t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e m o r a l a s p e c t of q u e s t i o n s , t h e n w e shall s e e a n a c c e n t u a t i o n of t h e r e i g n of b r u t e f o r c e , u n d e r t h e d o m i n a t i o n of s o m e s e c t i o n of t h e h u m a n r a c e u s u r p i n g t h e p l a c e of God, w i t h d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s for t h e p o o r a n d t h e w e a k . Fear, of a r o u s i n g anti-Catholic prejudice should not prevent Catholics from d e m a n d ­ i n g t h a t t h e P o p e ' s v o i c e s h o u l d be t h e d e c i d i n g f a c t o r w i t h r e -

C h u r c h only the power of d i r e c t i n g by counsels and e x h o r t a t i o n s a n d not t h a t of c o m m a n d i n g even by laws and of compelling and constrain­ ing by fitting p u n i s h m e n t s the e r r i n g and contumacious, let him he anathema." '55) Encyclical Letter, Ubi Arra.no Dei (1022).

52

T H E MYSTICAL

BODY OP

CHRIST

g a r d to t h e m o r a l i t y of d e c i s i o n s t o be t a k e n by a n y f u t u r e L e a g u e of N a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o a r m a m e n t s a n d f i n a n c e . T h e y should continually . point out thai the calumnies uttered a g a i n s t t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t a r e in t h e m a i n the worl: of the organized forces which wish to substitute for t h e r e i g n of C h r i s i their own naturalistic domination. T h e y s h o u l d , a c c o r d i n g l y , u n d e r s t a n d t h o r o u g h l y t h e m e a n i n g of N a t u r a l i s m a n d r e a l i s e iuUy t h a t t h e r e a r e visible o r g a n i z e d f o r c e s a t w o r k u n d e r S a t a n p r o p a g a t i n g it. If t h e y h a d a c l e a r g r a s p of t h e s e v i t a l p o i n t s , t h e y w o u l d s e e w h y s o m u c h of w h a t is c a l l e d " p r o g r e s s " a n d " e n l i g h t e n m e n t , " in p o l i t i c s a n d e c o n o m i c s , l e a d s t o t h e d e c a y of n a t i o n s a n d to t h e e n s l a v e m e n t of t h e m a s s e s , a n d t h e y w o u l d n o t allow t h e m s e l v e s to be inveigled into a d v o c a t i n g p o l i c i e s u t t e r l y o p p o s e d t o t h e r u l e of C h r i s t t h e K i n g . H e is t h e c e n t r e of o r d e r . >
(5G

" W e a r c h o p i n g for a n e w o r d e r of t i l i n g s , " w r i t e s P o p e P i u s X I I , " w h i c h will g o v e r n t h e life of p e o p l e s a n d a d j u s t t h e i r m u t u a l relations, w h e n these unnatural conllicts, these cruel b u t c h e r i e s , h a v e died d o w n a t last. T h i s n e w o r d e r m u s t n o t be f o u n d e d o n t h e s h i f t i n g s t a n d a r d s of r i g h t a n d w r o n g , t r e a c h e r o u s q u i c k s a n d s , w h i c h h a v e b e e n a r b i t r a r i l y d e v i s e d to s u i t public a n d p r i v a t e in­ terests. It m u s t s t a n d f i r m l y b a s e d <m t h e i m m o v a b l e r o c k of n a t u r a l law a n d divine revelation. . . . T h e troubles from which o u r a g e is s u f f e r i n g m a y be p u t d o w n p a r t l y , n o d o u b t , t o t h e d i s ­ t u r b i n g effects of e c o n o m i c m a l a d j u s t m e n t , p a r t l y to t h e c o m p e t i ­ t i o n b e t w e e n n a t i o n s , e a c h s t r i v i n g to get its fair s h a r e of t h e m e a n s G o d h a s g i v e n t h e m for m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r life a n d d e v e l o p ­ i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e . But the r o o t of t h e m lies fnr d e e p e r t h a n t h a t . T h e r o o t of t h e m is t o be s o u g h t in t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n r e l i g i o u s faith and the opinions which have been e m b r a c e d , the s t a n d a r d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a d o p t e d , by the m o d e r n w o r l d . T h o s e o p i n i o n s , t h o s e s t a n d a r d s , a r e c o r r u p t e d at t h e i r s o u r c e , b e c a u s e t h e p e o p l e of t h e w o r l d a r e s l o w l y l o s i n g t o u c h w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s of rightd e a l i n g , w i t h t h e u n i t y of C h r i s t i a n faith a n d d o c t r i n e , w h i c h t h e u n t i r i n g b e n e f i c e n c e of the C h u r c h o n c e instilled i n t o t h e m . The r e - e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e m o u l d i n g of t h e h u m a n r a c e , if it is to p r o ­ d u c e t h e effects e x p e c t e d of it . . • m u s t s p r i n g from t h e d o c t r i n e of t h e D i v i n e R e d e e m e r , a s its o n l y p o s s i b l e f o u n t a i n - s o u r c e . "
( 5 7 )

" T h e c a s e of g o v e r n m e n t s , " w r o t e P o p e !,eo X I I I , " i s m u c h t h e s a m e a s t h a t of t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; tliey a l s o m u s t r u n i n t o f a t a l i s s u e s , if t h e y d e p a r t from t h e w a y . . . . Let J e s u s be e x c l u d e d , a n d h u m a n r e a s o n is left w i t h o u t its g r e a t e s t p r o t e c t i o n a n d (5fi) The m o r a l i t y of a n v a r r a n g e m e n t s made with r e g a r d to the B a n k for I n t e r n a t i o n a l Settlements, an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Court:, an I n t e r ­ n a t i o n a l A r m y or Air Force, must be submitted t<» the Sovereign Pontiff, the V i c a r of Christ. (57) Encyclical Letter, Swnmi Ponttfivatus

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

53

illumination; the very notion is easily lost, of the end for which God created human society, to wit: that by the aid of their civil union the citizens should attain their natural good, but, neverthe­ less, in a way not in conflict with that highest and most perfect and enduring g o o d which is above nature. Their minds busy with a hundred confused projects, rulers and .subjects alike travel a devious road, bereft as thev are of safe guidance and fixed principle."< >
5?

(68) Encyclical Letter,

Tametsi. APPENDIX i.

PAPAL A U T H O R I T Y IN T K M P O R A L AFFAIRS-")

1. By Divine Right, the Pope has, firstly, the power, as Supreme Teacher and Guardian of the Moral Law, to give to Rulers, with regard t o the government of their States, directions obliging in conscience. He has, secondly, the power to regulate temporal affairs in sovereign though indirect fashion, whenever he judges it indispensable for the interests of souls, that is to say, he has not only directive power over the temporal affairs of States
but »overei<jn indirect power ( S t . Robert Bellarmine, De Rom.
P o n t . , lib. V. c. VI).

2. The universal recognition of ibis right by the peoples and rulers of the Middle Ages and the incorporation of this recognition into the constitutions of the various nations of Christendom, while it did not and could not add to the intrinsic force of the Divine Right, did add to it the extrinsic force of public law, and thus ren­ dered the exercise of the Divine Right less difficult and more efficacious. 3. The Sovereigns of several States of the Middle Ages were vassals of the Holy See. With regard to the Rulers of these States, the Pope had not only the indirect temporal power, found­ ed upon the Divine Right and public law, but also a direct tem­ poral power founded upon the right of suzerainty. 4. One of the sovereigns of the group of Christian States held from the Pope, with the title of Emperor, the additional title of Official Defender of the Holy See and of all Christendom. With regard to this prince, the Pope had not only the indirect temporal power which he had with regard (o all the other rulers, but a special power based on the origin and purpose of the Holy Roman Empire, as we have just explained. 5. The Popes have been invested by Divine Providence with ft) Extract from Leu Erreurn Dom P. Benoit.
M'odernea.

Vol. IT, pp. 39& 400, by

54

THE MYSTICAL I10DY OF CHRIST

sovereign power over the State (or States) of the Church. With regard to this State, they enjoy a direct temporal power similar to that of other rulers in their respective S t a l e s / '
2

Accordingly: The powers exercised by the Popes of the Middle Ages over Stales were founded: with regard to all, originally and principally, on the Divine Right: secondly and in a subsidiary way, on the public law of the nations of Christendom: with regard to the States thai were vassals of the Holy Sec. these powers were founded besides on the direct right of suzerainty; with regard to the Kmpcror, they were based in addition on a special right (sui generis), which had its origin in the Imperial Dignity. Consequently: (a) The power of the Popes over Stale* (called the Indirect Power) did not originate with Gregory VI f. (h) The power of the Popes over States (called the Indirect Power) bad not it* origin exclusively in the public law of the Middle Ages. We must hold this in opposition to Leibnitz, Hur­ ler, Yoigt. and most of the semi-liberals who in our day have undertaken the defence of the Church/
31

A.

U.

<> F a t h e r IJohert Hull, S . J . , p o i n t s o u t i n ifedirral Theories of the f'rijittri/. p. I I . that if would he well to reserve the term temporal power for the power of the Pope as a civil prince. He says that the t e r m ' power in t e m p o r a l s ' should be used for the I n d i r e c t Power. P e r h a p s the term Power in m a t t e r s t e m p o r a l ' would he better. '•H It is well to a d d , for the benefit of I r i s h readers, t h a t this is the d o e t r i n e upheld by A. M. S u l l i v a n in Tin Story of Ireland, p . 186. On p. 1ST of the <ame work ho ha-, some other v e r y n a t u r a l i s t i c remarks.
2 ( 1 ( t

APPFXDIX II.
T H E SCOP]-: O F THF. IXDIKKCT P O W E R O F T H E CHURCH.CD

Principles. (1) The Indirect power of the Church extends to all temporal affairs which are connected with the end of the Chinch, that is to say. which arc related to the spiritual life. This connexion or relation is found in temporal matters on account of their being necessary for or their being opposed to the spiritual end of the Church, that is to say, inasmuch as the tem­ poral matters are cither necessary to attain this end or prevent its being attained and must therefore be removed. 'o Translated from Sttmnm Juris Puhliri ftcrtrsiustici, 310, of Father F. M. Cappello, S.J.. Rome, 1936. pp. 313-316,

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

55

Cardinal di Turrecremata has the following excellent statement of this doctrine: "Although the Roman Pontiff has not the full direct power in temporal matters that he has in spiritual matters, nevertheless he has this power by a necessary consequence and by his own right, insofar as is necessary for the safeguarding of spiritual interests, for the guidance of the faithful to their eternal salvation, for the correction of sinners, and for the maintenance of peace amongst the people of Christ."' ' (II) Accordingly, the Indirect Power extends to all persons,, objects and actions, but exclusively from the point of view of their
2

connexion

the spiritual life. Certainly all persons, both public personages and private indi­

with

viduals, by the fact that they are baptized, are subject to the juris­ diction of the Church and must he.guided by her to holiness of life here below and eternal life hereafter. 1 have said expressly "whether public or private," because the magistrate as such, the ruler as ruler, is subject to the Church. The ruler or magistrate is subject to the Church not merely as a private individual, as the Gallicans erroneously taught. Therefore the Church must aid* direct and guide him to eternal life not only as a private individ­ ual but also as a public functionary. All objects and actions, whether profane or civil or political, may be mioral or immoral, good or bad, in conformity with or divergent from the laws of justice and morality, and as such are subject to the power of the Church. For example, if in any coun­ try a social or political question gave rise to a controversy caus­ ing grave disturbance and serious dissensions amongst Catholics to the great detriment of Christian charity and concord, the Church could, in order to safeguard charity and concord, impose silenceon all concerned. Pius X gives a fine exposition of this doctrine: "Whatever a Catholic does, even in temporal matters, he has not the right to neglect his supernatural interests, nay more, the prescriptions of Catholic teaching oblige him to direct everything towards theSovereign Good as towards the last end of all things. All his actions, inasmuch as they are cither morally good or bad. that isto say, in agreement or disagreement with natural and divine law, come under the judgement and jurisdiction of the Church."< > This explains why, in the course of history, the Roman Pon­ tiffs have intervened in matters concerning the social question,, economics or politics. (III) This power is by no means to be restricted to cases of
3

to the German Hierarchy, on the subject « f WorkingmenV Unions). > Acta Apost. Sedis, IV, 658.

(2) Snmma de Ecclesia, lib. II. cap. 114. (S> Encyclical Letter. Singular* quadam, Sept. 24th, 1912 (addressed

56

TIIIC M Y S T I C A L

RODY OF
4 1

CHRIST

g r a v e necessity, as several w r i t e r s a s s e r t / C a s e s of g r a v e n e ­ c e s s i t y a r c t h o s e in w h i c h t h e C h u r c h w o u l d be e x p o s e d t o s e r i o u s loss, unless she intervened. T h e q u e s t i o n of right m u s t n o t b e c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of fact. Jt is o n e t h i n g t o s a y t h a t t h e C h u r c h d o e s n o t in fact e x e r c i s e h e r i n d i r e c t p o w e r o v e r e a c h a n d e v e r y t e m p o r a l m a t t e r , a n d t h a t it is n o t a l w a y s e x p e d i e n t t h a t s h e s h o u l d do so. If a t e m p o r a l affair, n o m a t t e r w h a t i t s n a t u r e , is c o n n e c t e d w i t h s p i r i t u a l i n t e r e s t s , f r o m t h a t p o i n t of v i e w it is always a n d necessarily s u b j e c t to t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e C h u r c h . T h e C h u r c h c o u l d a l w a y s e x e r c i s e h e r p o w e r in a m a t t e r of t h a t k i n d f r o m t h a t a n g l e . (IV) S i n c e t h e I n d i r e c t P o w e r is a public power of j u r i s d i c ­ t i o n in t h e t r u e a n d p r o p e r m e a n i n g of t h e t e r m , it c a n b e l e g i s ­ lative, judicial and coactive. P i u s X I v i n d i c a t e s t h e c l a i m of t h e C h u r c h t o t h i s p o w e r in eloquent l a n g u a g e : " T h e Church indeed, does not claim to inter­ f e r e without reason in t h e d i r e c t i o n of t e m p o r a l o r p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , n e v e r t h e l e s s of h e r full r i g h t , s h e c l a i m s t h a t t h e civil p o w e r m u s t n o t a l l e g e t h i s a s a n e x c u s e f o r p l a c i n g o b s t a c l e s in t h e w a y of t h o s e h i g h e r g o o d s o n w h i c h t h e e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n of m e n d e p e n d s , for inilicting loss a n d i n j u r y t h r o u g h u n j u s t l a w s a n d d e c r e e s , f o r i m p a i r i n g t h e d i v i n e c o n s t i t u t i o n of t h e C h u r c h itself, o r for t r a m p l i n g u n d e r f o o t t h e s a c r e d r i g h t s of G o d in civil society."* * T h e C o d e of C a n o n L a w l i k e w i s e c l a i m s t h i s p o w e r for t h e C h u r c h in e x p l i c i t t e r m s : " T h e C h u r c h b y h e r p r o p e r a n d e x c l u ­ sive right t a k e s cognizance of all m a t t e r s in w h i c h is t o b e f o u n d a ratio peccati > T h e w o r d s " in w h i c h is t o b e f o u n d a r a t i o p e c c a t i , " u s e d b y B o n i f a c e V I I 1 a n d b y i n n o c e n t I I I , a r e n o t t o be u n d e r s t o o d a s r e f e r r i n g exclusively to m e r e l y theological faults and t h e r e f o r e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e d o m a i n of c o n s c i e n c e , a s s o m e h a v e w r o n g l y m a i n t a i n e d , b u t a r e t o be u n d e r s t o o d a s a p p l y i n g t o all m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h the good of religion, t h a t is, the end of the Church, either positively or negatively. M a t t e r s are connected positively i n a s m u c h a s t h e y a r e n e c e s s a r y for t h e g o o d of r e l i g i o n , t h a t is, for t h e a t t a i n m e n t of t h e C h u r c h ' s e n d ; m a t t e r s a r e c o n ­ n e c t e d negatively, i n a s m u c h as t h e y a r e obstacles to the a t t a i n ­ m e n t of t h a t e n d a n d so m u s t b e e l i m i n a t e d . T h a t t h e w o r d s in q u e s t i o n a r e n o t to be u n d e r s t o o d e x c l u s i v e ­ ly of m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e internal f o r u m is c l e a r f r o m t h e text, a n d t h e c o n t e x t . F o r C a n o n 1553, I, 2°, is t r e a t i n g of t h e
5 ,,(r, y

> Cf. Revet, I.e., p. 113, in n o t e : Laure.ntius, I.e., n.ODs; Chalodi, I.e., n . 2 7 , not. 5 ; P i l a t i , Potere diretto indiretto e direttivo. Rome,
}

(4

1935.

'6)

(5) Fneyelieal Letter, Ubi Arcana, Can. 1 5 5 3 , I, 2o.

23rd December, 1922.

KINGSHIP OP CHRIST IN ESSENCE.

57

object of a judgement or ecclesiastical process, which is, of course, a matter belonging to the external forum. NOTE. 1 beg to add the following clear statement of Pius X, not quoted by Father Cappello: We do not conceal the fact that We shall shock some people by saying that We must necessarily concern ourselves with politics. Hut anyone forming an equitable judgement clearly sees that the Supreme Pontiff can in no wise violently withdraw the category of politics from subjection to the supreme control of faith and morals confided to him" (Consistorial Allocution, November 9, 1903).
44

CHAPTER

III.

THE KIXGSUIP OF CHRIST IN ITS INTEGRITY.
MEANING OF T H E INTEGRITY OF T H E OF CHRIST. KINGSHIP

The Divine Plan for order in our fallen and redeemed world comprises, primarily, the supernatural social organism of the Catholic Church, and then, secondarily, the temporal or natural social order resulting from the influence of Catholic doctrine on politics and economics and from the embodiment of that influence in social institutions/ Prom the birth of the Catholic Church on Calvary and the solemn promulgation of her mission at the first Pentecost, the Kingdom of God in its essence has been pre­ sent in the world. As a result of the gradual acceptance of the role of t h e Church by t h e Temporal Representatives of Christ the King, the social institutions of States and nations became deeply permeated with the influence of the Supernatural Life of Christ, it was only then that the Kingdom of God or the rule of Christ the King in its integrity could be said to exist. The Kingdom of God or t h e rule of Christ the King is present in its integrity only in so far as the whole social life of States, political and economic, is permeated with the influence of the Church. To put it in other terms, Christ fully reigns only when the programme for which He died is accepted as the one true way to peace and order in the world, and social structures are evolved that are in harmony with it. The Kingdom of God in its essence is always with us, but the influence of the Church on politics and economics, in other words the extension of the Kingdom of God in its integrity, has varied with the centuries. Hroadly speaking, the 13th century has been, so far, the high-water mark of that influence. Since then, until recently, there has been steady decay. No particular tem­ poral social order, of course, will ever realize all that the Church is capable of giving to the world. I\ach of them will be defective for several reasons. First of all, the action of the Church, wel­ comed by some Catholics, will he opposed by the ignorance, in­ capacity and perversity of others. Secondly, even if all Catholics did accept fully, they could only reflect some of the beauty of the Gospel as the saints reflected some of the infinitely imitable holi11

HI

Cf. .splendid article hy Fabhe Journefc hi No en cf Vetera,

1931.

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN INTEGRITY

59

ness of Christ. Thirdly, there would still remain the vast num­ bers of non-Catholics to be won for Christ and whose social life would have to be organized under His rule. It is towards this latter goal that every generation of Catholics is called upon to work. The aim is not, needless to say, to bring back the Middle Ages, for the river of time docs not turn back in its course, but the aim is to impregnate a new epoch with the divine principles of order so firmly grasped in the 13th century. For the sake of clearness, instead of the expression, the Kingdom of God in its integrity, it is better to use the expression, the rule of Christ the King in its fulness or integrity. We shall, therefore, in future speak of the Kingship of Christ or the rule of Christ the King. Before, however, we attempt to set forth the outline:* of the organization which would be seen in the world, if it fully lccepted the rule of Christ the King, it will be well to explain briefly the correct notions of Politics and Economics, according to St. Thomas. <
2)

ST.

THOMAS

AND

POLITICS.

Politics is the science which has for object the organization of the State in view of the complete Common Good of the citizens in the natural order, and the means that conduct to it. As *he final end of man is, however, not merely natural, the State, charged with the temporal social order, must ever act in such wise as not only not to hinder but to favour the attaining of man's supreme end, the vision of God in Three Divine Persons. Political thought and political action, therefore, in an ordered State, will respect the jurisdiction and guidance of the Catholic Church, the divinely in­ stituted guardian of the moral order, remembering that what is morally wrong cannot be politically good. In connexion with this latter point we may quote the words of Pope Pius X I : (2) Pope Pius XI, following Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius X, orders us to go first to St. Thomas: " It was said of old to the Egyptians who were in need of corn. Go to Joseph, so to all who hunger for truth we would say, Oo to Thomas for the food of sound doctrine that will sus­ tain the soul unto everlasting life. . . . There is no doubt that Theology reached the apex of its dignity in the works of Aquinas, who combined an absolute knowledge of divine things with a force of intellect wonderfully fitted for philosophical argument. Wherefore, in our schools both of Philosophy and Theology, St. Thomas holds the .supreme mastership. . . . And since he is so clearly perfect in his theology, he gives secure reasons and precepts, not only for the direction of man's individual life, but likewise for domestic and civil society. Thus he our source for economic and political science. . . . If in private, in public, and in international relations all these things that Thomas lays down were kept holy and inviolate, nothing more would be needed to reconcile man to The Peace of Christ in the kingdom of Christ ' which the whole world so greatly desires" (Encyclical Letter, Studiorttm
1

Decern, 1923).

60

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

" It is part of the trend of the day to sever more and more not only morality, hut also the foundation of law and jurisprudence, from true belief in God and from His revealed commandments. Every positive law, from whatever law-giver it may come, can be examined in the light of the natural law, as to its implications, and consequently as to its moral authority to bind the conscience. The laws of man that are in direct contradiction to the natural law bear a terrible initial defect that no violent means, no outward display of power can remedy. By this standard must we judge the principle: 'What helps the people is right/ A right meaning may be given to the sentence, if it is understood as expressing that what is morally illicit can never serve the true interests of the people. But even ancient paganism recognised that the sent­ ence, to be perfectly accurate, should be inverted and read: ' Never is anything useful, if it is not at the same time morally good. And not because it is useful is it morally good, but because it is morally good, it is also useful' (Cicero, De Officiis, FIT, 30). Cut loose from this rule of morality, that principle would mean, in interna­ tional life, a perpetual state of war between the different nations. In political life within the state, since it confuses considerations of utility with those of right, it mistakes the basic fact that man as a person possesses God-given rights, which must be preserved from all attacks aimed at denving, suppressing, or disregarding
thcm."<3>

Therefore, the natural or temporal Common Good should always be aimed at by those in authority in the way best calculated to favour family life, in view of the development of true personality, in and through the Mystical Hody of Christ. Political action and
legislation, especially in economic matters, must ever seek to strengthen family life and, accordingly, must not only not admit divorce, but must always aim, as far as possible, at benefiting citizens through their families. True political science will insist

not only that the exercise of political power be according to the principles above outlined, but that the mode of accession to power and the means employed to retain power be in perfeel accord with the moral law. Finally, the Society of Nations must be brought about not by the ruin of all that is involved in the Catholic con­ cept of native-land, but by the union of all States in the recogni­ tion of the rule of Christ the King through the Catholic Church, the only supranational society. In some well-known passages of his work. On the Governance of Iinlers, St. Thomas sums up the aims of a good ruler of a
(i)

(3)

Encyclical Letter, On the Persecution
%

of the Church

in

(rertnanv

Principum lib. I, cap. XV. The authentic portion of the work does not extend beyond the middle of the fourth chapter of the second book. The rest is the work of Ptolemy of Lucca. For a

(1937). M De Uegimine

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IX INTEGRITY

61

State as follows: "Because the happiness and moral rectitude of the present life have as end the happiness of heaven, it belongs to the ruler to procure the common good of the people in such wise as to enable them to obtain celestial happiness. Accordingly, he ought to command what leads thereto and, as far as possible, forbid what is opposed to it. The road that leads to true happi­ ness and the obstacles to be encountered thereon are made known to us by the divine law, and it is the office of priests to teach that law, according to what we read in the Prophecy of Malachias, II, 7\ 'For the lips of the priest shall keep knowledge, and they shall seek the law at his mouth.' . . . The Ruler, therefore,
instructed in the divine law, should make it his chief aim to see that the people subject to him should be able to live a good life.

. . . Now that a man may lead a virtuous life two things are re­ quired. The chief requisite is virtuous action (for virtue is that by which one leads a good life). The other requisite, which is secondary and quasi-instrumental in character, is a sufficiency of material goods, the use of which is necessary for virtuous action." In the preceding chapter St. Thomas had pointed out that the ministry of guiding rulers of peoples belongs in an especial manner to the Vicar of Christ: "There is a certain good e x t r a n e o u s to man as long as he is living his mortal life here below, namely, final happiness, which is to be attained after death in the possess­ ion of God. For, as the Apostle says: ' As long as we are in the body we are far from the Lord.' ' Hence the Christian man, for whom that happiness has been bought with the blood of Christ, and who, in order to attain it, has received the pledge of the Holy Ghost, needs additional spiritual care to guide him to the harbour of eternal salvation, and this care is bestowed on the faithful by the ministers of Christ's Church. . . . Since man by a virtuous life is ordained to a higher end, which consists in the possession of God, as we have pointed out above, the end of men living to­ gether in society is the same as that of the individual man. Ac­ cordingly, the final end of m e n living together in society is not
15

clear o u t l i n e of the whole question, cf. the. I n t r o d u c t i o n to the t r a n s l a ­ t i o n of the a u t h e n t i c p o r t i o n in the St. Michael's College Philosophical t e x t s , by Rev. G e r a l d B. P h e l a n (Sheed a n d W a r d ) . Cf. also article by Professor A. O ' R a h i l l y in /. E. Record, J u n e , 1928.. I T is well to m e n t i o n i n p a s s i n g t h a t the a u t h o r of the n o n - a u t h e n t i c PORTION OF the De Segimine Pri?icipuvi, after h a v i n g gone so far as t o say ( L I B . I L L , c. 10) t h a t the s p i r i t u a l -power a n d a c t i o n of Pt. P e t e r AND h i s successors gives existence, power a n d action to the t e m p o r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n of princes, i m m e d i a t e l y adds t h a t in all the examples he m e n t i o n s , the Popes have i n t e r v e n e d in t e m p o r a l m a t t e r s only on a c c o u n t of some breach of the m o r a l law (ration* delicti). Cf. La Juridiction de Vftglixc sur la Cite, p. 189, where l'abbe J o u r n c t quotes St. ROBERT B e l l a r m i n e . «) I I Cor., V, 6.
t

62

TI1K M Y S T I C A L

150DY O F

CHRIST

t o live v i r t u o u s l y b u t b y l e a d i n g a v i r t u o u s life t o a t t a i n t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n of G o d . If t h i s e n d c o u l d b e a t t a i n e d b y t h e p o w e r of h u m a n n a t u r e , t h e n it w o u l d be p a r t of t h e d u t y of t h e k i n g t o d i r e c t m e n t h e r e t o . . . . lUit b e c a u s e m a n d o e s n o t a t t a i n h i s e n d , t h e P e a t i f i e V i s i o n , by h u m a n p o w e r , b u t by t h e p o w e r of G o d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w o r d s of St. P a u l : ' IIy t h e G r a c e of G o d , life everlasting,* "'' a c c o r d i n g l y , the t a s k of l e a d i n g h i m t h e r e t o is a m a t t e r n o t f o r h u m a n g o v e r n m e n t b u t for d i v i n e . Jt b e l o n g s t o t h a t K i n g W h o is n o t o n l y M a n b u t G o d , n a m e l y , t o O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , W h o b y m a k i n g m e n t h e s o n s of God c o n d u c t s t h e m t o t h e g l o r y of h e a v e n . " T h i s t h e n is t h e k i n g d o m w h i c h h a s b e e n c o m m i t t e d t o C h r i s t ' s r u l e a n d w h i c h shall n o t p a s s a w a y , on a c c o u n t of w h i c h H e is called in S c r i p t u r e not o n l y P r i e s t b u t K i n g , as w e r e a d in J e r e m i a s ( X X I I I , 5 ) : ' T h e k i n g shall r e i g n a n d h e s h a l l b e w i s e . ' H e n c e a r o y a l p r i e s t h o o d i> d e r i v e d f r o m Mini a n d , b e s i d e s , all t h e f a i t h f u l w h o b e l i e v e in C h r i s t , i n a s m u c h a s t h e y a r e H i s m e m b e r s , a r c called k i n g s a n d p r i e s t s . \ c o o r d i n g l y , _ t h e m i n i s t r y of t h i s k i n g d o m h a s b e e n confided not t o e a r t h l y k i n g s b u t t o p r i e s t s , in o r d e r t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n s p i r i t u a l a n d temporal matters. In an e s p e c i a l m a n n e r it h a s b e e n e n t r u s t e d t o t h e chief p r i e s t , t h e S u c c e s s o r of S t . P e t e r , t h e V i c a r of C h r i s t , t h e R o m a n Pontiff, t o w h o m all t h e r u l e r s of C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e s o u g h t t o be s u b j e c t a s t o O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t H i m s e l f . For t h o s e w h o h a v e c h a r g e of i n t e r m e d i a t e e n d s m u s t be s u b j e c t t o h i m w h o h a s c h a r g e of l e a d i n g m e n t o t h e i r u l t i m a t e e n d a n d be g u i d e d by h i m . "
0 ( 7 )

ST. T H O M A S AND ECONOMICS. " l i a s any o t h e r m a s t e r explained b e t t e r than St. T h o m a s the n a t u r e , m e t h o d a n d d i v i s i o n of p h i l o s o p h y ? . . . T h e o r d e r of v o l u n t a r y a c t s b e l o n g s t o M o r a l P h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h is d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s ; t h e first c o n s i d e r s an i n d i v i d u a l m a n ' s o p e r a t i o n s o r d a i n e d to an e n d , a n d is called monastic; the second considers t h e o p e r a t i o n s of a d o m e s t i c g r o u p a n d is called economic; the t h i r d c o n s i d e r s t h e o p e r a t i o n s of m a n in a c i t y o r s t a t e a n d is c a l l e d political (Comment, in Ethic., Lect. I ) . K t y m o l o g i c a l l y , e c o n o m y is t h e g o v e r n m e n t of t h e h o m e a n d t h e f a m i l y . K c o i i o m i e s is t h e s c i e n c e , w h i c h s t u d i e s t h e c o m p o n ­ e n t cells of the S t a t e , n a m e l y , f a m i l i e s , in t h e c o n s t i t u e n t r e l a t i o n s of t h e i r m e m b e r s a n d in t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s of e x i s t e n c e . " K c o n o m y ,
M ( S )

<s) Rom., VI, 23. (?) St. Thomas uses the word king for the ruler, r e m a r k i n g t h a t t h e term " k i n g is a p p l i e d to the " supreme ruler in t e m p o r a l affairs." <8> Encyclical Letter of Pope P i u s XT, Studiortim Ihtcem, On St. Thomas Cuide of Studies VI H a H a e , Q. 47, a.11 : I l a H a e , Q.50.
l t M J; m

a.3.

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN INTEGRITY

63

as its name indicates, studies the order of the human household, arranging, according to their respective values, persons ami things."< > It aims at elucidating, primarily, the personal relations which constitute the family, the relations of husband and wife, parents and children, masters and servants, and then, secondarily, the relations that follow from the conditions of existence of the family, namely, the mutual relations of human persons owing to their need of external goods or real wealth. On the one band, our nature brings us into relation with earthly resources which, by taking account of their nature and laws, we have to transform into real wealth capable of satisfying our corporeal needs. Such are the relations of men with minerals, stone, lime, copper, iron, petrol; with the flora and fauna that occupy the earth, air and water; with the nerves and muscles of our own bodies. On the other hand, from this necessary utilization of things, follow per­ sonal social relations between human beings: relations between cultivators of the soil and artisans, between employers rrid em­ ployed, between industrialists and merchants, between buyers and sellers. All these relations, however, arc between human persons whose well-being is bound up with strong family life. Needless to say, the organization of family life, in view of providing its members with sufficient material resources, is, though secondary, a very important element of economics. It is because of our material condition and of our need for material wealth that Economics and an Economic Science arise. We may thus speak of man as homo occononricus. This means that man is such by his nature that the qualification of ut*v»uonticus (economic) belongs to his species. I U U the huna* omnumdcua (economic man) of the classical economists has quite a different signification. They make it the fundamental notion of a science presented as autonomous. Their " economic man " is a fictitious entity constructed on the pleasure-seeking principle, according to which man naturally seeks the maximum of satisfaction at the cost of the minimum of effort. The " economic man " is man con­ sidered as withdrawn from any other influence but that and sub­ jected to its exclusive and absolute domination. Such a man re­ cognizes no moral obligation and is impervious to patriotism and love of family. This fiction is formulated in John Stuart Mill's description of Political Economy. Political Economy for him is the science which maps out the laws of social phenomena result­ ing from the combined operations of humanity in relation to the production of wealth, in so far as these phenomena have not been modified by the pursuit of any other object. Mill admits that man is human and social, while at the same time, because of his Liber­ alism, he withdraws man's pursuit of wealth from subordination
9

< ) Philosophic

9

Economique*

by J. Vialatoux, p. 78.

04

RILK

MYSTICAL

I'.ODY OF CHRIST

to ethics or moral science. Man's pursuit of wealth must be in order, and it is not to Mill, but to St. Thomas, that we must go to learn about that order. He is our source for economic and political science."^ ' In modern limes on account of the reversal of order, by which men are sacrificed to production, and production, distribution and exchange are sacrificed to money, many writers have given the title of Political Economy to what Aristotle and St. Thomas called the art of money-making. This art is in reality merely an auxiliary art intended to be at the service of the family and of the State. In the former context it subserves Economics, in the latter Poli­ tics. The art of manipulating money must be in close dependence on genuine economic and political science. Why is this? Practical .Sciences or arts are arranged in hierarchical order according to the hierarchical order of their ends. As the end of the art of moneymanipulation is subordinate t o the end of Politics and Economics, those engaged in the manipulation of money must be subordinate to those charged with the political and economic welfare of the State, in view of the Common Good. It is not for bankers to decide what the Common Good of the State demands. That is the function of the political rulers. Hankers are subjects not rulers. It is a reversal of order if they become rulers instead of subjects, and every reversal of order leads to disastrous conse­ quences. As St. Thomas points out, a sufficiency of material goods is necessary for the virtuous life of the average human being. Hence we can understand the reason for the dignified place assigned to the science of the production, distribution and exchange of natural wealth, and to the auxiliary art of the proper utilization of money or artificial wealth. This text of St. Thomas is referred to by Pope Pius XI, where the Pope speaks of the necessity of every citizen having an opportunity t o earn an honest livelihood, on account of the demands of the Common Good. " For then only," he writes, " will the economic and social organism be soundly established and attain its end, when it secures for all and each those goods which the wealth and resources of nature, technical achievement, and the social organization of economic affairs can give. These goods should be sufficient to supply all needs and an honest livelihood and to uplift men to that higher level of prosperity and culture which, provided it be used with prudence, is not only no hindr­ ance but is of singular help to virtue."* *
11 0 11

STATE AND FAMILY. In his treatment of Economics as the science of the family, St. Thomas is in complete opposition to the tendencies of an epoch do) Encyclical Letter, Encyclical Letter,
S t u d i o r u w Quttflrayrftimo Durr.nt. A n n o .

KiNGSlIJP

OF CHRIST

IN

INTEGRITY

65

like t h e p r e s e n t , w h e n t h e p r i o r i t y of t h e f a m i l y o v e r t h e S t a t e is l o s t s i g h t of o r d e n i e d a n d t h e h u m a n p e r s o n is r u t h l e s s l y s a c r i ­ ficed t o m o n e y - m a k i n g . H e a l w a y s k e e p s in v i e w t h e f a c t , d i s ­ c o v e r a b l e even by n a t u r a l r e a s o n , t h a t " D o m e s t i c a n d family life is m o r e i n t i m a t e l y b o u n d u p w i t h h u m a n n a t u r e t h a n p o l i t i c a l life *'ti2> p ] g t r e v e a l e d t r u t h , t h a t " m a r r i a g e is a s a c r a m e n t , b e c a u s e it is a h o l y s i g n w h i c h g i v e s g r a c e , s h o w i n g " f o r t h a n i m a g e of t h e m y s t i c a l n u p t i a l s of C h r i s t w i t h the C h u r c h . T o t h e f a m i l y t h e h u m a n p e r s o n is confided, a s a n i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r of t h e cell o r f u n d a m e n t a l s o c i a l u n i t , t o b e t r a i n e d a s a m e m b e r of C h r i s t . W e h a v e a l r e a d y s e e n t h e l a w w h i c h g o v e r n s t h e r e l a t i o n of t h e h u m a n p e r s o n t o t h e t w o s p e c i e s of n a t u r a l s o c i e t y , t h e f a m i l y a n d t h e S t a t e . A c c o r d i n g t o it, t h e individual is for s o c i e t y , a s t h e p a r t is for t h e w h o l e , t h e h a n d for t h e b o d y , b u t s o c i e t y in i t s t u r n is for t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e perso?i. W e m a y now say, proportionately, that the fundamental a n d m o r e l i m i t e d s o c i e t y of t h e f a m i l y is in t h e w i d e r a n d m o r e d e v e l o p e d s o c i e t y of t h e S t a t e a s t h e p a r t is in t h e w h o l e a n d , f r o m t h i s p o i n t of v i e w , is s u b j e c t t o it, b u t t h a t , f r o m a n o t h e r p o i n t of v i e w , t h e f a m i l y w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e p r i m a r y b e n e r i t s of g e n e r a t i o n , n u t r i t i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n is s u p e r i o r t o t h e S t a t e w h i c h h a s for o b j e c t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of h u m a n life. " T h e f a m i l y is m o r e n e c e s s n r y t h a n civil s o c i e t y , b e c a u s e t h e f a m i l y is o r d a i n e d t o t h e a c t s i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r life, n a m e l y , g e n e r a t i o n a n d n u t r i ­ t i o n . T o s a v e t h e S t a t e , a f a t h e r of a f a m i l y m a y b e a s k e d t o g i v e his life in b a t t l e , b u t t h e w h o l e o r d e r of t h e S t a t e is m e a n t to b e a t t h e s e r v i c e of t h e f a m i l y , a n d t h r o u g h it, of t h e h u m a n person.
a s w c a s t i e r e a ( 1 5 )

T h i s is t h e t e a c h i n g of P o p e P i u s X I in h i s E n c y c l i c a l On the. Christian Education of Youth. " I t m u s t be b o r n e in m i n d t h a t t h e o b l i g a t i o n of t h e f a m i l y t o b r i n g u p c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y r e l i g i o u s a n d m o r a l e d u c a t i o n , b u t p h y s i c a l a n d civic e d u c a t i o n a s w e l l , p r i n c i p a l l y in s o f a r a s it t o u c h e s u p o n r e l i g i o n a n d ' m o r a l ­ ity. " A c c o r d i n g l y , in t h e m a t t e r of e d u c a t i o n , it is t h e r i g h t , o r (12) Comment. in_ E t h i c , Lib. V I I I , Lect. X I I . " S o c i e t a s a u t e m domestiea . . . est p r i o r q u a m societas eivilis . . . u n d e p a t e t quod homon a t u r a l i u s est a n i m a l conjugate q u a m p o l i t i c u m . " (The family . . . is p r i o r to_civil society . . . whence i t manifestly follows t h a t the demand for family life is more deeply rooted in h u m a n n a t u r e than t h a t for civil society). (13) Encyclical Letter of P o p e Leo X I I I , Arcamun Bivvnae Sapientia.( (1880). " Societas domestiea est e t i a m magis necessaria (quam societas eivilis) q u i a societas d o m e s t i e a o r d i n a t u r ad actus necessarios v i t a e , scilicet srenerationem et n u t r i t i o n e m " CUnnnunt. in AV///>.. Lot*, cit.). < > Cf. a r t i c l e by l'abbe J o u r n e t in La Vie fntelleetuelle. OctoberDecember, 1929.
15

G

THK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

to s p e a k m o r e c o r r e c t l y , it is t h e d u t y of t h e S t a t e t o p r o t e c t in i t s l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e p r i o r r i g h t s . . . of t h e f a m i l y a s r e g a r d s t h e •Christian e d u c a t i o n of i t s o f f s p r i n g , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y a l s o t o r e ­ s p e c t t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l r i g h t s of t h e C h u r c h in t h i s s a m e r e a l m •of C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n . " I t a l s o b e l o n g s t o t h e S t a t e t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s of t h e child "itself w h e n t h e p a r e n t s a r e f o u n d w a n t i n g e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y o r m o r a l l y in t h i s r e s p e c t , w h e t h e r b y d e f a u l t , i n c a p a c i t y , o r m i s ­ conduct, since . . . . t h e i r r i g h t t o e d u c a t e is n o t an a b s o l u t e .and d e s p o t i c o n e , b u t d e p e n d e n t o n t h e n a t u r a l a n d d i v i n e l a w , a n d t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t a l i k e t o t h e a u t h o r i t y a n d j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e C h u r c h , a n d t o the v i g i l a n c e a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a r e of t h e S t a t e in v i e w of t h e C o m m o n G o o d . B e s i d e s , t h e f a m i l y is not a p e r f e c t .society, t h a t is, it h a s not in itself all t h e m e a n s n e c e s s a r y for i t s full d e v e l o p m e n t . In s u c h c a s e s , e x c e p t i o n a l n o d o u b t , t h e S t a t e •does n o t p u t itself in t h e p l a c e of t h e f a m i l y , but m e r e l y s u p p l i e s •deficiencies, a n d p r o v i d e s s u i t a b l e m e a n s , a l w a y s in c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e n a t u r a l r i g h t s of t h e child a n d t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l r i g h t s of the Church. " In g e n e r a l , t h e n , it is t h e r i g h t a n d d u t y of the S t a t e t o p r o ­ t e c t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s of r i g h t r e a s o n a n d f a i t h , t h e m o r a l .and r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n of y o u t h , b y r e m o v i n g p u b l i c i m p e d i m e n t s t h a t s t a n d in t h e w a y . It p e r t a i n s t o t h e S t a t e , in v i e w of t h e C o m m o n G o o d , t o p r o m o t e in v a r i o u s w a y s t h e e d u c a t i o n a n d i n ­ s t r u c t i o n of y o u t h " O v e r and above this, the S t a t e can exact, and t a k e m e a s u r e s to s e c u r e t h a t all its c i t i z e n s h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y k n o w l e d g e of t h e i r civic a n d political d u t i e s , a n d a c e r t a i n d e g r e e of p h y s i c a l , intellectual and moral culture, which, considering the conditions •of o u r t i m e s , is r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y for t h e C o m m o n G o o d . " *
lGJ

THK ROLK OF MONEY IN ECONOMICS. T h e a r t of m a n i p u l a t i n g m o n e y , a c c o r d i n g to St. T h o m a s , is m e a n t t o be in close d e p e n d e n c e on g e n u i n e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e . It d o e s not, of c o u r s e , f o r m a n integral p a r t of it, b u t it p l a y s t h e r o l e of an aa.iitiartf a r t , f u r n i s h i n g to p o l i t i c s a n d e c o n o ­ mics the i n s t r u m e n t they need. T o u n d e r s t a n d St. T h o m a s ' s t e a c h i n g a b o u t m o n e y w e m u s t b e a r in m i n d t h a t t h e A n g e l i c D o c t o r did n o t deal w i t h a n y p a r t i c u l a r p a r i of t h e D i v i n e P l a n f o r •ordered h u m a n life, i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e w h o l e . T h a t p l a n as a w h o l e w a s a l w a y s s p r e a d o u t b e f o r e h i s m i n d like a v a s t p a n o ­ rama. It w a s c l e a r l y p r e s e n t t o h i m w h e n t r e a t i n g of m o n e y i n h i s C o m m e n t a r y on A r i s t o t l e ' s Politics, a n d in the Samma ThcoHfi) Encyclical Letter, Diriui Illius Maaistri.

KINGSHJP OF CHRIST IN INTEGRITY
l7

67

logica where he treats of the same subject with considerable ad­ ditions. < > The order of the Divine Plan set forth by St. Thomas is the reverse of the disorder which prevails at present. Nowadays, the human person is subordinated to the production of goods or real wealth, and the production and distribution of real wealth are subordinated to money or token wealth. For St. Thomas, money is meant to facilitate families in procuring by exchange the suffici­ ency of material goods required for the virtuous life of their members, that is, for the ordered development of the human per­ sonalities composing the family. The relation of real wealth to personality is set forth in the text of the treatise, On the Govern­ ance of Princes, which has already been quoted more than once because of its importance. "That a man may lead a good life, two things are required. The chief requisite is virtuous action. . . . The other requisite, which is secondary and quasi-instru­ mental in character, is a sufficiency of material goods, the use of which is necessary for virtuous action."* * Again the Angelic Doctor writes: " For the imperfect happiness that can be obtained in this life, external goods are necessary: not that they belong to the essence of happiness, but inasmuch as they serve as instru­ ments for the attainment of happiness, which consists in a virtu­ ous life. . . . For in this life man needs the things the body requires for the pursuit of contemplation as well as for the virtues of the active life."< > The subordination of money or token wealth to the production and distribution of natural wealth is indicated in the Snmma Theologica: "Natural wealth is that by which natural wants are supplied, for example, food, drink, clothing, vehicles, dwellings, and such like. Artificial wealth is that which is not a direct help to nature, as for instance, money. This was invented by the art of man, for the convenience of exchange by serving as a common measure of things saleable."' * And again he writes: Those things cannot be considered as real wealth which, if man's senti­ ments happen to change, are no longer of any value or utility for the satisfaction of human needs. Such is the case with coins or
18 ly 20 41

ttf) Cf. Notes by Pore tip icq, O.P., in the translation of the Snmma published by the Pevue dea Jeunes, La Justice, vol. I, p. 272. The Commentary of St. Thomas on the Politics of Aristotle is authentic up to and including Lib. I l l , Lect. VI; the rest is the work of P**trus do Alvernia. Cf. article by Professor A. O'TCahilly in /. E. Record, December, 1927.
Theologica
(18

)

De Pegimine

Principum,

Lib. I, eap.

XV.

< > la Ilae, Q.4, a.7. w (20) Ta Ilae, Q.2, a.l. c. " The Philosopher [Aristotle] say* in / Politic t«ap. 5 and 0, that bread, wine and the like are natural wealth, while money is artificial wealth " (Ha ITae, Q.188, a.7, ad 5).

68

T H E MYSTICAL, BODY OP

CHRIST

t o k e n w e a l t h , w h i c h a r e w o r t h n o t h i n g , if t h o s e w h o u s e t h e m change their minds. T h e y b e c o m e u s e l e s s f o r all t h e p u r p o s e s of life, if t h e r u l e r of t h e c o m m u n i t y d e c r e e s t h a t t h e y a r e w i t h o u t v a l u e . " * > S t . T h o m a s s a w c l e a r l y t h a t it w a s w h a t w e w o u l d n o w call t h e l e g a l s t a t u s g i v e n b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t s t a m p w h i c h m a k e s a coin a c c e p t a b l e a s m o n e y , n o t t h e m e t a l o r o t h e r s u b ­ s t a n c e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e s t a m p . T h e s u b s t a n c e of w h i c h m o n e y is m a d e is n o t i m p o r t a n t . W h a t is s u m m e d u p so a c c u r a t e l y a n d s u c c i n c t l y h e r e is t r e a t e d at s o m e l e n g t h in t h e C o m m e n t a r y o n A r t i s t o t l c ' s P o l i t i c s , B o o k I. L e t us f o l l o w S t . T h o m a s ' s r e a s o n ­ ing. In L e c t . V I , t h e A n g e l i c D o c t o r p o i n t s o u t t h a t o n e a r t c a n b e a t t h e s e r v i c e of a n o t h e r in t w o w a y s , e i t h e r b y p r e p a r i n g t h e matter t h e o t h e r r e q u i r e s o r b y p r e p a r i n g t h e instrument it n e e d s . T h e a r t w h i c h m a k e s t h e c o m b o r o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t u s e d in w e a v ­ i n g s e r v e s t h e a r t of w e a v i n g in t h e s e c o n d w a y , w h i l e t h e a r t w h i c h p r e p a r e s t h e b r o n z e for t h e s c u l p t o r s e r v e s t h e a r t i s t in t h e first. T h e a r t of m a n i p u l a t i n g m o n e y (ars pecuniativa) serves E c o n o m i c s r a t h e r by w a y of p r e p a r i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t it r e q u i r e s , t h a n b y f u r n i s h i n g i t s m a t t e r . " M o n e y a n d all f o r m s of w e a l t h a r e i n s t r u m e n t s of E c o n o m i c s , " w r i t e s S t . T h o m a s , t h e t r u e m a t ­ t e r of E c o n o m i c S c i e n c e b e i n g t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of t h e h u m a n b e i n g s t h e m s e l v e s w h o m a k e u s e of t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of w e a l t h .
21

T h e p o s s e s s i o n of r e a l w e a l t h is n a t u r a l t o m a n , c o n t i n u e s S t . T h o m a s in L e c t . VI L b e c a u s e food a n d s u c h t h i n g s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r h u m a n life, b u t t h e p o s s e s s i o n of m o n e y is n o t f r o m n a t u r e itself, for m o n e y h a s b e e n i n v e n t e d b y t h e a r t of m a n , t u r n i n g t o a c c o u n t t h e e x p e r i e n c e of life. T h e p o s s e s s i o n of m o n e y in o n e p a r t i c u l a r r e s e m b l e s t h e p o s s e s s i o n of r e a l w e a l t h , n a m e l y , i n a s m u c h a s b y i t s m e a n s t h e n e c e s s a r i e s of life can be e a s i l y p r o ­ c u r e d in a n o r d e r e d s o c i e t y . M o n e y w a s invented precisely to f a c i l i t a t e t h e e x c h a n g e of g o o d s . By m e a n s of it, f a m i l i e s c a n p r o c u r e , b y t h e p r o c e s s of e x c h a n g e , f a r m o r e e a s i l y t h a n b y t h e m o r e p r i m i t i v e f o r m of b a r t e r , t h a t sufficiency of n a t u r e ' s g o o d s r e q u i r e d for a v i r t u o u s life. M o n e y , b e i n g a p e r m a n e n t p r o o f t h a t t h e o w n e r of it is o w e d g o o d s o r s e r v i c e s by t h e c o m m u n i t y , c a n e a s i l y be r e t a i n e d till t h e t i m e of f u t u r e n e e d , if t h e o w n e r h a p ­ p e n s n o t t o b e in i m m e d i a t e w a n t of a n y t h i n g . " T h e coin is ( a c t s as) a s u r e t y , " w r i t e s St. T h o m a s , g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t a m a n w h o is n o t in n e e d of a n y t h i n g at p r e s e n t , will be a b l e t o p r o ­ c u r e w h a t be m a y r e q u i r e in t h e f u t u r e on p r e s e n t i n g t h e c o i n . " > M o n e y is t h u s a p e r m a n e n t l y a c c e p t a b l e c l a i m for g o o d s a n d s e r ­ v i c e s . B y t h a t is m e a n t , of c o u r s e , t h a t m o n e y is a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t ­ a b l e i n s t r u m e n t e n a b l i n g its p o s s e s s o r t o set up a claim for o r t o
44 (22

< > Comment, (22) Comment,

21

in Polity h Hfhic,

Lect. V I I . Lib. V, Lect. I X .

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN INTEGRITY

69

make a demand for what is for sale in the community. It does not confer upon its possessor a claim upon any definite goods in the community.
T H R E E W A Y S OF DEALING IN -MONEY.

Money, that is, some intermediary or medium of exchange acceptable to both parties, became indispensable, when things be­ gan t o be exchanged between people living at a great distance from one another. I'ronze, iron and silver soon came to serve as intermediaries because they were useful everywhere, and certain quantities of them could be easily transported, while their dura­ bility and their relative rarity made them very adaptable for the purpose of an exchange-medium. At first, the quantities of these metals had to be measured and weighed, but afterwards they were stamped to indicate the quantity. ' Then, gradually, as foreign trade developed, there grew up the art of money-changing/-* J that is, the art of exchanging the currency or medium accepted in one country for the currency or medium accepted in another. Thus we have two ways of dealing in money (artes pecunialivae)—ex­ changing money for goods, and money for money. The first of these ways of dealing in money—exchanging money for goods—is the servant of Economics, inasmuch as by it the iicquishion of what is necessary or useful for human life is facili­ tated. Money, as we have seen, is easily transported in the place of goods. This art of acquiring money by the sale of goods and keeping it till the need of other purchases arises and then utiliz­ ing it is in no way defective. " This form of exchange is not reserved to merchants or traders. It is more especially carried on by the heads of households or by rulers of states in view < f > providing families or states with the necessaries of life/' The second mode of dealing in money is by exchanging money for money, for example, the currency of one country for that of another. In this way, money is acquired by means of money. If this is done "not on account of the necessities of life, but for profit . . . . it panders to the greed for gain which knows no
( 2:|) 1 f25J

(23) The process of exchange by means of an exchange medium with an value may be said to be only a simplified form of barter. We .shall see later that one of the defects* o f metals like gold and silver as currency or exchange-medium is the difficulty of obtaining enough of them to increase the flow of money in proportion to the people's increas­ ing ability to produce ical wealth. Cf. Money Creators, by G, W. Coogan, p. 15. (24) Cum denarii non pint a nafcura, ut dictum est, [ars] numinuIaria quae est permutatio denariorum, non est a natxira" (Comment, in Polity Lib. I, Leet. VII). The term ars campsoria (qua utuntur campsores denariorum) is also employed by St. Thomas to designate the
intrinsic
11

F a m e art or
'25)

habitus.

Ha Hae, Q.77, a.4, c.

70

Till-; M Y S T I C A L J i O D Y O F

CHRIST

l i m i t a n d t e n d s to infinity. . . . If, h o w e v e r , a n y o n e s e e k s t h a t m o d e r a t e p r o f i t w h i c h h e m a k e s in t r a d e for t h e u p k e e p of h i s f a m i l y o r e v e n t o h e l p t h e p o o r o r if a n y o n e e n g a g e s in t h e b u s i ­ n e s s of m o n e y - c h a n g i n g for t h e p u b l i c g o o d , in o r d e r t h a t h i s c o u n t r y m a y be p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r i e s of life, a n d s o d o e s n o t m a k e gain the end at which he a i m s but simply looks u p o n it a s t h e r e w a r d of b i s l a b o u r , t h e n s u c h t r a d i n g is q u i t e l e g i t i m ­ a t e . " - ' Cardinal Cajetan, the learned c o m m e n t a t o r on St. T h o m a s , w r i t e s : " S i n c e it is e v i d e n t f r o m e x p e r i e n c e that, m a n y S t a t e s w o u l d lack m a n y necessaries unless t h e r e w e r e m e r c h a n t s to s u p ­ p l y t h e m , a n d s i n c e t h e s e m e r c h a n t s c o u l d n o t c a r r y on b u s i n e s s w i t h o u t m o n e y - c h a n g i n g , it is n e e d f u l a n d r i g h t t h a t t h e a r t of m o n e y - c h a n g i n g s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o b e e x e r c i s e d in S t a t e s , n o t i n d e e d for its o w n s a k e , b u t i n a s m u c h a s it m i n i s t e r s t o K c o n o m i c s and Politics. Thus m o n e y - c h a n g e r s not only may g u a r d t h e m ­ s e l v e s a g a i n s t loss in t h e e x e r c i s e of t h e i r t r a d e b u t m a y e v e n m a k e a profit as a r e w a r d for t h e i r i n d u s t r y , for t h e y c a r r y o n a b u s i n e s s t h a t is b o t h l a w f u l a n d u s e f u l t o the S t a t e . S t . T h o m a s ' s r e a s o n i n g is b a s e d o n t h e fact t h a t t o e n g a g e in t r a d e f o r t h e s a k e of g a i n , t h o u g h n e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y n o r g o o d in i t s e l f (honest inn), d o e s not i m p l y a n y t h i n g v i c i o u s o r c o n t r a r y t o v i r ­ t u e . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r e is n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t t r a d i n g f r o m b e i n g d i r e c t e d to a g o o d e n d a n d s o b e c o m i n g l e g i t i m a t e .
f r 1 ( 2 8 )

T h e r e a s o n w h y t h i s s e c o n d w a y of d e a l i n g in m o n e y — e x ­ c h a n g i n g m o n e y for m o n e y (ar* nunrmalaria)—is rightly looked u p o n w i t h d i s t r u s t a n d d i s f a v o u r is g i v e n a t l e n g t h by S t . T h o m a s in t h e Con)nientarti on the Polities a n d in t h e Sionrna Theologica. I t is b e c a u s e of t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g d a n g e r of its b e i n g a b u s e d b y W>> Ibid. iSt. T h o m a s .-.peaks of e x c h a n g i n g money for money (denar­ iorum ad d(narioa) or goods for money (fjuarumcumque rerura ad denarios), for he is t r e a t i n g of t r a d i n g for profit in general. c27) ])c Cwnhiix, cap. 5. Of course, as we shall see l a t e r , s e t t l e m e n t of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e balances must be controlled by the G o v e r n m e n t of a country, in o r d e r to p r e v e n t a t t a c k s on the currency of the c o u n t r y a n d the m a n i p u l a t i o n of its price level for p r i v a t e gain. TJie Govern­ ment- is b o u n d t o p r o t e c t the c u r r e n c y a n d keep the price level stable for the sake of the Common Good. <28i Pere ttpicq. (>.1\, in his note on H a I l a e , Q.77, a.4, i n the E d i t i o n published by /,// Herut r/es Jctnus, p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h i s second p a r t of the article is something new a n d u n p a r a l l e l e d in St. T h o m a s ' s w r i t i n g s . It the first time t h a t the Angelic doctor sets out to j u s t i f y commerce and t r a d i n g as such. He does i t -discreetly but clearly a n d definitely. In the first p a r t of the article he renews the c o n d e m n a t i o n of it by Aristotle, which he had aecepled in Comnu ntnrt; on the. Politics (Lib. I, beet. V I I I ) : cf irfrtt t'xfa* -nummutaria ju*tf rituperatur, non cuim ifita -pccu-niatjra cat secundum vatu-ram, etc. In the second p a r t , he s t a n d s o u t a g a i n s t the a u t h o r i t y of A r i s t o t l e and justifies the com­ mercial development of the KUh century, lie takes account of the Common Good of society, which Aristotle had failed to keep before his m i n d in thi* connexion.

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN INTEGRITY

71

fallen nature. Man is a fallen being. This is clearly visible in the functioning of his passions, which he finds difficult to control. St. Thomas points out that nature imposes a certain limit on instinctive desires, which are always for something finite and determined, and always aim at maintaining the order required for life. We see this plainly in the case of animals. When reason, however, instead of controlling the passions, puts itself at their service, it will introduce infinity, in a certain way, into their crav­ ing for satisfaction and make them absolutely insatiable, so sacri­ ficing the good of the whole being in a vain attempt to make the finite infinite. Reason can set up as an end what is only a means. Money and all forms of wealth are only means intended to satisfy the needs of life. If the amassing of money is made the end of commercial transactions, then " he who longs for riches can desire them, not merely up to a certain point, but he can simply aspire to be as rich as ever he can."' ' As the end is desired for its own sake and not merely to a certain degree, "he who fixes the end of life in amassing wealth will have a longing for riches ad infinitum; whereas a man who desires wealth just for the needs of life wants only enough to satisfy these needs."
23 (30)

St. Thomas shows that concupiscence or desire can be infinite in two ways. He begins by distinguishing* between a natural or ordered desire and an anti-natural o r disordered one. The antinatural desire is the result of the infinity introduced by reason intomaterial longings. Then follows the text quoted: "Hence he who longs for riches can desire them not merely up to a certain point, but he can simply aspire to be as rich as ever he can." He then goes on to say that another reason can be assigned why some desires are finite, while others are infinite: " The desire of the end is always infinite, for the end is always sought after for itself {per se). Hence better health is more desirable and so on inde­ finitely. . . . The desire of that which is a means to the end is not infinite, if it is regulated by what is suitable for the attainment of the end. So the man for w hom money has become an end, has an insatiable desire for it, whereas the man who desires money in view of the needs of life desires sufficient for his needs, but not beyond. And the same holds for the desire of other things."* ' Commercial operations must always be examined in the light of the principle set forth by St. Thomas in his Commentary on Aristotle's Politics. "The longing to attain a legitimate end is without limit, whereas the desire of what is a means towards the end is not limitless, but is measured and determined in view of
r 33

i* ' la liar;, Q.30, a.J, c. " The universal which reason i*ra^ps is in a certain way infinite, inasmuch as it contains potentially an infinite number of singulars or individuals " (Ibid., ad 2),
F»>
(3D

9

IBID.
Cf. VommfHt. #// P o l i t y Lib. I, cap. 6

72

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OE

CHRIST

the end. Thus a doctor's desire to heal his patient is limitless; he does not, however, give the greatest possible quantity of medi­ cine, but measures the dose according to the requirements of the case, in view of the patient's complete return to health."< The desire of gain is the desire of what is by nature a means. It must not be erected into an end, for that is disorder. Money or token wealth, it cannot be loo often repeated, is meant to be subservient to the development of human personality through Our Lord Jesus Christ, in accordance with social or legal and commutative justice. If it becomes the end, it simply means that man is pandering to his individuality, in other words, he is becoming the slave of his passions instead of developing his personality. The appetite of matter is always for other forms, irrespective of their intrinsic power to elevate; it is a desire for "otherness" as such, for what is new or the latest fashion, but not necessarily for what is better or nobler. This disordered de­ sire for money as an end is the root-cause of the furious rhythm of modern life. "The desire for natural riches is not unlimited, because they suffice for nature in a certain measure. But the de­ sire for artificial wealth is unlimited, for it is the slave of dis­ ordered concupiscence."^) In addition to the two ways of dealing in money already men­ tioned, St. Thomas refers to a third form. This mode of dealing in money is called usury, by which iiiuney begets money. This, he says, is most justifiably condemned and held in detestation, for it is in the highest degree contrary to nature. Notice the grad­ ation in the Angelic Doctor's appreciation of these three forms of trading in money. The first—exchanging money for things useful for human life—is natural, for in it dealing in money is subject to Economics, the science of the well-being of the household or fam­ ily. The second—exchanging money for money—is very liable to perversion, for it can easily become the slave of disordered selfseeking and thus be turned against right order. A very great deal of what is termed speculation in modern limes, if not all, is a perversion of this second mode of making money. Those who
a2J i:Ml

< > la Hae, Q.2, a. I, ad 3. St. Thomas More alludes to this folly IN his OWN inimitable fashion: "And of a truth while a man desireth riches not for any good godly purpose but for only worldly wealth, it must needs he that ho shall have little conscience in the getting; but by all evil ways that he can invent shall labour to get them and then shall be either niggardly heap them up together (which is as you wot well damnable) or wasrefnlly mis­ spend them about worldly pomp, pride and flattery with occasion of many sins more. Ami that is yet much wore damnable " (The Third Boole of Comfort against Tribulation* by St. Thomas Move, Chap. XIT). Maxime praeter naluram (Comment, in / V . . Lib. I, Lect. VIII)
<(

(32) Comment,
:3 J

in Polity

Lib. 1, Lect. VIII.

KINGSHIP

OF

CIlRIvST

IN

INTEGRITY

73

e n g a g e in it p u r s u e m e r e l y u n l i m i t e d p e r s o n a l g a i n i n s t e a d of t r y i n g to a d v a n c e the C o m m o n Good by facilitating the p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n of w h a t p e o p l e n e c d . < It is a l s o t r u e t h a t t h i s s e c o n d m o d e of d e a l i n g in m o n e y c a n r e n d e r s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y b y a i d i n g S l a t e s a n d f a m i l i e s t o p r o c u r e t h a t sufficiency of m a t e r i a l g o o d s r e q u i r e d for t h e v i r t u o u s life of t h e i r m e m b e r s . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y t h e c a s e , for e x a m p l e , w h e r e t h e i d e a l of self-sufficiency, s o m u c h i n s i s t e d u p o n b y S t . T h o m a s in his t r e a t i s e o n G o v e r n ­ m e n t , c a n n o t be a t t a i n e d by a S t a t e . A c c o r d i n g l y , this s e c o n d m o d e , given certain conditions, can be quite legitimate. T h e third m o d e , h o w e v e r , can n e v e r b e l a w f u l . T h i s m e t h o d of t r a f f i c k i n g in m o n e y , n a m e l y , b r e e d i n g m o n e y by m e a n s of m o n e y , w e m u s t n o w e x a m i n e , in o r d e r t o s e e c l e a r l y w h a t S t . T h o m a s m e a n s b y usury.
a5) < ; U i i

USURY. S t . T h o m a s ' s t r e a t i s e On Evil [De Malo) is well c a l c u l a t e d t o b r i n g h o m e to all t h e n a t u r e of u s u r y . " A r i s t o t l e , " he w r i t e s , " d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o uses t o w h i c h a t h i n g m a y b e p u t . T h e r e is. first of all, t h e p r i n c i p a l or special use for w h i c h t h e o b j e c t is d e s t i n e d a n d t h e n t h e s e c o n d a r y o r g e n e r a l use. T h u s t h e p r i n c i p a l use o f f o o t w e a r is t o p r o t e c t t h e feel, w h e r e a s t h e s e c o n d a r y u s e is to s e r v e a s an e x c h a n g e - m e d i u m . In t h e c a s e of m o n e y , it is the o t h e r w a y r o u n d , for its p r i n c i p a l use is to s e r v e a s an e x c h a n g e - m e d i u m , a n d it is for t h i s p u r p o s e t h a t it h a s b e e n i n v e n t e d ; i t s s e c o n d a r y u s e s a r e m a n i f o l d , for it m a y , for e x a m p l e , b e d e p o s i t e d a s a p l e d g e for s o m e t h i n g or p u t u p for s h o w . W h a t e v e r is e x c h a n g e d for s o m e t h i n g else m a y be s a i d t o be u s e d in s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e s u b s t a n c e of the o b j e c t e x ­ c h a n g e d is d e s t r o y e d , in t h e s e n s e t h a t it is l o s t for him w h o h a s p a s s e d it t o t h e o t h e r . T h a t is t h e r e a s o n w h y a p e r s o n w h o g i v e s h i s m o n e y to a n o t h e r in e x c h a n g e for s o m e t h i n g , so e m p l o y ­ ing the m o n e y a c c o r d i n g to its p r o p e r and principal use. and w h o w a n t s t o g e t in r e t u r n for it s o m e t h i n g o v e r a n d a b o v e the c a p i t a l (alvtd extra sortem), s i n s a g a i n s t j u s t i c e . If, h o w e v e r , t h e o w n e r of a s u m of m o n e y r e m i t s it t o a n o t h e r for s o m e o t h e r u s a g e in w h i c h t h e m o n e y is n o t d e s t r o y e d (in t h e s e n s e t h a t it h a s n o t c e a s e d to be the p r o p e r l y of t h e first o w n e r ) , it is t h e n a s s i m i l a t e d < > T h e finis operis, to use the. scholastic term, that is, the gain or profit I I I K O M I T I ) t a i i H ' N tpied .\-{ ' NRMA IAT ionis I'm is), N a!-o tli-- finis operant is. ^ The fini.s operant!* should he die Common Clood (. . . . cum aliqitis negotiation!, intendit propter puhiiram atitifatcnt). Cf. I l a H a e , Q.77. a.4, with C o m m e n t a r y of Pore Spicq, 0 , J \ , i n the E d i t i o n of La. R e n t e des James. m ) ])e Regimine Prinripnm, Book I I , C h a p t e r I I I . AVe shall t r e a t of tin's later.
35

74

THK MYSTICAL

RODY OF

CHRIST

to t h e o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h a r e n o t c o n s u m e d by b e i n g u s e d b u t c a n b e l e g i t i m a t e l y h i r e d o u t for a t i m e or l e t on l e a s e . " > St. T h o m a s a p p l i e s this d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d t h e s e c o n d a r y u s e to t h e c a s e of m o n e y in t h e Summa TheologicaS^ H e p o i n t s <out t h a t in t h e primary or p r i n c i p a l u s e of m o n e y , t h e u s e of it is i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m t h e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p o r o w n e r s h i p of it, so it w o u l d b e u n j u s t t o sell t h e t w o s e p a r a t e l y a n d to d e m a n d s o m e t h i n g o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e s u b s t a n c e of t h e m o n e y , for t h e use of it, s i n c e . t h e p r i m a r y u s e of it c a n n o t b e d i s ­ t i n g u i s h e d f r o m the s u b s t a n c e of t h e m o n e y . W h e n m o n e y is e m p l o y e d in e x c h a n g e , t h e o w n e r s h i p of it is given away b y t h a t v e r y fact, a n d t h e r e f o r e no o t h e r c o m p e n s a t i o n can be a l l o w e d in j u s t i c e for m o n e y t h u s e x c h a n g e d , e x c e p t t h e s t r i c t e q u i v a l e n t of t h e s u m h a n d e d o\'crJ In i t s first o r p r i m a r y u s e , m o n e y is d e ­ s t r o y e d — i n t h e s e n s e that it n o l o n g e r b e l o n g s to t h e p e r s o n w h o l e n d s it. T h e r e f o r e he w h o d e m a n d s s o m e t h i n g s i m p l y for l e n d ­ i n g m o n e y , a s k s s o m e t h i n g for t h e u s e of m o n e y w h i c h d o e s n o t b e l o n g to him. J l e w a n t s s o m e t h i n g f o r n o t h i n g . T h i s is a g a i n s t the natural l a w , a n d , of c o u r s e , it is a l s o f o r b i d d e n b y e c c l e s i a s ­ tical l a w . > M o n e y (in its p r i m a r y u s e ) is like w i n e o r w h e a t — a f u n g i b l e t h i n g , a s it is t e c h n i c a l l y c a l l e d — f o r in r e p a y m e n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t is a m a t t e r of i n d i f f e r e n c e , p r o v i d e d t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y be s a t i s f a c t o r y .
(37 :iiil ( 4 0 ) f41

" M o n e y , " a g a i n w r i t e s St. T h o m a s , " h a s , a c c o r d i n g t o A r i s ­ t o t l e (Ethic., L i b . V, C a p . 5; Pofit. L i b . J, C a p . 3 ) , b e e n i n v e n t e d p r i n c i p a l l y in o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e the p r o c e s s of e x c h a n g e . A c c o r d ­ i n g l y , its s p e c i a l and d i s t i n c t i v e end is t o be c o n s u m e d , t h a t is to s a y , e x p e n d e d , a s is t h e c a s e in b u y i n g a n d s e l l i n g . On t h i s a c c o u n t it is in itself u n j u s t t o r e c e i v e p a y m e n t for t h e . u s e of m o n e y w h i c h h a s , t h r o u g h a l o a n , b e c o m e t h e p r o p e r t y of a n o t h e r . T h i s is w h a t
t

W D( Mala, Q.J3, a.4. sol. 1 5 . '•^ ( l a Ilae, Q.7,S, a. I : n.-2. ad 5. 139) Cf. Usury sub Judivu h.V Kev. J- JL McLaughlin, O.S.B., in The Clergy lttvicv\ January. 1935. This article is an excellent exposition of the Church's teaching and of the doctrine of St. Thomas. It is in perfect agreement with the conclusions of P e r e Spicq, O . P . , in his notes on I l a I l a e , Q.7H, in the Edition of La IN rue des Jeunest. HO) {See Merkelhach, 0 . 1 \ , Summa Theoloyiae Moralis, vol. I I , no. 573._ Noklin, S.J., De J raeccyfis. no. 5 7 7 , shows clearly how usury is against the n a t u r a l j a w , and answers objections that might be made to this leaching. <ti) (-ode.r ./urist'tntouiri, Can. 1 5 1 3 . " If a fungible thing'is given to someone to lie h i s and he is to return the like quantity of t h e same goods later on, no profit can he taken by reason of this c o n t r a c t / ' Fungible things are, those of which one may be freely used instead of the other in paying debts or making restitution. The individual objectin such cases is a matter of indifference provided the quantity a n d t h e quality he satisfactory, for example, wine, wheat, money. A fungible thing, of course, has an existence independent of lender a n d borrower.
J t

KINGSHIP
42

OF CHRIST

I S INTEGRITY

75

is c a l l e d usury.< > A n d o n e is o b l i g e d t o r e s t o r e t o its o w n e r w h a t e v e r h a s b e e n r e c e i v e d in u s u r y , j u s t a s in t h e c a s e of o t h e r goods unjustly acquired." U s u r y is, t h e r e f o r e , p r o f i t t h a t is u n j u s t l y r e c e i v e d f r o m a l o a n (mntuwm) ; it c o n s i s t s in t a k i n g s o m e t h i n g s i m p l y for the a c t of lending. P o p e B e n e d i c t X I V c o n d e m n e d t h e t a k i n g of i n t e r e s t e v e n o n a p r o d u c t i v e l o a n , d e c l a r i n g : " (1) t h a t k i n d of sin, w h i c h is c a l l e d u s u r y , a n d w h i c h h a s i t s p r o p e r s e a t a n d p l a c e i n t h e c o n t r a c t of l o a n {mutuum), c o n s i s t s in t h i s , t h a t a n y o n e s h o u l d , o n t h e g r o u n d of t h e l o a n itself, w h i c h f r o m its n a t u r e d e m a n d s t h a t o n l y s o m u c h be r e p a i d a s w a s r e c e i v e d , i n s i s t on g e t t i n g b a c k m o r e t h a n [ t h e b o r r o w e r ] r e c e i v e d , a n d so c o n t e n d t h a t , in c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e l o a n itself, a c e r t a i n g a i n is d u e t o him, o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e p r i n c i p a l . A c c o r d i n g l y , all g a i n of t h i s s o r t , w h i c h e x c e e d s t h e p r i n c i p a l , is illicit a n d u s u r i o u s . " ( 2 ) N o r m a y a n y b o d y f o r t h e s a k e of e x o n e r a t i n g h i m s e l f f r o m t h a t g u i l t , avail h i m s e l f of t h e p r e t e x t , t h a t t h e g a i n itself w a s n o t exorbitant and excessive but moderate, not great but very s m a l l ; or t h a t the p e r s o n from w h o m he d e m a n d e d that gain s o l e l y b y r e a s o n of t h e l o a n , w a s n o t p o o r b u t r i c h , o r that he did not propose to allow the borrowed sum to lit idle, but intended to invest it most profitably, in order to inereasc his wealth or to purchase new estates, or to conduct gainful enter­ prises^^ T h e distinction b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i v e and non-productive loans w a s i n t r o d u c e d b y C a l v i n , w h o w a s t h e first to b r e a k openlv w i t h the Catholic Church's laws against usury. C a l v i n , f o l l o w e d in t h i s b y t h e j u r i s c o n s u l t , D u m o u l i n , a l l o w e d u s u r y in t h e c a s e of a p r o d u c t i v e I o a n . > F o r S t . T h o m a s , m o n e y is n o t p r o d u c t i v e a s s u c h (formaliter) b u t it is s o virtually. The mastery over nature w h i c h m a n h a s a c q u i r e d i n m o d e r n t i m e s e n a b l e s t h i s virtus or p o w e r to be readily actualized.
( 4 3 ) (45 f ( 4 l J )

( 4 2 ) T h i s is u s u r y i n the technical sense. The word is a l s o used to d e s i g n a t e an e x o r b i t a n t r a t e of interest, even though there m a y be an e x t r i n s i c t i t l e . " W h a t e v e r is t a k e n beyond w h a t an extrinsic title allows seems to be t a k e n simply o n account of the- loan itself. ' Cf Merkelbach, op. c i t , no. 572. <43) j j H a e . Q.78, a.l. W i t h r e g a r d to the comparison between t h i s t e x t of the S u m m a a n d I I I Sent., dist. 37, q. l, art. 61, cf. Pere Spicq, O.P., op. cit., p. 475. (44) Encyclical Letter, Vix pervenit (1745). A decree of the Holy Office (29th J u l y , 1836), a p p r o v e d by P o p e Gregory X V I , declared t h a t t h i s L e t t e r , o r i g i n a l l y sent only to the Bishops of I t a l y , was b i n d i n g on the U n i v e r s a l Church. Cf. P e r e Spicq, O.P., o p . cit., p . 478, and L Enci/clique Vix Pervenit*" by PAhbe T i b e r g h i e n , p . 29. < > Cf. article by Rev. G. B. O'Toole in Catholic Worker (U.S.A.) ; Pere Spicq, O.P., op. cit., p. 467. (40) Q j habet p e c u n i a m . . . habet lucrum in v i r t u t e (la Ilae Q. 82, a.4, sol. 1-2). Cf. P e r e Spicq. op. cit,, p p . 350. 479, 483.
7 a 1 {l 45 11 M u

76

Till-; M Y S T I C A L

M O D Y OK

CHRIST

A c c o r d i n g l y , for St. T h o m a s , it is u s u r i o u s a n d , as s u c h , for­ b i d d e n 1>y t h e s e v e n t h c o m m a n d m e n t , t o sell m o n e y w i t h t h e a g r e e m e n t t h a t a l a r g e r q u a n t i t y of m o n e y shall be r e t u r n e d for it. " . M o n e y , " he s a y s , " m a y not be sold for a s u m e x c e e d i n g t h a t h a n d e d over/*'* ' " T h e u s u r e r w i s h e s in a s i n g l e t r a n s a c t i o n t o e x ­ c h a n g e £100 for Z105. T h i s is the w r o n g n e s s that t h e C h u r c h h a s s e e n to be f o r b i d d e n bv G o d ' s n a t u r a l l a w ot j u s t i c e . Is it a s i n g l e transaction? Y e s . J u s t as b i d i n g g o o d s a n d p a y i n g m o n e y for t h e m m o n t h s a f t e r is a s i n g l e e x c h a n g e , so b o r r o w i n g a n d p a y i n g is a s i n g l e e x c h a n g e ; a n d in b o t h t r a n s a c t i o n s , equal m u s t b e e x ­ c h a n g e d for e q u a l . " T h e n a g a i n , m o n e y by its n a t u r e is m e a n t to f a c i l i t a t e e x ­ c h a n g e s of g o o d s in v i e w of t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p e r s o n a l i t y t h r o u g h o r d e r e d h u m a n living. It is b y n a t u r e a m e a n s n o t a n e n d . X o w , in t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s w e h a v e c h a r a c t e r i z e d as u s u r i o u s , m o n e y f r o m b e i n g a m e a n s is t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an e n d . T h e m u l ­ t i p l i c a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n s t h u s p e r v e r t e d a n d d i s o r d e r e d c a n n o t b u t be f r a u g h t w i t h d i s a s t e r for s o c i e t y . " W h a t is m o s t d i s c o n c e r t ­ i n g for t h e a u t h o r of t h e P o l i t i c s | A r i s t o t l e | in such t r a n s a c t i o n s is p r o b a b l v n o t w h a t h a s b e e n so o f t e n s a i d , n a m e l y , t h a t m o n e y s h o u l d b e g e t p r o g e n v , but that t o k e n w e a l t h w h i c h is d e s t i n e d lo aid us t o s a t i s f y o u r m a t e r i a l n e e d s s h o u l d b e c o m e an e n d . s o that­ 'll is no l o n g e r a m e a n s but t h e o b j e c t t o w a r d s w h i c h all s t r i v i n g is d i r e c t e d . T h i s is for h i m s o m e t h i n g a n t i - n a t u r a l a n d a b s u r d . T h i s p e r v e r s i o n is all the m o r e m e n a c i n g , b e c a u s e o t t h e r e a d i ­ n e s s w i t h w h i c h e x c h a n g e s can be m u l t i p l i e d b \ m e a n s wf m o n e y a n d also b e c a u s e o f t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o w h i c h it g i v e s rise t o g o <m m a k i n g a d d i t i o n a l p r o f i t s w i t h t h e n u n rev o n e h a s alreadv amassed.""
17 ( 1S) 9 1

T h e r e m a y , h o w e v e r , be a l e g i t i m a t e r e a s o n for r e c e i v i n g t i r o lit on t h e o c c a s i o n of m a k i n g a l o a n , b e c a u s e of s o m e i n c i d e n t a l c o s t lo t h e l e n d e r - loss, e x p e n s e , l a b o u r , r i s k , e t c . These are called extrinsic titles. T h e y a r e " s o m e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , e x t e r n a l to t h e i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e of t h e l o a n - c o n t r a c t , s e p a r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h a t e n t i t l e t h e l e n d e r to c h a r g e i n t e r e s t on o t h e r g r o u n d s t h a n t h e l o a n itself. A m o n g t h e s e e x t r i n s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o r t i t l e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( 1 ) R e s u l t i n g loss t o t h e l e n d e r , w h o for this r e a s o n is e n t i t l e d to i n d e m n i f y h i m s e l f \dfiinuuni emer(jcns\\ (Hi " Ad q u a r t u m dh-eiuhnn quod p e e u n l a nou potest v e n d i p r o pecunia a m p l i o r i quam sit q u a n l i l a s pecuniae tmituatne, q u a e restituurida e s t " (11a I k u \ . a.2, ad 0 . U«) Article by leather .McLaughlin, O.S.ll,, ±\. W i t h re.ira.rd to the question of tin lapse, of lime, ef. notes by P e r e Spieq in the E d i t i o n of Ln Rtritc des Jeinias, p . 464. t' > Lt Traifi " d< f'si/ro " de Robert d*. ConrruiK p p . vi-vii, bv C Lefcvre.
p < 1 ly

KFXGSHIP OF CHRIST IN IXTKGRITY
49a

77

(2) Gain given up by the lender [lucrum cessans] ;< > (3) Risk of losing the whole or part of his principal [periculitm sortis]; (4) Liability to a penalty or forfeit imposed for deferring payment of the loan beyond the time agreed upon [poena conventionalis].'^ ) Moral theologians usually add as another extrinsic title that of the civil law (lex civilis or praemiiem let/ale). When money is used in its secondary use, where the ownershipof the money is retained for the purpose of trade or investment (locatio), the owner has a right to a share of the profits accruing from the business; and of course, if the enterprise results in a loss, he must bear his share. He who entrusts a sum of money to a merchant or industrialist and forms a kind of society with him does not transfer the ownership of the money to the other, but retains it, so that he shares in the risks attached to the merchant's commercial ventures or the industrialist's business proposition. Accordingly, he will have the right to claim some of the profits resulting therefrom as they are in part due to the utilization of his property."* * For St. Thomas, the root difference between a non-interestbearing or free loan (mutuitm) and an interest-bearing investment (focatio) is the axiom that a thing bears fruit for its owner (res fructificat domino). Since the ownership passes to the borrower in a free loan (mutuum), no interest may be charged, according to the Angelic Doctor, whether the loan be for production or con­ sumption. In an investment (locatio), interest may be taken, be­ cause the ownership of the money is retained by the lender. "Thus money' has two uses. In the first [the primary use], the housewife's kind of exchange, the use of the money goes with the ownership. When you give a man the use of the money, you give him the money itself. . . . In such exchanges inequality is injustice. This St. Thomas calls the proper and principal use of money, inseparable from the ownership. The trader sometimes has the use of other people's money also, and must pay a share of profits to the owner of the money. The money can fructify only for its owner. In the trader's hands, money is used as the material
50

u

51

• i&i) p t M v Spicq. ( ) . 1 \ , deals wiih the question of I n m t m vrsxan* (gain sacrificed bv the lender) as a n extrinsic title, on p p . 468, 461), 484. (50) Article by Rev. G. B. O'Toole, N.T.D., in Cotholir Worhr, U.S.A. (5i; This principle governing the second use of money is expressed in the Code of Canon Law : " But in lending a fungible thing it is not in itself wrong to stipulate for the legal interest unless this is known to be excessive, or even for a higher interest if there be a just and adequate reason " (Canon 1543). Notice the distinction between the giving (or the transfer of ownership) of a fungible thing in the first part of the Canon (quoted in note 41) and the lending of it in the second part. Cf. article bv Uev. J. B. McLaughlin, O.S.B.. p. Vl \ Pere Spicq, op. cit, p p . 349, 350.

78

TIIK MYSTICAL

BODY

OF

CHRIST

a n d t h e i n s t r u m e n t b y w h i c h profit is m a d e . T h e u s e is s e p a r ­ a t e d f r o m t h e o w n e r s h i p in e v e r y i n v e s t m e n t [ s e c o n d a r y u s e ] . J t is plain t h a t w h e n S t , T h o m a s w a s p r o v i n g t h a t t h e u s e c a n ­ n o t b e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e o w n e r s h i p a n d sold s e p a r a t e l y , h e m e a n t u s t o n o t i c e t h a t h e w a s h e r e s p e a k i n g of t h e first u s e o n l y , . . . n o t of t h e u s e in w h i c h t h e o w n e r e n t r u s t s his m o n e y t o a m e r ­ c h a n t o r t r a d e r to u s e in bis b u s i n e s s . . . . In t h e first n o p r o f i t c a n be m a d e b y e i t h e r p a r t y . I n t h e s e c o n d t h e t r a d e r o r c r a f t s ­ m a n m a k e s p r o f i t s f o r t h e o w n e r s of t h e m o n e y h e is u s i n g . . . . " St. T h o m a s points out the crucial q u e s t i o n which decides w h a t k i n d of c o n t r a c t is m a d e . W h o n o w o w n s t h e m o n e y ? A n d t h e t e s t : If t h e m o n e y is l o s t , w h o b e a r s t h a t l o s s ? H e is t h e o w n e r . I n a l o a n : h e r e is t h e m o n e y , t o s p e n d a s y o u will. T h a t m a k e s y o u t h e o w n e r , for I h a v e t r a n s f e r r e d t o y o u m y r i g h t -to s p e n d i t I n a n i n v e s t m e n t : h e r e is t h e m o n e y , t o u s e in y o u r b u s i n e s s a s w e a r r a n g e d . T h a t l e a v e s m e t h e o w n e r . In i n v e s t i n g m o n e y in t h e b u s i n e s s of p r o d u c t i o n o r e x c h a n g e , I e n t r u s t m y m o n e y t o y o u r u s e in t h e b u s i n e s s . Y o u r g a i n is t h e i n c r e a s e of b u s i n e s s a n d profit f r o m h a v i n g a l a r g e r c a p i t a l w i t h w h i c h t o w o r k . M y g a i n is a s h a r e in t h e profit. A n d t h e e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n us is t h a t 1 g i v e y o u a t r a d i n g - u s e of m y m o n e y : y o u g i v e m e a p r o ­ p o r t i o n a t e s h a r e of e a c h y e a r ' s p r o f i t s w h e n t h e r e a r e a n y . " H e r e it is w e l l t o d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o a p o i n t u p o n w h i c h w e shall h a v e to dwell a little m o r e a t l e n g t h l a t e r on. T h e m o n e y about which the moral theologians and canonists speak and on w h i c h t h e y s a y i n t e r e s t m a y be t a k e n is a p h y s i c a l c o m m o d i t y . L i k e all f u n g i b l e t h i n g s it h a s a n e x i s t e n c e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e lender and borrower. Interest and extrinsic titles p r o p e r l y apply t o m o n e y s o e x i s t i n g , b u t t h e y d o not p r o p e r l y a p p l y t o t h e c r e a ­ tion of m o n e y b y t h e b a n k e r s . W h e n m o r a l t h e o l o g i a n s s p e a k of m o n e y a s a f u n g i b l e t h i n g , t h e y s u p p o s e it to h a v e a n e x i s t e n c e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e l e n d e r a n d t h e b o r r o w e r . W h e n a m o d e r n b a n k e r c r e a t e s a d e p o s i t in f a v o u r of a b o r r o w e r , h e is n o t l e n d i n g pre-existing money. H e is b r i n g i n g m o n e y i n t o existence in t h e a c t of lending. - T h e ferm interest cannot pro­ p e r l y be a p p l i e d to b a n k - c h a r g e s for t h e i s s u e of b a n k - m o n e y . " T h e expression bank-interest," writes Professor O'Rahillv, " i s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e of Jin old w o r d m a s q u e r a d i n g in a n e w m e a n i n g . . . . ( S o r r o w i n g , t o o , c o v e r s : M ) t h e t r a n s f e r of p r e - e x i s t i n g c l a i m s l e g i t i m a t e l y e a r n e d by t h e h o l d e r s : ( 2 ) t h e c r e a t i o n of n e w m o n e y - c l a i m s . . . . T h e G o v e r n m e n t d o c s not a n d c a n n o t b o r r o w p r e - e x i s t i n g m o n e y f r o m t h e b a n k s ; all it c a n d o is t o p a y t h e m for c r e a t i n g n e w m o n e v . "
( 5 2 ) ( 5 : i )

<52> A r t i c l e
Mont if.

in Tin
pi). 10*2.

Vl< nju
5(il, MO.

/ A ' W . Jan.

1935. bv Rev.

J.

B.

Mc-

Lauirhlin, O.S.J}., pp. 19. :>0, 21. " Money, as
Mich,

apart

from

it* m a t e r i a l

record, is

something

KINGSHIP

O F C H R I S T LY

INTEGRITY

79

W h e n bankers g r a n t loans, they bring exchange-medium into existence, they create money. T h e y are not simply lending ex­ c h a n g e - m e d i u m h a v i n g a n e x i s t e n c e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e m a n d of the b o r r o w e r s . T h e c r e a t o r s , a t t h e r e q u e s t of o r w i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n of t h e S t a t e , a r e e n t i t l e d to d u e r e m u n e r a t i o n for t h e services rendered. T h a t is n o t u s u r i o u s . As far b a c k as t h e F i f t h L a t e r a n C o u n c i l , t h e q u e s t i o n w a s s e t t l e d t h a t a c h a r g e for w o r k i n g e x p e n s e s w a s n o t u s u r i o u s n o r w a s it an i n c i t e m e n t t o o t h e r s t o p r a c t i s e u s u r y . C h a r i t a b l e f u n d s , called //tariffs pietatis, w e r e at w o r k , lending to the poor without interest, but m a k i n g a c h a r g e to cover w o r k i n g expenses. W i t h o u t this c h a r g e , the o r g a n i z e r s w o u l d h a v e h a d t o m e e t the p e r p e t u a l d r a i n of w o r k i n g e x p e n s e s a n d b a d d e b t s , a f t e r h a v i n g h a d to p u t up t h e initial s u m f o r t h e p u r p o s e of h e l p i n g t h e b o r r o w e r s . The Pope, Leo X, g a v e this d e c i s i o n . Of c o u r s e , in this c a s e , t h e c h a r g e w a s for t h e w o r k i n g e x p e n s e s i n v o l v e d in l e n d i n g p r e - e x i s t i n g m o n e y c l a i m s , b u t t h e p r i n c i p l e h o l d s g o o d in r e g a r d t o t h e e x p e n s e s in­ v o l v e d in i s s u i n g o r c r e a t i n g m o n e y a n d k e e p i n g a c c o u n t s
( 5 4 ) ( 5 5 )

T H E P R O P E R USE OF MONEY. H a v i n g s e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t w a y s of d e a l i n g in m o n e y , let u s n o w g i v e a n o u t l i n e of t h e f u n c t i o n of m o n e y a c c o r d i n g to t h e p r i n ­ c i p l e s of S t . T h o m a s . A c c o r d i n g to the Angelic Doctor, m o n e y h a s b e e n i n v e n t e d " for t h e c o n v e n i e n c e of e x c h a n g e by s e r v i n g a s a m e a s u r e of t h i n g s s a l e a b l e . It is, t h e r e f o r e , b y its n a t u r e a n i n s t r u m e n t d e s t i n e d t o h e l p in p r o v i d i n g t h a t sufficiency of g o o d s r e q u i r e d b y f a m i l i e s for t h e v i r t u o u s life of t h e i r m e m b e r s . T h i s it is i n t e n d e d t o do b y f a c i l i t a t i n g p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e a c t i n g as a s t a b l e m e a s u r e of v a l u e . First of all, t h e n , m o n e y is m e a n t for p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n . It is u t t e r l y a g a i n s t its n a t u r e if t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n of g o o d s m u s t c o n f o r m t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s of m o n e y - m a k i n g i n s t e a d of t h e o t h e r w a y r o u n d . M o n e y is m e a n t t o be t h e s e r v a n t of E c o n o m i c s , n o t t h e m a s t e r . If it b e c o m e s t h e m a s t e r , p r o d u c t i o n
, , ( 5 ( 1 )

immaterial, a moral relationship instituted by man. It is a socially recognised right-to-buy transferable from one person to another. It is issued or created as a person makes a promise or creates a contractual relationship. The State, representing the Community, issues money, which is usually recorded on bits of paper or pieces of-metal, but may be recorded merely by a .few figures in ink on the books of the Central Bank. The hanks issue money by hank notes and still more by mere entries on their hooks, which we transfer to one another by cheques, that is, by directing the banker to alter his book e n t r i e s " (Professor O'Rahilly/in The Standard, April IT, 1042). (54) With regard to creation of money or exchange-mediumbv bankers, cf. Money, ppi 80, 118. 290. 29B, 477, 480. by Professor O'Rahilly. (55) l ter midtipJires (Mav 4, 1515).
n

<56>

la

Hae,

Q.2,

a.l,

c.

80

THE

M Y S T I C A L

IIODY

O K

CIIRTST

and distribution will decay, the potentialities of the State's re­ sources will not be realized, and family-life will suffer. Secondly, it is the duty of the State to see that money is a stable measure of value. In other words, just as the State must maintain stable measures of weight and length, in view of com­ mutative justice in buying and selling, so it must aim at stability of the price level, the price of a thing being the expression of its exchange-value in terms of money. " It is .true,** writes St. Thomas, "that it is the same with money as with other things, namely, that one does not always get what one wants for it, be­ cause it is not always endowed with the same purchasing-power, that is, it is not always of the same value. Hut nevertheless, matters should be so arranged that it should be steadier in value than other things. . . . As a measure used for estimating the value of other things, -money must keep the same valve, since the value of all things must be expressed in terms of money. Thus exchanges can readily take place and, as a consequence, communi­ cations between men are facilitated."* * Fluctuations in the price level make social life extremely diffi­ cult. St. Thomas insisted that stability of the price level should be the object of the State's unceasing vigilance, though this was more difficult of attainment in his day when the exchange medium consisted mainly of metal coins, the substance of which was avail­ able in quantities not commensurate with the rate of progress in the production of goods. Of course, needless to say, the State must see to it that the manipulators of money do not get control of the government. Money is meant to be an instrument of Poli­ tics not the master of the State. If the government does not com­ pel the bankers and money-changers lo practise the virtue of social justice, namely, that justice which has for object the Common Good, the welfare of the whole nation will suffer grievously. If usury and the alteration of the price-level by alternate " b o o m " and " slump " arc permitted to go unchecked, then the real sov­ ereignly in the State will inevitably pass into the hands of the manipulators of money. The next stage will be a move to bring national sovereignty under the domination of some international organization subject to finance. That will make permanent and world-wide the anti-Christian perversion of order involved in the subordination of human persons to production, and of production and distribution to finance.
57 {5tn

Comment, in- JSthic, Lib. V, Lect. IX. (68) Pcre Spicq, O.P., op. eit, p. 431, mentions the monetary reforms of St. Louis, King of France, as contemporaneous with St. Thomas's insistence on the, necessity of the stability of the price level. He also alludes to the rise in prices in the second half of the 13th century, in spite of the increase in production, because silver and gold were made available in still g r e a t e r abundance.
(57)

KINGSHIP

O F CHRUST

IN

1NTKGRITY

81

ST. T H O M A S AND T H E IDEAL OF NATIONAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY. I n his t r e a t i s e on the Governance of Princes, the A n g e l i c D o c t o r w r i t e s : " T h e r e a r e t w o w a y s in w h i c h an a b u n d a n c e of the t h i n g s it r e q u i r e s c a n be s u p p l i e d to a S t a t e . T h e first, w h i c h w e h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , is m e t w i t h w h e r e the soil is s o fertile t h a t i t a b u n d a n t l y p r o v i d e s for all t h e n e e d s of h u m a n life. T h e s e c o n d is b y t r a d e , by w h i c h t h e n e c e s s i t i e s of life a r c b r o u g h t to t h e S t a t e f r o m d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . It is q u i t e c l e a r that t h e f o r m e r m e a n s is the better. F o r the h i g h e r a t h i n g is in t h e s c a l e of b e i n g , t h e m o r e fully self-sufficient it is. s i n c e w h a t e v e r n e e d s a n o t h e r ' s h e l p is b y t h a t v e r y fact s h o w n t o be d e f e c t i v e . I>ut t h a t S t a t e is m o r e fully self-sufficing w h i c h is s u p p l i e d w i t h all t h a t it n e e d s f r o m i t s o w n t e r r i t o r y , t h a n is o n e w h i c h m u s t o b t a i n i t s s u p p l i e s f r o m a b r o a d by t r a d e . A S t a t e w h i c h h a s an a b u n d a n c e of food f r o m i t s o w n t e r r i t o r y \> in a m o r e dignified p o s i t i o n t h a n o n e w h i c h is s u p p l i e d by m e r c h a n t s . It a p p e a r s to be in g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y a l s o , f o r t h e i m p o r t i n g of s u p p l i e s from a b r o a d can be easily h i n d ­ e r e d , w h e t h e r o w i n g lo t h e u n c e r t a i n issue of w a r s o r t o the m a n y d a n g e r s of t h e r o a d s , a n d t h u s t h e S t a t e m a y be v a n q u i s h e d t h r o u g h lack of f o o d . A g a i n , t h i s m e t h o d is. b e l t e r for social m o r ­ ality. F o r t h e c o u n t r \ w h i c h n e e d s c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t s for its support must tolerate continuous intercourse with foreigners . . . w h o , h a v i n g been b r o u g h t u p u n d e r d i f f e r e n t l a w s a n d c u s t o m s , b e h a v e in m a n y w a y s d i f f e r e n t l y from t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e c o u n t r y , so t h a t t h e s e l a t t e r a r e s p u r r e d on to act s i m i l a r l y , a n d social life is d i s t u r b e d . A g a i n , if t h e c i t i z e n s d e v o t e t h e i r lives t o t r a d e , t h e w a y will be o p e n e d to m a n y v i c e s . F o r , s i n c e t h e a i m of t r a d e r s is e s p e c i a l l y t o m a k e m o n e y , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t r a d e l e a d s t o t h e a w a k e n i n g of g r e e d in t h e h e a r t s of t h e c i t i z e n s . T h e r e s u l t is t h a t e v e r y t h i n g in t h e S t a t e will be p u t up for sale, m u t u a l c o n f i d e n c e will be d e s t r o y e d a n d an a t m o s p h e r e f a v o u r a b l e t o deceit a n d f r a u d c r e a t e d . I C v c r y o n c , g r o w i n g c a r e l e s s a b o u t t h e C o m m o n G o o d , will s e e k o n l y b i s o w n a d v a n t a g e . T h e . c u l t i v a t i o n of v i r t u e will d e c l i n e , s i n c e h o n o u r , the r e w a r d of v i r t u e , will be b e s t o w e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y u p o n all c o m e r s . F l c n c e , in such a S t a t e , s o c i a l m o r a l i t y will i n e v i t a b l y suffer . . . . " A c c o r d i n g l y , it is b e t t e r t h a t a S t a t e s h o u l d be s u p p l i e d w i t h food a n d w h a t e v e r it n e e d s f r o m its o w n t e r r i t o r y t h a n t h a t it s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y d e p e n d e n t on t r a d e . T h i s d o c s n o t m e a n , h o w e v e r , t h a t m e r c h a n t s s h o u l d be a l t o g e t h e r e x c l u d e d from t h e S t a t e , f o r it is n o t e a s y t o find a S t a t e so well p r o v i d e d w i t h all t h a t it n e e d s in e v e r y d e p a r t m e n t t h a t it c a n d o w i t h o u t f o r e i g n trade. T h e n , in a d d i t i o n , m a n y of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s w o u l d lose h e a v i l y , if t h e i r s u r p l u s c o u l d n o t be m a r k e t e d e l s e w h e r e b y H

82

THK MYSTICAL J10DY OF CHRIST
(59)

traders. Hence a well-balanced Stale will have recourse to trade and traders in moderate fashion." Legitimate trading, then, is meant to be carried on with a viewto supplementing the native resources of a country. Much of our modern trade is the result of the desire to get interest from weak­ er nations, by compelling them to accept loans from and buy the goods of the lending country, A modern loan from a foreign country, in addition to upsetting the price-level of the borrowing country, leaves the way open to the enslavement of the inhabit­ ants to finance. Wars are frequently brought about by the en­ deavour to force a people to accept a loan, that is, to purchase goods in the creditor country. "To put it quite bluntly, the pur­ pose of wars is to compel weaker nations to take surpluses off the hands of the stronger, running up debts, if need be, in order to pay for them. Then the threat of future war is necessary to ensure that the debts and the interest mi them shall not be repudialed."""*
(69) Op. cit, Lib, II, cap. III. <60) The Role of Mourn, liy Frederick iSoddy, )». I k

APPENDIX.
U S U R Y AND COXFKSSORS.

In Chapter XIX, 1 insist upon Pope Leo XI IPs teaching in
Rcrum Nnvarum- that usury is actually being practised under an­ other guise by covetous men with disastrous consequences for the

economic life of nations and individuals, as it has contributed powerfully to place control in the bands of a few. I there put forward as probable an explanation of what Pope Leo XTTI meant by thai oilier form of present-day usury. With regard to this whole question, in addition to Canon 1543, the Instruction on Usury, sent in 1873 by the Sacred Congregation for the Propa­ gation of the Faith, to its dependent Uishops, Vicars and Prefects Apostolic, must be borne in mind. This Instruction consists of copies of all the answers on the subject given by Rome since 1780, together with /'ope MenedicVs XIY's Knoyclical, IV./' pcrvnil, of 1745, and a brief summing up of the position at the time. In his able article, Usury Sub Judice, in The Clergy Iteview (January, 1935), the Rev. J. 11. McLaughlin. O.S.Ib, gives an outline of this summary as follows: I. No profit whatever can be taken from a loan (mutuunt) merely because of the lending. II. If there is another title, not found in the very nature of every loan, profit may be taken. I IT. When the only visible title to take profit or interest on a loan is that the law of the land allows it, this title can

KINGSHIP OF CHRIST IN INTEGRITY

83

be taken as sufficient in practice; and confessors must not disquiet penitents about it so long as this question remains sub judice [undecided] and ihe Holy Sec has not ex­ plicitly decided it.< IV. This tolerance cannot be invoked to cover the slightest usury exacted from the poor; nor excessive rates beyond the limits of natural justice. V. " Excessive " rates cannot be defined by a general :igure, since in each case we must consider each and every cir­ cumstance of place, person, and time.
2)

Father McLaughlin then adds the following interesting com­ ments: " So the problem of usury is still sub judice, and has been for centuries. In the series of answers, the warning constantly recurs that penitents are not to be disquieted about taking the legal interest, provided that they are willing to obey the decision of the Holy See when it comes. And a decision has been asked for repeatedly, but Rome has steadily refused to give it. A typical answer, in 1840: As to usury in general, consult the decrees already given. As to the execssiveness of the profit, consult the ttishop, who will weigh the circumstances and the practice prevailing among conscientious men at the time of the transaction, and say what is to be done. "The appeals for a decision arose, of course, from differences of opinion among the clergy; and Rome, as always, protected the freedom of each side to defend its own opinion on an undecided question; but not to defend cxircmcs—that all interest is lawful, that no interest is l a w f u l - n o r 1 0 injure charity by calling the opposite opinion heretical. She also protected the freedom of the individual conscience, to take the interest which one side thought lawful. A confessor who thought it unlawful might tell penitents his private opinion, but must leave them to act on their own opin­ ion. Similarly a confes.M>r w h o saw no harm in taking interest might express his opinion and stale his reasons, but must not preach them as being the teaching uf the Church. For the Church has not yet spoken. "The position, therefore, is that there is a problem of usury which troubles consciences, and the Church has not decided it. Nor will she until discussion among theologians has been deep enough and accurate enough to lay bare the dividing line between ' that fruit which is drawn from nmncj by just right, and therefore can he kept both in law and in EOIIM-iencc; and that other fruit which is drawn from money wrongly, and therefore must be ad­ judged to be repaid, boih by law and by conscience7
,(2)

U) Donee qnaestio hace *nh jttdirr t\rpliel(e definicrit. W Benedict XIY, Vir prrrenit.

prnd*nt<

nee 8.

tiedes

ipsam

CHAPTER

IV.

PROGRAMME OF THE

OF

INTEGRAL OF

ACCEPTANCE CHRIST.

KINGS11LP

SOCIAL OR PRACTICAL

MODKRXISM.

M a n y a c k n o w l e d g e in t h e o r y t h e p a r a m o u n t R i g h t s of G o d a n d ihcir own c o r r e s p o n d i n g duties. T h e y k n o w that Christ the K i n g , b y t h e v o i c e of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , h a s s e t f o r t h t h e D i v i n e P l a n e m b o d y i n g t h o s e r i g h t s , b u t in p r a c t i c e t h e y act a s if t h e y h a d never been proclaimed. The}' know that thev should stand for those r i g h t s as one united body u n d e r Christ their Head, b u t in­ s t e a d , t h e y a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s to b e p u l l e d h i t h e r a n d t h i t h e r b y t h e o r g a n i z e d n a t u r a l i s t i c forces w o r k i n g a g a i n s t the Divine P l a n for o r d e r , a n d t h e y p a y l i t t l e o r n o h e e d t o t h e fact t h a t all t h o s e e f f e c t s a r e r e s u l t i n g in t h e m o r e w i d e s p r e a d t r e a t m e n t of h u m a n b e i n g s a s m e r e i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t a s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t . T h i s c o n ­ t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e w a s d e p l o r e d in s t r i k i n g t e r m s b y P o p e P i u s XI in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , On tin' Peace of Christ in ffte Ki))(f<io))h of Christ. I low m a n y there a r e / ' he w r o t e , ' ' w h o a c c e p t a n d p r o f e s s t h e C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g in m a t t e r s r e g a r d ­ i n g civil a u t h o r i t y a n d t h e d u t y of o b e y i n g it, r e g a r d i n g t h e r i g h t s of p r o p e r t y o r t h e r i g h t s a n d d u t i e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l labourers, the mutual relations between Slates or b e t w e e n e m ­ ployers and employed, r e g a r d i n g the relations b e t w e e n the eccles­ i a s t i c a l a n d civil p o w e r , t h e r i g h t s of t h e H o l y S e e a n d t h e R o m a n P o n t i f f , t h e p r e r o g a t i v e s of R i s h o p s , a n d , finally, t h e r i g h t s of t h e Creator, R e d e e m e r and Lord, Christ Himself, over m e n and n a ­ t i o n s . Y e t t h e s e v e r y s a m e m e n , in t h e i r w r i t i n g s a n d p r o n o u n c e ­ m e n t s a n d in t h e i r w h o l e m a n n e r of life, a c t a s if t h e t e a c h i n g a n d o f t - r e p e a t e d p r e c e p t s of t h e S o v e r e i g n P o n t i f f s , L e o X I I I, P i u s X a n d B e n e d i c t X V . h a d lost tbei " efficacy o r w e r e c o m p l e t e l y o u t of d a t e . In all t h i s W e r e c o g n i s e a k i n d of m o r a l , j u r i d i c a l a n d s o c i a l M o d e r n i s m , a n d W e c o n d e m n il as s t r o n g l y a s W e clo dogmatic Modernism. T h o s e t e a c h i n g s and p r e c e p t s to w h i c h W e h a v e r e f e r r e d m u s t be i n s i s t e d u p o n , a n d t h e a r d o u r of f a i t h a n d divine c h a r i t y , which alone can secure their p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d ­ i n g a n d o b s e r v a n c e , m u s t be a r o u s e d in t h e s o u l s of all m e n . In t h e e d u c a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n Y o u t h it is O u r w i s h t h a t t h e s e t h i n g s
14 1

PROGRAMME OP KINGSHIP OF CHRIST
1

85

be particularly attended to, especially in the case of those who aspire to Holy Orders."* * Having studied the meaning of Christ's Kingship in its integrity and the correct notions of Politic* and Kconomics, let us now see what the acceptance of the fulness of Christ's Kingship will mean in practice.
SOCIAL A C C E P T A N C E OF T H E DIVINE PLAN.

First of all, States and Nations are meant to acknowledge Uie Catholic Church as the supernatural and supranational Mystical Ilody of Christ and to unite with Christ as Priest in the renewal of the humble submission of Calvary in the 1 loly Sacrifice of the Mass.
Sfuffs and Nations as such, that /.*, //v organized developments of human life dependent on God, are bound to worship God in th' wag He has indicated that He wants to be worshipped. " ft is a

sin for the State not to have a care for religion . . . or out of many forms of religion to adopt that one which chimes in with its fancy; for we are bound absolutely to worship God in th; t way which He has shown to be His Will.*'*-' Pope Leo N1IJ in his Fncyclical Letter, On Human Liberty, writes: " Since, then, the profession of one religion is necessary in the State, that religion must be professed which alone N true and which can be recognized without difficulty, especially in Catholic Stales, because the marks of truth are. as it were, engraven upon il." He had previously, in the same Fncyclical, rjigniatizcd false "liberty of worship, as it is called/' saying: "This kind of liberty, if considered in relation to the State, clearly implies thai there is no reason why the Stale should offer any homage lo God, or should desire any public recognition of llim: that no one form of worship is to be preferred to another, but that all stand on an equal fooling, no account being taken of the religion of the people, even if they profess the Catholic Faith. . . . Justice, therefore, forbids, and reason itself forbids, the State to be godless, or lo adopt a line of action which would end in godlessnesv--namely,
(:il

to treat the cations religions store upon, them prowiscifottslg

(as thvg

call thenn

alike,

and to he-

equal rights and privileges." Pope Pius XII points out that where " the divine authority and the influence of its laws are set aside, it necessarily follows that the T'th Modernists, condemned Uy Pope Pius X in the Encyclical Letter, Paxcrndi. (11)07). distinguished in one and the same hwi'ividlr-il between the heliever and the scientist or iho historic critic, ami said that iho critic could deny or leave out of aciount what the holiover accepted. It was a revival in modern form of ihe. old error of the two truth*. Pope Pius Nl here condemns a. similar sectioning of life in practice.. W Cf. Pope Leo XIIPs Enc.vlieal Loiter, Immortalc D</\ tin the. Christian (!ait*titvtion of State*, already quoted in Chapter I. Enr\clie;il Letter. L*h/ r u t s /'rtrrshtitifsiiittHtir.
;l) 1

86

THE

MYSTICAL

B O D Y OK C H R I S T

civil p o w e r u s u r p s t h o s e a b s o l u t e . . . r i g h t s w h i c h b e l o n g t o t h e C r e a t o r a l o n e "< > W e m u s t g r a s p firmly t h e g r e a t t r u t h t h a t G o d H i m s e l f . c a m e down into the world a n d elaborated a Divine Plan for m a n k i n d ' s o r d e r e d r e t u r n t o H i m , t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y , t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . W h e n w e r e a l i z e t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i> the o n e society divinely instituted for r e t u r n to G o d , t h e n w e s h a l l r e a d i l y s e e t h a t t h e o r d e r of t h e w o r l d d e m a n d s t h a t t h e S t a t e , b e i n g a c r e a t u r e of G o d , s h a l l a c k m > w l e d g e t h e C h u r c h . T h e n , t o o , w e s h a l l h a v e n o difficulty in u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h a t P o p e L e o X I I I s a y s in h i s E n c y c l i c a l L e t t c r . On Catholicity in tkr United States: * ' T h a n k s | f o r t h e p r o s p e r o u s c o n d i t i o n of C a t h o ­ l i c i t y ] a r e d u e t o t h e e q u i t y of t h e l a w s w h i c h o b t a i n in A m e r i c a a n d t o t h e c u s t o m s of y o u r w e l l - o r d e r e d R e p u b l i c . F o r t h e C h u r c h a m o n g s t y o u , u n o p p o s e d by t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d G o v e r n m e n t of your Nation, fettered by no hostile legislation, protected against v i o l e n c e b y t h e c o m m o n l a w s a n d t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y of t h e t r i b u n a l s , is f r e e t o live a n d a c t w i t h o u t h i n d r a n c e . Y e t , t h o u g h all t h i s is t r u e , it w o u l d b e v e r y e r r o n e o u s t o d r a w t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t in A m e r i c a is t o b e s o u g h t t h e t y p e of t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e s t a t u s of t h e C h u r c h , o r t h a t it w o u l d b e u n i v e r s a l l y l a w f u l o r e x p e d i e n t f o r t h e S t a t e a n d C h u r c h t o b e . a s in A m e r i c a , separated and divorced ."^
4

" T h a t C h u r c h a n d S t a t e o u g h i t o b e s e p a r a t e d is a n a b s o l u t e l y false a n d p e r n i c i o u s e r r o r . I ' a s e d a s it is o n t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e S t a t e s h o u l d n o t m a k e p r o f e s s i o n of a n y r e l i g i o u s w o r s h i p , t h i s d o c t r i n e is, first of a l l , a g r a v e i n s u l t t o A l m i g h t y G o d . F o r t h e C r e a t o r of m a n k i n d is a l s o t h e P o u n d e r of h u m a n s o c i e t i e s , a n d H e p r e s e r v e s t h e m j u s t a s H e m a i n t a i n s i n d i v i d u a l s in e x i s t ­ ence. T o give H i m due honour, w e o w e H i m then not only pri­ v a t e v e n e r a t i o n , b u t public a n d social w o r s h i p . Resides, this t h e s i s i n v o l v e s t h e u n c o n c e a l e d d e n i a l of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l o r d e r . I t l i m i t s t h e a c t i o n of t h e S t a t e e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e p u r s u i t of p u b ­ lic p r o s p e r i t y d u r i n g t h i s life, t h o u g h t h i s is o n l y t h e p r o x i m a t e raison d'etre of p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t i e s . . . . S i n c e t h e p r e s e n t t e m ­ p o r a l o r d e r of t h i n g s is s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e c o n q u e s t of m a n ' s s u ­ p r e m e a n d a b s o l u t e g o o d , e t e r n a l h a p p i n e s s , t h e civil a u t h o r i t y o u g h t n o t o n l y n o t to h i n d e r t h a t v i c t o r y b u t s h o u l d e f f i c a c i o u s l y contribute thereto."< A s a n e x a m p l e of t h e t y p e of r e l a t i o n w h i c h s h o u l d e x i s t b e ­ tween Church and State, we m a y take the Lateran Convention: " T h i s m i g h t w e l l be a s t r i k i n g e x a m p l e t o a l l , " s a y s P o p e P i u s X I , " o f h o w , e v e n in t h i s O u r o w n clrfy ( i n w h i c h , s a d t o s a y , t h e a b s o l u t e s e p a r a t i o n of t h e civil p o w e r f r o m t h e C h u r c h , a n d i u ' *' Enoycl ical Lei te i , Sauna i I'aal it irat as. (5) Encyclical L e t t e r , Lo-nyiniiue, Oceani. > Encyclical L e t t e r of Pope P i u s X . V<lit n t ' - n t c r , 1Kb F e b . . 1906.
r>) ,( )

PROGRAMME OF KINGSHIP OF

CHRIST

87

d e e d f r o m e v e r y r e l i g i o n , is s o o f t e n t a u g h t ) , o n e s u p r e m e a u t h o r ­ ity can be united and associated with the o t h e r w i t h o u t d e t r i m e n t t o t h e r i g h t s a n d s u p r e m e p o w e r of e i t h e r , t h u s p r o t e c t i n g C h r i s t ­ ian p a r e n t s from p e r n i c i o u s evils and m e n a c i n g ruin/' > I n a f a m o u s p a s t o r a l l e t t e r , Cardinal M e r c i e r w r o t e as f o l l o w s : I n t h e n a m e of t h e G o s p e l , a n d in t h e l i g h t of t h e E n c y c l i c a l s of t h e l a s t f o u r P o p e s , G r e g o r y X V I , P i u s I X , L e o X I I I a n d P i u s X , 1 d o n o t h e s i t a t e t o affirm t h a t this i n d i f f e r e n c e to r e l i g i o n , w h i c h p u t s o n t h e s a m e level t h e r e l i g i o n of d i v i n e o r i g i n a n d t h e r e l i g i o n s i n v e n t e d b y m a n , in o r d e r t o i n c l u d e t h e m all i n t h e s a m e s c e p t i c i s m , is t h e b l a s p h e m y w h i c h , f a r m o r e t h a n t h e s i n s of i n d i v i d u a l s a n d f a m i l i e s , c a l l s d o w n G o d ' s c h a s t i s e m e n t s o n society."* *
(7 11 8

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T OF T H E SPIRITUAL KINGSHIP OF T H E CHURCH'S RULERS. ' A s a c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e D i v i n e P l a n , S t a t e s a n d N a t i o n s will a c k n o w l e d g e t h e r i g h t of t h e R u l e r s of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , t h e P o p e a n d t h e P i s h o p s , a s t h e visible r e p r e ­ s e n t a t i v e s of t h e S p i r i t u a l K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t , t o d e c i d e w h a t f a v o u r s o r o p p o s e s t h e D i v i n e L i f e of G r a c e c o m i n g from C h r i s t as Priest. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e social life of a S t a t e o r of t h e n a t i o n a l life of a n a t i o n is n o t t h e c o m p l e t e final e n d of t h e S t a t e o r N a t i o n . T h e c o m p l e t e final e n d of e v e r y S t a t e is t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e n a t i o n a l life in such w i s e , as n o t o n l y n o t t o h i n d e r b u t t o f a v o u r t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l Life of i t s c i t i z e n s . N a t i o n a l life is t h u s m e a n t to f a v o u r t h e l i v i n g of life a s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t . E a c h n a t i o n h a s its o w n w a y of b e i n g C h r i s t l i k e , , a s w e s e e in i t s fully r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m e m b e r s , i t s s a i n t s . L o y a l t y t o t h e C h u r c h will l e a d t o l o v i n g a c c e p t a n c e of t h e g u i d a n c e of h e r R u l e r s . P o p e L e o X I I I , in h i s E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , On the Christian Constitution of States, points out that " the C h u r c h of C h r i s t is t h e t r u e a n d sole t e a c h e r of v i r t u e a n d g u a r d ­ i a n of m o r a l s . " H e e n l a r g e s u p o n this a n d u p o n t h e role of t h e P o p e a n d t h e B i s h o p s a s S p i r i t u a l G u i d e s a n d a s R u l e r s , in h i s L e t t e r , On. the Chief Duties of Christians as Citizens: " In d e f i n i n g t h e l i m i t s of t h e o b e d i e n c e o w e d t o t h e p a s t o r s of s o u l s , b u t m o s t of all t o t h e a u t h o r i t y of t h e R o m a n Pontiff, it m u s t n o t be s u p ­ p o s e d t h a t it is o n l y t o be y i e l d e d in r e l a t i o n t o d o g m a s of w h i c h t h e o b s t i n a t e d e n i a l c a n n o t be d i s j o i n e d f r o m t h e c r i m e of h e r e s y . N a y , f u r t h e r , i t is n o t e n o u g h s i n c e r e l y a n d firmly t o a s s e n t t o d o c t r i n e s w h i c h , t h o u g h n o t defined by a n y s o l e m n p r o n o u n c e m e n t of t h e C h u r c h , a r e b y h e r p r o p o s e d t o belief, a s d i v i n e l y r e v e a l e d ,
( 9 ) r

<7) Encyclical L e t t e r , CaHi W The Lesson of Events. Jmmortalc De>.

Connubii,

On Christian

Marriage.

88

T1IK M Y S T I C A L

UODY OF

CHRIST

in h e r c o m m o n a n d u n i v e r s a l t e a c h i n g , a n d w h i c h t h e V a t i c a n C o u n c i l d e c l a r e d a r e to he b e l i e v e d w i t h C a t h o l i c a n d d i v i n e f a i t h . R u t t h i s l i k e w i s e m u s t he r e c k o n e d a m o n g s t t h e d u t i e s of C h r i s t ­ i a n s , that, they allow themselves to he ruled and directed by the authority and leadership of the bishops, and above all of the Apostolic See. , . . W h e r e f o r e , it b e l o n g s t o t h e P o p e to judge authoritatively what things the Sacred Oracles contain, as well a s w h a t d o c t r i n e s a r e in h a r m o n y , a n d w h a t in d i s a g r e e m e n t , w i t h t h e m ; a l s o for t h e s a m e r e a s o n , t o s h o w f o r t h w h a t t h i n g s a r e t o b e a c c e p t e d a s r i g h t , a n d w h a t t o he r e j e c t e d a s w o r t h ­ l e s s ; w h a t it is n e c e s s a r y to d o a n d w h a t to a v o i d d o i n g , in o r d e r to attain eternal salvation. F o r o t h e r w i s e , t h e r e w o u l d be no s u r e i n t e r p r e t e r of t h e c o m m a n d s of G o d . n o r w o u l d t h e r e be a n y safe guide s h o w i n g m a n the w a y he should l i v e . " " I f t h e n a t u r a l l a w , " w r i t e s P o p e L e o X I I I , " e n j o i n s on us t o love d e v o t e d l y a n d to d e f e n d t h e c o u n t r y in w h i c h w c h a d b i r t h , a n d in w h i c h w e w e r e b r o u g h t u p , s o t h a t e v e r v g o o d citi­ z e n h e s i t a t e s n o t lo face d e a t h for h i s n a t i v e l a n d , v e r y m u c h m o r e is it t h e u r g e n t d u t y of C h r i s t i a n s lo he e v e r q u i c k e n e d by like feelings t o w a r d s the Church. L o r t h e C h u r c h is t h e h o l y c i t y of t h e l i v i n g G o d . b o r n of G o d H i m s e l f , a n d b y H i m b u i l t u p and established. . . . W e are bound then to love dearly the c o u n t r y w h e n c e w e h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e m e a n s of e n j o y m e n t t h a t t h i s m o r t a l life a f f o r d s , b u t w e h a v e a m u c h m o r e u r g e n t o b l i g a ­ tion to l o v e , w i t h a r d e n t l o v e , t h e C h u r c h to w h i c h w e o w e t h e life of t h e s o u l , a life t h a t will e n d u r e for e \ e r . L o r it is f i t t i n g t o p r e f e r t h e g o o d of t h e soul l o t h e w e l l - b e i n g of t h e b o d y , i n a s ­ m u c h as d u t i e s t o w a r d s G o d a r e of a m o r e h a l l o w e d c h a r a c t e r t h a n those t o w a r d s men. M o r e o v e r , if w e w o u l d j u d g e a r i g h t , t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l o v e for t h e C h u r c h a n d t h e n a t u r a l l o v e of o u r o w n c o u n t r y p r o c e e d from t h e s a m e e t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e , s i n c e G o d H i m ­ self is t h e i r a u t h o r a n d o r i g i n a t i n g c a u s e , c o n s e q u e n t l y , b e t w e e n t h e d u t i e s t h e y r e s p e c t i v e l y e n j o i n t h e r e c a n be n o c o n f l i c t . ' * '
1 1 0 1 01

P o p e P i u s XI h a s t h e s a m e d o c t r i n e . " T h e r i g h t o r d e r of C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y , " b e w r i t e s . " d o e s n o t d i s a p p r o v e of l a w f u l l o v e of c o u n t r y , a n d a s e n t i m e n t of j u s t i f i a b l e n a t i o n a l i s m : on t h e c o n ­ t r a r y , it c o n t r o l s , s a n c t i f i e s , a n d e n l i v e n s t h e m . If, h o w e v e r , P g o i s m , a b u s i n g t h i s love oi c o u n t r y a n d e x a g g e r a t i n g t h i s s e n t i ­ m e n t of n a t i o n a l i s m , i n s i n u a t e s ilsel f i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p e o p l e a n d p e o p l e , t h e r e is no e x c e s s t h a t will not s e e m j u s t i f i e d : and that which b e t w e e n individuals would be judged b l a m e w o r t h y by all, is n o w c o n s i d e r e d lawful a n d p r a i s e w o r t h y , if if is d o n e in t h e n a m e of t h i s e x a g g e r a t e d n a t i o n a l i s m . I n s t e a d of t h e g r e a t l a w of l o v e a n d h u m a n b r o t h e r h o o d , w h i c h e m b r a c e s a n d h o l d s in a s i n g l e family all n a t i o n s a n d p e o p l e s w i t h o n e F a t h e r Sapicnfiae Christ ianae. Encyclical Letter, Sapient inr Christ.ianae.
( I 0 1 i m

PROGRAMME OF KINGSHIP OF

CHRIST

89

w h o is in h e a v e n , t h e r e e n t e r s h a t r e d , d r i v i n g all to d e s t r u c t i o n : I n p u b l i c life, s a c r e d p r i n c i p l e s , t h e g u i d e of all social i n t e r c o u r s e , are trampled upon." -' A g a i n t h e s a m e P o n t i f f w r i t e s : " T h e C h u r c h f o u n d e d by t h e R e d e e m e r is o n e — f o r all p e o p l e s a n d n a t i o n s . B e n e a t h h e r v a u l t , t h a t like G o d ' s firmament a r c h e s o v e r t h e w h o l e e a r t h , t h e r e is a p l a c e a n d h o m e for all p e o p l e s a n d t o n g u e s , t h e r e is r o o m for t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of all t h e p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t i e s , p o i n t s of e x c e l l e n c e , m i s s i o n s , a n d c a l l i n g s , t h a t G o d h a s a s s i g n e d to i n d i v i d u a l s a n d peoples."< T h e d u t y of C a t h o l i c s to t h e i r n a t i v e c o u n t r y is not m e r e l y a negative o n e , n a m e l y t h e a v o i d a n c e of e x a g g e r a t e d n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h is o n e of t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of the r e v o l t a g a i n s t the D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r . C a t h o l i c s m u s t positively love their n a t i \ e land a n d m u s t s t r i v e to d e f e n d it n o t o n l y a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l e n e m i e s , b u t also a g a i n s t the n a t u r a l i s t i c forces t h a t a r e striving to disrupt its internal o r g a n i z a t i o n .
0 13)

THK DUTY OF STATES T O W A R D S RELIGIOUS O R D E R S AND CONGREGATIONS. in a S t a t e fully r e s p e c t f u l o f the l o n g i n g of C h r i s t the K i n g for t h e diffusion o f t h e D i v i n e Life of G r a c e , a n d t h e bringing of all m e n into s u b j e c t i o n to I lis S a c r e d R o y a l t y , t h e R e l i g i o u s Orders a n d C o n g r e g a t i o n s of the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h will be r e s p e c t e d and t h e i r a c t i o n f a v o u r e d . 'The C o n t e m p l a t i v e O r d e r s d i s c h a r g e t h e i r f u n c t i o n of l o v i n g a n d s e r v i n g the Illessed T r i n i t y , w h i c h is h u m a n i t y ' s highest d u t y : j h e Active O r d e r s and Congregations a i m a t g r a d u a l l y p e r m e a t i n g S o c i e t y w i t h t h e i d e a of m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t ' s M y s t i c a l B o d y . P o p e L e o X I I I in his L e t t e r of Dec. 2 3 r d , 1900, to t h e C a r d i n a l A r c h b i s h o p of P a r i s , p o i n t s out the o r i g i n a n d o b j e c t of t h e R e l i g i o u s O r d e r s . " T h e R e l i g i o u s O r d e r s , a s e v e r y o n e k n o w s , " w r i t e s t h e l e a r n e d Pontiff, " h a v e t h e i r o r i g i n a n d t h e r e a s o n of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e in t h o s e s u b l i m e e v a n g e l i c a l c o u n s e l s w h i c h our D i v i n e R e d e e m e r g a v e t o t h o s e , w h o . in e v e r y s u c c e e d i n g a g e , w o u l d a t t a i n to C h r i s t i a n perfection--- to t h o s e b r a v e a n d g e n e r o u s s o u l s w h o by p r a \ e r a n d c o n t e m p l a t i o n , b y p i o u s a u s t e r i t i e s a n d the o b s e r v a n c e of c e r t a i n r u l e s , e n d e a \ o u r to c l i m b t o the h i g h e s t s u m m i t s of the s p i r i t u a l life. H o r n and c r a d l e d u n d e r the a c t i o n of the C h u r c h , w h o s e a u t h o r i t y g i v e s s a n c t i o n to their g o v e r n m e n t and administration, the Religious O r d e r s f o r m a c h o s e n p o r t i o n of the (lock of J e s u s C h r i s t . . . . T h e i r v o w s , m a d e f r e e l y a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y , . . . h a v e ever been r e ­ g a r d e d a n d r e s p e c t e d b y p e o p l e in e v e r y a g e a s s a c r e d t h i n g s a n d <12; Encyclical Letter, (•writuit Christ,' (13) Encyclical Letter, Mit t*rrntiendcr of thf (7/inch in Cr'rinan//. computet. Snrgt, On the

/Vv.-v cut ion

90

THK

MYSTICAL

HODY OF

CHRIST

s o u r c e s of t h e r a r e s t v i r t u e . T h e i r o b j e c t is t w o f o l d : first, t h e r a i s i n g of t h o s e w h o t a k e t h e m t o a h i g h e r d e g r e e of p e r f e c t i o n : a n d s e c o n d l y , by p u r i f y i n g a n d s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r s o u l s , t o p r e ­ p a r e t h e m f o r a m i n i s t r y w h i c h is e x e r c i s e d for t h e e v e r l a s t i n g s a l v a t i o n of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r a n d f o r t h e a l l e v i a t i o n of t h e n u m b e r ­ l e s s m i s e r i e s of h u m a n i t y . . . . S o m e , d e v o t e d t o t e a c h i n g , in­ s t r u c t t h e y o u n g in s e c u l a r k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s of r e l i ­ gious v i r t u e a n d duty, upon w h i c h public peace a n d the welfare of S t a t e s a b s o l u t e l y d e p e n d . O t h e r s , c o n s e c r a t e d t o v a r i o u s w o r k s of c h a r i t y , afford effective aid t o e v e r y p h y s i c a l a n d m o r a l m i s e r y in t h e n u m b e r l e s s h o u s e s w h e r e i n t h e y t e n d t h e s i c k , t h e infirm and the aged, the orphan, the d e r a n g e d , and the incurable, with­ o u t a l l o w i n g the clanger or u n p l e a s a n t n e s s of their w o r k o r the i n g r a t i t u d e they m a y meet with to dampen their c o u r a g e o r check their ardour." T h e s a m e P o n t i f f b a d p r e v i o u s l y laid d o w n t h e d u t y o f S t a t e s t o w a r d s t h e Religious O r d e r s " w h i c h b a s e arisen by the C h u r c h ' s a u t h o r i t y a n d t h e p i e t y of C h r i s t i a n m e n , " s a y i n g : " I n t h e i r r e ­ l i g i o u s a s p e c t , t h e y c l a i m r i g h t l y t o be r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C h u r c h a l o n e . T h e r u l e r s of t h e S t a t e a c c o r d i n g l y h a v e n o r i g h t s o v e r t h e m , n o r c a n t h e \ c l a i m an}- s h a r e in t h e i r c o n t r o l ; o n t h e c o n ­ t r a r y , it is t h e d u t y of t h e S t a t e t o r e s p e c t a n d c h e r i s h t h e m . a n d . if n e e d b e , t o d e f e n d t h e m f r o m a t t a c k . " ' In a s t r i k i n g p a s s a g e . P o p e L e o X I I I speaks of the u l t i m a t e r e a s o n f o r t h e p e r s e c u t i o n of r e l i g i o u s , n a m e l y , t h e o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l Rife, in w h i c h s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s p l a y s o i m p o r t a n t a p a r t . " T h e sad r e a l i t y . " h e w r i t e s , " i s b r o u g h t o n l y t h e m o r e vividly b e f o r e men'** e y e s , t h a t t h e t r u e r e a s o n for w h i c h R e l i g i o u s a r e p e r s e c u t e d is t h a t d e e p - s e a t e d h a t r e d w h i c h the w o r l d c h e r i s h e s a g a i n s t the Catholic C h u r c h , the Citv of G o d ; t h a t t h e real i n t e n t i o n i - . if p o s s i b l e , t o n u l l i f y in s o c i e t v t h e h e a l i n g a c t i o n of J e s u s C h r i s t f r o m w h i c h s u c h b e n e f i c e n t r e ­ s u l t s u n i v e r s a l l y flow. N o o n e is i g n o r a n t of t h e fact t h a t r e l i ­ g i o u s of b o t h s e x e s f o r m a c h o s e n b o d y i n t h e C i t y of G o d ; t h a i t h e y r e p r e s e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s p i r i t a n d t h e m o r t i f i c a t i o n of J e s u s C h r i s t ; t h a t , b y t h e p r a c t i c e of t h e F v a n g c l i c a l C o u n s e l s , t h e y tend to c a r r y Christian v i r t u e t o the s u m m i t of perfection a n d t h a t , in a m u l t i t u d e of w a y s , t h e y p o w e r f u l l y s e c o n d t h e a c t i o n of t h e C h u r c h . H e n c e it is n o t a s t o n i s h i n g t h a i t o - d a y , a s in o t h e r times, u n d e r o t h e r iniquitous forms, the City of the W o r k ! r i s e s a g a i n s t t h e m , a n d chiefly t h o s e m e n w h o , b y a s a c r i l e g i o u s c o m p a c t , a r e m o s t i n t i m a t e l y united and most servilely bound to h i m w h o is P r i n c e of t h i s w o r l d . " ' >
0 1 1 l5

< ) E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Re mm- Nova rum. 0 5 ) L e t t e r to the S u p e r i o r s of the Reli«i<»u- O r d e r - a n d of F r a n c e . .Tune 2$th, 1 0 0 1 .

14

hHlitut'^

PROGRAMMK OK KINGSHIP OP CHRIST
THE DUTY OF STATES WITH REGARD TO

91

SECRET

SOCIETIES

What then should be the attitude of fully ordered States to secret societies, and particularly to Freemasonry? It should be one of uncompromising opposition. To enter a society, in which men surrender their wills blindly and unreservedly to the heads of the society, in other words, to profess unqualified obedience to
them, is an immoral net, contrary to man's God-givev rational nature. Men thereby implicitly declare that they arc ready to

carry out unqucstioningly whatever their leaders enjoin, no mat­ ter what may be its relation to the moral law. Such an act is more irrational still if the leaders are unknown, and matters are still worse if an oath is taken to maintain secrecy about the pro­ ceedings of the society and to obey those unknown leaders. " N o man has a right to put himself under the command of another without the reserve of his own conscience and of the moral law. . . . A man who takes an unconditional oath in a secret society may never be told to do anything wrong. That is not the point. P>y such an oath he binds himself to do anything without reserve, whether it be right or wrong. . . ." " There is no parallel be­ tween an oath taken in a secret society and the vows taken by religious. "The vow of obedience in "Religious Orders is in no sense a blind or unreserved vow. It is a vow taken with vision and reserve. It is a vow to obey on condition that what >s com­ manded is according to the Constitutions of the Order, all of which must be explained to the Novice before be is allowed to pronounce his vows. Hence the vow of obedience in a Religious Order applies only to actions in which there is no sin. A member of a Religious Order, if ordered to go against the ordinary laws of morality, to tell a lie, for instance, would not only not be bound lo obey, but would be bound not to obey"* ) Moreover, the Con­ stitutions of every Religious Order and Congregation an* guar­ anteed by the Church in the name of Christ the King.
nr
17

The faithful of the Catholic Church are forbidden under pain of excommunication to become members of the Masonic Society or similar associations plotting against the Church or the civil authorities. This excommunication is incurred ipso facto and abso­ lution from it is reserved to the Holy See in simple form.08) flie faithful are gravely forbidden, though not under pain of excom­ munication, to become members of secret societies which oblige their associates to take an oath never to divulge the secrets of
no) Irish Jtviari/, 07) Ibid.
iW Code.?Juri*

January, 1940, pp. 3, 4.
Canonivi.

Canon 2335.

92
9

THK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

Ihc association and to give unqualified obedience lo hidden leaders." ' The supreme perversion o f order in this respect seems to he reached by entering the Masonic Society. It is already a revolt against Chri*i the King t o profess blind and unqualified obedience to any body of men. but it is a still more heinous revolt against Him, when one docs so by becoming a member of a society which makes open profession of naturalism. The Masonic .Society not only inculcates indifference to the Divine Life o f Grace, but puts itself above the Mystical lbnly of Christ. \ s there are only two camps here below, to revolt against ChriM the King is to enter the camp of Satan. "After the human race," writes Hope Leo XIII, "through the envious efforts of Satan, bad been guilty of the unspeakable crime of turning away from God, the Creator and the Giver of heavenly blessings, it became divided into two distinct and mutually hos­ tile camps. One of these steadily combats for truth and virtue, the other for all that is opposed to virtue and truth. The former is the Kingdom of God on earth, namely, the True Church of Jesus Christ. . . . The latter is the Kingdom of Satan, under whose sway and in whose power are all those who. following the baneful example of their leader and of our first parents, refuse to obey the divine and eternal law. . . . The two armies have always been engaged in conflict down the age*. . . . In our day, however, the partisans of evil seem to be drawing closer together and, as a body, to be animated with extraordinary energy, under the leadership and with the assistance of the widely diffused and strongly organized association known as Freemasonry. Xo longer concealing their designs, with the greatest audacity they are egging one another on to attack God Himself . . . "From the anti-social character of the errors We have men­ tioned, it is clear that very great dangers lie ahead for states. . . . Nay more this complete change and revolution are being deliber­ ately planned and openly extolled by numerous allied bodies of Communists and Socialists. X o u \ to their plans, not only is the Masonic Sect not opposed, hul it funks n/ton them trith tin greatest
1

favour,

since

its /ninci/tat

tenets

are quite

in. harmony

with

them.

. . . Knowing these things, both prince* and people would act in a manner completely in accord with prudent statesmanship and ab­ solutely indispensable for public welfare, if, instead of uniting with the hreemasons lo overthrow the Church, they joined forces with the Church to resist their attacks. . . . To your fidelity and vigilance We commend in a special manner the young, who are the hope of human society. Let their formation be Ihc chief (T9j Cf. Pniminer, O.P., Mamiale J aria Kcclr .<iustir/\ p. 338, where the decree of the. Holy Office of May 10th, 1884, is referred to, in the CfiM* of .societies; forlnddi'ii hut not under uain uf excommunication.

P R O G R A M M K OP KINGSHIP OP

CHRIST

93

o b j e c t of y o u r s o l i c i t u d e a n d l e i t h e r e b e n o l i m i t t o t h e z e a l a n d w a t c h f u l n e s s y o u d i s p l a y in o r d e r t o k e e p y o u n g p e o p l e f r o m m a s t e r s a n d s c h o o l s w h e r e t h e p e s t i l e n t i a l influence of t h e M a s o n i c s e c t is t o b e f e a r e d . U n d e r y o u r g u i d a n c e , let p a r e n t s , r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r s a n d p r i e s t s h a v i n g t h e c h a r g e of s o u l s , avail of e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y , in t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n s of C h r i s t i a n D o c t r i n e , to w a r n t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r p u p i l s of t h e c r i m i n a l n a t u r e of t h e s e s o c i e t i e s , s o t h a t t h e y m a y l e a r n in g o o d t i m e t o b e w a r e of t h e m a n y d e c e i t f u l a r t i f i c e s b y w h i c h t h e i r r e c r u i t i n g - a g e n t s a r e ac­ c u s t o m e d to e n s n a r e people. And those who prepare the y o u n g f o r t h e fitting r e c e p t i o n of t h e S a c r a m e n t s will act w i s e l y , if t h e y i n d u c e e a c h a n d all of t h e m to t a k e t h e r e s o l u t i o n n e v e r to e n t e r a n y s o c i e t y w i t h o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e of t h e i r p a r e n t s , o r t h e a d v i c e of t h e i r p a r i s h p r i e s t o r s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t o r . " ' - '
{ ( )

" S o m e s e e m to i m a g i n e t h a t t h e s e P a p a l C o n s t i t u t i o n s d o n o t hold w h e r e the [Masonic or similar] sects are permitted by the civil p o w e r s . . . . S u c h s u b t e r f u g e s a r c v a i n , as is e v i d e n t f r o m t h e w o r d s of P o p e P i u s I X : ' It is O u r w i s h t h a t t h e M a s o n i c S o ­ c i e t y a n d all a s s o c i a t i o n s of t h e s a m e c l a s s be held as f o r b i d d e n a n d r e p r o b a t e b y all t h e f a i t h f u l of C h r i s t to w h a t e v e r c o n d i t i o n o r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g t h e y m a y b e l o n g , a n d in w h a t s o e x e r c o u n t r y they m a y be.' . . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e t o be h e l d a s r e p r o b a t e a n d f o r b i d d e n , b e c a u s e . . . t h e y a r e of t h e i r o w n n a t u r e u n n a t u r a l a n d u n l a w f u l . F o r . . . by u n n a t u r a l a n d t r e a c h e r o u s m e a n s , t h e y s e t u p w i t h i n t h e b o s o m of t h e S t a t e a n o t h e r o r g a n i s m completely distinct from the natural and lawful o r g a n i s m of t h e State."< > '
21

P o p e P i u s I X p o i n t e d o u t h o w o p p o s e d to t h e R i g h t s of G o d a r e t h e s o - c a l l e d " l i b e r t i e s " of c o n s c i e n c e a n d of t h e p r e s s : " Y o u well k n o w , Venerable R r c t h r e n , that there are m a n y at the p r e s e n t t i m e , w h o , a p p l y i n g t o civil s o c i e t y t h e i m p i o u s a n d a b ­ s u r d p r i n c i p l e of N a t u r a l i s m , a s it is called, d a r e to p r o c l a i m t h a t t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of t h e s t a t e a n d t h e p r o g r e s s of c i v i l i z a t i o n a b s o l u t e l y d e m a n d t h a t h u m a n s o c i e t y s h o u l d be c o n s t i t u t e d a n d g o v e r n e d w i t h o u t a n y c o n s i d e r a t i o n for r e l i g i o n , j u s t as if i t did n o t e x i s t , o r at l e a s t t h a t n o d i s t i n c t i o n s h o u l d be m a d e b e t w e e n t r u e a n d false r e l i g i o n s . . . . G i v e n this u t t e r l y false idea of t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n of s o c i e t y , t h e y d o not h e s i t a t e to p u t f o r w a r d t h e v i e w w h i c h is n o t o n l y o p p o s e d to t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , b u t v e r y p e r n i c i o u s for t h e s a l v a t i o n of s o u l s , an o p i n i o n w h i c h G r e g o r y X Y I . O u r P r e d e c e s s o r , called a b s u r d . T h i s is t h e v i e w t h a t lib­ e r t y of c o n s c i e n c e a n d of w o r s h i p is t h e s t r i c t r i g h t of e v e r y m a n , a r i g h t w h i c h s h o u l d b e p r o c l a i m e d a n d affirmed b y l a w in Encyclical Letter, Jlnmamnn genus, A p r i l 20th, 188-1. < > I n s t r u c t i o n on p a p a l c o n d e m n a t i o n s of Freemasonry in Art a. Sanctae Set?)*, vol. I, q u o t e d by Rev. E, Cahill, S.J., in Frectnasanrj/ and the Anti-Christian Movement, p . 225..
<20>
21

94

VI IK M Y S T I C A L

PODY OF

CHRIST

every properly constituted state, and that, in addition, citizens have the right to the fullest liberty, unrestrained by ecclesiastical or civil authority, of expressing and publishing, whether orallv or in print or any other way, for all to bear and read, any ideas they may have. When they rashly make these statements, they do not realize or recall to mind that they are advocating a liberty of perdition (St. Augustine, Kp. 105)." **' Pope Gregory XVI spoke of the liberty of the press or of publication as " the most deadly ami most execrable that can be conceived/* He deplores the fact that men arc to be found who hold that the "deluge of error to which this so-called liberty gives rise is abundantly compensated by the publication of an odd book in defence of truth and religion." " What sane man/' he adds, " will ever dare to hold that poisons should be freely" spread abroad, publicly sold and hawked about, nay even, swallowed greedily, because forsooth, there exists a remedy to which one may have recourse and which has occasionally saved from death those who have had recourse to it." * Again. Pope Leo XIII insists that " i t is contrarv lo reason that error and truth should have equal rights."***)
1 ( 2;n

ACKNOWLEDGMENT CHRISTIAN

OF T H E DIGNITY MARRIAGE.

OF

Given whole-hearted allegiance to Christ the King, States and Nations will recognize the unity and indissolubility of the mar­ riage contract, foundation of the Christian family, which in its turn is the nucleus of society. If we seek the reason why the marriage contract is one and indissoluble, it is, in the last resort, because the union of husband and wife is meant to mirror forth to the world the union of Christ and His Mystical Hody. St. Paul was called upon by God to be the Apostle of a Mystery, namely, the great mystery of Christ and (he Church which is symbolically expressed in Christian marriage: " the husband is the bead of the wife as Christ is the Head of the Church (Kphesians, V, 23). As the Church can never be separated from Christ, so Christian marriage is indissoluble. Divorce is Satan's supreme effort lo get human beings to deny and deride that union, but every sneer at "old-fashioned ideas" of marriage and every legislative enactment which glorifies the unmarried companion and puis her on the same level as the legitimate wife and help­ mate are steps taken under bis direction, consciously or un­ consciously. < >
2 5

<'*) Encyclical Letter, Quanta cura. Encyclical Letter, Mirari uos. (25) Recent war lojrislalion in Germany and England is specially alluded to in this paragraph, written in the spring of 1940.
< ) Encyclical Letter.
24

2

f,ibcrtas.

PROGRAMME OF KINGSHIP OF

CHRIST

95

• I n n u m e r a b l e a r e t h e t e x t s in w h i c h t h e S o v e r e i g n ' P o n t i f f s have exalted Christian marriage. O n l y a f e w will be q u o t e d . " M a r r i a g e , " w r i t e s P o p e L e o X I I I , " i s a s a c r a m e n t , b e c a u s e it is a h o l y s i g n w h i c h g i v e s g r a c e , s h o w i n g f o r t h a n i m a g e of t h e M y s t i c X u p t i a l s of C h r i s t w i t h t h e C h u r c h . . . . Since t h e h u s ­ b a n d r e p r e s e n t s C h r i s t , a n d s i n c e t h e wife r e p r e s e n t s t h e C h u r c h , let t h e r e a l w a y s b e , b o t h in h i m w h o c o m m a n d s a n d in h e r w h o o b e y s , a h e a v e n - b o r n l o v e g u i d i n g b o t h in t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d u t i e s . F o r -the h u s b a n d is t h e h e a d of t h e w i f e a s C h r i s t is t h e H e a d of t h e C h u r c h . . . . D i v o r c e s a r c in t h e h i g h e s t d e g r e e h o s t i l e t o t h e p r o s p e r i t y of f a m i l i e s a n d S t a t e s , s p r i n g i n g a s thev do from t h e d e p r a v e d m o r a l s of t h e p e o p l e , a n d , a s e x p e r i e n c e s h o w s us, o p e n i n g o u t a w a y t o e v e r y k i n d o f e v i l - d o i n g a l i k e in p u b l i c a n d in p r i v a t e l i f e . " " I f w e w i s h / * w r i t e s in his t u r n P o p e P i u s X I , " w i t h all r e v e r e n c e to i n q u i r e i n t o t h e i n t i m a t e r e a s o n of t h i s d i v i n e d e c r e e [of i n d i s s o l u b i l i t y ], V e n e r a b l e U r e t b r e n , w e shall e a s i l y s e e it in t h e m y s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n m a r ­ r i a g e w h i c h is fully a n d p e r f e c t l y verified 'in c o n s u m m a t e d m a r ­ r i a g e b e t w e e n C h r i s t i a n s . F o r a s t h e A p o s t l e s a y s in his L p i s t l e to t h e E p h c s i a n s ( V , 3 2 ) , t h e m a r r i a g e of C h r i s t i a n s r e c a l l s t h a t most perfect union which exists between Christ and the Church."' *
{2G) 37

P o p e P i u s X H d e p i c t s t h e h a p p i n e s s of t r u l y C h r i s t i a n f a m i l y life a n d d e p l o r e s t h e r a v a g e s of d i v o r c e , in a l o v e l y p a s s a g e of h i s L e t t e r t o t h e H i e r a r c h y of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s in 1 9 3 9 : " W h a t c a n t h e r e b e <ui e a r t h m o r e s e r e n e a n d j o y f u l t h a n t h e C h r i s t i a n family? T a k i n g its o r i g i n a t t h e a l t a r of t h e L o r d , w h e r e love has been proclaimed a holy and indissoluble bond, the Christian f a m i l y , n o u r i s h e d in t h e s a m e l o v e b y s u p e r n a l g r a c e , is c o n s o l i ­ dated and receives increase. . . . Tranquil walls resound with no q u a r r e l l i n g voices n o r do t h e y w i t n e s s the s e c r e t m a r t y r d o m w h i c h c o m e s w h e n h i d d e n i n f i d e l i t y is laid b a r e ; u n q u e s t i o n i n g t r u s t t u r n s a s i d e t h e s l i n g s of s u s p i c i o n ; s o r r o w is a s s u a g e d a n d j o y is h e i g h t e n e d by m u t u a l a f f e c t i o n . W i t h i n t h o s e .sacred p r e ­ cincts, children are considered not h e a v y burdens but sweet pledges of l o v e : n o r e p r e h e n s i b l e m o t i v e o f c o n v e n i e n c e , n o s e e k i n g a f t e r s t e r i l e p l e a s u r e b r i n g a b o u t t h e f r u s t r a t i o n of t h e gift of life, n o r c a u s e t o fall i n t o d i s u s e t h e s w e e t n a m e s of b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r . . . . It is a l s o s u p r e m e l y n e c e s s a r y t o s e c l o it t h a t t h e d o g m a of t h e u n i t y a n d i n d i s s o l u b i l i t y of m a t r i m o n y b e k n o w n in all i t s r e l i g i o u s i m p o r t a n c e , a n d t h a t it is s a c r e d l y r e s p e c t e d b y t h o s e w h o m a r r y . . . . O h ! ] f o n l y y o u r c o u n t r y h a d c o m e t o know f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r s r a t h e r t h a n from e x a m p l e s a t h o m e , of t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n of ills w h i c h d e r i v e f r o m t h e p l a g u e of divorce!" <26) Encyclical Letter, Arcanum Divinac, HS80). '' > Encyclical Letter, Casti t'onnubii, On Christian
27

Marriage.

96

Till-; M Y S T I C A L

BODY OF

CHRIST

RECOGNITION O F EDUCATION AS T H E F O R M A T I O N OF MEMBERS OF CHRIST. T h e C h r i s t i a n f a m i l y is t h e cell p r e p a r e d b y G o d f o r t h e f o r m ­ a t i o n of c h i l d r e n as m e m b e r s of C h r i s t . A c c o r d i n g l y , w h e r e t h e r u l e of C h r i s t t h e K i n g is fully a c c e p t e d , t h e w h o l e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m of t h e c o u n t r y will a i m , a b o v e all, a t i n c u l c a t i n g t h e g r e a t r e a l i t y of m e m b e r s h i p of O u r L o r d ' s M y s t i c a l B o d y . " T h e p r o ­ p e r a n d i m m e d i a t e e n d of C h r i s t i a n e d u c a t i o n , " w r i t e s P o p e P i u s X I , " is t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h d i v i n e g r a c e in f o r m i n g t h e t r u e a n d p e r f e c t C h r i s t i a n , t h a t is, to f o r m C h r i s t H i m s e l f in t h o s e r e g e n e r ­ a t e d b y B a p t i s m , a c c o r d i n g .to t h e e m p h a t i c e x p r e s s i o n of t h e A p o s t l e : ' M y little c h i l d r e n , of w h o m I a m in l a b o u r a g a i n , u n t i l C h r i s t b e f o r m e d in y o u / F o r t h e t r u e C h r i s t i a n m u s t live a s u p e r n a t u r a l life in C h r i s t . . . a n d d i s p l a y it in all his a c t i o n s ' t h a t t h e life a l s o o f l e s u s m a v be m a d e m a n i f e s t in o u r m o r t a l flesh.'W)
( 2 P )

" T h e family holds directly from the C r e a t o r the mission a n d hence the right to educate the offspring, a right inalienable be­ c a u s e i n s e p a r a b l y joined to the strict o b l i g a t i o n , a r i g h t a n t e r i o r t o a n y r i g h t w h a t e v e r of civil s o c i e t y a n d of t h e S t a t e , a n d t h e r e ­ f o r e i n v i o l a b l e on t h e p a r t of a n y p o w e r on e a r t h . " > All o t h e r e d u c a t o r s a r e s i m p l y c o - o p e r a t o r s a n d a u x i l i a r i e s of t h e p a r e n t s in t h e f o r m a t i o n of C h r i s t in c h i l d r e n . P o p e L e o X I I I i n s i s t s t h a t t h e R i g h t s of God i m p o s e d u t i e s on p a r e n t s to e d u c a t e t h e i r c h i l d r e n p r o p e r l y . T<i t h e s e d u t i e s c o r r e s p o n d i n v i o l a b l e h u m a n r i g h t s , w h i c h n o p o w e r on e a r t h c a n w h i t t l e d o \ v n . . . . A t e a c h e r n e v e r is a n d n e v e r can be a civil s e r v a n t a n d s h o u l d n e v e r r e g a r d h i m s e l f o r a l l o w h i m s e l f t o be s o r e g a r d e d . What­ e v e r a u t h o r i t y he m a y p o s s e s s to teach and control children and t o c l a i m t h e i r re s p e c t a n d o b e d i e n c e , c o m e s t o h i m f r o m G o d . t h r o u g h t h e p a r e n t s , a n d n o t t h r o u g h t h e S t a t e , e x c e p t in s o f a r a s t h e S t a t e is a c t i n g on b e h a l f of t h e p a r e n t s . T o f o r m J e s u s in t h e v o t i n g . H i s Life of G r a c e a n d t h e D i v i n e P l a n for itb c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o t h e w o r l d m u s t b e t h e c e n t r a l p o i n t in t h e t e a c h i n g of e v e r y s u b j e c t , a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e . " T h e m e r e fact that a school," w r i t e s P o p e Pius X I , " g i v e s s o m e religious i n s t r u c t i o n ( o f t e n e x t r e m e l y s t i n t e d ) d o e s n o t b r i n g it i n t o a c c o r d w i t h t h e r i g h t s of t h e C h u r c h a n d of t h e C h r i s t i a n f a m i l y , o r m a k e it a fit p l a c e for C a t h o l i c s t u d e n t s . T o b e t h i s , it is n e c e s s a r y t h a t all the fear/tiny and the whole oryanizatlon of the school, and its teachers, syllabus and te.rt-books in every branch, be r e g u l a t e d b y
t;i0 (;J1) M ( 3 2 )

<afl> (29) (30) <3t) (32)

Gal.. IV, IS). I I ( o r . , IV. 2. Encyclical L e t t e r , Uirini J Hi as M agist ri. Cf. Encyclical L e t t e r , Officio Sanctis*} mo. P r o n o u n c e m e n t of the English H i e r a r c h y (no. 7), Low Week, 1929.

PROGRAMME OF KINGSHIP OF CHRTST

97

the Christian spirit, under the direction and maternal supervision of the Church; so that Religion may be in very truth the found­ ation and crown of the youth's entire training; and this in every
grade of school, not only the elementary but the intermediate and the higher institutions of learning as well. To use the words
9

of Leo XIII: ' I t is necessary not only that religious instruction be given to the young at certain fixed times, but also that every
other subject taught, be permeated with Christian piety. If this

is wanting, if this sacred atmosphere does not pervade and warm the hearts of masters and scholars alike, little good can be ex­ pected from any kind of learning, and considerable harm, will often be the consequence ' . " ( 3 8 ) What a difference it would make, for example, in the teaching of History, if it were taught from God's point of view and if its theme were the acceptance and rejection by States and Nations of the Mystical Body of Christ, with an account of the conse­ quences ! Again, such points a s : the lengthy naturalistic resistance of the Roman Empire to God's Plan for order by its persecution of the Mystical Body of Christ, with its own consequent inevit­ able exhaustion; the development of a new literature with a loft­ ier note under the action of supernatural charity; the gradual permeation of Roman Law with the Catholic spirit, all these would be stressed in the teaching of Latin. Particular attention would be paid to philosophy. Pope Pius
XI in the Encyclical, On the Christian Education of Youth, from

which we have been quoting, says: "The noble traditions of the past require that the youth committed to Catholic schools be fully instructed in the letters and sciences in accordance with the exigencies of the times. They also demand that the doctrine im­ parted be deep and solid, especially in sound philosophy. . . . In this connection, Christian teachers should keep in mind what Leo XIII says in a pithy sentence: * Greater stress must be laid on the employment of apt and solid methods of teaching, and what is still more important, on bringing into full conformity with the Catholic faith, what is taught in literature, in the sciences, and above all in philosophy, on which depends in great part the right orientation of the other branches of knowledge.' " > When deal­ ing with the restoration of Catholic philosophy, Pope Leo XIII points out that "whosoever seeks a reason for the troubles that disturb public and private life must come to the conclusion that a fruitful cause of the evils which now afflict, as well as of those which threaten us, lies in this: that false conclusions concerning divine and human things, which originated in the schools of phil­ osophy, have crept into all the orders of the State, and have been
(34

<33) Encyclical Letter, Divini

(34) Cf. Encyclical Letter,
I

Inscrutabili.

Jllius

Magistri.

98

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

accepted by the common consent of the masses/' Hence, later in the same Encyclical, Pope Leo reminds the Bishops that his " first and most cherished idea is that yon should all furnish to studious youth a generous and copious supply of those crystal rills of wisdom flowing in a never-ending and fertilizing stream from the fountain-head of the Angelic Doctor. "Many are the reasons why we are so desirous of this. In the first place, since, in the tempest that is on us, the Christian faith is being constantly assailed by the machinations and craft of a certain false wisdom, ttU youth, but especially those who are the growing hope of the Church, should be nourished on the strong and robust food of doctrine, that so, mighty in strength and armed at all points, they may become capable of advancing the cause of religion with force and judgment."' ! Thus, every boy and girl would leave school convinced of the great truth that as a member of Jesus, the whole of life with all its attitudes and decisions must be lived in subjection to Christ, They would be trained to realize that Our Lord is always seek­ ing to speak and act through them for the furtherance of His Life throughout the -whole Body and for the incorporation of those who are not yet members. They would never forget that Christ's members are not isolated units and arc not meant to consider themselves as such. Catholics of all countries are meant to act as a solid phalanx for the Divine Plan for Supernatural Life. " Above the brotherhood of humanity and of fatherland," said Pope Pius XI in a text already quoted, " there is the infinitely more sacred and more precious brotherhood of the Mystical Body of Christ." That bond transcends class and frontier. Catholic Youth should also come forth from school into the world with a clear vision of the fact that, if they do not mould the social organ­ ization of the world, political and economic, so as to have the supernatural spirit of the Mystical Body prevail, the world will be moulded by the organized forces striving for the elimination of Supernatural Life and for the spread of Naturalism.
35

SOLIDARITY OP T H E MYSTICAL BODY

REFLECTED

IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION.

Where the Divine Plan for order is accepted, the supernatural union of the Mystical Body will be reflected, not only in the way that masters and servants, employers and employed treat one another, but also in the organization of the production, distribu­ tion and exchange of the material goods of which, as we have seen, a sufficiency is normally required for the development of
t35) Encyclical Letter, Aeterni Patris.

PROGRAMME OF KINGSHIP OF
36

CHRIST

99

l i u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y . < > I n o r d e r t h a t t h o s e m a t e r i a l g o o d s which a r e d e s t i n e d for t h e u s e of t h e h u m a n r a c e , m a y s e r v e t h e i r e n d i n o r d e r l y f a s h i o n a n d b e a v a i l a b l e in g r e a t e r a b u n d a n c e , a n d ( h a t p e a c e f u l c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of h u m a n p e r ­ s o n a l i t y m a y p r e v a i l , p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p of p r o d u c t i v e w e a l t h m u s t be f a v o u r e d a n d safeguarded.* * P o p e L e o X I I I insists that the g r e a t l a b o u r q u e s t i o n c a n n o t b e solved s a v e b y a s s u m i n g a s a p r i n c i p l e t h a t p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p m u s t be held s a c r e d and inviol­ a b l e . T h e l a w , t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d f a v o u r o w n e r s h i p , a n d i t s policy s h o u l d b e t o i n d u c e a s m a n y a s p o s s i b l e of t h e h u m b l e r class t o become owners. M a n y e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s will follow from t h i s : a n d first of all, p r o p e r t y will c e r t a i n l y b e c o m e e q u i t a b l y divided. . . . A f u r t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e will b e in t h e g r e a t e r a b u n d a n c e of t h e f r u i t s of t h e e a r t h . . . a n d a t h i r d a d v a n t a g e w o u l d s p r i n g f r o m t h i s : m e n w o u l d c l e a v e t o t h e c o u n t r y in w h i c h t h e v w e r e born."' )
37 14 3 8

P o p e L e o X I 1 1 e m p h a s i z e d t w o o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t poim>. T h e first is t h a t t h e d i f f u s i o n of p r o p e r t y a n d t h e h o l d i n g of it s h o u l d n o t b e m a d e difficult b y t a x a t i o n . " T h e S t a t e / ' he s a y s , " " w o u l d b e u n j u s t a n d c r u e l if u n d e r t h e n a m e of t a x a t i o n i: w e r e t o d e p r i v e t h e p r i v a t e o w n e r of m o r e t h a n is fitting/"^ Taxa­ t i o n is t h e chief m e a n s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e F a b i a n ( S o c i a l i s t ) S o c i e t y T r a c t N o . 127, " to m a k e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e t h r o w u p t h e r-p-mge a n d q u i t . " T h e s e c o n d is t h a t h o l d i n g of e v e n a little p r o p e r t y favours independence and g u a r d s the w e a k e r and poorer m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y f r o m a s t a t e of c o m p l e t e s u b j e c t i o n t o g r e e d y s p e c u l a t o r s a n d h e a r t l e s s m a n i p u l a t o r s of m o n e y . " Thr first c o n c e r n of a l l , " h e w r i t e s , " is t o s a v e t h e p o o r w o r k e r s f m n t h e c r u e l t y of g r e e d y s p e c u l a t o r s , w h o u s e h u m a n b e i n g s a s m e r e i n s t r u m e n t s of m o n e y - m a k i n g . " * *
11 4 0

P o p e P i u s X I lays d o w n the s a m e principles, dwelling even m o r e a t l e n g t h u p o n t h e e v i l s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e c o n t r o l of c r e d i t b y a ( r e l a t i v e l y ) few p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , a s w e shall s e e l a t e r . " ' T h e r i g h t to p o s s e s s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y / w r i t e s P o p e Leo. X I I I in Rerum Xovanttn, ' i s d e r i v e d f r o m n a t u r e , n o t from m a n : a n d t h e S t a t e h a s by n o m e a n s t h e r i g h t to a b o l i s h it, but o n l y t o . (36) The enjoyment of the good things of the e a r t h a n d the lawful p l e a s u r e s a t t a c h e d to t h e i r use- may even serve to increase virtue a n d to recompense i t . . . (iod is the a u t h o r of nature, a n d of grace. He does n o t wish one to he an obstacle to the other '" (Leo X l l f , S>t)>remi Apostohrius, Sept. 1, 1883). (37) I I I l a e , Q.66, a.2. Cf. ]) > Prinri pit's Funrtionis Social i.. Pmprietatis Privatae, by P. J. Perez G a r c i a , O.P., np. 70, 77. (38)^ Encyclical Letter. Iterant. lYararunt. On the Condition of the Working Classes, <39) I b i d . (40) Encyclical L e t t e r , lie runx Novarum, On the Condition of the Working Classes.
a ( i l

100

THE MYSTICAL

BODY O b

CHRIST

c o n t r o l i t s u s e a n d b r i n g i t i n t o h a r m o n y w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s of the public g o o d / H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e civil a u t h o r i t y a d j u s t s o w n e r s h i p t o m e e t t h e n e e d s of t h e p u b l i c g o o d , it a c t s n o t a s a n e n e m y b u t a s t h e f r i e n d of p r i v a t e o w n e r s . . . . T h e r e is a d o u b l e d a n g e r t o b e a v o i d e d . O n t h e o n e h a n d , if t h e s o c i a l a n d p u b l i c a s p e c t of o w n e r s h i p b e d e n i e d o r m i n i m i z e d , t h e l o g i c a l c o n s e ­ q u e n c e is ' i n d i v i d u a l i s m / a s i t is c a l l e d ; o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e j e c t i o n o r d i m i n u t i o n of i t s p r i v a t e a n d i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d s to s o m e f o r m of c o l l e c t i v i s m / " > T h e s o l i d a r i t y of t h e m e m b e r s of C h r i s t will s h o w i t s e l f in t h e f o r m a t i o n of G u i l d s o r V o c a t i o n a l G r o u p s , f o r p r o d u c t i o n , d i s ­ t r i b u t i o n a n d e x c h a n g e / * T h e G u i l d s of t h e M i d d l e A g e s p r e ­ v e n t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s a t a n i c s p i r i t of t h e c l a s s - w a r a s w e i l a s t h e u p r i s e of t h e e v i l s d u e t o u n c h e c k e d c o m p e t i t i o n a n d r u t h l e s s individualism. T h e y helped to m a i n t a i n the s a n e o r i e n t ­ a t i o n of s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c life, a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h , m o n e y is f o r p r o d u c t i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n is f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y of m e m b e r s of f a m i l i e s . T h e d u t y i n c u m b e n t o n e m ­ ployers a n d employees to r e s p e c t o n e a n o t h e r as h u m a n p e r s o n s a n d f e l l o w - m e m b e r s of C h r i s t ' s M y s t i c a l B o d y , t h e d u t y of p r o ­ p e r t y - o w n e r s t o k e e p p r i m a r i l y in v i e w t h e C o m m o n G o o d b y t h e o b s e r v a n c e of social j u s t i c e , a n d t h e d u t y of all c i t i z e n s t o r e s p e c t p r o p e r t y , all t h e s e t h e G u i l d s i n c u l c a t e d . P o p e L e o X T I I d e p l o r e s t h e i r s u p p r e s s i o n in t h e E n c y c l i c a l , Rervm. N o v a m n t , a n d longs for their r e t u r n in a form a d a p t e d to m o d e r n c o n d i t i o n s : " T h e anci­ e n t w o r k i n g m e n ' s g u i l d s , " h e w r i t e s . " w e r e a b o l i s h e d in t h e l a s t c e n t u r y , a n d n o o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n t o o k their place. Public insti­ tutions a n d the very laws have set aside the ancient religion. H e n c e b y d e g r e e s it h a s c o m e t o p a s s t h a t w o r k i n g m e n h a v e b e e n s u r r e n d e r e d , all i s o l a t e d a n d h e l p l e s s , l o t h e h a r d - h e a r t c d n e s s of e m p l o y e r s a n d t h e g r e e d of u n c h e c k e d c o m p e t i t i o n . . . . T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t of all [ a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e r e ­ t u r n of s o c i a l j u s t i c e ] a r e w o r k i n g m e n ' s u n i o n s , for t h e s e v i r t u a l l y i n c l u d e all t h e r e s t . H i s t o r y a t t e s t s w h a t e x c e l l e n t r e s u l t s w e r e b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e artificers* g u i l d s o f o l d e n t i m e s . T h e y w e r e t h e m e a n s of a f f o r d i n g n o t o n l y m a n y a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e w o r k ­ m e n t h e m s e l v e s , b u t in n o s m a l l d e g r e e o f p r o m o t i n g t h e a d v a n c e ­ m e n t of a r t , a s n u m e r o u s m o n u m e n t s r e m a i n t o b e a r w i t n e s s . S u c h u n i o n s s h o u l d be a d a p t e d to t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h i s o u r age."< >
i (41 4 2 r 43

(40 Encyclical Letter, Quadragesima A unit, On the Social Order. < > I n a n excellent p a m p h l e t , The i'r./i.f/ioi/s Gilds and their Swppres$ion by Oiga H a r t l e y (English C . T . S . ) . it .is stated t h a t " t h e word ' Gild ' is the Anglo-Saxon word m e a n i n g p a y m e n t / T h e spelling' G u i l d / t h o u g h common, is i n c o r r e c t / ' (43) P o p e Leo X I I I was r e f e r r i n g to the suppression of the G u i l d s (Les Corporations Ouvritres) in F r a n c o a n d elsewhere a t the F r e n c h
42 y 1

PROGRAMME OP KINGSHIP OF CHRIST

101

P o p e P i u s X I i n s i s t s u p o n t h e d u t y of S t a t e s t o r e - e s t a b l i s h v o c a t i o n a l g r o u p s . " O n a c c o u n t of t h e evil of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , " h e w r i t e s , " things have come to such a pass that the highly developed s o c i a l life, w h i c h o n c e flourished in a v a r i e t y of p r o s p e r o u s i n s t i ­ tutions organically linked with each other, has been damaged a n d all b u t r u i n e d , l e a v i n g t h u s v i r t u a l l y o n l y i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t h e S t a t e . . . . N o w t h i s is t h e p r i m a r y d u t y of t h e S t a t e a n d of all g o o d c i t i z e n s , to a b o l i s h conflict b e t w e e n c l a s s e s w i t h d i v e r ­ g e n t i n t e r e s t s , a n d so foster a n d p r o m o t e h a r m o n y b e t w e e n the v a r i o u s r a n k s of s o c i e t y . T h e aim of social l e g i s l a t i o n m u s t t h e r e ­ f o r e be t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of v o c a t i o n a l g r o u p s . S o c i e t y t o - d a y still r e m a i n s in a s t r a i n e d a n d t h e r e f o r e u n s t a b l e a n d u n c e r t a i n s t a t e , being founded on classes with contradictory interests and h e n c e opposed to e a c h o t h e r , and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o n e to e n m i t y a n d s t r i f e . . . . T h e d e m a n d a n d s u p p l y of l a b o u r d i v i d e m e n o n t h e l a b o u r - m a r k e t into t w o classes, as into t w o c a m p s , and the b a r g a i n i n g ' b e t w e e n t h e s e p a r t i e s t r a n s f o r m s this l a b o u r - m a r k e t i n t o a n a r e n a w h e r e t h e t w o a r m i e s a r e e n g a g e d in c o m b a t . . . . T h e r e c a n n o t b e q u e s t i o n of a n y p e r f e c t c u r e , e x c e p t t h i s o p p o s i t i o n be d o n e a w a y w i t h , a n d w e l l - o r d e r e d m e m b e r s of t h e social b o d y c o m e i n t o b e i n g a n e w , v o c a t i o n a l g r o u p s n a m e l y , b i n d i n g m e n t o g e t h e r n o t a c c o r d i n g to t h e p o s i t i o n t h e y o c c u p y devolution. The Guilds were suppressed in England at the- so-called Reformation. " There seems tu be. a curious conspiracy of silence about the suppression and spoliation of the English gilds in the oilicial Pro­ testant- histories of the Reformation. Historians have plenty to say about the suppression of the convents and monastic institutions; the destruction of the gilds is not mentioned, but neither is their existence. John Richard Green in his Short History of the English People does mention the existence of Gilds, when he is writing of the Middle Ages; he says not a word about (he wicked and wanton rapacity that sup­ pressed them when he writes of the- Reformation. . . . If the case for the suppression of the convents and monasteries was false and feeble, there was no case_ at all f o r suppressing the gilds, and, i<o do Henry V I I I justice, he did not attempt to make out a case: he coolly said he needed their money. ^ The Act of .'57 Henry V I I I , passed in 1545, stated that the confiscation of -public property it authorized was necessary ' f o r the maintenance of the present war ' and into one group to be robbed went 'colleges, free chapels, cbanfries, hospitals, fraternities, brother­ hoods, and guylcles.' The Act of Edward VI, (J. 14, devised by Somerset, Avas rather more cunning. It attacked the doctrine of Purgatory, pleading that the Gilds' benefactors were burdened with the 'super­ stitious use of^ prayer* and Masses for ihe souls of the dead. To camouflage the fact_ that lie vn< plundering public property, Somerset inserted a h i n t of Gramma)* schools into his act of spoliation There were already Grammar schools, some of them actually supported by the Gilds . . . . the ruffians who devised this wholesale robbery ("Somerset and the other courtiers'] gorged themselves on the plunder {The Religious (//Ids and their Suppression, bv Olga Hartley p p 19, 20). Cf. The WorZ'inrpnen's Guilds of the Middle Ages, by the pre­ sent writer (The Fui uin Pre^, Cork).
; h u

102

T H E MYSTICAL

P.ODY O F

CHRIST

in t h e l a b o u r - m a r k e t , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h t h e y e x e r c i s e in s o c i e t y . . . . T h e s e g r o u p s , in a t r u e s e n s e a u t o ­ n o m o u s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d b y m a n y t o b e , if n o t e s s e n t i a l t o civil s o c i e t y , a t l e a s t its n a t u r a l a n d s p o n t a n e o u s d e v e l o p m e n t . . . . In t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e c o m m o n i n t e r e s t s of t h e w h o l e g r o u p must p r e d o m i n a t e ; and a m o n g these interests the m o s t i m p o r t a n t is t h e d i r e c t i n g of t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e g r o u p t o t h e c o m m o n g o o d . . . . I t is h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y t o n o t e t h a t w h a t L e o X I I I t a u g h t c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m of p o l i t i c a l g o v e r n m e n t , c a n , in d u e m e a s u r e , be applied also to v o c a t i o n a l g r o u p s . H e r e too, m e n m a y c h o o s e w h a t e v e r form they please, provided that both justice and the c o m m o n g o o d be t a k e n i n t o account."*-* ' A c c o r d i n g l y , in o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h a t h e a l t h y f a m i l y life w h i c h is i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e w e l l - b e i n g of t h e S t a t e , v o c a t i o n a l g r o u p s m u s t b e r e v i v e d .
4

MONEY IS AN I N S T R U M E N T OK ECONOMICS. T h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r c a l l s for a m o n e t a r y s y s t e m s o o r g a n i z e d a s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d e x c h a n g e of m a t e r i a l g o o d s in v i e w of t h e v i r t u o u s life of m e m b e r s of C h r i s t in h a p p > f a m i l i e s . M o n e y is f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d e x c h a n g e of m a t e r i a l g o o d s , a n d t h e p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d e x c h a n g e of m a t e r i a l g o o d s a r c m e a n t t o f a v o u r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y in C h r i s t . T h e r e is a n a n t i - C h r i s t i a n a s well a s a n a n t i - n a t u r a l p e r v e r s i o n iti t h e e x i s t i n g r e v e r s a l of o r d e r b y t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n of h u m a n p e r s o n s t o p r o d u c t i o n a n d of p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n to finance H o w h a s this p e r v e r s i o n of o r d e r been b r o u g h t about? T o k e e p m o n e y , w h i c h , a s w e h a v e s e e n , is m e a n t t o b e a n i n s t r u m e n t of e c o n o m i c s , in i t s p r o p e r p l a c e in s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t w o t h i n g s s h o u l d b e t h e o b j e c t of t h e s t r i c t e s t v i g i l a n c e o n t h e p a r t of t h e a u t h o r i t i e s of t h e S t a t e . T h e first is t h e p r e v e n t i o n of u s u r y . T h e s e c o n d is t o w a t c h o v e r t h e f u n c t i o n of m o n e y a s a s t a b l e m e a s u r e of e x c h a n g e . T h e p r e v a l e n c e of u s u r y a n d v i o l ­ ent fluctuations in t h e g e n e r a l p r i c e level of a c o u n t r y h a v e d i s ­ a s t r o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s on h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y , family-life a n d pri­ v a t e o w n e r s h i p , a n d finally l e a d t o t h e d o m i n a t i o n of t h o s e w h o m a n i p u l a t e t h e e x c h a n g e - m e d i u m and to terrible i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t r u g g l e s . T h e u p r i s e of L i b e r a l i s m c o n s e q u e n t o n t h e r e n d i n g of t h e C a t h o l i c u n i t y of E u r o p e in t h e 16th c e n t u r y , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e m o d e r n s y s t e m of m o n e y - c r e a t i o n a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n of g e n e r a l p r i c e l e v e l s , h a v e led, n o t o n l y t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p r o p e r t y in r e l a t i v e l y f e w h a n d s , b u t a l s o t o t h e c o n t r o l of t h o s e few a n d of t h e S t a t e itself b y t h e m o n e y e d in­ terests.
E n c y c l i c a l Letter, Quwlraiitjimt* Anno, Sf.afn. 0>> the Social Order.

T h e Encyclical Letter of
DEI, Or-, the Christum

JJCO

X I T I to which Pins XI refers is I tamo Hat t
of

Constitution

PROGRAMME OF KINGSHIP OF

CHRIST

103

W H A T IS MEANT BY LIBERALISM? L i b e r a l i s m d o e s n o t c o n s i s t m e r e l y in w i t h d r a w i n g t h e c r e a t i o n a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n ' o f m o n e y f r o m s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o p o l i t i c s b u t in t h e f u r t h e r s t e p of w i t h d r a w i n g b o t h p o l i t i c s a n d finance f r o m s u b j e c t i o n t o t h e m o r a l l a w , n a t u r a l a n d r e v e a l e d , b i n d i n g on m e m b e r s of C h r i s t . P e r h a p s w e m a y best describe Liberalism b y s a y i n g t h a t it c o n s i s t s in e r e c t i n g s o m e p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n o r a s p e c t of h u m a n a c t i v i t y , e c o n o m i c o r p o l i t i c a l , i n t o a s e p a r a t e d o m a i n w i t h i t s o w n a u t o n o m o u s e n d c o m p l e t e l y i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e final e n d of m a n a s a m e m b e r of C h r i s t . T h e g r e a t l i b e r a l i s t i c p r i n c i p l e of t h e o r t h o d o x E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m i s t s , A d a m S m i t h , M a l t h u s , R i c a r d o , S t u a r t Mill, Bastiat, Q u e s n a y a n d t h e P h y s i o c r a t s , w a s t h a t e c o n o m i c affairs, i n c l u d i n g , of c o u r s e , t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of m o n e y o r e x c h a n g e - m e d i u m , w e r e g o v ­ e r n e d b y p h y s i c a l l a w s of n a t u r e , w h i c h n o p o l i t i c a l l a w s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o r e g u l a t e i n v i e w of f a v o u r i n g m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t . " A t the t i m e w h e n t h e n e w social o r d e r w a s b e g i n n i n g , " w r o t e Pope Pius XI, t h e d o c t r i n e s of r a t i o n a l i s m h a d a l r e a d y t a k e n firm h o l d of l a r g e n u m b e r s , a n d a n e c o n o m i c s c i e n c e a l i e n TO t h e t r u e m o r a l l a w h a d s o o n a r i s e n , w h e n c e it f o l l o w e d t h a t f r e e r e i n w a s given to h u m a n a v a r i c e . " L i b e r a l i s m is r a t i o n a l i s m a o p l i e d to politics a n d finance.
( 4 5 ) u ( 4 G )

W e n e e d n o t be s u r p r i s e d t h e n t h a t u s u r y h a s c o m e b a c k in another form. In t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Return Novarum, Pope L e o X I I I , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h a v i n g d e p l o r e d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of the guilds, g o e s on to s a y : " P u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and the v e r y l a w s <&) H i s t o r i c a l l y , the refusal to accept the d u e .subordination of politics to the o r d e r established by C h r i s t has been followed by t h e w i t h d r a w a l of m o n e y - m a n i p u l a t i o n from d u e s u b o r d i n a t i o n to politics. F a l l e n m a n c a n n o t m a i n t a i n the r a t i o n a l order of life except by accept­ i n g due s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o God t h r o u g h o u r L o r d Jesus Christ. (46) Encyclical L e t t e r . Quadragesima Anrno, On the Social Order. All the above-mentioned economists were influenced by J o h n Locke's Nom­ i n a l i s m a n d L i b e r a l i s m , of which the f o u n d a t i o n s are l a i d in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. T h a t work as well as Mill's Prin­ ciples of Political Economy are on the I n d e x . " W h a t Natu7-alists o r Rationalists a i m a t in philosophy, that the s u p p o r t e r s of Liberalism, c a r r y i n g o u t the p r i n c i p l e s laid d o w n by N a t u r a l i s m , are a t t e m p t i n g in the d o m a i n of m o r a l i t y a n d politics. The f u n d a m e n t a l _ doctrine^ of Rationalism is the supremacy of the h u m a n reason, which, refusing d u e submission to the divine and e t e r n a l reason, p r o c l a i m s its own independence a n d constitutes itself the sup­ reme p r i n c i p l e a n d source a n d j u d g e of t r u t h . Hence these followers of L i b e r a l i s m d e n y the existence of a n y d i v i n e a u t h o r i t y t o which obedience is d u e , a n d p r o c l a i m t h a t every man is the law to himself; from which a r i s e s t h a t ethical system which they style independent morality, a n d which, u n d e r the guise of liberty, exonerates man from any obedience t o the c o m m a n d s of God, a n d substitutes a boundless l i c e n c e " ( P o p . Leo X I I I , Encyclical Letter, Libertas, On Human Liberty).
1 4

104

'nil-

MYSTICAL

B O D Y OK

CHRIST

have s e t aside the a n c i e n t religion. H e n c e by d e g r e e s it h a s c o m e t o p a s s t h a t w o r k i n g m e n h a v e b e e n s u r r e n d e r e d , all i s o l a t e d a n d h e l p l e s s , t o t h e h a r d h e a r t e d n e s s of e m p l o y e r s a n d t h e g r e e d of unchecked competition. T h e mischief has been increased by rapacious usury, which, a l t h o u g h m o r e than once condemned by t h e C h u r c h , is n e v e r t h e l e s s , u n d e r a d i f f e r e n t g u i s e , b u t w i t h t h e l i k e i n j u s t i c e , still p r a c t i s e d b y c o v e t o u s a n d g r a s p i n g m e n . T o t h i s m u s t b e a d d e d t h e u p r i s e of p o w e r f u l m o n o p o l i e s c o n t r o l l i n g e n t e r p r i s e s w o r k e d b y c o n t r a c t a n d all b r a n c h e s of c o m m e r c e ; s o t h a t a s m a l l n u m b e r of v e r y r i c h m e n h a v e b e e n a b l e t o l a y u p o n t h e t e e m i n g m a s s e s of t h e l a b o u r i n g p o o r a v o k e l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n s l a v e r y itself."* '
47

F l u c t u a t i o n s in t h e p r i c e - l e v e l s of c o u n t r i e s h a v e b e e n f a r m o r e v i o l e n t s i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m o d e r n b a n k i n g t h a n b e f o r e i t . A f e w e x t r a c t s f r o m t h e e x c e l l e n t p a m p h l e t b y A . N . F i e l d , The Untaught History 0/ Money, will i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t in t h e c a s e of G r e a t B r i t a i n . " U p t o r o u n d a b o u t 1660 all m o n e y t r a n s a c ­ t i o n s in E n g l a n d , " h e w r i t e s , " w e r e e f f e c t e d b y h a n d i n g o v e r coin. After that date banking began, and cheques and bank-notes came i n t o u s e , a n d w h a t is k n o w n a s b a n k c r e d i t b e g a n t o p r e v a i l . T h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d , w h e n all m o n e y b u s i ­ n e s s w a s d o n e , w i t h t h e K i n g ' s m o n e y a n d n o n e a t all w i t h b a n k m o n e y , w a s t h e g r e a t s t a b i l i t y of p r i c e s . T h e r e w a s o n e n o t o r i * o u s m o n e y j u g g l e in t h i s e a r l i e r p e r i o d , w h e n H e n r y V I ] I in 1542 d e b a s e d t h e c o i n a g e b y a l l o y . A s a r e s u l t p r i c e s r o s e b y 2 0 t o 25 p e r c e n t i n five y e a r s , a n d b y 1551 a p o u n d w o u l d b u y o n l y a b o u t h a l f of w h a t i t b o u g h t n i n e y e a r s b e f o r e . . . . T h e a b s e n c e of s l u m p s a n d b o o m s , e v e r y few y e a r s , such as w e n o w k n o w , w a s n o t d u e t o a n y s u p e r i o r m e r i t in m e t a l c o i n s o v e r p a p e r m o n e y , b u t s i m p l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t it w a s i h e c o n s t a n t c a r e of t h e C r o w n t o m a i n t a i n a sufficient q u a n t i t y of m o n e y in c i r c u l a t i o n f o r t h e people's needs. There were very stringents laws against the ex­ p o r t of c o i n . . . . " A f t e r 1650 b a n k i n g a n d b a n k c r e d i t c a m e i n t o t h e p i c t u r e , a n d t h e p r i c e - l e v e l j u m p s f r o m ISO t o a b o u t 3 2 0 in 1750 s h o o t i n g u p i n t h e n e x t fifty y e a r s t o a b o u t 560. A l a t e r p r i c e - l e v e l c h a r t a t h a n d , c o v e r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m 1780 to 1932 ( a n d t a k i n g p r i c e s i n 1913 a s 1 0 0 ) , s h o w s a c o n t i n u o u s s e r i e s of e n o r m o u s f l u c t u a ­ t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t . . . . B y 1913 t h e level h a s c r e p t u p t o 100 a g a i n . T h e n a f t e r t h e G r e a t W a r it s o a r s t o 225 in 1 9 2 0 : d r o p s b a n g d o w n t o a b o u t 100 in t h e n e x t y e a r , r u n s a l o n g a r o u n d t h i s (47) P o p e Leo X I I I then s p e a k s of the Socialist a n d Collectivist r e a c t i o n to the abuse of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . T h i s movement, as we shall see l a t e r , is u n d e r the control of n a t u r a l i s t i c s u p r a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n s , a n d t h u s , by its opposition to C h r i s t t h e K i n g a n d the super­ n a t u r a l D i v i n e P l a n for order, is d r a g g i n g the w o r k i n g m a n d o w n to a .state worse than the slavery from which Our D i v i n e L o r d freed him.

P R O G R A M M E OF KJNGSHJP OF CHRIST

105

figure f o r a f e w y e a r s a n d t h e n in 1930 is a w a y o n a s l i d e d o w n in t h e w o r l d d e p r e s s i o n t o 66 in 1932, t h e l o w e s t p o i n t in a c e n ­ t u r y a n d a half. . . . A f t e r t h e b a n k e r s w e r e in t h e i r s t r i d e , B r i t i s h h i s t o r y is o n e l o n g p r o c e s s i o n of t h e m o s t v i o l e n t m o n e t a r y fluctuations, w i t h i n c e s s a n t d i s t u r b a n c e of p r i c e s , a n d r u i n o u s r e s u l t s . . . . T h a t is t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h a v i n g t h e C r o w n control m o n e y to preserve justice, and having private bankers c o n t r o l it f o r t h e i r o w n selfish a d v a n t a g e a t t h e e x p e n s e of t h e nation." Rapid fluctuations in t h e p r i c e - l e v e l a r e d i s a s t r o u s in t h e i r effects e s p e c i a l l y o n s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s e s . T h e rise of p r i c e s s w i n d l e s all c r e d i t o r s f o r t h e b e n e f i t of d e b t o r s . All c o n t r a c t s f o r f u t u r e periodic p a y m e n t s for services, such as w a g e s , salaries, interest, a n d r e n t s , a n d t h o s e fixed b y l a w o r c u s t o m s u c h as t r a n s p o r t f a r e s , postal services, a n d professional fees, are vitiated, w i t h c o n s e q u e n t l o s s t o t h o s e w h o r e c e i v e m o n e y . T h e fall of p r i c e s b y t h e c a l l i n g in of l o a n s a n d t h e r e s t r i c t i o n of c r e d i t s w i n d l e s all d e b t o r s f o r t h e b e n e f i t of c r e d i t o r s . I t r e s u l t s in b a n k r u p t c i e s a n d f o r e c l o ­ s u r e s , u n e m p l o y m e n t , a n d t h e n c o n c e n t r a t i o n of w e a l t h in t h e h a n d s of a f e w , w h o a r e t h e r e a l c o n t r o l l i n g p o w e r in t h e S t a t e . ' I n t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , (Juadragesin/o Anno, Pope Pius X I s p e a k s a t s o m e l e n g t h of t h e t e r r i b l e p o w e r wielded in o u r d a y s b y t h o s e w h o c<mtn>1 finance a n d t h e n g o e s o n t o d e p i c t t h e evils r e s u l t i n g f r o m this d i s o r d e r . " In t h e first p l a c e , t h e n , it is p a t e n t t h a t in o u r d a y s n o t a l o n e is w e a l t h a c c u ­ m u l a t e d , b u t i m m e n s e p o w e r a n d d e s p o t i c e c o n o m i c d o m i n a t i o n is c o n c e n t r a t e d in t h e h a n d s of a f e w , a n d t h a t t h o s e few a r c f r e ­ q u e n t l y n o t t h e o w n e r s , b u t o n l y t h e t r u s t e e s a n d d i r e c t o r s of invested funds, w h o a d m i n i s t e r ihem at their own good pleasure. This p o w e r becomes particularly irresistible when exercised by t h o s e w h o , b e c a u s e t h e y h o l d a n d c o n t r o l money, a r c a b l e a l s o to g o v e r n c r e d i t a n d d e t e r m i n e i t s a l l o t m e n t , for t h a t r e a s o n s u p ­ p l y i n g , so t o s p e a k , t h e l i f e - b l o o d to t h e e n t i r e e c o n o m i c b o d y , a n d
I4{?

U S " A s one well-known w r i t e r o n these subjects h a s pointed cur, the money facto]" is like the tide* of t h e ocean, and commodity d e m a n d a n d - s u p p l y f a c t o r i s like the waves of the sea. . . . The f i d e s arc the big factor d e t e r m i n i n g the level o f the water, and t h e wa\e.s a com­ p a r a t i v e l y small factor even hi the g r e a t e s t storm. The money-factor is like the tides, a n d is the p r i n c i p a l t h i n g i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e price-level '"' (The Truth About New Zealand, by A. N . Field, p. 134). Cf. The. .Role of Money, by Professor Sorldy, p p . 71-75. " A p r o p e r ' p r o p o r t i o n between different wages i s also a m a t t e r o f i m p o r t a n c e , a n d with this is i n t i m a t e l y connected a p r o p e r u r o p o r t i o n between the prices obtained for the p r o d u c t s o f the v a r i o u s economic g r o u p s , a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and s o forth. Where this- h a r m o n i o u s p r o p o r t i o n is _ kept, men's v a r i o u s economic activities combine and u n i t e i n t o a single organism a n d become members of a common bodv, l e n d i n g each other m u t u a l help a n d service '' (Encyclical Letter. Quadragesima Anno),
T

1

106

THK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

g r a s p i n g , a s it w e r e , in t h e i r h a n d s t h e v e r y s o u l of p r o d u c t i o n , so t h a t n o o n e d a r e b r e a t h e a g a i n s t their will. T h i s a c c u m u l a t i o n of p o w e r , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c n o t e of t h e m o d e r n e c o n o m i c o r d e r , is a n a t u r a l r e s u l t of l i m i t l e s s f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n , w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e s u r v i v a l of t h o s e o n l y w h o a r e t h e s t r o n g e s t , w h i c h o f t e n m e a n s t h o s e w h o fight m o s t r e l e n t l e s s l y , w h o p a y l e a s t h e e d t o t h e d i c ­ t a t e s of c o n s c i e n c e . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o w e r h a s led t o a t h r e e f o l d s t r u g g l e for d o m i n a t i o n . " F i r s t , t h e r e is t h e s t r u g g l e for d i c t a t o r s h i p in t h e e c o n o m i c s p h e r e i t s e l f ; t h e n t h e fierce b a t t l e t o a c q u i r e c o n t r o l of t h e S t a t e , s o t h a t i t s r e s o u r c e s a n d a u t h o r i t y m a } ' be a b u s e d in t h e e c o n o ­ m i c s t r u g g l e ; finally, t h e c l a s h b e t w e e n S t a t e s t h e m s e l v e s . . . . U n b r i d l e d a m b i t i o n for d o m i n a t i o n h a s s u c c e e d e d t h e d e s i r e f o r g a i n ; t h e w h o l e e c o n o m i c life h a s b e c o m e b a r d , c r u e l , a n d r e l e n t ­ l e s s in a g h a s t l y m e a s u r e . . . . T h e S t a t e . . . h a s b e c o m e a s l a v e b o u n d o v e r to t h e s e r v i c e of h u m a n p a s s i o n a n d g r e e d . As regards the relations of peoples among themselves a double stream has issued forth, from this one fountain-head; on the one hand, economic Nationalism or even economic Imperialism-; on the. other, a not less noxious and detestable Internationalism or inter­ national Imperialism in financial affairs, which holds that where a man's fortune is, there is his country." W h a t P o p e Pius XI m e a n s by " E c o n o m i c N a t i o n a l i s m or I m p e r i a l i s m " is t h e a c t i o n of a S t a t e w h i c h p l a c e s its p o w e r a t t h e s e r v i c e of s o m e of its f i n a n c i e r s a n d industrialists, in o r d e r t o i n v a d e o r e v e n e n s l a v e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s e c o n o ­ mically. To take one example, a bitter struggle went on for y e a r s for M e x i c a n oil b e t w e e n t h e Standard Oil Com­ pany of America on t h e o n e side a n d t h e Mexican Eagle t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Royal Dutch Shell r e p r e s e n t i n g the British E m p i r e on t h e o t h e r . W e r e a d in The World-Struggle for ()il b y P . de la T r a m a r y e , t h a t " T h e S t a n d a r d Oil p r a c t i c a l l y e n j o y e d a m o n o ­ p o l y in M e x i c o u p to t h e t i m e w h e n t h e d e p o s i t s a t T a m p i c o w e r e d i s c o v e r e d . P r e s i d e n t D i a z , to p u t a n e n d to t h e m o n o p o l y , g r a n t ­ ed i m p o r t a n t c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e B r i t i s h firm of P e a r s o n , w h i c h s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s f o u n d e d t h e Mexican Eagle. These concessions w e r e t h e s i g n a l for t h e n e w s p a p e r c a m p a i g n w h i c h w a s let l o o s e a g a i n s t P o r f i r i o D i a z in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d for t h e o u t b r e a k of t h e M a d c r i s t i n s u r r e c t i o n in S o n o r a a n d C h i h u a h u a . Rocke­ f e l l e r a n d P e a r s o n m a d e w a r on e a c h o t h e r w i t h t h e h e l p of t h e M e x i c a n Condotfieri. T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s u p p o r t e d M a d e r o , Great. B r i t a i n P o r f i r i o Diaz."<«>
y

Those who wisli t o read more about the history of the s t r u g g l e for Mexican oil w i l l find a n a m o u n t of i n f o r m a t i o n i'n Ludwell D e n n y ' s America Co/ujjie.rs Britain ( p p . 2-40-252). F o r the effect of the struggle on religion and for Masonic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y j r e g a r d t o the religious' pern

PROGRAMME OF KINGSHIP OF CHRIST T H E RETURN" TO T H E GOSPEL.

107

S t . P a u l s u m s u p t h e G o s p e l a s t h e w o r k of r e - c a p i t u l a t i o n o r r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of all t h i n g s in C h r i s t . The h u m a n race has been given a new Head, the Second Adam. Under Him, through s o c i a l a c c e p t a n c e of t h e r o l e of H i s M y s t i c a l P o d y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r s of t h e r a c e a r e t o b e b r o u g h t i n t o s u p e r n a t u r a l u n i o n with the Blessed Trinity. I t is o n l y by t h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l u n i o n that- a h u m a n b e i n g is fully in o r d e r in t h e a c t u a l w o r l d . We h a v e j u s t s e e n in o u t l i n e w h a t social a c c e p t a n c e of t h e D i v i n e Plan entails. I t is s i m p l y t h e g e n e r a l p r o g r a m m e of t h e r e i g n of C h r i s t t h e K i n g w h i c h h a s b e e n e l a b o r a t e d b y H i s C h u r c h , in t h e c o u r s e of c e n t u r i e s , in v i e w of e n a b l i n g all m e n t o live a s u p e r ­ n a t u r a l life, in c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n of s u b m i s s i o n to t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y a l o n g w i t h C h r i s t in H o l y M a s s . B y the s a c r a ­ m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r of B a p t i s m , t h e s o u l - s t r u c t u r e of e a c h i n d i v i d u a l is m a d e c o n f o r m a b l e t o t h a t of O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t a n d is e n ­ a b l e d t o a s s i m i l a t e t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l Life of t h e H e a d , a s a p l a n t b y i t s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e is f i t t e d for t h e p r o c e s s of i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t o i t s e l f t h e e l e m e n t s of v e g e t a t i v e life. N o w , j u s t a s a p l a n t n e e d s a f a v o u r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t f o r its d e v e l o p m e n t , so d o c s t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of t h e b a p t i z e d C h r i s t i a n . I t is w i t h a v i e w t o c r e a t i n g this favourable e n v i r o n m e n t that the Catholic Church lays d o w n t h e p r i n c i p l e s of p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d r a w s the general conclusions therefrom, without, however, de­ t e r m i n i n g t h e m o d e of a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s 10 p a r ­ ticular circumstances.
( 5 0 )

T h u s , t h e C h u r c h d o e s n o t p r e f e r o n e of t h e t h r e e f o r m s of G o v e r n m e n t , M o n a r c h y , A r i s t o c r a c y , or Democracy, to the others, b u t s h e d o e s i n s i s t t h a t w h a t e v e r f o r m of g o v e r n m e n t a p e o p l e m a y g i v e itself, C a e s a r s h a l l a c k n o w l e d g e t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r . " T h e C h u r c h / ' w r i t e s P o p e L e o X I I I , " a l w a y s t h e g u a r d i a n of h e r o w n r i g h t s a n d m o s t o b s e r v a n t of t h o s e of o t h e r s , h o l d s t h a t it is n o t h e r p r o v i n c e t o d e c i d e w h i c h is t h e b e s t a m o n g s t m a n y secution in Mexico, the books No God Next Door, by Rev. Michael K e n n y , S.J., a n d Mexico, the Land of Mood-drenched Altars, by F r a n c i s C. Kelly, s h o u l d be read. F r o m the Catholic Herald (London) of J a n . 24, 1941, we l e a r n t h a t the New York Herald Tribune h a d published a recent a n n o u n c e m e n t of an offer by twenty U . S . b a n k e r s to p u t M e x i c a n i n d u s t r i e s on their feet a g a i n by a loan of 100 million dollars. T h e p l a n is believed to be c o n t i n g e n t on action by P r e s i d e n t Camacho to p r o t e c t profits a g a i n s t a n y a t t e m p t s to continue the Mexican revolu­ tion." (so) Cf. E p h e s i a n s , I . 3-10. " Blessed bo the God a n d F a t h e r of our L o r d Jesus C h r i s t . . . Who h a t h p r e d e s t i n a t e d us unto the a d o p t i o n of c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h J e s u s C h r i s t u n t o Himself . . . according to his good pleasure, which he h a d purposed in him, in the d i s p e n s a t i o n of the fulness of times- to re-establish all things in Christ, t h a t aro in heaven a n d on e a r t h . "
<(

108

THK MYSTICAL

BODY O F

CHRIST

d i v e r s e f o r m s of g o v e r n m e n t a n d civil i n s t i t u t i o n s of C h r i s t i a n S t a t e s , a n d a m i d t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s of S t a t e r u l e s h e d o e s n o t d i s a p p r o v e of a n y , p r o v i d e d t h e r e s p e c t d u e t o r e l i g i o n a n d t h e o b s e r v a n c e of g o o d m o r a l s b e u p h e l d . B y s u c h a s t a n d a r d of c o n d u c t s h o u l d t h e t h o u g h t s a n d m o d e of a c t i n g of e v e r y C a t h o l i c be d i r e c t e d . " A g a i n , t h e C h u r c h d o e s n o t s a y h o w c l a s s e s in s c h o o l s s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d o r t i m e - t a b l e s p l a n n e d , b u t s h e d o e s i n s i s t t h a t t h e w h o l e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a C a t h o l i c s c h o o l a n d i t s t e a c h e r s , s y l l a b u s a n d t e x t - b o o k s in e v e r y b r a n c h s h o u l d p r o m o t e t h e h a r m o n i o u s f o r m a t i o n of m e m b e r s of C h r i s t . The Church a l s o i n s i s t s u p o n t h e n e e d of p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p of p r o p e r t y a n d u p o n t h e f o r m a t i o n of g u i l d s o r v o c a t i o n a l g r o u p s , b u t " p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e n a t u r a l and divine law be observed, t h e public a u t h o r i t y , in v i e w of t h e c o m m o n g o o d , m a y s p e c i f y m o r e a c c u r a t e l y w h a t is licit a n d w h a t is illicit f o r p r o p e r t y - o w n e r s in t h e u s e of t h e i r possessions.'^ T h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h s t a n d s for t h e i n t e g r a l o b ­ s e r v a n c e of t h e 7 t h C o m m a n d m e n t a n d c o n d e m n s u s u r y , b u t it is n o t for the Church to indicate the precise m e t h o d by which this is t o b e d o n e , o r t o l a y d o w n h o w s t a b i l i t y of p r i c e s is t o b e s e ­ c u r e d a n d a r b i t r a r y m a n i p u l a t i o n s of t h e v o l u m e of e x c h a n g e m e d i u m to be excluded.
( 5 1 ) f 5 2 J 5 3 1

T H E CHURCH'S P R O G R A M M E OE GOD.

EOR T H E

RIGHTS

T h e X a t u r a l i s m of t h e F r e n c h R e s o l u t i o n w h i c h p u t t h e r i g h t s of m a n in t h e p l a c e of t h e R i g h t s of G o d r e s u l t e d in t h e diffusion of a n u m b e r of e r r o r s o p p o s e d t o t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r . As all t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c a g e n c i e s so s k i l f u l l y m a r s h a l l e d by J e w r y a n d F r e e m a s o n r y w o r k e d z e a l o u s l y for t h e p r o p a g a t i o n of t h e s e e r r o n e o u s d o c t r i n e s , m a n y C a t h o l i c s w e r e led a s t r a y . P o p e P i u s IX c a t a l o g u e d t h e s e e r r o r s in t h e Syllabus, so g i v i n g Catholics w h a t w e m a y call a negative t e s t o f fidelity to t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t . S i n c e t h e a p p e a r a n c e of t h a t s p l e n d i d d o c u m e n t , w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of w h i c h e v e r y C a t h o l i c s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r , t h e s u c c e e d i n g P o p e s h a v e e l a b o r a t e d a positive p r o g r a m m e of r e s p e c t for t h e R i g h t s of God by i n t e g r a l fidelity t o C h r i s t t h e K i n g . T h e Supernatural Life of the Mystical Body lias b e e n t r e a t e d of b y P o p e L e o X I I ! in his K n c y c l i c a l s on t h e R e u n i o n of C h r i s t e n Encyclical Letter, Sapientiae Ghristianae. Of. Encyclical L e t t e r , Immortalc Dei. (52) Of. Encyclical L e t t e r , Divwi Jllius MagiMri. On the ChristianEducation of Youth. (53) P o p e P i u s X I , Encyclical L e t t e r , Quadragesima Anuo O the, Social Order. (54) T h e t e x t of the Syllabus a n d a brief c o m m e n t a r y on the e r r o r s c o n t a i n e d in i t will he found in The Mystical Bod if of f'hrisf in- tinModern World, p p . 120-142.
% x n

P R O G R A M M E O F KINGSHIP OF
55

CHRIST
5 7

109

dom< > a n d o n C h r i s t O u r Redeemer,<*g) a s w e l l a s b y P o p e P i u s X I in h i s L e t t e r s o n R e p a r a t i o n t o t h e S a c r e d H e a r t / * a n d on T r u e R e l i g i o u s U n i t y . < > T h e o b l i g a t i o n of social acceptance of t h e D i v i n e P l a n h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d b y P o p e L e o X I I I in h i s t e a c h ­ i n g o n H u m a n L i b e r t y , < > t h e C h r i s t i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n of S t a t e s > a n d t h e C h i e f D u t i e s of C h r i s t i a n s a s Citizens.* * Pope Pius X d e a l s w i t h t h e s a m e m a t t e r in h i s a d m i r a b l e L e t t e r o n t h e S i l I o n / > a n d P o p e P i u s X I in his E n c y c l i c a l o n t h e P e a c e of C h r i s t . T h e C a t h o l i c c o n c e p t of yatria or native land has been dealt w i t h b y P o p e P i u s X I in h i s E n c y c l i c a l s on t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t / ) a n d on t h e T r o u b l e s of O u r T i m e s / * a f t e r P o p e L e o X I I I h a d s p o k e n of it in s u c h a d m i r a b l e t e r m s . Pope Pius XI has stressed the sublime t r u t h t h a t Catholics m u s t look upon the s t r u g g l e t o r e - c h r i s t i a n i z e p u b l i c life as a c o m b a t t o be w a g e d , u n d e r t h e b a n n e r of C h r i s t t h e K i n g , b y e v e r y m e m b e r of H i s M y s t i c a l Body.< > H e h a s a l s o t r e a t e d of "the C h r i s t i a n S o c i a l Cell, t h e F a m i l y / * f o l l o w i n g P o p e L e o X I I I / ) a n d of t h e P e r s o n a l i t y of t h e C h i l d , in his l o f t y t e a c h i n g o n t h e C h r i s t i a n E d u c a t i o n of Youth/ ) A p o s i t i v e economic programme with regard to p r o p e r t y , pro­ d u c t i o n a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d in t h e E n c v c l i c a l L e t ­ t e r s of P o p e s L e o X I I I / ) P i u s X / ) a n d P i u s X T / ' P o p e L e o . (55) Praeclara G ratulationis Publicae. (56) Tametsi. (57) Miserentissimus Redemptor. (58) Mortalium Animos. T h e b e a u t i f u l Encyclical L e t t e r of Pope P i u s X I I , Mystici Corporis Ecclesiae, reached the p r e s e n t writer too l a t e to be u t i l i z e d in t h i s book. (59) Libertas. t&O) lmmortale Dei, < ) Sapientiae Christianae. < > T h i s L e t t e r stresses the folly of a t t e m p t i n g to establish upon e a r t h above t h e head of the C a t h o l i c Church, the reign oi justice, a n d of c h a r i t y by m e a n s of agents from everywhere, of all religions a n d of no r e l i g i o n , with o r w i t h o u t creed, p r o v i d e d they forget what d i v i d e s them, t h a t is, t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and philosophic convictions, and p r o v i d e d they place a t the common service what u n i t e s them, namely, a noble idealism, a n d m o r a l force d e r i v e d ' no m a t t e r whence.' (63) Ubi Arcano Dei. (64) Quas Primas. (65) Garitate Ghristi Compidsi. (66) Sapientiae Christianae. (67) jj i Arcano Dei and Quas Primas. f * Casti Connubii. (69) Arcanum Divinae Sapientiae. <70) Divini lllim Magistri. ( ) Serum No varum. On the Condition of the Working Classes, a n d Graves de Commwni, On Christian Democracy. (72) f{ Dalla Prima, On the Social Question : Singuhiri Qnadam, On Working men's Associations, Catholic and Mixed; 11 Per mo Proposito. On Christian Social Action. <73) Quadragesimo Anno, On the Reconstructionof Society.
58 59 (60 61 G2 , 6 3 ) 6 4 6 5 ( ( i G ) 67 6 8 6 9 7 0 7 1 7 2 7 3 1 61 62 i! t D 6 8 ?1 n

110

TIIIC M Y S T I C A L

BODY 01* C H R I S T

X I I F p o i n t e d o u t t h a t u s u r y h a d c o m e b a c k in a n o t h e r g u i s e a n d t h a t it w a s l e a d i n g t o t h e e n s l a v e m e n t of t h e m a n y b y t h e f e w . P o p e P i u s XI s h o w s t h a t t h e evil r e s u l t s of u s u r y a n d t h e c o n t r o l of w h a t is called c r e d i t h a v e g r o w n a p a c e s i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of ttemnt. XnrannnW) Not only individuals are n o w enslaved but S t a t e s t h e m s e l v e s a r c in t h e p o w e r of t h o s e w h o c o n t r o l f i n a n c e . In t h e s p h e r e of international relations, Pope Benedict X V s e n t a P e a c e N o t e t o t h e l e a d e r s of t h e b e l l i g e r e n t p e o p l e s e n g a g ­ ed in t h e W o r l d W a r , on A u g u s t 1st, 1917, o u t l i n i n g c o n c r e t e p r o ­ p o s a l s a s t h e b a s i s for a j u s t a n d d u r a b l e p e a c e . T h e P o p e ' s p l a n w a s r e j e c t e d a n d a n a t u r a l i s t i c L e a g u e of N a t i o n s w a s set u p f r o m w h i c h t h e Y i e a r of C h r i s t w a s r i g i d l y e x c l u d e d . In 1940, w h e n t h e w o r l d is a g a i n at w a r , it is p a t h e t i c t o r e a d t h e c o n t e m p t u o u s t e r m s in w h i c h t h e M a s o n i c P r e s i d e n t of t h e L n i t e d S t a t e s d i s ­ m i s s e d Pope Benedict's P e a c e P l a n . " T o deal w i t h such a p o w e r ( G e r m a n y I/' w r o t e P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n , " b y w a y of p e a c e , u p o n t h e p l a n p r o p o s e d b y His H o l i n e s s , w o u l d , a s far a s w e c a n s e e , i n v o l v e a r e c u p e r a t i o n of its s t r e n g t h a n d a r e n e w a l of its policy, a n d w o u l d m a k e it n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a p e r m a n e n t h o s t i l e c o m b i n a t i o n of the Nations against the G e r m a n people w h o are its instru­ ments, > T h e P e a c e of V e r s a i l l e s a n d t h e L e a g u e of N a t i o n s , inspired by pure N a t u r a l i s m , have certainly not a v e r t e d the w a r o n 'dceoum of w h i c h P o p e B e n e d i c t X V ' s p l a n w a s h a u g h t i l y c a s t aside. P o p e P i u s XI p o i n t e d o u t , in t h e K n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , 0?? the Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ, t h a t t h e o n e h o p e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e a n d c o n c o r d lies in t h e a c c e p t a n c e of t h e m o r a l a u t h o r i t y of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . " I t a l o n e , " he w r o t e , " i s a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p e a c e of C h r i s t , n o t o n l y at t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , b u t a l s o to c o n s o l i d a t e it for t h e f u t u r e , by a v e r t i n g t h o s e n e w d a n g e r s of w a r to which W e h a v e ^already r e f e r r e d . "
C 7 4 ) (7<i) , , ( 7 7

J?< rum Xovaruin. Qvadragesimo Anno a n d Cariiate Christi Compulsi. < > Cf. Socief-e dt.x Nations, Supcr-iutat Moron tii que, by Leon de P o n c i n s . He shows t h a t the destruction of the A u s t r i a n E m p i r e as well as the s e t t i n g u p of the L e a g u e of N a t i o n s was systematically p r e p a r e d •at a Masonic Congress held at P a r i s in J u n e , 1917. t77) Benedict A T , Pope of Peace, by Rev. H . E. G. Rope, M.A. On p a g e s 12(> a n d 1-27 of this work F a t h e r Rope alludes to the well-known efforts of the Czecks, M a s a r y k a n d Benes, to s e t the G r e a t W a r p r o ­ l o n g e d in 1 9 1 7 and the peace proposals of the E m p e r o r Charles of A u s t r i a rejected. Benes avowed t h a t he p r e f e r r e d the Anschluss w i t h G e r m a n y (o the p r e s e r v a t i o n of what r e m a i n e d of the K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t in the A u s t r i a n E m p i r e . H e has had the Anschluss since. I t is n o t q u i t e certain t h a t Masaryk was a Ma-son t h o u g h he always favoured N a t u r a l i s m , b u t the Masonic c h a r a c t e r of Benes seems c e r t a i n . Cf. A r t i c l e in R.T.S.S., Nov. 1, 1 9 3 7 . F o r the Proofs of the Masonic c h a r a c t e r of P r e s i d e n t Wilson, see the d o c u m e n t s quoted in Lps Pourquoi de la Gturre Mandiale, bv Mgr. IT. P e l a s s u s , vol. I I , p p . 391-393.
f

75j
7tl

t

P R O G R A M M E OP KINGS!Ill' OP

CHRIST

111

The Catholic Church, then, is always aiming at permeating social organization with the sense of the reality of the Superna­ tural Life and of the oneness of the Divine Plan for its mainten­ ance and diffusion. Through the Church, God wants to draw all men into union with Our Lord in the renewal of the expression of submission of Calvary in Holy Mass, and lie wants that wor­ ship animated with the highest possible degree of supernatural charity springing from Sanctifying Grace. Accordingly, He wants society to be organized under Christ the King so as to draw as many as possible into membership of Christ and to favour develop­ ment of the Life of Sanctifying Grace that comes from Him. Every member of Christ proclaims at Holy Mass that be intends to work for the acceptance of the programme of Christ the King in its integrity. Thus alone will the Rights of God, our Heavenly Father, be fully acknowledged and the development of human personality be adequately safeguarded. It would be a sign of hope for the future if we had come to the end of the period of exclusion of the Sovereign Pontiff from the counsels of nations. The end, however, has not \ e t been reached. At the First Hague Conference the Papacy was excluded from the deliberations. "Again at the second Hague Confeience in 1907, the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes precluded the Holy Sec from officially subscribing to the rules for mediation and arbitration. Article 94 of that Convention laid down that the conditions on which uninvited Powers might subsequently be invited to adhere to the Convention should be decided by further agreement ("Pobjef d'une entente nlterienre") among the contracting Powers. Such further agreement is still in the future."™ The Secret Treaty of London of April 26th, 1915, is one of the most shameful incidents of modern times. Under this secret treaty, Italy, which was at the time bitterly Judaeo-Masonic and antiCatholic, agreed to come in on the side of the Allies, on certain conditions. Clause 15 of the Treaty reads: "France, Great Britain and Russia undertake to support Italy, in so far as she does not permit the representatives of the Holy See to take diplomatic action with regard to the conclusion of the peace and the regulation of questions connected with the war." Clause 16 says: "The present Treaty is to be kept secret." The Treaty was signed in four copies by Sir Edward Grey (Eng­ land), Jules Cambon (France), Imperiali (Italy), and Beckendorff (Russia).

Beales.

(78) The

Cathoh'r

Church

and

International

Order,

b y A. C.

F.

112

THE MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

APPENDIX. POPK BENEDICT XV'S PEACE 1, 1917. PROPOSALS,

AUGUST ARBITRATION
7

AND DIMINUTION O F A R M A M E N T S .

F i r s t , the fundamental point should be t h a t the moral force of r i g h t s h o u l d r e p l a c e t h e m a t e r i a l f o r c e of a r m s ; h e n c e a j u s t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n all f o r t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s a n d r e c i p r o c a l d i m i n u ­ t i o n of a r m a m e n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e s a n d g u a r a n t e e s t o b e e s t a b ­ l i s h e d , t o t h e e x t e n t n e c e s s a r y a n d sufficient f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e of p u b l i c o r d e r in e a c h S t a t e ; t h e n , in t h e p l a c e of a r m i e s , t h e e s t a b ­ l i s h m e n t of a r b i t r a t i o n w i t h i t s e x a l t e d p a c i f y i n g f u n c t i o n , o n l i n e s to be concerted and w i t h sanctions to be settled a g a i n s t a n y S t a t e t h a t should refuse either to s u b m i t i n t e r n a t i o n a l questions t o a r b i t r a t i o n or to accept its a w a r d s . FREEDOM OF T H E SEAS. T h e s u p r e m a c y of r i g h t o n c e e s t a b l i s h e d l e t e v e r y o b s t a c l e b e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e c h a n n e l s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n p e o p l e s , b y e n s u r i n g , u n d e r r u l e s l i k e w i s e t o b e laid d o w n , t h e t r u e f r e e ­ d o m a n d c o m m o n e n j o y m e n t of t h e s e a s . T h i s w o u l d , o n t h e o n e h a n d , r e m o v e m a n i f o l d c a u s e s of conflict, a n d w o u l d o p e n , o n t h e o t h e r , f r e s h s o u r c e s of p r o s p e r i t y a n d p r o g r e s s t o all. CONDONATION O F DAMAGES AND COST OF W A R . A s t o t h e r e p a r a t i o n of d a m a g e a n d t o t h e c o s t s of w a r , W e see n o w a y to solve t h e q u e s t i o n save by l a y i n g d o w n , as a g e n e r a l principle, complete and reciprocal condonation, which would, m o r e ­ over, be justified by the i m m e n s e benefits t h a t w o u l d accrue from d i s a r m a m e n t ; all t h e m o r e , s i n c e t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n of s u c h c a r n a g e solely for e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s w o u l d be i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . If, in c e r t a i n cases, t h e r e exist, n e v e r t h e l e s s , special reasons, let t h e m be weighed-with justice and equity. EVACUATION O F OCCUPIED TERRITORIES.

B u t t h e s e pacific a g r e e m e n t s , w i t h t h e i m m e n s e a d v a n t a g e s t h e y e n t a i l , a r e i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e r e c i p r o c a l r e s t i t u t i o n of t e r r i t o r i e s n o w o c c u p i e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , o n t h e p a r t of G e r m a n y , t h e r e s h o u l d be t h e c o m p l e t e e v a c u a t i o n of B e l g i u m , w i t h a g u a r ­ a n t e e of h e r full p o l i t i c a l , m i l i t a r y , a n d e c o n o m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e to* w a r d s all P o w e r s w h a t s o e v e r ; l i k e w i s e t h e e v a c u a t i o n of F r e n c h t e r r i t o r y . C n t h e p a r t of t h e o t h e r b e l l i g e r e n t p a r t i e s , t h e r e s h o u l d b e a s i m i l a r r e s t i t u t i o n of t h e G e r m a n c o l o n i e s .

P R O G R A M M E O F K I N G S H I P OF C H R I S T

113

FAIR SETTLEMENT OF TERRITORIAL QUESTIONS.
A s r e g a r d s territorial q u e s t i o n s like t h o s e at i s s u e b e t w e e n I t a l y a n d A u s t r i a , a n d b e t w e e n G e r m a n y and F r a n c e , t h e r e is r e a s o n t o h o p e t h a t in c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the i m m e n s e a d v a n t a g e s of a l a s t i n g p e a c e w i t h d i s a r m a m e n t , the parties in conflict will e x a m i n e t h e m in a c o n c i l i a t o r y spirit, t a k i n g a c c o u n t , in t h e m e a s u r e o f w h a t is j u s t a n d p o s s i b l e , a s W e h a v e b e f o r e said, o f t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e s and, a s o c c a s i o n m a y offer, c o ­ o r d i n a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h e g e n e r a l w e a l of the g r e a t human society. T h e s a m e spirit of e q u i t y a n d j u s t i c e m u s t r e i g n in the s t u d y of the o t h e r territorial a n d political q u e s t i o n s , n o t a b l y t h o s e r e l a t ­ i n g t o A r m e n i a , the B a l k a n S t a t e s , and t o the t e r r i t o r i e s f o r m i n g part o f t h e a n c i e n t K i n g d o m of P o l a n d , t o w h i c h , i n particular, i t s n o b l e h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s a n d t h e sufferings e n d u r e d , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t w a r , o u g h t j u s t l y t o a s s u r e the s y m p a t h i e s o f nations. S u c h a r e t h e principal b a s e s u p o n w h i c h W e b e l i e v e t h e f u t u r e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of p e o p l e s s h o u l d b e founded. T h e y a r e s u c h a s t o r e n d e r i m p o s s i b l e a r e t u r n o f s i m i l a r conflicts, and t o prepare t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c q u e s t i o n , s o i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e future and the m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e of all t h e b e l l i g e r e n t S t a t e s .

C H A P T E R V.

THE HOLY SACRIFICE OF THE MASS AND THE KINGSHTP OF CHRIST IN ITS INTEGRITY.
T H E RELATION H E T W E E N T H E MASS AND T H E KINGSHTP O F CHRIST.

We have seen, then, that God's aim is lo come to dwell in human souls in the Trinity of His Persons, through membership of Our Lord's Mystical liody. ll is for that the world exists and it is to promote that indwelling that He wants to draw all into union with Our Lord in the fervent offering of the Holy Sacri­ fice of the Mass. In order to favour union with Christ as Priest in Holy Mass, God wants the world organized under Christ as King. We have seen, too, something of what the order of the world would be like if the Rights of God and of Christ the King were fully acknowledged. We shall now see that at Holy Mass all Christ's members express the determination to strive for the integral realization of the Rights of God and of Christ the King in the world. Thus, the more fully the Kingship of Christ is realized, the more abundantly the life of Christ the Priest will be diffused, and the more ardently union with Christ the Priest in Holy Mass is cultivated, the more eagerly will His members strive to have God's Rights acknowledged. On the other hand, the rejection of God's Rights and of the Kingship of Christ will lead to corruption and decay in society and, in proportion as minds lose their hold on the great truth of membership of Christ, t o the treatment of human beings not as persons but as mere individuals. By the character of Baptism, we are one with Our Lord in the unity of His Mystical P>ody, and the very character by which wc are incorporated into that sublime unity is a certain participa­ tion in His Priesthood. So when Our Lord renews the act of submission of Calvary on the Altar, lie renews it as He now is, that is, as Head of that Mystical Pody in which all the baptized are one with Him. On the Cross, Christ was alone. His mem­ bers were engrafted on Ilim only potentially. At the Altar, Pie is no longer alone: it is the "whole Christ/' to use St. Augus­ tine's phrase, that is, Christ and His members, who now offers sacrifice to the Plessed Trinity, the members being co-offerers with the Invisible Principal Offerer and His visible ministerial

MASS AND K I N G S H I P OF CHRIST

115

offerer, t h e priest. A n d w e can be co-offerers, b e c a u s e the char­ a c t e r of B a p t i s m is a p a r t i c i p a t i o n on o u r level in t h e P r i e s t ­ h o o d of O u r L o r d , e n a b l i n g u s t o l o o k u p o n C h r i s t ' s a c t of s u b ­ m i s s i o n o n t h e A l t a r a s o u r s a n d u n i t e o u r a c t of s u b m i s s i o n w i t h H i s . T h e s u p r e m e f u n c t i o n of C h r i s t a s P r i e s t is t h e H o l y Sacrifice of t h e M a s s , in w h i c h t h e w h o l e M y s t i c a l B o d y p r o ­ fesses i t s r e a d i n e s s t o s t a n d a s H e did for H i s i n t e g r a l p r o g r a m m e for o r d e r . F o r t h a t p r o g r a m m e H e w a s o b e d i e n t u n t o d e a t h on Calvary. All t h e b a p t i z e d a r e c a l l e d u p o n t o u n i t e a c t i v e l y in e x p r e s s i n g s u b m i s s i o n t o G o d t h e F a t h e r in Floly M a s s a n d in a n i m a t i n g t h a t s u b m i s s i o n w i t h all t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l l o v e of t h e i r hearts. N o w t h e will of t h e I a t h e r is a l w a y s t h e s a m e : " T h i s is M y b e l o v e d S o n ; h e a r y e H i m " ( S t . L u k e , I X , 3 5 ) . Every m e m b e r of C h r i s t b y h i s a s s i s t a n c e a t M a s s d e c l a r e s his r e a d i ­ n e s s t o s t a n d for t h e i n t e g r a l p r o g r a m m e of t h e R i g h t s of God, for w h i c h t h e H e a d of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y s u f f e r e d d e a t h .
( 1 ) r

C h r i s t ' s m e m b e r s a r e m e a n t to b e l o n g to H i m entirely. T h e y o u g h t to c o m e forth from M a s s d e t e r m i n e d to m a i n t a i n h a r m o n y b e t w e e n the submission to God the F a t h e r they have expressed i n t h e H o l y Sacrifice a n d t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l lives. T h e y s h o u l d be r e s o l v e d , u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p of C h r i s t t h e K i n g , t o p e r m e a t e t h e w h o l e s o c i a l life of t h e S t a t e a n d c o u n t r y , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o ­ m i c , w i t h t h e s p i r i t of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y , s o t h a t it m a y n o t o n l y n o t h a m p e r t h e i r e f f o r t s a n d t h e e f f o r t s of t h e i r f e l l o w - m e m b e r s to live t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s a s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t , b u t m a y f a v o u r them. All C a t h o l i c s a r e , b y t h e fact of t h e i r m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t , w h o l e - t i m e C h r i s t i a n s , a n d s h o u l d be i n t i m a t e l y c o n v i n c e d of t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y w i t h C h r i s t a n d w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w - m e m b e r s of H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y in t h e r e a l l y v i t a l s t r u g g l e t h a t is g o i n g on in t h e w o r l d . Their attitude, when leaving the Church after M a s s , is n o t i n t e n d e d to. be m e r e l y t h e negative o n e of n o t a l l o w ­ i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o be c a r r i e d in t h e d i r e c t i o n of N a t u r a l i s m b y t h e c u r r e n t of life a r o u n d t h e m , b u t t h e positive o n e of s t r i v i n g to o r g a n i z e t h e w h o l e f r a m e w o r k of s o c i e t y u n d e r C h r i s t the K i n g a n d of i m p r e g n a t i n g t h e S t a l e , f a m i l y - l i f e , e d u c a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i t h t h e g r e a t t r u t h of h u m a n s o l i d a r i t y _U) " T h e faithful [member of C h r i s t ] has a twofold d e s t i n y ; prim­ arily a n d p r i n c i p a l l y , he is d e s t i n e d to be a d m i t t e d to the Beatific Vision, a n d for thi> he is s t a m p e d with the seal of D i v i n e Grace . . . . secondly, he is destined to receive and to deliver to others whatever concerns the worship of God, a n d for this purpose he is stamped with the s a c r a m e n t a l character. Now the whole rite of the C h r i s t i a n religion is d e r i v e d from the Priesthood of Christ. Accordingly, i t is clear t h a t the s a c r a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r is in an especial way the c h a r a c t e r of Christ, to whose P r i e s t h o o d the faithful a r e conformed by the s a c r a m e n t a l char­ acters, which a r e n o t h i n g else t h a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s after a c e r t a i n fashion in the P r i e s t h o o d of C h r L t , d e r i - v d from Christ H i m s e l f " ( I l i a P., Q.63, a.3).

116

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST
(2

in Christ's Mystical Body. > Their co-operation with Our Lord is meant to enable Him, since He condescends to make use of them, to permeate all forms of human activity, social and in­ dividual, with the life of that supranational, supernatural organiz­ ation, the Catholic Church. True members of Christ will feel fully at ease in any State or Nation only when the great realities of the loss of our Supernatural Life by the Fall and of its restor­ ation by membership of the Mystical Body of Christ are acknow­ ledged in the social structure of that State or Nation. Every­ thing that savours of Naturalism or Anti-Supernaturalism will have for them an odour of decay and death. It is quite true that States or Nations do not go to heaven. Human beings go to heaven one by one, to live in the intimacy of the Blessed Trinity in the enjoyment of the Beatific Vision. But the individual member of society lives under the never-ceasing influence of his social surroundings. If Catholics content them­ selves with merely inculcating the individual practice of religion and do not seek to mould the world for Christ the King, then the social institutions, even of countries with a Catholic majority, will be moulded by the well-organized visible and invisible naturalistic and anti-supernatural forces, of whose activities many Catholics seem to be unaware. The average member of society will then fall a ready prey to Naturalism. He will grad­ ually cease to live as a member of Christ, though he may retain some Christian customs as remnants of a once Christian out­ look. Satan profits by the lack of watchfulness and energy on the part of Catholics in regard to social organization, and by the help of his visible subordinates, he injects the poison of Naturalism into the social organism. Thus it has oftentimes happened that revolutionaries, aiming at the violent installation of a naturalistic regime, have succeeded in overthrowing the rule of Christ the King in countries nominally Catholic, on account of the preliminary work of corruption and weakening, system­ atically carried out by the press, the cinema, the school and the stock-exchange. On the one hand, then, Catholics, faithful to what they profess at Mass, must ever strive to permeate the framework of society with the influence of the Supernatural Life. In this way the ordinary man will be helped to act always as a member of Christ and will not find himself, from the moment he leaves the <2) We have already seen the meaning of Naturalism in Chapter I. it was there defined as the attitude of mind which denies the reality of the Divine Life of Grace and of our Fall therefrom with our con­ sequent liability to revolt, against the order of the Divine Life, when it has been restored to us by our membership of Christ. This attitude of mind also maintains (hat all social life should be organized on the basis of the non-existence of any life higher than our natural life.

MASS AND KINGSHIP OF CHRIST

117

C h u r c h a f t e r M a s s , u r g e d b y a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l c u r r e n t s to revolt a g a i n s t h i s m o s t r e a l life. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , C a t h o l i c social in­ s t i t u t i o n s , g r e a t t h o u g h t h e i r i n f l u e n c e m a y b e , d o n o t suffice t o m a i n t a i n s o c i e t y fully C a t h o l i c . T h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e r e q u i s i t e is a f o r m a t i o n of t h e y o u t h of b o t h s e x e s t h o r o u g h l y p e n e t r a t e d w i t h t h e d o c t r i n e of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y a s a m i g h t y l i v i n g o r g a n i s m e v e r s e e k i n g to b r i n g t h e w o r l d i n t o union w i t h Christ and through Christ with the Blessed T r i n i t y . T h a t f o r m a t i o n a l o n e will e n s u r e w h a t w e h a v e c a l l e d " w h o l e - t i m e C a t h o l i c i s m " a n d will e n a b l e all t o d r a w f r o m t h e i r u n i o n w i t h O u r L o r d in M a s s a n d H o l y C o m m u n i o n t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l love required to diffuse t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y t h e s e n s e of s o l i d a r i t y in C h r i s t a n d of t h e i n d w e l l i n g of t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y in s o u l s , t h r o u g h i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o C h r i s t . O u r L o r d will p o u r H i s L i f e i n t o s o u l s in H o l y C o m ­ m u n i o n , in p r o p o r t i o n a s t h e y a r e t h u s o n e w i t h H i m in m i n d a n d w i l l , f o r p r o g r e s s in p e r s o n a l s a n c t i f i c a t i o n o r g r o w t h in h o l i n e s s is s i m p l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s p i r i t of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y . It w a s t h e s e n s e of t h e i r o n e n e s s w i t h t h e i r c o - o f f e r e r s a n d c o v i c t i m s w i t h C h r i s t in t h e M a s s t h a t s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e C a t h o l i c s of t h e e a r l y c e n t u r i e s for t h e l o n g s t r u g g l e for t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e R i g h t s of G o d a n d t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t in t h e i r i n t e g r i t y . I t w a s t h e a c c e p t a n c e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e b o d i e s of t h e b a p t i z e d a r e t h e m e m b e r s of C h r i s t t h a t b r o u g h t f o r t h t h o s e l o v e l y f l o w e r s of c h a s t i t y a m i d s t t h e t h o r n s of p a g a n i s m , i n t h e d e c a d e n t R o m a n E m p i r e . T h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e s a m e i n s p i r i n g t r u t h is n e e d e d in o r d e r t o w i t h s t a n d t h e s y s t e m a t i c p r o p a g a t i o n of selfish­ ness a n d i m p u r i t y to w h i c h y o u n g people a r e subjected n o w a d a y s , a n d t o b e g i n t h e c o u n t e r - a t t a c k . F o r t h e r e t u r n of s o c i a l j u s t i c e in t h e m o d e r n w o r l d , t h e s a m e g r e a t t r u t h m u s t b e u n c e a s i n g l y insisted upon. If w e define s o c i a l j u s t i c e in t h e m e m b e r s of a s o c i e t y a s t h e v i r t u e b y w h i c h t h e m e m b e r s of a s o c i e t y a r e e n ­ a b l e d t o d i r e c t all t h e i r a c t i o n s t o w a r d s t h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h e s o c i e t y , w e c a n h o p e f o r i t s t r i u m p h o v e r t h e cold, c a l c u l a t i n g N a t u r a l i s m of L i b e r a l i s t i c I n d i v i d u a l i s m a n d o v e r t h e h a r s h , b r u t a l
( 3 J

(3) C h r i s t ' s i n c o r p o r a t e d member m u s t c o n t i n u e to grow u p i n C h r i s t i n o r d e r t o become more a n d more conformable t o H i m . B u t the v i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h H i m includes far more t h a n this personal s i d e ; the life in C h r i s t also signifies a p a r t i c i p a t i o n in^ H i s apostolic work, in H i s mission. The object of the i n c o r p o r a t i o n is to u n i t e the members a s such w i t h H i m , e n a b l i n g them t o grow u p ' u n t o t h e m e a s u r e of the age of the fulness' of the H e a d : its f u r t h e r object being to help them to live for C h r i s t a n d to co-operate with H i m for the increase of the Mystical Christ. . . T h r o u g h the c h a r a c t e r of the sacraments, each member is d e s t i n e d a n d qualified to co-operate actively with the work of Christ. I n c o r p o r a t i o n , corresponding^ to the degree of sacra­ m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r , enables t h e member t o s h a r e i n the d i g n i t y of Christ, but i t also places him u n d e r the o b l i g a t i o n , as an i n s t r u m e n t of Christ, to labour for the other members a n d for the g r o w t h of the whole body " (Thp 3f retired Body of Christ, by D r . F . J u r g e n s m e i e r , pp. 225, 226).

11

118

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

Naturalism of Materialistic Collectivism, only when Christ's* members have again grown accustomed t o their solidarity i n Him. When once men realize that what is done for their fellow-men i s done for Christ and to Christ, they will readily see that social life must be s o organized that each member of Christ may have a just and fair opportunity of living in accordance with his sublime dig­ nity. It was the realization of the great truth of the slaves' membership of Christ that gradually brought about the abolition of slavery in the ancient world. "It was Christianity," wrote Pope Pius XI, " that first affirmed the real and universal brother­ hood of all men of whatever race and condition. This doctrine the Church proclaimed by a method, and with an amplitude and con­ viction, unknown to preceding centuries: and with it she power­ fully contributed to the abolition of slavery. Not bloody revolu­ tion, but the inner force of the Church's teaching made the proud Roman matron see in her slave a sister in Christ. It is Christian­ ity that adores the Son of God, made Man for the love of man, and become not only the ' S o n of a Carpenter' but Himself ' a carpenter II was Christianity that raised manual labour t o its true dignity."* ' The practical living of the same great truth of our membership of Christ will be required in order to avert the return of a worse form o f slavery in the modern world.
5

UNIFYING INFLUKNCK O F T H K MYSTICAL ISODY.

With the growth of fuller comprehension of the doctrine of the Mystical Body and the spread of a more intense desire to live life fully as members of Christ, we may hope to see many practical consequences in the international sphere as well as in the national life of peoples. Our Lord in the Blessed Eucharist, the Plead of the Mystical Body, whom all His members receive in separate hosts, is not many Chrisls but One, coming to give Himself to all. that all may be one in Ilim in mind and will. Pope Leo XIII emphasizes this truth at great length in the Encyclical Letter on the Most Holy Eucharist. " This then," he writes, "is what Christ intended when He instituted this venerable Sacrament, namely, by awakening charity towards God, to promote mutual charity among men. For the latter, as is plain, is by its very nature rooted in the former, and springs from it by a kind of spontaneous growth. Nor is it possible that there should be any lack of charity among men, o r rather it must need* be enkindled and flourish, if men would but ponder well the charity which Christ has shown in this sacrament Having before our eyes tru> noble example set us by Christ. Who bestows on us all that He has, assuredly we ought to love and help one another t o the ut<> Cf. St. Matthew, XTTT, 5 5 : S t . Mark. V I . 3. *
Encyclical Lc(l<»r, Dirt799 1{rjlemptnri&, O
tl

J

/

V

Cnmimnntw

MASS AND KINGSHIP OF CHRIST

119

most, being daily more strongly united by the strong bond of brotherhood. "Add to this that the external and visible elements of this Sacrament supply a singularly appropriate stimulus to union. On this topic St. Cyprian writes: 'In a word, the Lord's sacrifice symbolizes the oneness of heart, guaranteed by a persevering and inviolable charity, which should prevail among Christians. For when Our Lord calls His Body bread, a substance which is kneaded together out of many grains, He indicates that we His people, whom He sustains, are bound together in close union; and when He speaks of His Blood as wine, in which the juice pressed from many clusters of grapes is mingled in one liquid, He likewise indicates that we, His flock, are by the commingling of a multi­ tude of persons made o n e ' (Ep. 96 ad Magnum, n.S). In like manner the Angelic Doctor, adopting the sentiments of St. Augus­ tine {Tract XXVI, in Joann., nn. 13, 17), writes, 'Our Lord has bequeathed to us His Body and Blood under the form of sub­ stances in which a multitude of things have been reduced to unity, for one of them, namely bread, consisting as it does of many grains, is yet one, and the other, that is to say, wine, has iis unity of being from the united juice of many grapes; and therefore St. Augustine elsewhere says: ' O Sacrament of Mercy, O Sign of Unity, O Bond of Charity!' (Ilia P., Q.79, a.l). All of which is confirmed by the declaration of the Council of Trent that Christ left the Eucharist to His Church 'as a symbol of that unity and" charity whereby He would have all Christians mutually joined and united . . . . a symbol of that one body of which He is Himself the Head, and to which Pie would have us, as members, attached by the closest bonds of faith, hope, and charity' (Cone. Tricl, Sess. XIII, 1 De Eucharist, c. 2). The same idea had been expressed by St. Paul when he wrote: 'For we, being many, are one bread, one body, all we who partake of the one bread' (I Cor., X, 17)." As the unifying influence of Our Lord makes itself felt, we may expect that Catholics all over the world will come to realize that the unity of the Mystical Body is infinitely stronger than national unity, that, for example, the supernatural unity between French and German Catholics, resulting from the character of baptism, is on an infinitely higher level than the unity between Germans with German?, or French with French, on the merely natural na­ tional level. St. Paul stresses the paramount character of this solidarity, when he insists that natural distinctions disappear, as it were, in comparison with it: "Where there is neither Gentile nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian nor Scythian, bond nor free. But Christ is all, and in all " (Coloss., Ill, 11). The Apostle did not. of course, mean to convey that the distinctions
( 6 )

W

Encyclical Letter. Mirae Caritatis.

On the Most Holy

Eucharist.

120

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

or the duties resulting from them disappeared in fact, for he lays stress upon the reciprocal obligations of master and servant in the Epistle to Philemon, but he wanted to bring home to all that our oneness in Christ causes all the distinctions on a lower level to dwindle into insignificance. It is only want of familiarity with St. Paul's teaching on the Mystical Body that makes the text of Pope Pius XI, already quoted in Chapter I, about our brother­ hood in the Mystical Body being infinitely more sacred and more precious than the brotherhood of humanity and of fatherland, seem exaggerated to us. The deepening of the conviction of this supernatural solidarity will lead to a realization of the subordinate place of nationality as a force of inspiration, but, while stressing the infinite distance separating the natural from the supernatural, it will not deny it fitting recognition. It is important also to point out that the exaggerated place taken by nationality in men's lives to-day is in part due to the need for national reactions against the cor­ rupting and deforming influence of the naturalistic supranationalism of Jewry and Freemasonry which, since the French Revotion, has usurped the place of the supernatural, supranational in­ fluence of the Mystical Body. Love of country is a noble senti­ ment arid there is an ordered love of our native land as of our own race, and of their glory, which will be respectful of their due subordination to the Mystical Body of Christ. It is true that Satan has frequently tried to use Nationalism for his purposes, yet when Catholics quote from Papal Encyclicals about the evils of exaggerated Nationalism, they must not leave out of consider­ ation the complementary texts wherein the Popes insist on legiti­ mate love of country, and they must bear in mind the need for a reaction against the corruption and deformation resulting from Naturalism. The knowledge and love of our solidarity in Christ will combat effectively the terrible evils of the class-war, so sedulously cul­ tivated by naturalistic supranationalists, in view of the enslave­ ment of workingmen for their own ends. Pope Leo XIII stresses the fact that it was to promote charity and union among men that Our Lord instituted the Blessed Eucharist: "If any one," he writes, " will diligently examine into the causes of the evils of our day, he will find that they arise from this, that as charity towards God has grown cold, the mutual charity of men among themselves has likewise cooled. Men have forgotten that they are children of God and brethren in Jesus Christ: they care for nothing except their own individual interests: the interests and the rights of others they not only make light of, bfit often attack and invade. Hence frequent disturbances and strife between class and class: arrogance, oppression, fraud on the part of the more powerful: misery, envy, and turbulence among the poor. These

MASS AND KINGSHIP OF CHRIST

121

a r e e v i l s f o r w h i c h it is in v a i n t o s e e k a r e m e d y in l e g i s l a t i o n . . . . O u r chief c a r e . . . o u g h t t o be . . . t o s e c u r e t h e u n i o n of c l a s s e s in a m u t u a l i n t e r c h a n g e of d u t i f u l s e r v i c e s , a u n i o n w h i c h , h a v i n g i t s o r i g i n in G o d , shall i s s u e in d e e d s t h a t reflect t h e t r u e s p i r i t of J e s u s C h r i s t a n d a g e n u i n e c h a r i t y . T h i s c h a r i t y C h r i s t b r o u g h t i n t o t h e w o r l d , w i t h it H e w o u l d h a v e all h e a r t s o n fire. . . . A n d w h e r e a s it is r i g h t t o u p h o l d all t h e c l a i m s of j u s t i c e a s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y , n e v e r t h e l e s s i t is o n l y w i t h t h e efficacious a i d of c h a r i t y , w h i c h t e m p e r s j u s t i c e , t h a t t h e e q u a l i t y w h i c h S t . P a u l c o m m e n d e d (2 Cor., V I I I , 14), a n d w h i c h is s o s a l u t a r y f o r h u m a n s o c i e t y , c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d . T h i s t h e n is w h a t C h r i s t i n t e n d e d w h e n H e i n s t i t u ­ ted this v e n e r a b l e S a c r a m e n t , namely, by a w a k e n i n g charitv t o w a r d s God to p r o m o t e m u t u a l charity a m o n g m e n . " Catholics m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , on t h e one hand, g u a r d a g a i n s t any collaboration with naturalistic revolutionary movements promoted b y J e w r y a n d F r e e m a s o n r y , w h e t h e r n a t i o n a l l i k e M a z z i n i ' s Young Italy o r s u p r a n a t i o n a l l i k e S o c i a l i s m a n d C o m m u n i s m , a n d o n t h e o t h e r hand, t h e y m u s t be careful n o t to support disordered n a t u r ­ a l i s t i c n a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e e f f o r t s of J e w r y a n d F r e e ­ masonry. O u r L o r d J e s u s Christ has a positive supernatural pro­ g r a m m e t o w e r i n g far above the disorders, divisions and confusion to w h i c h N a t u r a l i s m inevitably gives rise. Catholics must en­ d e a v o u r t o g r a s p fully w h a t O u r L o r d is a i m i n g a t w h e n H e is s e e k i n g t o h a v e t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y a c c e p t e d in t h e life of t h e S t a t e , in t h e f a m i l y , in e d u c a t i o n , a n d in e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n . H e is s t r i v i n g f o r e v e r w i d e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in, a n d p r o f o u n d e r c o m p r e h e n s i o n of, t h e H o l y Sacrifice of t h e M a s s , in v i e w of d e e p e n i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l u n i o n w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y in s o u l s . T h e y will t h e n h a v e a k e e n e r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e u l t i m a t e a i m of r e v o l u t i o n a n d will b e q u i c k e r t o s e e t h e s i g n s t h a t h e r a l d its a p p r o a c h .
( 7 )

T H E U L T I M A T E AIM OF REVOLUTION. J u s t a s t h e m e m b e r s of t h e h u m a n b o d y a r e a l w a y s m e a n t t o f u n c t i o n in s u c h w i s e a s t o p r o m o t e t h e C o m m o n G o o d , w h i c h i t is t h e office of t h e h e a d t o d i s c e r n , s o C a t h o l i c s , a s m e m b e r s of t h e v a s t o r g a n i s m of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y , m u s t a l w a y s s t r i v e t o f u r ­ t h e r t h e p r o g r a m m e of C h r i s t t h e i r H e a d a n d i m p r e g n a t e s o c i e t y <> Encyclical L e t t e r , Mirae Caritatis, On the Most Holy 'Eucharist. St. T h o m a s p o i n t s o u t t h a t " The f r u i t of this s a c r a m e n t ' [ t h e Blessed K u c h a r i s t ] is the u n i t y of the Mystical Body ( I l i a P., Q.73, a.3, c). " By this S a c r a m e n t we enter i n t o communion with Christ, p a r t a k i n g of H i s Flesh a n d c o m i n g u n d e r the influence of H i s D i v i n i t y , a n d by I t we e n t e r i n t o c o m m u n i o n a n d u n i o n with one a n o t h e r / ' he a d d s in the following article.
M 7

122

THE MYSTICAL

BODY OF
S i

CHRIST

w i t h t h e s p i r i t of m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t . ' The Christian organiz­ a t i o n of s o c i e t y s u s t a i n s t h e o r d i n a r y m a n in t h e difficult t a s k of l i v i n g h i s d a i l y life in h a r m o n y w i t h t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a c t of s u b ­ mission to the Blessed T r i n i t y he m a k e s at M a s s . In fact, this o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y u n d e r C h r i s t is i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r t h e a v e r ­ a g e m a n , f i r s t l y , b e c a u s e of t h e t e n d e n c y of t h e n a t u r a l life of t h e f a l l e n c h i l d r e n of t h e first A d a m t o r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e i r S u p e r ­ n a t u r a l Life and imperil their true happiness, and, secondly, be­ c a u s e t h e r e a r c o r g a n i z e d n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r c e s in e x i s t e n c e r e a d y t o p a n d e r t o t h e s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s of h u m a n b e i n g s a n d t h u s s t r i v e t o hurl t h e m a g a i n s t Christ the K i n g a n d the S u p e r n a t u r a l Life. T h e C h r i s t i a n f r a m e w o r k of s o c i e t y is m e a n t to s e r v e a s a b u l w a r k against these organized naturalistic or anti-supernatural forces, t w o of w h i c h a r e v i s i b l e , w h i l e o n e is i n v i s i b l e . T h e i n v i s i b l e h o s t is t h a t of S a t a n a n d h i s f e l l o w - d e m o n s : t h e visible f o r c e s a r e t h o s e of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n a n d F r e e m a s o n r y . ' ^ T h e y a i m , first, a t d e s u p e r n a t u r a l i z i n g social life, p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c , s o t h a t , f r o m t h e m o m e n t h e l e a v e s C h u r c h a f t e r M a s s , t h e a v e r a g e h u m a n beingwill find h i m s e l f i m p e d e d in his e f f o r t s to live his life a s a m e m b e r of C h r i s t . W h e n t h a t p r o c e s s h a s g o n e on l u n g e n o u g h t o h a v e s t i r r e d u p t h e s e e d s of r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e in a l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h e social o r g a n i s m , t h e n t h e a t t a c k o n t h e M a s s itself is b e g u n . T h e r e v o l t of t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s m a s s u c h a g a i n s t t h e M a s s , t h e s u p r e m e l y a c c e p t a b l e a c t of w o r s h i p of t h e B l e s s e d
9

<8) I t is the S a c r a m e n t of Confirmation which fully equips the member of C h r i s t , i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Mini by B a p t i s m , for this work of m o u l d i n g society. T h i s S a c r a m e n t brings him t o the p e r f e c t age of s p i r i t u a l life by conferring an i n t e r i o r s t r e n g t h of soul, as St. T h o m a s p o i n t s o u t (111 a l \ , Q.72, -i.5, ('on)irtnatiu i at nuotldam apiritualt augment um promovens hominem- in spiritualem octatetn perfect-am When a m a n h a s a t t a i n e d to full d e v e l o p m e n t , he m u s t work n o t -for himself alone but for others a n d the whole Mystical Body. ("Homo autem cam ad p< rfectam aetatem pcrvenerit, incipit jam communicare (tctiones suas ad alios; antea, vero quasi singidariter sihi ipsi vivit " ( I l i a P . , Q.72, a.2). The forehead of the person being confirmed is m a r k e d with the sign of the Cross to signify his being e q u i p p e d to d o b a t t l e for the s u p e r n a t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of society, not only a g a i n s t invisible enemies, but a g a i n s t those who are visiblv banded together for its overthrow (Cf. I l i a P., Q.72, a.4. 5). < ) M o h a m m e d a n i s m is left o u t of account, because it is question in this work of the s t r u g g l e for a n d a g a i n s t the Divine P l a n within the c o u n t r i e s where the D i v i n e P l a n was accepted a n d which a r e still at least n o m i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n . M o h a m m e d a n i s m conquered c e r t a i n coun­ t r i e s t h a t were once C h r i s t i a n , b u t i t is an outside t h i n g , so f a r as E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a are concerned. Of. The Great Heresies, by H. Belloe, p p . 73-140. Of course.^ not every member of the two visible n a t u r a l i s t i c bodies, I lit* .Jewish Nation and Freemasonry, is full v aware of what he imp l i e i t l y s t a n d s for by the fact of his m y m h ^ s h i p of these .groups. These bodies are, as ^uch, n a t u r a l i s t i c or a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l . T h a t i> the point here stressed.
i l 9

MASS AND KTNGSHIP OF CHRIST

123

Trinity and, it possible, its complete elimination, is the ultimate aim of revolution. Revolutions against the Catholic Church and the Mass are not spontaneous uprisings of the people. They are movements skil­ fully prepared a long time in advance by the naturalistic forces above-mentioned and their subordinates. " Revolution is an art," writes Oldstock Ryder in The Great Conspiracy, " but the Revo­ lutionaries would have us believe that it is a natural cataclysm, as inevitable as a volcanic eruption—a spontaneous up-rush of popular revolt against insufferable wrongs. . . . The art of Revolution is that by which a small but well-organized minority compels an unwilling but unorganized majority to submit to the overthrow of the State and the dictatorship of a few professional agitators who grasp power in the name of the People. The method remains the same to-day as it was in 1789-1793, first, to create a Revolu­ tionary atmosphere by exploiting the existing grievances or hard­ ships of any part of the population. Secondly, where none exist, popular grievances must be created Thirdly, having thus prepared the stage, demonstrations must be organized which will give the movement an appearance of being a spontaneous uprising of the masses. Fourthly, trade and industry must be hampered and ultimately paralysed by strikes and revolutionary threats, creating widespread unemployment and discontent. . . . Lastly, forces of aliens, criminals and hooligans must be enlisted and armed to overpower the forces of the State and to terrorize the law-abiding majority into submission. And this tragic farce is to be enacted in the name of the whole people, and is applauded as a noble revolt against tyranny and injustice." The poor deluded actors on the stage of revolution are, perhaps in the majority of cases, unaware that they are the instruments of higher forces. The steps outlined in the quotation from Oldstock Ryder have now been expressed more succinctly, thanks to the development of the art of revolution in the hands of those who control Russia. The programme of Moscow was outlined very accurately in The Times of 3rd May, 1938, as follows: "Loudly as the Tkireelona Government may denounce the unprovoked aggression of General Franco's rebels, their mentors in Moscow have already claimed the instigation of the Civil War as a triumph of their own sub­ versive diplomacy. For this is one of the essential stages of the desired revolution which must, it is dogmatically asserted, follow the same course in every country. These steps to the compulsory millenium, are four in number: the first is the United Front; the second, strikes and disorders; the third, civil war: and the fourth, Soviet Government."* ' The first three of these stages corres­ pond to the steps outlined by Oldstock Ryder. The fourth is not
10

(10)

Jtrrtffttfifthttri/

S o c i a l i s m .

p. 58, by Arnold Lutm.

J24

T H E MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

a s t a g e in t h e a d v a n c e t o p o w e r . I t is in r e a l i t y t h e t a k i n g o v e r of p o w e r b y t h e R u l e r s of R u s s i a a f t e r t h e y h a v e s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e d t h e n a t i v e s in t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e s . Both Oldstock R y d e r ' s a n d M o s c o w ' s s t a t e m e n t s of t h e s t e p s r e q u i r e d for t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of r e v o l u t i o n d e a l w i t h t h e l a s t o r final s t a g e s of t h e advance to p o w e r by the hidden plotters and s c h e m e r s . P r e v i o u s l y , h o w e v e r , w h e r e v e r t h e p e o p l e of a c o u n t r y h a v e a c c e p t e d t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r , a l o n g p e r i o d of a g i t a t i o n is u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o d i m i n i s h t h e a t t a c h m e n t of t h e p e o p l e t h e r e t o . A s w e h a v e s e e n , t h e f r a m e w o r k of t h e D i v i n e P l a n c o m p r i s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : R e c o g n i t i o n of t h e t r u t h of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a s t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , N a t i o n a l L i f e r e s p e c t f u l of d u e s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y , C h r i s t i a n M a r r i a g e , C h r i s t i a n E d u c a t i o n , P r i v a t e O w n e r s h i p of P r o p e r t y w i t h G u i l d o r V o c a t i o n a l G r o u p O r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d finally, a n e x c h a n g e m e d i u m f u n c t i o n i n g f o r t h e C o m m o n G o o d a s a s t a b l e m e a s u r e of things saleable and, therefore, n o t abandoned to the manipulations of p r i v a t e s p e c u l a t o r s . T h e l o n g - d i s t a n c e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e v o l u ­ t i o n will c o n s i s t , t h e n , in l o o s e n i n g t h e h o l d of m i n d s u p o n t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s of o r d e r b y t h e i n c u l c a t i o n of N a t u r a l i s m , a n d in w e a k e n i n g wills. As Our L o r d always aims at h a r m o n i o u s func­ t i o n i n g of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a n d t h e n a t u r a l , s o S a t a n a i m s a t d i v i ­ sion a n d discord, w i t h a view to disorder and decay. All t h e m e a n s t h a t t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of m o n e y will p e r m i t will b e e m ­ p l o y e d in t h i s w o r k : c i n e m a , p r e s s , r a d i o , stock-exchange, s p e c u l a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n t f o r m s of a s s o c i a t i o n for a m u s e m e n t , a n d so on. I n t h e p r o c e s s of d i s r u p t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n will be p a i d t o t h e i n c u l c a t i o n a n d p r o p a g a t i o n of i m p u r i t y . St. J o h n C h r y s o s t o m p o i n t s o u t t h a t " it is i m p o s s i b l e f o r a n y o n e w h o l e a d s a n i m p u r e life n o t t o g r o w w e a k in t h e f a i t h . " St. T h o m a s A q u i n a s , i n h i s t u r n , i n s i s t s t h a t t h e h i g h e r f a c u l t i e s of m a n , n a m e l y , t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d t h e w i l l , a r e d i s t u r b e d m o s t of all b y s i n s of i m ­ p u r i t y . I n i t s effect on t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h i s v i c e is p r o d u c t i v e of b l i n d n e s s a s w e l l a s of p r e c i p i t a t i o n , w a n t of r e f l e c t i o n a n d i n c o n ­ s t a n c y . O n t h e will it p r o d u c e s : o n t h e o n e b a n d , l o v e of self a n d h a t r e d of G o d , W h o is l o o k e d u p o n a s s t a n d i n g in t h e w a y of p l e a s u r e s ; o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , l o v e of t h e t h i n g s of t h i s life along with carelessness and recklessness about eternal happi­ ness." * T h e d e m o n s k n o w b o w difficult it is for h u m a n b e i n g s to e x t r i ­ c a t e t h e m s e l v e s from t h e m e s h e s of t h i s v i c e , s o w e c a n well u n d e r s t a n d w h y , in view of t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of a r e v o l u t i o n , e v e r y m e a n s will b e e m p l o y e d to p r o p a g a t e s i n s of t h e llesh, s u c h a s
( l u 2 ( 1 ; i l

(ID St. J o h n Chrysostom, Serni. I, De Verbis Apost. (12) H a I l a e , Q. 153, a.5, c. Th, TTae, Q.73. a.5, ad 2.

MASS AND KINGSHIP OF CHRIST

125

the cinema, the press in both pictures and advertisements, the new forms of dress and recreation for youth, and so on. The instructions of the Italian Masonic Alta Vendita, taken from the documents captured in 1846, are well known: " Let us spread vice broadcast among the multitude. Let them breathe it through their five senses, let them drink it in and become saturated with it. . *. . Make men's hearts corrupt and vicious and you will have no more Catholics. Draw away priests from their work, from the altar and from the practice of virtue. Strive skilfully to fdl their minds and occupy their time with other matters. . . . Large-scale corruption is our aim, the corruption of the people through the clergy and of the clergy by us, a corruption such that it will en­ able us to lay the Church in the tomb. Recently one of our friends, laughing at our projects, said to us: 'To overcome the Catholic Church, you must begin by suppressing the female sex.' There is a certain sense in which the words arc true; but since we cannot suppress woman, let us corrupt her along with the Church. . . . The best poniard with which to wound the Church mortally is corruption."* * When human beings have been brutal­ ized by impurity, they will allow themselves to be enslaved with­ out making any attempt to react. The resistance to the propa­ gation of Aveakness and selfishness through impurity must be firmly grounded upon the doctrine of our membership of, and solidarity in Christ. TCvery sin is a betrayal of the cause of the Mystical P>ody.
14 t

THK SOLIDARITY OF THK MYSTICAL BODY AND THE DUTY OF CATHOLICS.

It is pathetic to see Catholics accepting the purposely mis­ leading statements in the newspapers about the cause of the fer­ ocious attacks on the Mass and on priests and nuns, during revo­ lutionary outbreaks in different countries. These attacks are ascribed to the peculiarly excitable character of the inhabitants of these countries, stirred up by the sight of the wealth of the Church and the Religious Orders, and by the fact that the priests and nuns were " reactionary" and opposed to " progress." The same stories are repeated about country after country, and it is curious to see Catholics in neighbouring countries swallowing them, without reflecting that the same things will be said about themselves, when the turn comes for the attack on the Super­ natural Life of their country. Surely it is time for Catholics to grasp the fact that there are organized anti-supernatural forces, visible and invisible, and to gird their loins for the struggle be­ fore their Good Friday dawns. A greater sense of the suprana(H) Cretineau-Joly, USglise II, pp. 128-129.
Romaine en- face de la Revolution,

vob

126

THK MYSTICAL BODY OK CHRIST

tional solidarity of the Mystical Body of Christ should be incul­ cated in the teaching of history. Again, when the Hierarchy of a country make a pronounce­ ment concerning the attack on the Supernatural Life of that coun­ try, it is sad to see Catholics in other countries upholding their own views of the interests of Our Lord in that country, in oppo­ sition to the representatives of Christ the King. A flagrant inst­ ance in recent history was in regard to the Collective Letter of the Spanish Hierarchy of July 1, 1937. The writings of certain non-Spanish Catholics, on that occasion, furnished a clear proof of the great need for a fuller realization of the meaning of the Kingship of Christ and of the solidarity of Christ's members. The case is even worse when the Holy Father makes a solemn pro­ nouncement about a persecution being waged on Our Divine Lord in a particular country, or countries. It is particularly painful to hear such statements being denied or questioned by Catholics, because it shows that the concept of the Mystical Body is even more obscured in their minds. Let us take for example the words of Pope Pius XI to the College of Cardinals on Christmas Eve, 1937: " W e must call things by their right names. In Germany there is in fact a religious persecution. For long they tried to make us believe that there was no persecution. We know, how­ ever, that there is a persecution, nay more, that there has rarely been a persecution so serious, so painful and so disastrous in its widespread effects. This is a persecution in which neither the exercise of force, nor the pressure of threats, nor the subterfuges of cunning and artifice, have been spared.'* How can Catholics continue to assert that the Church is not persecuted in Germany?
CATHOLIC SOLIDARITY IS WEAKENED BY AND NATURALISM. INDIVIDUALISM

The individualism of the so-called Reformation has propagated the idea that we come into relation with Our Lord as isolated units. The so-called Reformation, however, did not attempt to set up a supranational organization in the place of the Catholic Church. It simply resulted in the separation of different sections, calling themselves National Churches, from the One True Church of Christ. The setting-up of a supranational organization was reserved for the French Revolution of 1789. Modern History, since thai Masonic Revolution, is, to a large extent, an account of the diffusion of the principles of 1789 throughout Europe and America. The spread of these principles has resulted in the dom­ ination of the naturalistic supranationalism of Freemasonry, be­ hind which has been gradually emerging the still more strongly organized naturalistic supranationalism of the Jewish Nation. " Russia" or " Moscow" is merely a prolongation of the prin-

MASS AND KINGSHIP OF CHRIST
051

127

ciples of 1789 and a materialistic adaptation of them to action, on the part of these naturalistic organizations. Catholics must endeavour to permeate national reactions with the spirit of the Mystical Body of Christ. We come into contact with Our Lord J e s u s Christ, not as isolated individuals, hut as forming one living organism with Him, and wc arc meant to work in harmonious union for God's Rights, according to His programme, always bearing in mind that it is only through the Supernatural Life coming from Christ that national as well as individual selfishness can be effectively combated. There should be perfect union amongst Catholics with regard to the general principles and universal conclusions of Christ's programme. "The defence of Catholicism, indeed," writes Pope Leo XIII, " neces­ sarily demands that in the profession of doctrines taught by the Church all shall be of one mind and all steadfast in believing; and care must be taken never to connive, in any way, at false opinions, never to withstand them less strenuously than truth allows. . . . Let this b e understood by all that the integrity of the Catholic faith cannot be reconciled with opinions verging on Naturalism or Rationalism, the essence of which is utterly to devitalize Christianity, and to instal in society the supremacy of man to the exclusion of God. Further, it is unlawful to follow one line of conduct in private and another in public, respecting privately the authority of the Church, but publicly rejecting it. ... In these our days it is well to revive the examples of our
forefathers. First and foremost it is the duty of all Catholics worthy of the name and desirous of being known as most loving children of the Church . . . to endeavour to bring back all civil society to the pattern and form of Christianity which We have described."
nQi

Catholics may differ about the best manner of applying these principles and embodying the conclusions in social organization,
but these differences must not cause them to forget that they must approach the discussion of all these questions as mem­ bers of one Body with a vast programme accepted by all.

" It is scarcely possible," writes Pope Leo XIII in the same Encyclical, * to lay down any fixed method by which these ptvr*
U6) In The liultrs of liussia (Third Edition, p. 55), i t is pointed out t h a t the form and method followed by national reactions against Judaeo-Masonry show traces in some cases of the process of deforma­ tion to which the^ nations have been subjected. Germany's reaction under the leadership of Prussia, as we shall see later in Chapter XVI, is permeated with the spirit of the 16th century revolt against the unity of the Mystical Body of Christ, and with the pantheism of Fichte and Hegel. These are facts of history of which Catholics should be fully aware. UG) Encyclical Letter. Immortade Dei, On the Christian Constitution

of

States.

128

THE MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

poses a r e to be attained, b e c a u s e the m e a n s a d o p t e d m u s t suit places and times widely differing from one another. Neverthe­ l e s s , a b o v e all t h i n g s , u n i t y of a i m m u s t be p r e s e r v e d , a n d s i m i l a r ­ i t y m u s t be s o u g h t a f t e r in all p l a n s of a c t i o n . B o t h t h e s e o b j e c t s w i l l b e c a r r i e d i n t o effect w i t h o u t fail if all will f o l l o w t h e g u i d ­ a n c e of t h e A p o s t o l i c S e e a s t h e i r r u l e of life a n d o b e y t h e b i s h o p s w h o m t h e H o l y G h o s t h a s p l a c e d t o r u l e t h e C h u r c h of G o d . " I t is q u i t e t r u e t h a t " in m e r e m a t t e r s of o p i n i o n i t is p e r m i s s ­ i b l e t o d i s c u s s t h i n g s w i t h m o d e r a t i o n , w i t h a d e s i r e of s e a r c h i n g into the truth, without unjust suspicion or a n g r y recriminations . . . ( a n d ) in m a t t e r s m e r e l y p o l i t i c a l , a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e b e s t f o r m of g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h i s o r t h a t s y s t e m of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n is l a w f u l . " ' * But all Catholics must take account of the organized naturalistic opposition to the programme of Christ the King for which they stand and make sure that their divisions over secondary points will not lead to any of them be­ ing pulled into the anti-supernatural camp and used as pawns in the struggle against Christ the King and the Supernatural Life of the country as a whole. A l a s ! w h a t h a p p e n s o n l y t o o o f t e n is t h a t differences which a r e m e r e l y political cause t h e m to lose s i g h t of t h e m a i n s t r u g g l e . I g n o r a n c e of m e m b e r s h i p of t h e s u p e r ­ n a t u r a l o r g a n i s m of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y a n d i t s m i s s i o n a l l o w s m e r e l y p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s t o b e c o m e of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e . W h e n t h e i n t e r e s t s of O u r L o r d a r c t h r e a t e n e d b y t h e o r g a n i z e d a n t i s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s , all d i v i s i o n s s h o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y c e a s e . P o p e L e o X I I I i n s i s t s u p o n t h i s c l o s i n g u p of t h e C a t h o l i c r a n k s i n t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , On the Chief Duties of Christians as Citizens. " T h e r e is n o d o u b t , " h e w r i t e s , " b u t t h a t in t h e s p h e r e of p o l i t i c s a m p l e m a t t e r m a y e x i s t f o r l e g i t i m a t e differ­ e n c e s of o p i n i o n , a n d t h a t , t h e s i n g l e r e s e r v e b e i n g m a d e of t h e r i g h t s of j u s t i c e a n d t r u t h , all m a y s t r i v e t o b r i n g i n t o a c t u a l life t h e i d e a s b e l i e v e d l i k e l y t o be m o r e c o n d u c i v e t h a n o t h e r s t o t h e g e n e r a l welfare. . . . Religion should, on the c o n t r a r y , be ac­ c o u n t e d b y e v e r y o n e a s h o l y a n d i n v i o l a t e ; n a y in t h e v e r y p u b l i c o r d e r of S t a t e s . . . it is a l w a y s u r g e n t , a n d i n d e e d t h e m a i n preoccupation, to take t h o u g h t h o w best to consult the interests of C a t h o l i c i s m . W h e n e v e r t h e s e a p p e a r b y r e a s o n of t h e e f f o r t s of a d v e r s a r i e s t o b e i n d a n g e r , all d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n a m o n g Catholics should forthwith cease, so that, like t h o u g h t s and coun­ s e l s p r e v a i l i n g , t h e y m a y h a s t e n t o t h e a i d of r e l i g i o n , t h e g e n ­ e r a l a n d s u p r e m e g o o d t o w h i c h all else s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d
( i 7 ) 18

(17) Encyclical Letter, Immortale Dei. " This -likewise m u s t be reck­ oned a m o n g s t the duties of C h r i s t i a n s t h a t they allow themselves to be r u l e d a n d d i r e c t e d by the a u t h o r i t y a n d leadership of bishops, a n d above all of tho Apostolic See " ( E n c y c l i c a l Letter, Sapientiae Christianae, On the Chief Duties of Christians as Citizens)* '13) Encyclical Letter, fvvmortale Dei.

MASS AND KINGSHIP OF CHRIST

129

This is not now the time and place to inquire whether and how far the inertness and internal dissensions of Catholics have con­ tributed to the present condition of things; but it is certain at least that the perverse-minded would exhibit less boldness, and would not have brought about such an accumulation of ills, if the ' faith that worketh by charity' (Ep. ad Gal., V, 6), had been gen­ erally more energetic and lively in the souls of m e n . It is pathetic now to read the Letter addressed to the Bishop of Madrid by Pope Pius X, in 1906, on the necessity of united action by Catholics, when those whose object was the destruction of religion and society were seeking political power. Amongst other things, the saintly Pontiff said: "All must remember that nobody has the right to remain indifferent, when religion or the public welfare is in danger. Those whose object is the destruc­ tion of religion and civil society aim above all at getting control, as far as possible, of the direction of public affairs and at having themselves chosen as legislators. It is therefore necessary that Catholics should strive with all their might to avert that danger." It was only when Spain was on the brink of destruction that Catholics came together to save their country. And even then, how many were beguiled into the camp of Satan! Pope Pius XI in his turn inculcates the necessity for union in regard to guiding principles; "Thus even in the sphere of social economics, although the Church has never proposed a definite technical system, since this is not her field, she has nevertheless
,,(19)

clearly

outlined

the guiding progress

principles

which,

while susceptible Then, in another

of varied concrete applications according to the diversified condi­ tions of times and places and peoples, indicate the safe way of
-procuring the happy of society."^

passage of the same letter he points out the woeful consequences of disunion: " T o all our children, finally, of every social rauk and every nation, to every religious and lay congregation in the Church, We make another and more urgent appeal for union. Many times Our paternal heart h a s b e e n saddened by the diver­ gencies—often idle in their causes, always tragic in their conse­ quences—which a r r a y in opposing camps the sons of the same Mother Church. Thus it is that t h e revolutionaries, who are n o t so very numerous, profiting by this discord are able to make it more acute, a n d e n d b y pitting Catholics o n e against the other. In v i e w of t h e events of t h e past f e w months, Our warning must seem superfluous. We repeat it nevertheless once m o r e , for those w h o have n o t understood, or perhaps d o not desire l o understand. Those w h o make a practice of spreading dissension among Catho­ lics assume a terrible responsibility before God and t h e Church." U9> Encyclical Letter, Sapientiae Christianae. (20) Encyclical Letter. Divitii Itedewptoris, On Atheistic Communism, 19th March, 1937.
Ii

130

TIIK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

PRIESTS AND CATHOLIC SOLIDARITY.

It is in order to facilitate such unity of action amongst Catho­ lics and lo emphasize before the world the infinite dignity of the Supernatural Life and the paramount claims of the Head of the Mystical Bod}'- that Bishops and Priests are recommended to keep themselves above parly-politics. "Certainly nobody/' wrote Car­ dinal Gasparri, Secretary of State of Pope Pius XI, "would deny the right of Bishops and Parish Priests to have, as private citi­ zens, their personal opinions and political preferences, so long as these are in harmony with the dictates of an upright conscience and with the interests of religion. It is no less evident that, as Bishops and Parish Priests, they must remain aloof from partystruggles, keeping themselves on a plane superior to every purely political contention. . . . In doubtful cases, as well as in all those where the action of the Bishop or the Parish Priest might compromise the religious interests committed to their care, the enlightened zeal of faithful pastors of souls will not hesitate to stand aside."* " Undue emphasis upon particular controverted questions dur­ ing their theological course and too little attention to the central unifying doctrines of the Mystical Body of Christ and of the lifeblood of that Body, namely, Sanctifying Grace, may have the effect of hampering some priests in keeping things in their proper perspective. The really important thing is to grasp the relation of the controverted points to the central unifying doctrines just mentioned and, at the end of one's course, to have a synthetic view of the Divine Plan for order in the world through member­ ship of Christ's Mystical Body, and to have accustomed oneself to weighing everything, including the controversies, from "the point of view of God's Rights and of the interests of Our Head. St. Thomas, the official theologian of the'Catholic Church, al­ ways looked at things from the side of God and of His Rights. When a priest's mind is trained in this fashion, he will so form young Catholics that they will be accustomed to think of them­ selves as they really are, that is, as members of one Body en­ gaged in a struggle for the organization of the world under Christ, their Head. ITcwill be "all things to all m c n / ' ^ l that is, he will be sympathetic to the right elements in the aspirations of all men, in order to aid them to bring these aspirations iiito harmoni­ ous subjection to the interests of the Mystical Body of Christ.
2

(2U Letter of October 2. 1922, to the Italian Hierarchy. The same recommendation to keen themselves " aloof from contentious political •disputes and from divisions in local administrative bodies," is made to " the Irish clergy, especially to Parish Priests and those having the care of souls, without prejudice to the right they enjoy as private citizens . . . (Maynooth Statutes, No. 32, 1927). (22) I Cor., IX, 22:

MASS AND KINGSHIP OF CHRIST

131

He will train them to keep in proper perspective the different factors that may tend to divide them from their fellow-Catholics, such as, membership of a political party or of a certain school or college union. These things are all very secondary and must not be allowed to obscure the view of the great primary truth of our membership of Christ, in whom we arc all one, and the duty incumbent upon all Catholics not to allow members of organized anti-supernatural forces to get political or economic control over Christ's members. Familiarity with the doctrine of membership of Christ during his years of formation will powerfully stimulate the future priest to cultivate detachment from earthly goods and show himself always and everywhere interested in everything from the point of view of the real life of Christ's members. Such detachment and such unselfishness are especially necessary in our day in order to win back the toiling masses for Christ. "The greatest scandal of the nineteenth century," said Pope Pius XI to Canon Cardijn, "is that the Church has lost the working-class/ The spectacle of a life lived unselfishly for Christ's members will prove an irre­ sistible argument for the truth of the doctrine of our oneness in Christ and will promote union and solidarity for the Kingship of Christ in spite of differences on secondary matters. The need for this supernatural unselfishness is insisted upon by Pope Pius XI in his Encyclical Letter, On the Catholic Priesthood: "Surrounded by the corruptions of a world" he writes, "in which everything can be bought and sold, the Catholic priest must pass through them utterly free from selfishness. He must holily spurn all vile greed of earthly gains, since he is in search of souls, not of money, of the glory of God, not his own He is not indeed forbidden to receive Fitting sustenance. , . . The Lord ordained that they who preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel' (I. Cor., IX', 14). But . . . . a priest must expect no other recompense than that promised by Christ to His Apost­ les Woe to the priest who, forgetful of these divine promises, should become 'greedy of filthy lucre' (Tit., 1, 7) . . . Judas, an Apostle of Christ . . . . was led down t o the abyss of iniquity precisely through the spirit of greed for earthly things. Remembering him, it is easy t o grasp how this same spirit could have brought such harm upon the Church throughout the cen­ turies \ priest who is poisoned by this vice (of greed) . . . . will, consciously or unconsciously, make common cause with the enemies of God and of the Church, and co-operate in their evil designs. " On the other hand, by sincere disinterestedness the priest can hope to win the hearts of all. For detachment from earthly goods,
,(23)

(23) Quoted in Jesns-Ouvrier^

Doctrine

et Culte, par l'abbl J. B. Bord.

132

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

if i n s p i r e d b y lively f a i t h , is a l w a y s a c c o m p a n i e d b y t e n d e r c o m ­ p a s s i o n t o w a r d s t h e u n f o r t u n a t e of e v e r y k i n d . T h u s t h e p r i e s t b e c o m e s a v e r i t a b l e f a t h e r of t h e p o o r . M i n d f u l of t h e t o u c h i n g w o r d s of H i s S a v i o u r : " A s l o n g a s y o u d i d it t o o n e of t h e s e m y l e a s t b r e t h r e n , y o u did it t o m e , ' h e s e e s in t h e m , a n d , w i t h p a r ­ t i c u l a r a f f e c t i o n , v e n e r a t e s a n d l o v e s J e s u s C h r i s t Himself."* *
< 2 4 ) 25

124) St. M a t t . , XXV, 40. ( ) Encyclical L e t t e r . Ad (Jatholici
25

SacerdotiL

PART

II.

T H E ORGANIZED O P P O S I T I O N TO T H E BODY OF and TO T H E DIVINE P L A N FOR CHRIST,

MYSTICAL

ORDER.

CHAPTERS

VI—X.

CHAPTER VI.

THE ORGANIZED OPPOSITION TO THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST.
T h e r e is unorganized o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e in e a c h o n e of u s , o w i n g t o t h e F a l l . T h i s u n o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of l i t t l e a n t i - s u p e r ­ natural groups here and there, even without the concerted action of v a s t o r g a n i z e d f o r c e s . B u t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s c o n c e r t e d a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l a c t i o n o n t h e p a r t of organized b o d i e s is s o f a r r e m o v e d f r o m t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n of t h e a v e r a g e C a t h o l i c t h a t it n e e d s t o b e s p e c i a l l y s t r e s s e d a n d its aim m a d e c l e a r . T h a t is the r e a s o n for these c h a p t e r s . W e h a v e s e e n a l r e a d y t h a t s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n is m e a n t t o b e p e r ­ m e a t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , in v i e w of a i d i n g u s t o b r i n g o u r d a i l y life i n t o h a r m o n y w i t h o u r p r o t e s t a t i o n of l o y a l t y t o t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y , in u n i o n w i t h C h r i s t a s P r i e s t , in H o l y M a s s . B y t h i s p e r m e a t i o n of s o c i e t y w i t h t h e r e a l i t y of m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t , t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t i n i t s i n t e g r i t y is a c k n o w l e d g e d . W e have also seen t h a t , c o n v e r s e l y , a s s i s t a n c e a t M a s s in u n i o n w i t h C h r i s t a s P r i e s t u r g e s us t o s t r i v e t o r e a l i z e t h e K i n g s h i p of O u r L o r d in i t s i n ­ t e g r i t y , in a C h r i s t i a n f r a m e w o r k of s o c i e t y . The Christian f r a m e w o r k of s o c i e t y is d e s t i n e d n o t o n l y t o a i d u s i n a t t a i n i n g union w i t h Christ but to serve as a b u l w a r k against the assaults of t h e f o r c e s o r g a n i z e d a g a i n s t o u r S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e . These f o r c e s a r e t h r e e i n n u m b e r , o n e b e i n g invisible, t h e o t h e r t w o v i s ­ ible. T h e i n v i s i b l e h o s t is t h a t of S a t a n a n d t h e o t h e r f a l l e n a n g e l s , w h i l e t h e v i s i b l e f o r c e s a r e t h o s e of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n a n d F r e e ­ m a s o n r y . T h e J e w i s h N a t i o n is n o t o n l y a visible o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c o r a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r is o p e n l y p r o ­ claimed, by its refusal to accept t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l M e s s i a s a n d b y its l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o a n a t u r a l i s t i c m e s s i a n i c e r a . T h e M a s o n i c S o c i e t y o r g r o u p of S o c i e t i e s is a visible o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c o r a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r is s e c r e t o r c a m o u ­ flaged. T h e N a t u r a l i s m o r A n t i - S u p e r n a t u r a l i s m of i t s e n d , a s well a s of i t s r i t u a l a n d s y m b o l i s m , is c l e a r l y g r a s p e d b y o n l y r e l a t i v e l y f e w of t h e i n i t i a t e d . T h e p a n t h e i s t i c d e i f i c a t i o n of m a n , w h i c h is t h e c o n s e q u e n c e of t h i s N a t u r a l i s m , is t h e s u p r e m e s e c r e t of F r e e m a s o n r y . B o t h of t h e s e visible s o c i e t i e s , h o w e v e r ,

136

THE MYSTICAL

BODY O F

CHRIST

m a k e u s e of s u b t e r f u g e a n d s e c r e c y i n t h e i r modes of a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of t h e n a t i o n s of t h e w o r l d . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e m o s t v i t a l l y r e a l s t r u g g l e in t h e w o r l d is t h a t w a g e d by those naturalistic or anti-supernatural armies, under t h e l e a d e r s h i p of S a t a n , a g a i n s t t h o s e w h o a c c e p t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e L i f e of t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y , u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p of O u r L o r d J e s t i s C h r i s t . T h i s v i t a l s t r u g g l e is d e p i c t e d in s t r i k i n g t e r m s b y P o p e L e o X I I I in t h e o p e n i n g s e n t e n c e s of t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , On Freemasonry. "After the h u m a n r a c e , t h r o u g h t h e e n v i o u s e f f o r t s of S a t a n , h a d b e e n g u i l t y o f t h e u n s p e a k a b l e c r i m e of t u r n i n g a w a y f r o m G o d , t h e C r e a t o r a n d G i v e r of h e a v e n l y b l e s s i n g s , it b e c a m e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o d i s ­ t i n c t a n d m u t u a l l y h o s t i l e c a m p s . O n e of t h e s e s t e a d i l y c o m b a t s f o r t r u t h a n d v i r t u e , t h e o t h e r for all t h a t is o p p o s e d t o v i r t u e a n d t r u t h . T h e f o r m e r is t h e K i n g d o m of G o d o n e a r t h , n a m e l y , t h e T r u e C h u r c h of J e s u s C h r i s t , a n d all w h o w i s h t o b e l o n g t o i t s i n c e r e l y a n d in a m a n n e r w o r t h y of s a l v a t i o n m u s t s e r v e G o d a n d H i s O n l y - B e g o t t e n S o n w i t h all t h e v i g o u r of t h e i r m i n d s a n d all t h e s t r e n g t h of t h e i r w i l l s . T h e l a t t e r is t h e k i n g d o m of S a t a n , u n d e r w h o s e s w a y a n d in w h o s e p o w e r a r e all t h o s e w h o , f o l l o w ­ i n g t h e b a n e f u l e x a m p l e of t h e i r l e a d e r a n d of o u r first p a r e n t s , r e f u s e t o o b e y t h e d i v i n e a n d e t e r n a l l a w , a n d in a m u l t i t u d e of w a y s either s h o w c o n t e m p t for God or r e v o l t a g a i n s t H i m . " S t . A u g u s t i n e h a d a c l e a r v i s i o n of t h e s e t w o k i n g d o m s , a n d h e a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d t h e m u n d e r t h e i m a g e of t w o S t a t e s w i t h l a w s d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d , b e c a u s e of t h e c o m p l e t e l y d i v e r ­ g e n t ends to which the respective States tended. In a few concise, w e l l - c h o s e n p h r a s e s h e i n d i c a t e d t h e efficient c a u s e of e a c h a s f o l l o w s : ' T w o l o v e s h a v e f o r m e d t w o c i t i e s ; t h e l o v e of self r e a c h i n g t o c o n t e m p t of G o d , a n e a r t h l y c i t y ; t h e l o v e of G o d r e a c h i n g t o c o n t e m p t of self, a h e a v e n l y o n e . While the two a r m i e s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n e n g a g e d in c o n f l i c t d o w n t h e a g e s , t h e e q u i p m e n t of t h e c o m b a t a n t s a n d t h e m o d e of w a r f a r e h a v e v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , a s w e l l a s t h e f o r c e a n d t h e v i g o u r of t h e a t t a c k a n d t h e d e f e n c e . I n o u r d a y , h o w e v e r , t h e p a r t i s a n s of evil s e e m t o be d r a w i n g closer t o g e t h e r and as a b o d y to be a n i m a t e d w i t h extraordinary energy, under the leadership and with the assist­ a n c e of t h e w i d e l y diffused a s s o c i a t i o n k n o w n a s F r e e m a s o n r y . N o longer concealing their designs, with the greatest audacity, t h e y a r e e g g i n g o n e a n o t h e r on to a t t a c k God Himself. They a r e p l a n n i n g t h e u t t e r o v e r t h r o w of H o l y C h u r c h o p e n l y a n d p u b l i c l y , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n of d e s p o i l i n g c o m p l e t e l y t h e C h r i s t i a n n a t i o n s of t h e b e n e f i t s p r o c u r e d for t h e m b y J e s u s C h r i s t , o u r S a v i o u r , if t h a t w e r e p o s s i b l e . . . . F r o m w h a t W e h a v e a l r e a d y s a i d , it is indisputably evident that their ultimate aim is to root
, ( 1 )

(1) The City

of God, Book X I V , c. 17.

OPPOSITION TO MYSTICAL BODY

137

out completely the whole religious and political order of the world which has been set up by Christianity and to replace it by another

in harmony with their way of thinking. This will mean that the foundation and laws of the new structure will be drawn from pure
Naturalism."®*

Let us now take each of these naturalistic and anti-supernatural forces in turn.

Letter

.Encyclical Letter, Ilumanum will" be found in The Kingship
hy the present writer.

gtn,us. A translation of this of Christ and Organized Natu-

ralhn^

CHAPTER VII.

THE I N V I S F B L E ORGANIZED FORCE—SATAN AND HIS FELLOW-DEMONS.
SATAN'S AXTI-SUPERNATURALTSM.

Pope Leo XIII has insisted upon the leadership of Satan in the ceaseless warfare of Naturalism against the Supernatural Life of Grace. Satan's headship of the camp of evil must never be forgotten or lost sight of. This remark is particularly necessary in our days, because the triumphs of applied science in modern times tend to give human beings the illusion that they are the spiritual masters of the universe and obscure rhe all-important truth that, behind the visible veils, there are other intelligences more powerful than theirs striving for and against Our Divine Lord. The existence, then, of the good angel*, permanently anchored in Supernatural Life, and of the fallen angels, always fiercely opposed to the supernatural, must be constantly borne in mind. Satan everywhere combats and everywhere scek> to eliminate the Supernatural Life of Grace, participation in the Life of the r»lessed Trinity. His act of rebellion was a refusal to depend on the Messed Trinity for his happiness and perfection. P>y that act he not only forfeited the Life of Grace but declared war on it. The whole being of that pure spirit, all that relentless, untiring energy, of which we, poor creatures of nerves and muscles, can­ not form an adequate idea, is always and everywhere directed against submission to the Blessed Trinity in supernatural love. We change our minds and we need sleep and rest. AViib Satan it is not s o . It is because Satan knows how effective such institutions as
(1)

<D "To find the cause, then, of this obstinacy, it must, lie borne in mind that the appetitive power is in all things proportioned to the apprehensive, whereby it is moved, as the movable 1>\- it> mover . . . Now the angel's apprehension differs from man's in this respect, that the ^ngel by his intellect apprehends iiamovablv . . . . whereas man by his reason apprehends movably . - . Consequently man'- will adheres to a thins inovably . . . whereas the ansel'-i -will aWhtiv- li.wllv and immovably * (la P.. Q 64. a.2).
;
fc

SAT AX AXD

FELLOW-DEMONS

139

t h e p r e s s , t h e c i n e m a a n d t h e m o n e t a r y s y s t e m can be, w h e n b r o u g h t i n t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of a c o u n t r y , t h a t h e h a s b e e n s o i n t e n t on t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e m i n t o a g e n c i e s for t h e p r o p a g a t i o n of N a t u r a l i s m . I n t h e O c t o b e r (1938) i s s u e of The Southern Cross, w e r e a d : " A n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t of s t a t i s t i c s h a s m a d e a d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of 500 films. I n t h e m h e c o u n t e d 100 m u r d e r s , 91 s u i c i d e s , 103 a d u l t e r i e s , 38 s e d u c t i o n s , 352 r o b b e r ­ ies a n d 4 3 f r a u d s o r s w i n d l e s . I n t h e s e 500 films t h e r e w a s t h u s a m o r e - o r - l e s s v e i l e d d e f e n c e o r c o n d o n a t i o n of 727 m a j o r c r i m e s or immoralities^ A Swiss citizen, Professor Malhabec, reports the r e s u l t of a s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n in B e r n e , w h e r e h e f o u n d t h a t of 3,300 c h i l d r e n of s c h o o l y e a r s , 1,700 w e r e m o r e - o r - l e s s r e g u l a r cinema-goers. I n 1,250 films p r e s e n t e d for t h e i r e n t e r t a i n m e n t t h e r e w e r e e x h i b i t e d 1,163 s e d u c t i o n s , 1,120 a d u l t e r i e s , 1,224 h o m i ­ c i d e s , 1,170 r o b b e r i e s , 1,171 s h o o t i n g s o r v a r i o u s m u r d e r s , a n d 765 suicides." Satan's invariable appeal is to liberty. That is the pretext he alleges in o r d e r to lead m e n a s t r a y . " The e n d a t w h i c h t h e devil a i m s , " w r i t e s St. T h o m a s , " i s t h e r e v o l t of t h e r a t i o n a l c r e a t u r e f r o m G o d This revolt from God is c o n c e i v e d a s a n e n d , i n a s m u c h a s it is d e s i r e d u n d e r t h e p r e t e x t of l i b e r t y [ o r a u t o n o m y ] " ( I l i a P . , Q.8, a . l ) . S a t a n , n e e d l e s s t o s a y , is w e l l a w a r e of t h e f a c t t h a t his efforts a g a i n s t O u r D i v i n e L o r d a n d t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of t h e w o r l d c a n n o t l e a d t o o r d e r b u t will r e s u l t in c h a o s a n d d i s o r d e r . H i s d u p e s , h o w e v e r , d o n o t see t h a t , a t l e a s t , n o t c l e a r l y . If, a t t i m e s , a v i s i o n of w h a t t h e y a r e h e a d i n g f o r is m e r c i f u l l y v o u c h s a f e d to t h e m b y G o d , t h e y s h u t t h e i r e y e s t o it, e x c e p t in r a r e i n s t a n c e s . S a t a n ' s s i n w a s a r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t t h e t r u t h t h a t for the p e r ­ f e c t i o n a n d h a p p i n e s s of his b e i n g h e s h o u l d d e p e n d u p o n G o d a n d n o t u p o n h i m s e l f a l o n e . H e w a n t e d to g e t rid of t h e d e p e n d ­ e n c e a n d s u b j e c t i o n w h i c h a r e i n s e p a r a b l e f r o m b i s c o n d i t i o n of creature. T h e r e s u l t w a s a n e t e r n i t y of m i s e r y . T h e w a y of s p i r i t u a l c h i l d h o o d of S a i n t T e r e s a of L i s i e u x w i t h its i n s i s t ­ e n c e o n c o m p l e t e d e p e n d e n c e o n a n d a b s o l u t e t r u s t in t h e love of G o d , o u r F a t h e r , is in c o m p l e t e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e s p i r i t of Satan. H e n c e w e n e e d n o t be a s t o n i s h e d at the role assigned to t h e L i t t l e F l o w e r in t h e p r e s e n t s t r u g g l e in t h e w o r l d . All t h e f r i g h t f u l e n e r g y , t h e n , of S a t a n ' s h a t r e d is s p e c i a l l y d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e H o l y "Sacrifice of t h e M a s s , w h i c h is t h e r e ­ n e w a l of t h e e x p r e s s i o n of s u b m i s s i o n of C a l v a r y . A r r a y e d w i t h him a n d a n i m a t e d w i t h t h e s a m e h a t r e d , t h e r e is a n a r m y of i n v i s ­ ible s a t e l l i t e s of t h e s a m e n a t u r e . F o r g e t f u l n e s s of t h e s e f a c t s m a k e s it h a r d for people., w h o r e a d o n l y the n e w s p a p e r s a n d f r e ­ q u e n t t h e c i n e m a , t o u n d e r s t a n d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e h a t r e d of t h e M a s s a n d of t h e p r i e s t h o o d d i s p l a y e d b y t h e C o m m u n i s t a n d M a s o n i c " D e m o c r a c y " of S p a i n . E v e n t h e f o r m a t i o n g i v e n b y

140

TI1K M Y S T I C A L

RODY O F

CHRIST

" M o s c o w / ' t h a t is, b y t h e J e w s w h o c o n t r o l R u s s i a , d o e s n o t suffice t o a c c o u n t f o r i t . W e m u s t d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e e n d S a t a n h a d in v i e w in t h e C r u c i f i x i o n of O u r L o r d a n d t h e e n d h e n o w h a s in v i e w in d i r e c t i n g and p r o v o k i n g a t t a c k s on those w h o celebrate M a s s and t h o s e ' w h o assist thereat. S a t a n u r g e d t h e l e a d e r s of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n t o g e t r i d of O u r L o r d , for h e w a s c o n s c i o u s of t h e p r e ­ s e n c e in t h e M a n , C h r i s t J e s u s , of a n e x c e p t i o n a l d e g r e e of t h a t S u p e r n a t u r a l Life w h i c h he h a t e s , but h e did not w a n t to e n t e r i n t o the Divine P l a n for m a n ' s r e t u r n to o r d e r . H i s pride, h o w ­ e v e r , o b s c u r e d his v i s i o n of G o d ' s w a y of p r o c e e d i n g . By his a c t i o n o n t h e m i n d s a n d w i l l s of t h e l e a d e r s of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n a n d a g a i n on t h e p a s s i o n s of t h e c r o w d , d i s a p p o i n t e d a n d d i s ­ i l l u s i o n e d a t t h e s i g h t of t h e a c c l a i m e d l i b e r a t o r of I s r a e l d i s c o m ­ fited a n d h e l p l e s s , h e p r e p a r e d t h e w a y f o r t h e s u b l i m e d i s p l a y of o b e d i e n c e a n d h u m i l i t y of t h e G o d - M a n on C a l v a r y . The d e m o n s did n o t k n o w t h a t t h e a c t of s u b m i s s i o n of C a l v a r y m e a n t t h e r e t u r n of o r d e r t o t h e w o r l d , b y t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of S u p e r n a ­ t u r a l Life to the h u m a n race. St. P a u l insists t h a t " I f t h e y [ t h e p r i n c e s of t h i s w o r l d ] h a d k n o w n it, t h e y w o u l d n e v e r h a v e c r u c i ­ fied t h e L o r d of G l o r y " ( I Cor., I I , 8 ) . S t . T h o m a s w r i t e s : " I f the demons had been perfectly certain that Our Lord was the S o n of G o d a n d h a d k n o w n i n a d v a n c e w h a t t h e effect of H i s P a s s i o n and D e a t h w o u l d be, t h e y would n e v e r have g o t the L o r d of G l o r y c r u c i f i e d . " ' B u t t h e y a r e q u i t e w e l l a w a r e of t h e m e a n i n g of t h e M a s s . All t h e i r e f f o r t s a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s p r e ­ v e n t i n g its celebration, by e x t e r m i n a t i n g t h e p r i e s t h o o d , a n d t o w a r d s t h w a r t i n g i t s e f f e c t s , b y l i m i t i n g it t o t h e r o l e of a r i t e b e r e f t of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r m a n ' s s o c i a l life, p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c . If S a t a n c a n n o t s u c c e e d in c o m p l e t e l y d o i n g a w a y w i t h t h e o n e a c c e p t a b l e a c t of w o r s h i p , h e will s t r i v e t o r e s t r i c t it t o t h e m i n d s a n d h e a r t s of a s f e w i n d i v i d u a l s a s p o s s i b l e . One has only to
( 2 J 31

( > Cf. The Rulers of Russia, in which .some of the d o c u m e n t a r y evidence is given, which proves t h a t the J e w s are the real c o n t r o l l i n g force i n Russia. (3) l a P . , Q.64, a r t . 1, ad 4. Cf. I l i a P . , Q.44, a r t . 1, ad 2. Cf. also the following e x t r a c t from the Sermon of P o p e St. Leo the G r e a t which is r e a d in the Second N o c t u r n of the Office of P a l m S u n d a y : " If the p r o u d a n d cruel enemy [of God a n d m a n ] h a d heen a w a r e of the merciful d e s i g n of God, he would have t r i e d to soften the m i n d s of the JOAVS r a t h e r t h a n have sought to stir u p t h e i r u n j u s t •hatred, lest in a t t a c k i n g the liberty of action of the One Who was n o t in his debt, all his h u m a n captives should he set free. The m a l i g n i t y of h i s m i n d k e p t him from g r a s p i n g the t r u t h . He got the Son of • God condemned to d e a t h a n d t h a t c o n d e m n a t i o n became -a remedy for the fall of the h u m a n r a c e . " S a t a n ' s d i s o r d e r e d p r i d e p r e v e n t e d him from u n d e r s t a n d i n g the o r d e r e d self-sacrifieina- h u m i l i t y of God become Man.

2

SATAN AND FELLOW-DEMONS

141

look at the world to see how far he has succeeded since the French Revolution.
SATAN'S PLANS FOR DISORDER.

Satan's refusal to depend on the Supernatural Life of the Blessed Trinity for his happiness was at the same time a declara­ tion of war on that Life. He is ever warring* against all those ways in which, as we have seen, the rule of Christ the King is acknowledged in society. His technique, since the so-called Reformation hut more especially since the French Revolution, has largely consisted in utilizing the appeal of nationality against ordered submission to the Mystical Lody of Christ. He has de­ ceitfully striven, and alas! with success, in country after country, to persuade men that love of their country demands a refusal of obedience to the Catholic Church. He has, of course, also utilized the longing of the normal man for a suitable condition of life in order to allure men into Socialist and Communist movements. Pope Pius XI has stressed this latter point in the Encyclical Letter, On the Troubles of Our Time: "The leaders of this campaign of Atheism/' he writes, " turning to account the present economic crisis, inquire with diabolic reasoning into the cause of this uni­ versal misery They strive, and not without effect, to combine war against God with men's struggle for their daily bread, with their desire to have land of their own, suitable wages and decent dwellings, in fine, a condition of life befitting human beings." Satan is, however, indifferent as to the means he employs to turn man against Christ. He will utilize any form of Naturalism, such as the cult of blood and race, which will favour his designs. On the one hand, Our Divine Lord incorporates human beings into Himself and urges them to mould the world in accordance with His programme, so as to bring about harmonious submission to His Father at Holy Mass. On the other hand, Satan strives to undo the organization respectful of the Supernatural Order and Life, and, when he has succeeded in propagating Naturalism, he will move to the direct attack on the Mass. Accordingly, he will always strive either to bring about what is called separation of Church and State or to prevent their union, that is, the recognition by the State of the Catholic Church, as the One Church divinely in­ stituted, the supernatural and supranational Mystical I'ody of Christ, the ark of salvation for all. Satan knows well the value of social acceptance of order. That men, not only as individuals, but as linked together in States and nations should recognize the Catholic Church, as supernatural and supranational, and should bow down in submission to the P>lessed Trinitv in the Plol\ Sacrit4>

Encyclical Letter, Ct/rih/ft

Christ!

Cnmpulai.

142

THIS MYSTICAL

B O D Y 01-

CHRIST

flee of t h e M a s s a r e u t t e r l y r e p u g n a n t t o h i m . Of c o u r s e , t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t o r d e r will be c a r r i e d o n in t h e n a m e of " p r o ­ g r e s s / * " e n l i g h t e n m e n t , " " l i b e r t y of c o n s c i e n c e . " a n d " d u t y t o one's country and one's race." etc. S e c o n d l y , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e , S a t a n will o p p o s e t h e a c k n o w l e d g ­ m e n t of t h e r i g h t of t h e P o p e a n d B i s h o p s to d e c i d e w h a t f a v o u r s o r o p p o s e s t h e Life of G r a c e . H e w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , d o all in h i s p o w e r t o p r e v e n t t h e a d m i s s i o n of t h e P o p e t o t h e C o u n c i l s of N a t i o n s a n d h e will a i m at n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n o p p o s e d to t r u e morality. W h e n B i s h o p s insist t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of n a t i o n a l life a n d r a c i a l c u l t u r e is m e a n t to f a v o u r t h e Life of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , h e will s t r i v e t o g e t t h e m a c c u s e d of b e i n g t h e e n e m i e s of n a t i o n a l i t y . A s S a t a n s u c c e e d s in p r o p a g a t i n g N a t u r a l ­ i s m in a c o u n t r y , he p r e p a r e s t h e d i r e c t a t t a c k on the R e l i g i o u s O r d e r s a n d C o n g r e g a t i o n s of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . Kvery revo­ l u t i o n a r y g o v e r n m e n t s i n c e 1789, w i t h m o n o t o n o u s r e g u l a r i t y , h a s d e c r e e d t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of t h e s e O r d e r s a n d C o n g r e g a t i o n s . S a t a n will, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , f a v o u r S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s a n d p a r t i c u l ­ a r l y t h e chief o n e , F r e e m a s o n r y , l i e will a l s o f a v o u r t h e a d m i s s ­ i o n of t h e j e w s to full c i t i z e n s h i p , s o t h a t t h e y m a y p r e p a r e f o r the Natural Messias. T h i r d l y , S a t a n will w o r k u n c e a s i n g l y for t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i v o r c e , s i n c e C h r i s t i a n m a r r i a g e is t h e s y m b o l of t h e u n i t y a n d i n d i s s o l u b i l i t y of t h a t s u p e r n a t u r a l u n i o n of C h r i s t a n d H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y , w h i c h h e d e t e s t s . • H e will n o t o n l y a t t a c k t h e Christian h o m e directly by divorce, b u t indirectly by the glorifica­ t i o n of i m p u r i t y . L u s t will n o t be t e r m e d s e l f - s e e k i n g b u t e m a n c i ­ pation. I m m o r a l unions m a y be excused and even lauded o n ac­ c o u n t of t h e " p a r a m o u n t d u t y t o t h e r a c e . " F o u r t h l y , n e e d l e s s t o s a y , he will d o all in his p o w e r t o h a m ­ p e r t r u e C a t h o l i c e d u c a t i o n , t h a t is, t h e f o r m a t i o n of y o u n g m e n a n d w o m e n w i t h a full s e n s e of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s m e m b e r s of O u r L o r d ' s M y s t i c a l B o d y . T h a t y o u n g p e o p l e s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e L i f e of G r a c e a s t h e i r m o s t r e a l life a n d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be c o n v i n c e d of t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y w i t h O u r L o r d a n d w i t h o n e a n o t h e r a r e , of c o u r s e , u t t e r l y h a t e f u l t o h i m . T h a n k s t o such a formation they would come forth after their formative y e a r s with an i n s i g h t into t h e efforts b e i n g m a d e to o r g a n i z e s o c i e t y o n n a t u r a l i s t i c , t h a t is, o n a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l , l i n e s , a n d t h e y w o u l d be alive t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e o r g a n i z e d f o r c e s w o r k ­ i n g for t h e a d v e n t of N a t u r a l i s m , u n d e r S a t a n ' s i n v i s i b l e g u i d ­ a n c e . It is a p i t y t h a t C a t h o l i c t e a c h e r s a r e n o t a l w a y s fully c o n ­ s c i o u s of w h a t t h e y a r c c a l l e d u p o n t o d o for C h r i s t . T h e y s h o u l d all h a v e a n a c c u r a t e k n o w l e d g e of t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t in r e l a t i o n to t h e o r d e r of t h e w o r l d u n d e r t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , a n d t h e y s h o u l d n e v e r fail t o p u t first t h i n g s first. T h e y s o m e t i m e s f o r g e t t h a t a b o y is p r i m a r i l y a m e m b e r of

SATAN AND FELLOW-DEMONS

143

Christ and that his formation as a prizewinner or as a footballer is of real importance only inasmuch as it favours his standing integrally for Christ throughout his whole life. Fifthly, Satan will do his utmost to prevent the formation of Guilds or Vocational-Groups which reflect in economic organiza­ tion the solidarity of the Mystical I5ody. His hatred of union and order amongst the members of Christ was gratified by the destruction of the Guilds at the so-called Reformation in England and at the French Revolution in France. Me knew that the re­ sultant disorder would make it difficult for human beings to lead a truly virtuous life. Jn the feverish competition of Liberalistic Individualism, the task of making a living absorbs so much energy that, there i> none left for the life of union with the IJlessed Trinity. Satan foresaw with malignant pleasure the ruin of souls that would result from this unbridled Individualism. Pope Pius XI stresses the point in the Encyclical Letter, On Atheistic Communism. "Even on Sundays and holidays/' he writes, "labour shifts were given no time to attend to their essential religious duties. No one thought of building churches within convenient distances of factories or of facilitating the work of the priest. On the contrary, laicism was actively and persistently promoted, with the result that we are now reaping the fruits of the errors so often denounced by Our Predecessors and by Ourselves. It can surprise no one thai the Communistic fallacy should be spreading in a world already to a large extent estranged from Christian­ ity."^) The same Pontiff had already pointed out, in the Encyclical Letter, On the Social Order, how favourable t o Satan'- efforts was the state of things that accompanied everywhere what is termed "Industrial Progress": "Very many employers treated their workmen as mere tools, without any concern for the wel­ fare of their souls, indeed without the slightest thought of higher interests. The mind shudders if we consider the frightful perils to w hich the morals of workers (of boys and young men par­ ticularly) and the virtue of girls and women, are exposed in mod­ ern factories; if we recall how the present economic regime and, above all, the disgraceful housing conditions p r o \ e obstacles to the family tie and to family life: if we rcmemiurr ihe .insuperable difficulties placed in the way of a proper observance of holydays. How universally has the true Christian spirit become impaired, which formerly produced such lofty sentiments even in uncultured and illiterate m e n ! fn its stead man's one solicitude is to obtain his daily bread in any way be can. And so bodily labour, which was decreed by Providence for the good of man's body and M > U ] even after original sin, has everywhere been changed into an
r

i'

5}

Encyclical Letter, Divini

If*drw/tturix.

144

THE MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

i n s t r u m e n t of s t r a n g e p e r v e r s i o n ; f o r d e a d m a t t e r l e a v e s t h e factory ennobled and transformed, while men are corrupted and d e g r a d e d . F o r this p i t i a b l e r u i n of s o u l s , w h i c h , if it c o n t i n u e s , will f r u s t r a t e all e f f o r t s t o r e f o r m s o c i e t y , t h e r e c a n b e n o o t h e r r e m e d y t h a n a f r a n k a n d s i n c e r e r e t u r n t o t h e t e a c h i n g of t h e Gospef."< > S a t a n has profited by the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d abuses r e s u l t i n g f r o m I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c L i b e r a l i s m t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e r u i n of m u l t i ­ t u d e s of s o u l s . H e f a n s t h e flames of t h e C o m m u n i s t r e a c t i o n against these abuses with even g r e a t e r vehemence, because the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y u n d e r C o m m u n i s m is still m o r e r a d i c a l l y o p p o s e d t o t h e l o v i n g s e r v i c e of G o d . " W h e r e C o m m u n i s m h a s b e e n a b l e t o a s s e r t its p o w e r , " w r i t e s P o p e P i u s X I in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r . On Atheistic Commvnisiyi, " i t has striven by every poss­ ible m e a n s , as its c h a m p i o n s o p e n l y b o a s t , to d e s t r o y C h r i s t i a n civilization and the Christian religion by banishing every r e m e m b r ­ a n c e of t h e m f r o m t h e h e a r t s of m e n , e s p e c i a l l y f r o m t h e y o u n g / T h e s a m e P o n t i f f h a d a l r e a d y a l l u d e d t o t h e s a t a n i c c h a r a c t e r of C o m m u n i s t w a r f a r e o n G o d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : " T h i s is t h e m o s t d r e a d f u l evil of o u r t i m e s , f o r t h e y [ t h e e n e m i e s of all s o c i a l o r d e r ] d e s t r o y e v e r y b o n d of l a w , h u m a n o r d i v i n e : t h e y e n g a g e o p e n l y a n d in s e c r e t in a r e l e n t l e s s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t r e l i ­ gion and a g a i n s t God H i m s e l f ; they c a r r y o u t the diabolical p r o ­ g r a m m e of w r e s t i n g f r o m t h e h e a r t s of all, e v e n of c h i l d r e n , all r e l i g i o u s s e n t i m e n t ; f o r w e l l t h e y k n o w t h a t , o n c e belief in G o d h a s b e e n t a k e n f r o m t h e h e a r t s of m a n k i n d , t h e y will b e e n t i r e l y f r e e t o w o r k o u t t h e i r w i l l . T h u s w e see t o - d a y , w h a t w a s n e v e r b e f o r e s e e n in h i s t o r y , t h e s a t a n i c a l b a n n e r s of w a r a g a i n s t G o d a n d a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n b r a z e n l y u n f u r l e d t o t h e w i n d s in t h e m i d s t of all p e o p l e s a n d in all p a r t s of t h e e a r t h . ' "
6 , ( 7 ) f 8 )

B u t a g a i n , S a t a n will a l s o r e j o i c e if, w h i l e i n c u l c a t i n g o p p o s i ­ t i o n to C o m m u n i s m , y o u t h a r e d r a w n a w a y from the M a s s and religious instructions, to sports and g y m n a s t i c exercises, u n d e r p r e t e x t of t h e p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g i n d i s p e n s a b l e for r a c i a l d e v e l o p ­ ment. S a t a n will f a v o u r t h e c o n t i n u a n c e of a m o n e t a r y s y s t e m w h i c h i n s i s t s u p o n t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of food a n d o t h e r n e c e s s a r i e s of life, in s p i l e of w i d e s p r e a d p o v e r t y , in o r d e r t o k e e p up p r i c e s a n d t h u s m a k e s u r e of t h e " i n t e r e s t " l e v i e d o n t h e c r e a t i o n of m n n c v . O n e of t h e a b l e s t of t h e w r i t e r s w h o h a v e e x p o s e d t h e e v i l s of the existent m o n e t a r y system, Professor P. Soddy, has shown the d i s a s t r o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h i s p o l i c y f o r h u m a n s o c i e t y . He w r i t e s : " In o u r d a y it is n o t t h e a g i t a t o r f o m e n t i n g c l a s s - h a t r e d > Encyclical Lot ter, Quadragesima A nno. < Encyclical Letter. Divini 7*Vrlrmptoris. ' » Encyclical Letter, t'uritate Christ! Comp)/Is,\ of our Time.
TI p fr,

On the

Trouhh-*

SATAN A N D FELLOW-DEMONS

145

who can start . . . . a revolution. But empty milk into the Potomac; import pests to destroy the cotton crop; burn wheat and coffee as fuel; restrict the production of rubber; set up tariffbarriers; permit trusts, federations, cartels and lock-outs; allow trade-unions to develop ca'canny methods to reduce output; main­ tain misery, insecurity and idleness, masses of unemployed who are not allowed to better their lot by making the very things of which they stand in need; and revolution in some form is not probable, but certain. The ideas that govern men are outraged. Instead of a few striking illustrations of incompetence or worse, they begin to see universal chaos instead of order. Their insti­ tutions, so far from protecting them in their peaceful avocations on which they rely for a livelihood, appear leagued togethei to keep them in . . . . unnecessary servitude and dependence."' * Pope Pius X I had already stressed this same truth, coupling with it a strong warning not to allow the paid Communist agitator to spread the seeds of disorder: " W e cannot contemplate with­ out sorrow," he wrote, " the heedlessness of those who seem to make light of these imminent clangers, and with stolid indifference allow the propagation far and wide of those doctrines fof Com­ munism] which seek by violence and bloodshed the destruction of all society. liven-more severely must be condemned the foolhardiness of (hose who tieglcct to remove or modify such condi­ tions as exasperate the minds of the people, and so prepare .he way for the overthrow and the ruin of the social order." Many Catholics, in their interpretation of this latter text, fail to ascend to the financiers who control the volume of the exchangemedium and who are ultimately responsible for the policy of de­ struction. They see only the few rich, industrialists or others, who have succeeded in the struggle. Catholics are frequently deceived in regard to this point by Communist propaganda. Following in the footsteps of Marx, Communists carefully avoid the distinction made by the German economist, Feder, between " Loan-Capital '* and what he called "Creative-Capital." " A Rothschild or a Morgan," writes Wyndham Lewis in Conn/ your t/earf—They are a/ire], ''makes his money in a very different way from a Nuffield or a Ford. The former deals in money itself, as a commodity. His business is essentially that of a moneylender. lie makes nothing, lie toils not, neither does he spin. But for all that he is no lily, as a rule! The latter, on the other band, of the Nufficld-Ford type, are creative in the >ense that they do at least make .something. . . . Without 'Loan-Capital' there would be no Communism. The straight Bolshevik—say a Pollit or a Strachcy—though pcrfeetU
9 lf>>

<»> The Role of Money,
HO'

p . 22.
( f u m l r a u < * h n o A n n o . On iht S i n - i n ! <h<hr.

Encyclical Letter,

M

146

THK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

a w a r e of t h e d e e p s i g n i f i c a n c e of H e r r F e d e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n , i g n o r e s it. H e e v e n r e s e n t s i t s b e i n g m e n t i o n e d . A s a m a t t e r of f a c t w h a t H e r r F e d e r calls a * c r e a t i v e c a p i t a l i s t / t h e R u s s i a n C o m ­ m u n i s t calls a ' k u l a k / K v e n H e n r y F o r d is o n l y a g i g a n t i c ' k u l a k . ' A n d of all t h i n g s on e a r t h t h e M a r x i s t h a t e s t h e * k u l a k ' most. W i t h ' L o a n - C a p i t a l , ' on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h e h a s m a n y affinities. I n d e e d , if * L o a n - C a p i t a l w e r e allowed to p r o c e e d on i t s w a y w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e , it w o u l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t in Communism I felt t h a t t h e S o v i e t w a s a l t o g e t h e r too t h i c k w i t h t h e Capitalists It is p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t t h e c a t e g o r y of ' c a p p i t a l i s t ' w i t h w h o m t h e S o v i e t E m p i r e is s o f r i e n d l y is of t h e k i n d described by H e r r F e d e r as a ' l o a n - c a p i t a l i s t / . . . I remarked " t h a t t h e s e L o r d s of C a p i t a l , w h o d o n o t s e e m t o h a t e C o m m u n i s t R u s s i a q u i t e s o m u c h a s y o u w o u l d e x p e c t , did n o t b e l o n g t o u s . . . . \Ve g e t n o t h i n g o u t of t h e s e p e o p l e , b u t t h e y g e t a g r e a t d e a l o u t of u s . T h e r i c h e r t h e y b e c o m e — a n d t h e y a r e v e r y f e w — t h e p o o r e r w e b e c o m e . A n d it is m a t h e m a t i c a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t w e s h a l l . a l l e n d u p on t h e d o l e , u n l e s s w e c a n s h o o t h e m o u t a n d s l a m
4(

our

door/'OU

SATAN'S H A T R E D OF THK DLESSKD EUCHARIST. As the Blessed Eucharist contains Our Divine Lord, the Super­ n a t u r a l L i f e i n P e r s o n , I t is t h e o b j e c t of s p e c i a l a n i m o s i t y o n t h e p a r t of S a t a n . A t t a c k s on It p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t in t h e p r e ­ p a r a t i o n of r e v o l u t i o n s in C a t h o l i c c o u n t r i e s . Historically, there h a s b e e n a n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m o d e of p r o c e d u r e a d o p t e d by S a t a n f o r t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e from P r o t e s t a n t and from Catholic c o u n t r i e s . In P r o t e s t a n t c o u n ­ t r i e s , on a c c o u n t of t h e p u b l i c official r e j e c t i o n of t h e D i v i n e P l a n f o r o r d e r in t h e w o r l d , t h e g r a d u a l o u s t i n g of t h e r e m n a n t of O u r L o r d ' s d o c t r i n e f r o m t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a n d t h e public life of t h e c o u n t r y is i n e v i t a b l e . T h u s , as t h e a d v e n t of X a t u r a l i s m in t h e s e c o u n t r i e s is o n l y a q u e s t i o n of t i m e , f o r c i b l e s t e p s h a v e n o t in g e n e r a l b e e n t a k e n t o u p r o o t t h e p a s t . S a t a n c a n afford t o b i d e his time, so to say. T h a t docs n o t m e a n , h o w e v e r , t h a t these c o u n t r i e s m a y n o t b e c a l l e d u p o n t o e n d u r e t h e a g o n y of r e v o l u ­ t i o n . S a t a n ' s h a t r e d of belief in t h e D i v i n i t y of O u r L o r d , his f e a r of e v e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of r e t u r n to t h e M a s s , t h e l o n g i n g of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n for t h e f u t u r e M e s s i a n i c A g e , a n y o n e of t h e s e m a y b e r e s p o n s i b l e for a r e c r u d e s c e n c e of v i o l e n c e in t h e effort t o u p r o o t e v e r y v e s t i g e of C h r i s t i a n i t y . (it) L a t e r on, in C h a p t e r X V I , we shall have t o call a t t e n t i o n to the fact t h a t J a m e s Connolly, t h r o u g h b l i n d l y following K a r l M a r x , never jrrasped the d i s t i n c t i o n m a d e by F e d e r a n d never realized t h a t C o m m u n i s m is merely an i n s t r u m e n t in the h a n d s of a. section of the Loan-Capitalists.

SATAN A N D FELLOW-DEMONS

147

In Catholic countries, however, violent revolution is always aimed at, in order to get rid of the existing social structure, in which the Kingship of Christ is respected, and so to instal Natural­ ism. Now, profanation, of the Blessed Eucharist has, on many occasions at least, been part of the preparation of apostate Catho­ lics to be fitting instruments of revolution or of anti-supernatural legislation. The Reminiscences of a feminine agent of a Parisian Lodge, published some years ago, relate how she was sent on Spy Wednesday and Holy Thursday to collect fifteen Consecrated Hosts for the horrible profanations in the Lodge on Good Friday. ) In that very useful work. The X Rays in Freemasonry, by A. Cowan, there is an interesting quotation from Waitc's Devil Wor­ ship in France (1896) concerning these sacrilegious attacks on Our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament. Waite was a non-Catholic, a Rosicrucian in fact, so he cannot be suspected of partiality to the Catholic Church»»
f12

<i»> Cf. Vfflue dn Dragon, p p . 109, 110. The Foreword *ays that two manuscript copies of these MCmoircs arc in existence, bearing date,
18S5

(is) A letter in The Catholic Herald (London), 11th August, 1934, from the pen of the Rev. J. B. Reeves, O.P., mentioned similar sacri­ leges in France and England, which had come to his knowledge.

CHAPTER TIIK FIRST YISIDDK

VIII. NATURALISTIC

ORGAXIXKD

FORCK—THIC J K W I S H

NATION.

T H E O N E N E S S OF TIIK D I V I N E PLAN KOR ORDER. W e h a v e s e e n t h e onenes.s of the D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r in t h e w o r l d . T h i s g r e a t t r u t h n e e d s to he s t r e s s e d , for t h e a g e - l o n g s t r u g g l e of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of t h e M y s t i c a l P>ody of O u r C o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , t h a t is, t h e N a t u r a l i s m of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n , d o e s not s t a n d o u t a s * c l e a r l y in t h e m i n d s of C a t h o l i c s t o - d a y a s it did in f o r m e r a g e s . A g a i n a n d a g a i n , t h e P o p e s h a v e i n s i s t e d u p o n t h e fact t h a t t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h is t h e a r k of s a l v a t i o n for all. F o r e x a m p l e , P o p e P i u s I X s p o k e of t h o s e w h o w o u l d h e s a v e d t h r o u g h i n v i n c i b l e i g n o r a n c e of t h e t r u e r e l i g i o n of C h r i s t , but b e u r g e d t h e R i s h o p s of t h e w h o l e w o r l d t o d o all in t h e i r p o w e r " to k e e p m e n ' s m i n d s f r e e f r o m t h e i m p i o u s a n d f a t a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e o p i n i o n t h a i t h e w a y of e t e r n a l s a l v a t i o n c a n b e found in a n y r e l i g i o n w h a t e v e r / He insisted also that it is a w e l l - k n o w n C a t h o l i c d o g m a that n o b o d y c a n b e s a v e d o u t s i d e t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a n d that t h o s e . . . . w h o a r e k n o w i n g l y a n d w i l l i n g l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e u n i t y of t h e C h u r c h a n d f r o m t h e R o m a n Pontiff, s u c c e s s o r of St. P e t e r . . . c a n n o t obtain eternal salvation.
m 1 <(

't) Allocution, Sinanlari qufuhna, Dili Doe., ISOL; Encyclical Letter, Quanta vonfirifunnr inocrorc, lOl.h August, ]S(i;i. With regard to invin­ cible ignorance, cf. Dcnzln<jet\ HOT.
(

(

-> Dvnzintjcr.

1 (C7 > >.

" T h e Command of Christ to the ApoMle* to preach the g o s p e l to 'every creature' implies a corresponding obligation on the pari of all men to hear ami obey them, and, therefore, to become member* of the Church ; 'p reach t lie Cos pel to every creat l i r e , ' said Christ, - • he thai bellevelh not shall be condemned' (St. M ark, X V 1. 15. 1 0 ) . No man. therefore, who, on coming to know i In- l.rue Church, refuses tr* join it, can be saved. Neither can be be M W I I , if, having once entered the Church, he forsake ii through here-\ < r SELDOM • . . 'Flic Church- as St. > Paul says, is t h r li \ ing bod\ whereof ChrCt is t he Head. Me w h" ^''\'erhimsclf from fhe_ Church, severs himself from ChrCf. and cannot b" saved, for in Christ alone is salvation*' < <hee|uin Cat/,,,!;,.j nolot/f f ir*. vol. T, p. 137). The visible Church, by the institution and will of Christ, is * necess a r v means for (he attainment, of s a h a l h m . in the smse thai everyone iriusi belong to it- in re or in rata. Thai me;nu thai- those who are in
l

T H E JEWISH NATION

149

The order of the world, then, demands the acceptance by all men of the Supernatural Life, which is a participation in the Inner Life of the Blessed Trinity. It is only through that Divine Life that our natural life, individual and social, can be lived in order.' ) The Unique Source of that Life is Our Lord Jesus Christ, and human beings are intended to receive communication of that Life by being incorporated into Him through membership of the super­ natural society of His Mystical Body, the Catholic Church. All nations are meant to enter the Mystical Body of Christ and to organize their national life so as to allow Our Lord to manifest His treasures of supernatural sanctity in every clime and in every latitude. The world, as we have seen in the extract quoted from Pope Leo Kill's Encyclical Letter, On Freemasonry, is divided into two camps. On the one side, there is the camp of those who accept the Supernatural Life of Grace under the leadership of Our Lord and, on the other, the naturalistic camp which, under the leadership of Satan, rejects that Life. The Jewish Nation is the most strongly organized visible force in the naturalistic camp. This fact must be emphasized more strongly than ever now that another organized force, in the same naturalistic and anti-super­ natural camp, namely, the Government set up by the NationalSocialist Party, which is in control of the German national re­ action, is attacking not only the Mystical Body of Christ but also the Jewish Nation. Jewish propaganda against National-Social­ ism, when appealing to Catholics, stresses, the deadly opposition of the "National-Socialist regime to the Catholic Church and the anti-Catholic character of the race theory. It does not point out that the quarrel between the National-Socialist Government and the Jewish Nation is between two sections of the naturalistic army, both of which are hostile to the Catholic Church. The Jews, as a nation, refuse to accept the Divine Plan for order. They, a s well as the National-Socialists, want to impose on God their plans for the glory of their race and nation. They deify their own nation. Hence both the Jewish Nation and the National-Socialist movement reject our true divinization, through Our Lord Jesus Christ. The ideals and aims of both these sections of the natur­ alistic army are opposed to the Catholic ideal and infinitely in3 (4) (5)

the physical or moral impossibility qf actually entering the Church are not excluded from salvation, provided they are fully disposed to enter the Church the moment the obstacles an* removed. Cf. Schultes, O.P.,
De Ecclesia
t±)

Gatholica,

pp. 270-274,

o> Cf. Ia Ilae, Q.109, a.3.

Encyclical Letter, Jfumanum t/ertus. This divinization is, of course, not in the order of being, but in the order of thought and will, through our participation, by the Grace of Christ, in the Inner LifV of the Three Djvine Persons.

3 5 0

T H E MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

ferior to it. And both these forces are being used by Satan to inflict disaster on the world. There is laughter in hell when human beings succumb once more to the temptation of the Garden of Eden and put themselves in the place of God, whether the new divinity be the Jewish race or the German race. We must now study more closely the significance of Jewish Naturalism. There is need for clear thinking in this connexion. We must distinguish accurately between opposition to the dom­
(r,)

ination of Jewish Sataralisni in society and hostility to the Jews as a racf\ The latter form of opposition, namely, hostility to the

Jews as a race, is what is designated by the term, Anti-Semitism. The former opposition is "incumbent on every Catholic and on every true lover of his native land.
THK J K W I S H NATION'S R E J E C T I O N OF T H E SUPERNATURAL MESSIAS.

The Jewish Nation was chosen by God to maintain acceptable worship of the One True God. in preparation for the coming of Him Who was to re-establish order in the world by the restora­ tion of Supernatural Life. The Jewish Nation was at the same time destined to be the source of the Individuality of the Super­ natural Messias to come. His Personality was to be from on high. Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Supernatural Messias, True God and True Man. is at one and the same time the Second Person of the Hlessed Trinity and a Jew of the house of David. Two of the essential points of His teaching roused the stubborn hostility of the leaders of the Jewish Nation. "The Pharisees who formed the dominant sect in the last years of the political existence of our nation brought about a veritable religious revo­ lution amongst the Jews who followed them. To the Church of Jesus Christ which is the development of the historical Synagogue of Israel, to that Church which had its origin in Jerusalem and had at first no adherents other than the descendants of Abraham, the proud and perverse Pharisees set up in opposition a false foreign Synagogue, founded on traditions of their own fabrication and on the arbitrary interpretations and hairsplitting decisions dictated by their hypocritical zeal (Ct\ St. Mark, VII, 9 and St. Matthew. XV. 9). This has been for our unhappv nation ' a root bringing forth gall and bitterness' (I)eut.. XXIX. 18)."^ The "Certainly, the devil is the head of all w icked men and all wicked men are members of this head. Was not Pilate a member of Satan? Were not the Jews who nci'scented Christ and the soldiers who crucified Him, members of Salan (Homily of St. Gregory for the First Sunday of Lent). < > Be JJilarmonie cntre J/figlitt e.t la Sanayogue, by the Catholic ex-Ilabbin lh-ach, vol. J I, i*. IS i. Cf. Min\ *Landiieu\-, L'Histoire ct Irs flistnircs dans la. fJiblc, pp. 7 G - 1 1 0 .
7

THE JEWISH

NATION

151

J e w s r e f u s e d , firstly, t o a c c e p t t h a t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l Life of H i s M e s s i a n i c K i n g d o m w a s h i g h e r t h a n t h e i r n a t i o n a l life and, s e c o n d l y , t h e y u t t e r l y r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a of t h e G e n t i l e N a t i o n s b e i n g a d m i t t e d t o e n t e r i n t o t h e M e s s i a n i c K i n g d o m , on t h e s a m e level a s t h e m s e l v e s . T h u s t h e y p u t t h e i r n a t i o n a l life a b o v e t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e a n d s e t r a c i a l d e s c e n t f r o m A b r a h a m a c c o r d i n g t o t h e flesh o n a h i g h e r p l a n e t h a n s p i r i t u a l d e s c e n t f r o m Abraham by faith. H a v i n g p u t t h e i r r a c e a n d n a t i o n in t h e p l a c e of G o d , h a v i n g in f a c t deified t h e m , t h e y r e j e c t e d t h e S u p e r ­ n a t u r a l M e s s i a s a n d e l a b o r a t e d a p r o g r a m m e of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the n a t u r a l M e s s i a s to c o m e . " O u r L o r d spoke a heavenly lang­ uage to t h e m [the J e w s ] , " w r o t e a g r e a t J e w i s h convert, F a t h e r L i b e r m a n n , C.S.Sp., " a n d t h e y i n t e r p r e t e d H i s w o r d s in a m e a n and ignoble fashion, a c c o r d i n g to their low and n a r r o w ideas. ..Their s o u l s w e r e h a l f - b r u t a l i z e d b y sin a n d t h e d o m i n a t i o n of s e n s e - l i f e , w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e y w e r e i n c a p a b l e of g r a s p i n g heavenly things." >
( 8 ) (9

" J e w s / * w r i t e s a n o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d c o n v e r t , " m a y be b r o a d l y classified a s t h e O r t h o d o x ( o r p i o u s ) J e w s a n d t h e R e f o r m ( o r e n l i g h t e n e d ) Tews. . . . T h e O r t h o d o x w a n t . . . . a r e t u r n t o J e r u s a l e m — t h e r e b u i l d i n g of t h e T e m p l e a n d t h e r e i n s t i t u t i o n of t h e s a c r i f i c e s u n d e r t h e m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e d e s c e n d a n t s of A a r o n . T h e r e , in t h e H o l y C i t y , t h e y w a n t t o a w a i t t h e c o m i n g of t h e M e s s i a n i c A g e , t h e c o m i n g of a p e r s o n a l M e s s i a h . T h e R e f o r m J e w h o l d s t o t h e belief i n t h e M e s s i a n i c A g e , w h i l e h e r e j e c t s t h e belief in a p e r s o n a l M e s s i a h . " > Another distinguished Jewish writer, not a convert, expresses this hope as follows: ' ' T h e m o s t s c e p t i c a l w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e M i s s i o n of I s r a e l d i s p e r s e d a m o n g t h e n a t i o n s c o n s i d e r . . . as t h e u l t i m a t e ideal of t h e n a t i o n a n d t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t of i t s d e s t i n y , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a u n i o n of all p e o p l e s fully recon­ ciled a n d m o r a l l y u n i t e d in a s p i r i t of d e f i n i t i v e p e a c e , s o c i a l justice a n d fraternal solidarity. . . . J e w i s h faith aims at p r o ­ c u r i n g t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n of f s r a e l , s u f f e r i n g a n d d o w n - t r o d d e n ,
( ] 0

8 J G. K. Chesterton sums u p the deification of the Jewish race a n d n a t i o n by the Jews as f o l l o w s : " T h e r e are J e \ # s h Mystics and J e w i s h sceptics; b u t a b o u t this one m a t t e r of the s t r a n g e sacredness of his own race,_ almost every Jewish sceptic is a Jewish M y s t i c " (The End of the Armistice, p. 86). I t is not s t r a n g e t h a t the Jews should come to deify their race, since they have rejected the Divine P l a n for o r d e r . I t is the inevitable a l t e r n a t i v e . I t is, however, s t r a n g e in the sense t h a t it is a terrible proof of the weakness of h u m a n n a t u r e since the F a l l . Of course, the Jewish race will always r e m a i n the race from which the Redeemer s p r a n g , and, as such, is especially d e a r to h i s Sacred H e a r t . T h a t is the sacredness which they, as a race, despise a n d reject. W Commentary on St. John's Gospel, p.374. (10) Campaigner* for Christ Handbook, p p . 29, 30, bv David Coldstein.
i( , J

(

152

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

and at the same time collaborating in the emancipation of human­ ity, for which . . . it has still the ambition to be a light and an instrument of salvation."* * The Jewish ideal of a future Messianic Age is opposed to the real order of the world in a twofold manner. In the first place, the Jewish Nation opposes the Divine Plan for the union of all nations in the Catholic Church, the Mystical Body of Christ. The Catholic Church is supranational and, by the aid of the Supernatural Life of Grace, can work at eliminating the particular form of selfishness of each nation, so that the union of all may be achieved in a manner perfectly respectful of the variety of national qualities and characteristics. God wanted the Jews as a people to accept His Only-begotten Son and be the heralds of the supernatural, supranational Life of; His Mystical Body. They were thus offered the privilege of proclaiming and working for the only mode of realizing the union and brother­ hood of nations which is possible since the Fall. Their pride or lack of humility and docility caused them to set their faces against God. When they refused to enter into His designs, God permitted the crime of deicide and, by the supreme act of humble submission of Our Lord on Calvary, the Life of Grace was restored to the world. Calvary, however, was a consequence of the refusal of the Jews to submit humbly to God the Father and accept His Son. In his Commentary on St. Matthew, XXVI, 39, St. Thomas quotes the opinion of St. Jerome that Our Lord, by His Prayer in the Garden of Gethsemani, " My Father, if it be possible, let this chalice pass from me/' asked to have the redemption of the world accomplished without the crime of the Jews, His own people, but bowed down to what His Father was permitting, name­ ly, the abuse of their free will by that people, with all its dire consequences for Himself and for His Mystical Body, "Neverthe­ less not as I will, but as thou wilt." The Jews freely rejected Christ before Pontius Pilate, as they freely reject Him to-day. God the Father drew good out of evil then, as He does now, but the rejection was and is against the order of *the world and there­ fore evil. These great truths must be emphasized in face of such blasphemies as the following: " A s a matter of fact, if, as Christ11

u o l, Foi rVhmel by Julien Weill, p]). 173, 174. This writer, in the early part of the same work, has already pointed out that, it is Judaism rather than heresy which has prevented Christianity from becoming the faith of the majority of believers in God, and that, instead of Christianity "finishing" Judaism, Judaism may succeed in "finish­ ing" Christianity. In other words, he hopes that, 'instead of the Jewish Nation accepting the True, Supernatural Messias, Our Lord Jesus Christ, the pretended supernatural influence of Our Lord .will decay and finally disappear, making way for the naturalistic realm of the new Messias.
a %

THE JEWISH NATION

153

ianiiy teaches, the Only-begotten Son of God was to be crucified as a vicarious atonement to save the sinful world and God used the Jews as a vehicle to bring about the crucifixion, why blame the Jews? The fault rests with God." - The per se order or order desired by God in accordance with His infinite holiness, was that the Jewish Nation should receive Christ as True God and True Man and put its natural qualities at His disposal for the undoing of the effects of original sin. The per accidens order, or order consequent on God's permitting the Jews freely to prefer their national life to the acceptance of the Divine Plan, is the one in which, in actual fact, the combat against original sin has been waged historically, with the Jews in the forefront of the natural­ istic or anti-supernatural army. In his commentary on the text of St. Matthew, XXVII, 4 6 : " M y God, My God, why hast thou forsaken M e ? " St. Thomas w rites: " It is manifest that Our Lord utters these words as Man. . . . The expression ' forsaken/ expresses by a simile that what we have we have received from God. Hence, just as when anyone is exposed to an evil or a misfortune, he is said to be abandoned or forsaken, so when God allows man to fall into a fault or meet with suffering, he is said to be forsaken. Accordingly, Christ is said to be abandoned, not in the sense that He was deprived of union with the Word, or that He was deprived of grace, but to express that His Passion was permitted Christ says ' why? ' not out of irritation against or discontent with the Divine
0 1 (13) r

Will, but to indicate

a feeling

of cornpassion

towards

the

Jews.

That is why He uses the expression only after darkness has spread over the earth. Hence He means: Why did you will that 1 should have to undergo this passion and that they [the Jews] should be blinded and in darkness? He at the same time expresses admira­ tion for God's wonderful charity.*' The Jewish ideal of a future Messianic Age is opposed to
God's Will in a second way. The Jews reject the Hit per natural Mes­ sias and His supranational Kingdom, -while they continue to look for another Messias. This means that they long for a Messianic

N

by Harry Joshua Stern, p. 100. (13) Theologians usually distinguish between what God wills, by or with an antecedent act of will (votU'titas antecedent, voluntas secnndwni quid), and what He wills simply and unconditionally or by a con­ sequent act of will (voluntas ronserjuens, voluntas simplicitrr). "And thus it is clear that whatever God simply or unconditionally (simpliciter) wills, takes place, though that which He 'wills antecedently or conditionally does not take place" (IaP., Q,19, a,6, ad ]). The per se. order is what God wants in accordance with His holiness, that is, the right and the good, hut this God wills, while at the same time permitting man to resist, through the abuse of his free will. God wills absolutely ox unconditionally what takes place here and now.
(12)

Judaism

in the War of Ideas,

154

THK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST
must of necessity be purely natural.™ Whether this

age which

Messias be taken to be an individual or the race, it means that the Jews, as a nation, must strive to impose their particular na­ tional form on other nations. This imposition of the Jewish Na­ tional form inevitably spells decay for other traditional national forms. The imposition by any nation of its national form on other nations leads to the decay of the other nations, and this is all the more emphatically the case when the attempted imposition is accompanied by the rejection of the one true order of the world, which can be achieved only through Our Lord Jesus Christ/ * The Jewish Messianic ambition, therefore, contains a twofold source of corruption and decay for other nations. It corrupts the national life, on the natural level, and by its opposition to the Supernatural Life coming from Our Lord Jesus Christ, it rejects that succour, by which alone human life, individual and national, can be lived in order. Father Joseph Lemann, a Jewish convert priest, emphasizes the total lack of natural prudence displayed in the admission of Jews to French citizenship at the French Revo­ lution and contrasts the folly of revolutionaries with the super­ natural foresight of the Catholic Church. "The Church is very far-seeing/' he writes, ". . . . She would not allow a Jew to hold any key-position in Christian society, in the 18th century any more than in the 10th century. She would not allow a Jew, for ex­ ample, to teach Christians, to sit under a crucifix as judge over Christians, to take part in the drawing up of laws for a Christian state. The Church's line of conduct is always the same. The Church tolerates Jews, treats them kindly, has compassion on them, but on condition that they remain apart in their own quar­ ters and do not seek to enter into the bosom of Christian societies. She knows well that, if they once obtain entrance, they
15

<Mi "hi the rabbinical apocalyptic literature the conception of an earthly Messiah is the prevailing one, and from the end of the first century of the common (i.e. Christian) era, it is also the one officially accepted by Judaism . . . . His mission is, in all essential respects, the same as in the apocalypses of the older period; he is to free Israel from the power of the heathen world, kill its ruler,, destroy his hosts and set up his kingdom of peace'' (The Jewish Encyclopaedia, vol. VI1L art. Messiah). "The. Messiah, whose, coming the Jews obstinately expect, in spite of the fact that he obstinately refuses to appear, is to be a great con­ queror who will r&duce all the nations of the world to the condition of slaves of the Jews. The latter are destined lo return to the Holy Land in triumph, laden with the riches taken from the non-Jews. Jerusalem is to have a now temple, which will not be built by human hands but will be let down from heaven, ready made and fully furnished, after the fashion of a stasie construction " (Drach. [Jflwmonie aitre U£gli<r
et to. Synagogue* vol. T, p. 08).

M5) " Yar there is one Ood. and one mediator of God and men. the man Chris! Jesus" (J Tim., II, 5).

T H E JEWISH NATTON
16

155

will get control of the heart [of these societies! and upset its proper functioning/'* '
THE TRAGEDY OF THE JEWISH XATIOX.

"The case of governments/* wrote Tope Leo XTI1, "is much the same as that of individuals: they also must run into fatal issues, if they depart from the way. . . . . Let Jesus he excluded, and human reason is left without its greatest protection and illumination: the very notion is easily lost of the end for which God created human society Their minds busy with a hundred confused projects, rulers and subjects alike travel a devi­ ous road, bereft as they arc of safe guidance and fixed principle. Just as it is pitiable and calamitous to wander out of the way, so it is to desert the truth. But the first absolute and essential truth is Christ, the Word of God, consubstantial and co-eternal with the Father, who with the Father is o n c . Pius XF is ju*t as explicit as Leo XIIL " N o belief in God/' he writes, "will in the long run be preserved pure and genuine, if it is not sup­ ported by belief in Christ. . . . Belief in Christ will not be pre­ served true and genuine, if not supported and protected by belief in the Church, the pillar and the ground of truth (I Timothy. IT], 15). Christ Himself, God praised forever, has erected this pillar of faith. His command to hear the Church (St. Matth., XVIII, 17), to hear His words and commandments (St. Luke, X, 16) in the words and Commandments of the Church, is meant for the men of all times and places The moral conduct of mankind is grounded on faith in God kept pure and true. Every attempt to dislodge moral teaching and moral conduct from the roclc of faith, and to erect them on the shifting sands of human regula­ tions, sooner or later leads the individual and the community to moral destruction/^ ' These principles of Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius XI apply with greater force to the Jewish Nation and its leaders than to others, for they have rejected greater graces and turned against
H(17j 38

gives a list of the restrictions imposed on the Jews up to 1789, in order to safeguard the influence of the Supernatural Messias in the social life of Christian States. Jews were forbidden : to have Christian slaves or servants of either sex; to open schools for Christians' or to teach in the Universities; to have posts in the army; to have part in the making or interpreting of laws; to be magistrates: to be owners of real estate or to acquire property: to be chemists or hotel-keepers. <"> Encyclical Letter, Tametsi. On Christ Our Redeemer (1900). U 8 ) Encyclical Letter, if it hrennrnder Sort/c, On the Persecution, of
the Church in Grrm/wy.

<1G* J JEntree des Israelites dans la Societe Francaise et les Stats Chretiens, p. 386. On pages 204 and 205 of the same work, the author

In the^ Encyclical, Divini licdeniptavi*, the ^aiiie holy Pontiff wrote: "Everything must crumble that i* nor grounded on the one corner stone which is Ctirht Jesus."

156

T H E MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

God with direr ingratitude. T h e y are Our Lord's o w n people a c c o r d i n g t o t h e flesh. It is n o w o n d e r , t h e n , t h a t w e find t e r r i b l e d i v a g a t i o n s f r o m o r d e r in t h e b o o k s o r c o d e s w h i c h t h e i r l e a d e r s h a v e compiled to guide a n d d i r e c t their r e l a t i o n s w i t h God a n d t h e i r f e l l o w - m e n . T h e K a b b a l a c o n t a i n s , chiefly, b u t n o t e x c l u s i v e ­ ly, t h e d i v a g a t i o n s f r o m o r d e r w i t h r e g a r d t o m y s t i c a l u n i o n w i t h G o d a n d t h e g r o w t h of t h e s p i r i t u a l life. T h e T a l m u d c o n t a i n s , chiefly, b u t n o t e x c l u s i v e l y , t h e d e v i a t i o n s f r o m r i g h t o r d e r c o n ­ c e r n i n g social r e l a t i o n s w i t h n o n - J e w s . I n v i e w of t h e p o s s i b l e a c c u s a t i o n of e x a g g e r a t i o n , it will b e well to q u o t e a n u n i m p e a c h a b l e w i t n e s s w i t h r e g a r d to t h e T a l m u d . I n h i s s p l e n d i d w o r k , De UHarmonic Enlre UEglise el la Syna­ gogue, t h e K x - R a b b i n D r a c h , h i g h l y h o n o u r e d a n d d e c o r a t e d for his learned w o r k s by Popes L e o X I I , P i u s V I I I and G r e g o r y X V I , w r i t e s a s f o l l o w s : " F o r a l o n g t i m e it w a s m y p r o f e s s i o n a l d u t y to t e a c h t h e T a l m u d and explain its d o c t r i n e s , a f t e r h a v i n g a t ­ t e n d e d s p e c i a l c o u r s e s for m a n y y e a r s , u n d e r t h e m o s t r e n o w n e d of c o n t e m p o r a r y J e w i s h D o c t o r s . N o w t h a t b y t h e g r a c e of G o d I h a v e b e e n led t o a b j u r e its f a l s e d o g m a s , 1 c a n s p e a k of it w i t h full k n o w l e d g e of i t s c o n t e n t s , a s a r e s u l t of m y s t u d i e s , b u t I will e n d e a v o u r t o d o so w i t h c o m p l e t e i m p a r t i a l i t y . O n t h e o n e h a n d , I h a v e d e v o t e d t h e b e s t y e a r s of m y life t o t h e s t u d y of it, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , it m e a n s n o t h i n g t o m e n o w . I s h a l l t h e r e f o r e s e t f o r t h b o t h w h a t is g o o d in i t a n d w h a t is d e f e c t i v e . " T a l m u d ( m o r e c o r r e c t l y Thai mud) . . . . is a H e b r e w w o r d u s e d by t h e R a b b i n s to signify ' d o c t r i n e ' o r ' t e a c h i n g . ' It d e s i g ­ n a t e s m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e g r e a t b o d y of J e w i s h d o c t r i n e , t o w h i c h t h e g r e a t e s t d o c t o r s in I s r a e l h a v e s u c c e s s i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e d a t d i f f e r e n t e p o c h s . Jt is t h e c o m p l e t e civil a n d r e l i g i o u s c o d e of t h e synagogue T h e j u d i c i o u s r e a d e r of t h e T a l m u d is o f t e n s a d d e n e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e of m a n y of t h o s e s t r a n g e a b e r r a t i o n s i n t o w h i c h t h e h u m a n m i n d f a l l s , w h e n b e r e f t of t h e t r u e f a i t h , a n d v e r y f r e q u e n t l y t h e b a s e n e s s of r a b b i n i c a l c y n i c i s m m a k e s h i m b l u s h for s h a m e . T h e C h r i s t i a n a l s o is h o r r i f i e d b y t h e i n s a n e a n d a t r o c i o u s c a l u m n i e s w h i c h t h e i m p i o u s h a t r e d of t h e P h a r i s e e s h u r l s a t e v e r y t h i n g he holds sacred. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e Christian t h e o l o g i a n t h e r e i n discovers useful d a t a and precious t r a d i t i o n s f o r t h e e x p l a n a t i o n of m a n y difficult t e x t s of t h e N e w T e s t a m e n t u s w e l l a s f o r t h e p u r p o s e of c o n v i n c i n g o u r r e l i g i o u s o p p o n e n t s of t h e a n t i q u i t y n o l e s s t h a n t h e h o l i n e s s of C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g . . . . " T h e T a l m u d is d i v i d e d i n t o t h e Misehna, c o m m o n l y called Misna, w h i c h f o r m s t h e t e x t , a n d t h e Ghemara, w h i c h is t h e c o m ­ m e n t a r y a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e t e x t . T h e G h e m a r a is t w o ­ fold, c o m p r i s i n g b o t h t h e C o m m e n t a r y of J e r u s a l e m a n d t h e C o m ­ m e n t a r y of I ' a b y l o n In t h e G h e m a r a , t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t a h u n d r e d p a s s a g e s w h i c h a r e i n s u l t i n g t o t h e m e m o r y of O u r a d o r a b l e S a v i o u r , t h e m o r e t h a n a n g e l i c p u r i t y of H i s h o l y M o t h e r ,

THE JEWISH

NATION

157

t h e I m m a c u l a t e Q u e e n of h e a v e n , as w e l l as t h e m o r a l c h a r a c t e r of C h r i s t i a n s , w h o m t h e T a l m u d r e p r e s e n t s a s p r a c t i s i n g t h e m o s t abominable vices. T h e r e a r e also passages which declare t h a t the p r e c e p t s of j u s t i c e , e q u i t y a n d c h a r i t y t o w a r d s o n e ' s n e i g h b o u r d o n o t b i n d in t h e c a s e of C h r i s t i a n s ; n a y m o r e , t h e y e v e n g o s o f a r a s t o c o n d e m n a s g u i l t y of c r i m e a n y o n e w h o o b s e r v e s t h e s e p r e c e p t s in h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h his C h r i s t i a n n e i g h b o u r s . T h e T a l ­ m u d expressly forbids a J e w to save a n o n - J e w from death or to r e s t o r e to h i m h i s l o s t p o s s e s s i o n s , e t c . , o r to l a k e p i t y on h i m . T h e r a b b i n s d e c l a r e a l s o : ' S i n c e t h e life of a n i d o l a t o r is a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n of t h e J e w , a fortiori his goods.'< Q u o t a t i o n s of t h i s n a t u r e c o u l d b e m u l t i p l i e d a l m o s t indefinitely. In the Mischna, t h e r e a r e o n l y a b o u t f o u r o r five of t h e s e i m p i o u s , m a l i g n a n t , a n d h o r r i b l y i n t o l e r a n t p a s s a g e s , a n d , in a d d i t i o n , t h e e x p r e s s i o n s show a certain moderation. " I n t h e e d i t i o n of t h e T a l m u d p r i n t e d in 1581 b y F r o b c n of Basle, the C e n s o r s , M a r c u s M a r i n u s , 1 talus Brixiensis and P e t r u s C a v a l l e r i u s , s u p p r e s s e d t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t of t h e s e p a s s a g e s w e h a v e j u s t m e n t i o n e d , as well as t h e whole Treatise, A b o d a - Z a r a , w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of i d o l a t r y . A s is w e l l - k n o w n , t h e r a b b i n s c o n s i d e r Catholics as iclolators, because t h e y give to O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t t h e w o r s h i p of l a t r i a a n d t o t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n a n d t h e S a i n t s t h e w o r s h i p of d u l i a . Some time afterwards, h o w e v e r , t h e J e w s r e s t o r e d t h e s u p p r e s s e d p a s s a g e s , in a n e d i t i o n published by t h e m at Cracow. As these passages b r o u g h t forth i n d i g n a n t p r o t e s t s f r o m C a t h o l i c s w i t h a k n o w l e d g e of H e b r e w , t h e J e w i s h S y n o d , h e l d in P o l a n d in 1631. p r e s c r i b e d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e s u p p r e s s e d in t h e s u b s e q u e n t e d i t i o n s . T h e f o l l o w i n g is t h e p a s s a g e of t h e c i r c u l a r l e t t e r b y w h i c h t h e S y n o d c o m m u n i ­ c a t e d t h i s d e c i s i o n : H e n c e w e e n j o i n u p o n y o u , u n d e r p a i n of m a j o r e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n , n o t to p r i n t a n v t h i n g in t h e f u t u r e e d i ­ t i o n s of t h e M i s c h n a - a n d t h e G h c m a r a , r e l a t i n g to t h e a c t s of J e s u s of N a z a r e t h C<>nse<jucntly w e o r d e r y o u t o l e a v e b l a n k in t h e e d i t i o n s t h e p a s s a g e s t r e a t i n g o f J e s u s of N a z a r e t h a n d t o put in p l a c e o f t h e m a circle like t h i s : (). T h i s will be a n i n d i c a t i o n t o t h e r a b b i n s a n d t e a c h e r s t o a c q u a i n t t h e i r p u p i l s w i t h t h e s e p a s s a g e s o n l y o r a l l y . By m e a n s of t h i s p r e c a u ­ t i o n , t h e l e a r n e d a m o n g s t t h e N a z a r e n c s | C h r i s t i a n s ] will h a v e n o e x c u s e for a t t a c k i n g us on t h e p o i n t . ' T o t h e t e s t i m o n y of M . D r a c h . can be a d d e d t h a i o f t h e
( 1 3 ) 20) ( 2 1 ) ( J,( 2 !

T r e a t i s e Jhor/a-Z"ra, K*nn?na fol. 29 rt rao. <20> Foundations of tht
t

fot.

13 /v

foi.

20 recto;

t ratlin

JJ ,f„,.<
f

Faith,

by J o s e p h Abbo, I I I

P a r i , eliap. 25.
1

' - ' The Jew * in l heir a t t a c k s on our religion eon fuse thes< I w o k i n d - of worship. * F r o m The International Jeu\ v o l . I l l , p p . 20-23, we can see t h a t the r a b b i n s and other Jewish teacher- have not failed to form iheir
l 2)

1

158

THK MYSTICAL
f 2 2 ; ll

BODY OF

CHRIST

Ciuilta Caffoliea " : . . . . The g r e a t Jewish family dispersed all o v e r t h e e a r t h c o n s t i t u t e s a foreign n a t i o n in t h e m i d s t of t h e n a t i o n s a m o n g w h i c h it d w e l l s a n d is a t t h e s a m e t i m e t h e s w o r n enemy of t h e i r p r o s p e r i t y . T h e v e r y e s s e n c e of T a l m t i d i s m c o n ­ s i s t s p r e c i s e l y in t h e o p p r e s s i o n a n d s p o l i a t i o n of t h e p e o p l e s t h a t g i v e h o s p i t a l i t y to t h o s e t h a t f o l l o w i t s b e h e s t s . T h i s is w h y S t . P a u l a l r e a d y in his d a y , s p o k e of t h e J e w s a s " d i s p l e a s i n g t o G o d a n d a d v e r s a r i e s of all m e n l l T h e s s . , H , 15). T h a t t h e s i n ­ i s t e r T a l m u d i c c o d e , in a d d i t i o n to h o r r i b l y i m m o r a l r u l e s of c o n d u c t , e n j o i n s h a t r e d of all w h o a r e n o t of J e w i s h b l o o d a n d e s p e c i a l l y of C h r i s t i a n s , a n d a l l o w s t h e m to be p l u n d e r e d a n d m a l ­ t r e a t e d a s n o x i o u s b r u t e s , a r e n o l o n g e r m a t t e r s of c o n t r o v e r s y . T h e t e s t i m o n y of t h e g r a v e s t a n d m o s t j u d i c i o u s s t u d e n t s of t h e Miscfuia w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e t e x t of t h e T a l m u d a n d of t h e Gheinara w h i c h is t h e c o m m e n t a r y t h e r e o n , i n c l u d i n g t h a t of s e v e r a l of t h e m o s t l e a r n e d r a b b i n s of t h e p a s t a n d p r e s e n t m a k e s the m a t t e r absolutely certain.
J

"To

c o n v i n c e t h e m o s t s t u b b o r n d o u b t e r s it will b e

sufficient

p u p i l s in h a t r e d a n d c o n t e m p t of C h r i s t a n d H i s Blessed M o t h e r . Two Jewish editorials are there quoted as follows: " H a l f of C h r i s t e n d o m worships a J e w : the other half -worships a Jewess." " I f the Gospel story is correct. J u d a s was a p r e t t y d e c e n t s o r t of fellow. I t was only after lie h a d become a c o n v e r t to C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a t he became t h a t which h a s made his m e m o r y a n accursed t h i n g for nine­ teen h u n d r e d y e a r s / ' F u r t h e r on, the following e x t r a c t from the m i n u t e s of a m e e t i n g of t h e C o m m i t t e e on F a m i l i e s of the New York B o a r d of C h i l d Welfare is q u o t e d : Mr. H u b b a r d : ' T h a t is one of the t h i n g s I have in m i n d , t h a t a widow d e l i b e r a t e l y b r i n g s i n t o her home a nameless c h i l d a n d the i n e v i t a b l e consequence of that is t h a t her l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n a r e always t h e r e a f t e r p o i n t e d out.*" Miss S o p h i e I r e n e Loeb : 'As far as nameless c h i l d r e n a r e concerned, Vhrtst himself was a aaai*h'-as <hild. Let us g e t a w a y from nameless children.'' D r . D/M-voch : " . . . You a r e c o r r u p t i n g the m o r a l s of those legiti­ m a t e c h i l d r e n by p e r m i t t i n g them t o r e m a i n in such s u r r o u n d i n g s / Miss Loeb : T say t o you t h a t t h i s C o m m i t t e e , if i t t a k e s such an a t t i t u d e as t h a t , is one h u n d r e d y e a r s behind the times.' M r . C u n n i o n : ' A n y t h i n g a g a i n s t p u r i t y is i m m o r a l . ' Miss Loeb : ' W h a t h a s t h a t to d o w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of p u r i t y 1 W a s the m o t h e r of C h r i s t p u r e V Mr. Cunnion : 'Certainly/ Miss L o e b : MIe has n o n a m e / I f it. is objected t h a t Mr. H e n r y F o r d m a d e a public r e t r a c t i o n of The hiternwtio-nal Jew, the answer is easy. Mr. F o r d ' s r e t r a c t i o n holds w i t h r e g a r d to the o p i n i o n s expressed a n d the views a d v a n c e d in the book, but, of course, his p e r s o n a l r e t r a c t i o n does n o t affect the v a l u e of t h e q u o t a t i o n s from Jewish p u b l i c a t i o n s o r the e x t r a c t s from official d o c u m e n t s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t .
'*2a» 4th Oct., 1*90, pp. s-11.

THK JEWISH NATION to consult the work of Achilles Laurent. This hook has been almost completely removed from circulation by the Jews,, because it reveals in masterly fashion the secrets of Talmudism in their application to the annihilation of Christian civilization. Besides, we have in the past given irrefutable proofs of our aftirmaiions, so it would be superfluous to go over them again The other point which renders the organization of the Jews in Christ­ ian countries most dangerous and multiplies a hundredfold the aversion of which they are the object, is the superstitious belief fostered by the Talmud that the Israelites not only constitute the noblest race of the human species, all the others being inferior to them, but that by full divine right the universe belongs to them and will be theirs one day. . . . One can say that this insane belief is the chief dogma of what they call their religion." As the existence of the immoral ceremony called the Kol Nidre has been called in question, it will be well to quote M. Drach concerning it. In his book from which we have alread\ quoted (vol. 1, p. 5 5 9 ) , we read: " Before the chorister of the synagogue intones the first prayer of the Feast of Expiations, three men, forming a tribunal and occupying a place in front of the assembly, annul by their full authority all the vows, engagements and oaths of every member of the assembly, both those of the year just elapsed and those of the year just beginning. This is called Kol (Col) Nidre. Some rabbins have tried to hold that this is only valid for the future. Of course the effect would be the same, even if this were true, since the ceremony is repeated every year. Jiut these rabbins have been victoriously refuted by others who prove that one can profit by it for the past as well as for the future. . . . . According to grave and learned rabbins, a Jew is obliged to get himself thus released only from the promises he may have made to a fellow-Jew, for he cannot contract any obligation at all towards a non-Jew."* * In presence of this ceremony and of the official teaching of Jewry, we can conclude that Jews who faithfully follow the prac­ tices of their religion (the " g o o d " Jews, as they are sometimes called) will strive to eliminate Our Lord's supernatural influence from society quite as effectively as the "bad'' (non-practising) Jews. Such is the Talmud, the code which has been used for centuries to mould and form the attitude of the Jewish Nation towards other nations. Taking into account the principles laid down by Pope Leo XIII and Pope Pius XI concerning the consequences of opposition to Our Lord Jesus Christ and His Church, we see that it was morally inevitable that the Jewish Nation should draw J23) According to the Givilta Gattolica (Oct., 1 8 9 0 , p. 1 5 ) , the Talmud affirms that the three men have the same authority as the tribunal of Moses (Treatise Rosch-Haschahann, fol. 25, 1 ° ) .
23

160

T H E .MYSTICAL

1JODY O F

CHRIST

u p s o m e s u c h code of n a t i o n a l s e l f - s e e k i n g a s w e find in t h e Talmud. I t w a s m o r a l l y i n e v i t a b l e a l s o t h a t t h e t r u e c o n c e p t of J e h o v a h s h o u l d b e c o m e o b s c u r e d for g r o w i n g " n u m b e r s of J e w s a n d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d fall a p r e y t o t h e p a n t h e i s t i c d e i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r r a c e in t h e M a r x i a n m a t e r i a l i s t f o r m a n d in o t h e r s . T H E ANT [ - S U P E R N A T U R A L I N F L U E N C E OF T H E J E W I S H NATION. E v e r y J e w , in so f a r a s h e is a t o n e w i t h his r a c e a n d n a t i o n i n l o o k i n g f o r w a r d to a n o t h e r M e s s i a h o r t o a M e s s i a n i c A g e , s t a n d s f o r a n a t u r a l i s t i c o r a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . T h u s his i n f l u e n c e m a k e s for d i s o r d e r . W e m a y e x p r e s s t h i s t r u t h in a n o t h e r w a y , i n a c o m m e n t a r y o n t h e s t a t e m e n t s o m e t i m e s h e a r d , t o t h e effect t h a t " t h e r e a r e g o o d J e w s a n d bad J e w s . " Can we m a k e a distinction b e t w e e n " g o o d " J e w s a n d " b a d " J e w s , in r e s p e c t of naturalistic aims a n d a n t i - s u p e r ­ n a t u r a l i n f l u e n c e ? It s e e m s t o be l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , a s w e h a v e s e e n . All J e w s , w i t h a v i g o u r p r o p o r t i o n a t e to t h e i r o n e n e s s w i t h t h e l e a d e r s of t h e i r n a t i o n , r e j e c t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l M e s s i a s , O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , a n d s t a n d f o r a n a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . T h e y all r e f u s e to a c c e p t O u r L o r d a s t h e M e s s i a s a n d l o o k f o r w a r d to a Messianic A g e o r g a n i z e d w i t h o u t H i m a n d a g a i n s t Him. It t h o s e w h o a r e t e r m e d " g o o d " J e w s c o m e t o d o m i n a t e in s o c i e t y , t h e v will o r g a n i z e it in o p p o s i t i o n l o O u r L o r d just a s s u r e l y a s t h o s e t h a t a r e c a l l e d " b a d " J e w s . T h e y all suffer f r o m t h a i t e r r i b l e b l i n d n e s s (obcarratio) w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e lighl of t r u t h w h i c h w e b e g G o d l o r e m o v e f r o m t h e i r h e a r t s in t h e t o u c h ­ i n g p r a y e r o f Good F r i d a y . T h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s p r a y e r r u n s a s f o l l o w s : " Let u s p r a y a l s o for t h e p e r f i d i o u s J e w s : t h a t o u r G o d a n d L o r d m a y r e m o v e t h e veil f r o m t h e i r h e a r t s ; that they also m a y a c k n o w l e d g e Our Lord J e s u s Christ. A l m i g h t y a n d E t e r n a l G o d , W h o d o s t not e x c l u d e f r o m T h y m e r c y e v e n t h e p e r f i d i o u s J e w s : h e a r o u r p r a y e r s , w h i c h w e offer for t h e b l i n d n e s s of t h a t p e o p l e : t h a t a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e l i g h t of T h y t r u t h , w h i c h is C h r i s t , t h e y m a y b e d e l i v e r e d f r o m t h e i r d a r k n e s s . T h r o u g h the s a m e Lord - J e s u s Christ, W h o livest and reignest w i t h G o d t h e F a t h e r in t h e u n i t y of t h e H o l y G h o s t , t h r o u g h all t h e a g e s of a g e s . A m c n . " It d o e s s e e m r i d i c u l o u s t o p r a y
( 2 I )

(2-0 T h e t r a n s l a t i o n is t h a t of the Daily Missal, by Dom G a s p a r Lcfehvre, O.S.B. T h e teaching of S t . T h o m a s with r e g a r d to the p r e s e n t d a y signi­ ficance o f Circumcision may he helpful to some in g r a s p i n g m o r e clearly why w e must, oppose Hie N a l u r a l i s i n of even the ' ' r e l i g i o u s " J e w s . St. T h o m a s insists that "just as it would he a m o r t a l sin now for anyone in m a k i n g a profession of F a i t h , to sav (hat Christ is yet to he horn, which the fathers of old said t r u t h f u l l y a n d d e v o u t l y ; so too it would he a m o r t a l s i n n ow to o b s e r v e tho^e ceremonies which the fathers of
v

T H E JEWISH NATION*

161

for deliverance from blindness for the Jews and, at the same time, allow those blind guides to direct our political and economic arrangements. Doubtless there are Jews in whom may be seen excellent natural qualities and Our Lord does not refuse the aid of Divine Grace to those who in good faith may be combating- Him and His Church, but we must always bear in mind that the real struggle in the world is for the overthrow of Naturalism and the return to the Divine Plan for order. Wc have to undo the social apostacy of Europe, and this makes it imperative to combat both Jew­ ish and Masonic Naturalism. There are Masons too, a* well as Jews, in whom excellent natural qualities are present, but the Masonic Society, as such, is naturalistic. And the Jewish Nation affirms its Naturalism much more openly. The Jews, as a nation, are objectively aiming at giving society a direction which is in complete opposition to the order God wants. It is possible that a member of the Jewish Nation, who rejects Our Lord, may have the Supernatural Life which God wishes to see in every soul, and thus be good with the goodness God v\ants, but, objective!//, the direction he is seeking to give to the world is opposed to God and to that Life, and so is not good, if a Jew who rejects Our Lord is good in the way God demands, it is in spite of the movement in which he and his nation are engaged. Our Lord Jesus Christ alone is the source of the goodness God wants to see in every human being, the goodness due to partici­ pation in the Inner Life of the Blessed Trinity. No Jew, in virtue of what he objectively stands for, is >upernaturally good as Gocl wants him to be. Hence there would seem to be a regrettable confusion of thought in the article on The Jews in Ireland, which appeared in The Standard (Dublin), March 3rd. 1939. The article stated: " The Standard stands for the practical application of Christian principles in the public life of Ireland. , . . Doubtless there are good Jews and bad Jews, just as there are good and bad non-Jews in everv countrv. We may praise the good and reprobate the bad . . ' The article in The Standard was perfectly correct in insisting upon the Christian principle of exclusion of hatred of the Jews as a race. The inculcation of that spirit of charity towards the Jews, however, is not the only Christian principle that has a bearing on the problem. To work for the return of society to Christ the King, thus securing the triumph of the supernatural
4

old accomplished with devotion and fidelity" ( l a Ilae, Q.103, a.4). Circumcision was a protestation that the Messias was to be born of Abraham according to the flesh. The unity of the world and the one­ ness of the Divine Plan must* never be lost sight of. If they are not keipt well in mind, confusion of thought is the inevitable result.
2 T

162

TIIK MYSTICAL PODY OF

CHRIST

spirit of the Mystical Hody in social life, is surely a Christian principle. The Jewish Nation is an organized entity opposed to the treatment of our fellow human beings as members of Christ. We must therefore combat their Naturalism. Some Catholics seem t o forget that the Jews who were plotting the crime of deicide were so "pious" and " Ood-fearing" and " g o o d " that they would not go into the hall of Pilate's palace, " that they might not be defiled but that they might eat the pasch " (St. John, XVIII, 28). Pilate had to yield to their scruples and go out to them, yet they were intent on the most awful crime ever committed. Needless to say, there are divisions amongst the Jews in spite of the * ITnited Front " which they certainly present to non-Jews. * There are, for example, as well as the division into Orthodox and Reformed, (he division between the Sephardiiri and the Askenazim —a sort of survival of the old rivalry between the Sadducees and the Pharisees—and that between the Zionists and the non-Zion­ ists. Hut they all agree in the rejection of Our Lord Jesus Christ as the Messiah and they all look forward to a Messianic era in which they, as a nation, will play the role of " Chosen People over the nations of the world. That is what is meant in practice by their Naturalism. It is this naturalistic ideal of domination of the Jewish race and nation, the inevitable consequence of their perversion of the Divine Plan for order, that is stressed in this book. It is, in fact, simply the consciousness of what they hold to be their national mission. As a consequence, in every country, they conduct themselves as a separate and distinct nation destined to mould the others. Anyone who had occasion to observe the world-wide efforts of the Jews at the time of the Dreyfus Case in France is not likely to have any doubt about their national soli­ darity in spite of their dispersion all over the world. M. Orach is very instructive on this subject. Referring to his own painful experience in trying to recover his kidnapped children, he writes: "The police spent nearly two years in fruit­ less attempts to discover what every Jew knew quite well, even the children, not only in France and Kngland, but in every coun­ try where the race of Jacob is to be found. The universally ad­ mitted skill of the French police was powerless to discover the truth, because of the secrecy and discretion which the Jews observe in their dealings with the Go/fini [non-Jews], whenever there is question of a matter of national interest.'* * As we have seen, the Jewish Nation has gradually become the most strongly organized non-secret visible force working for the
025

(25) //fhtrmonir.

enfn: Ulujlise

it hi Sytwynfjur.,

vol.

I, p. 77.

It is to be noted that the ox-rabbin Drach was writing of incidents which occurred in the year of his conversion to the Catholic Faith (18231824), twenty years before the foundation of the Jewish world-wide secret society of the B'nai B'rith.

THE JEWISH

NATION

163

elimination of the supernatural outlook in society and for the installation of Naturalism. The supernatural outlook insists that we arc a race whose highest life, the Divine Life of Grace, by which the Blessed Trinity dwells in our souls, was lost by the fall of Adam but restored by Our Lord Jesus Christ. Naturalism denies the existence of any life higher than natural life and main­ tains that social relations must be organized on that basis. As members of Christ, we are bound to work for the return of society to our loving Saviour. Pope Pius XI insists upon this in the Encyclical on the Kingship of Christ. Let us now take two examples of how our efforts to combat Naturalism will bring us into conflict with Jews in their prepara­ tions for the naturalistic Messias. The first example will deal with the political, the second with the economic, organization of the world. States and nations are bound to acknowledge the Catholic Church as the One True Church. Pope Pius XI, in the same Encyclical Letter, shows that the naturalistic spirit has gradu­ ally come to infect society, because '* by degrees the religion of Christ was put on the same level as false religions and placed ignominiously in the same category with them.'' Previously, Pope Pius VII had written: " By the fact that the freedom of all forms of worship is proclaimed, truth is confused with error, and the holy and immaculate Spouse of Christ, outside of which there can be no salvation, is placed on the same level as heretical sects and even as Jewish perfidy. Now, since the French Revolu­ tion, States have placed erroneous religious bodies on the same level as the Mystical Body of Christ, and the Jews have been .admitted as full citizens of the once Christian States. "The sen­ tentious maxims, which in 1789 were declared to be the synthesis of the Rights of Man, were, in point of fact, merely the Rights of the Jews, to the detriment of those peoples amongst whom those 'Rights' were enthroned."' By granting full citizenship to members of the Jewish Nation, the State, to all intents and pur­ poses, gives free rein to the naturalistic moulding process pur­ sued by the Jewish Nation, in view of the elimination of member­ ship of Christ and the inauguration of the new Messianic era. It thus shows itself indifferent in the struggle between the true Supernatural Messias, who has come, and the naturalistic'Messias, to whom the Jews look forward.
,,(2G) 271

In his work, Questions de Conscience, M. Maritain seems to hold a different view with regard to this last point. He writes as follows: "The emancipation of the Jews, realized by the French Revolution, is a measure that civilized peoples, if they wish to * > Article in the Givilta
Europa, 15th Nov., 1890.
27

Letter, Post lata

diutuma*. Cattoliva,

Delia

questione

Giudaica

in

104

TIIIC M Y S T I C A L

1JODY O F

CHRIST

r e m a i n such, must c o n s i d e r as definite." T h i s is q u o t e d w i t h a p p r o v a l b y l ' A b b c J o u r n e t in Nova et Vetera, July-September, 1939. It s e e m s to t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n of indif­ f e r e n c e t o O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t i n v o l v e d in t h a t S t a t e a t t i t u d e is w r o n g a n d r e n d e r s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t i n t e g r a l r e t u r n t o O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , w h i c h is t h e f o u n d a t i o n of o r d e r . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e n e e d be n o difficulty a b o u t a l l o w i n g J e w i s h n o n - c i t i z e n s , w h o m a y b e p e r m i t t e d to r e s i d e in a c o u n t r y n o t t h e i r o w n , f r e e d o m of w o r s h i p in t h e i r s y n a g o g u e s . T h a t is a t o t a l l y di(Terent tpiesiion from the o n e w i t h which w e a r e concerned. T h e p o i n t a t i s s u e h e r e is t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c d i s o r d e r b y w h i c h , in all r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n s t i t u t i o n s s i n c e 178*), t h e S t a t e r e j e c t s t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r a n d p u t s all r e l i g i o n s on t h e s a m e level. H a v i n g t h u s e n t e r e d t h e c a m p of t h e N a t u r a l M e s s i a s , t h e S t a t e a s a n e c e s s a r y c o r o l l a r y , a d m i t s t h e J e w s t o full c i t i z e n s h i p a n d a l l o w s t h e m in p r a c t i c e t o w o r k f r e e l y f o r t h e s u p r e m a c y of t h e i r o w n N a t i o n o v e r t h e n a t i v e o n e a n d to p r e p a r e for t h e M e s s i a n i c era. I t m a y be w e l l t o q u o t e h e r e s o m e p r o m i n e n t C a t h o l i c w r i t e r s w h o h a v e a d v o c a t e d t h a t t h e full c i t i z e n s h i p of S t a t e s , a c c o r d e d t o t h e J e w s b y t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n , s h o u l d be w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e m . W e s h a l l b e g i n w i t h t h e M a r q u i s d e la T o u r d u P i n , t h e g r e a t F r e n c h social w r i t e r . in h i s b o o k , Vers un ordre Social Chretien, he s a y s that d o w n to the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n " t h e C a t h o ­ lic C h u r c h a n d t h e r u l e r s w h o g o v e r n e d a c c o r d i n g t o h e r m a x i m s k e p t t h e J e w s a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m C h r i s t i a n s . T h e y did n o t p e r ­ s e c u t e t h e J e w s ; t h e } ' did n o t t r e a t t h e m a s e n e m i e s , b e c a u s e t h a t w o u l d be r e p u g n a n t to c h a r i t y , b u t t h e y t r e a t e d ' t h e m a s f o r e i g n ­ e r s , t h a t is lo s a y , a s c i t i z e n s of a n o t h e r n a t i o n . T h e y did not a t t a c k J e w i s h w o r s h i p or J e w i s h laws or J e w i s h c u s t o m s ; on the c o n t r a r y , t h e y p r o t e c t e d t h e f r e e e x e r c i s e of t h e m , b u t o n the c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e J e w s r e s p e c t e d t h e C h r i s t i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e S t a t e a n d did not a t t e m p t to u n d e r m i n e it Jewish p e r / a l y w a s a n o b j e c t of <lis( r u s t . a n d to ( h o s e J e w s w h o dis­ g u i s e d t h e m s e l v e s in o r d e r to p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h e C h r i s t i a n S t a t e a n d d e s t r o y ii, t h e c h a s t i s e m e n t of t r a i t o r s w a s j u s t l y m e t e d out f h e C h r i s t i a n | p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y | S t a l e , we. h a s t e n to r e ­ m a r k , did not con ten t itself m e r e l y w i t h r e p r e s s i n g J ewish rapacity. It p r o t c c l e d i t s e l f a g a i n s t it, e s p e c i a l l y b y i t s s t r o n g e c o n o m i c c o n s t i t u t i o n c o m p r i s i n g t h e c o r p o r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of l a b o u r a n d t h e feudal o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o p e r t y . T h a n k s t o the f o r m e r , it p r e v e n t e d l a b o u r from b e i n g e x p l o i t e d a n d i t s fruits c o n f i s c a t e d b y f o r e i g n c a p i t a l ; b y t h e l a t t e r , it p r e v e n t e d t h e land f r o m b e i n g t a k e n a w a y f r o m t h e n a t i v e o w n e r s a n d k e p t the roof o v e r I heir heads. . . T h u s t h e u s u r i o u s a r t s of t h e J e w s

THE JEWISH NATION

165

were sometimes tolerated without the defences of the Christian State being broken down The Jews inevitably act as a solvent on the Christian State, because they, as a nation, con­ tinue to be convinced that the Empire of the world belongs to them [under the natural Messias to come] . . . . As the primary condition of our emancipation, we must go back to our ancestral mode of action and treat the Jews only as foreigners and as dangerous foreigners." This text of the Marquis de le Tour du Pin is cited by Mon­ sieur Leon de Poncins. This distinguished Catholic authority on the question of secret societies quotes with approval the above passage and adds: "There remains one solution of the Jewish problem, namely, the Ghetto Why are the Jews so power­ ful to-day ? Because, deceived by seductive and insidious for­ mulae, the West has allowed itself to be penetrated and impreg­ nated with the Jewish mentality, a mentality which began to show itself at the epoch of the Reformation and triumphed at the French Revolution The domination of Israel is the con­ sequence of this triumph The modern world sprung from the Reformation and the Revolution of 1789, this world impreg­ nated with the Naturalism of Freemasonry and Judaism, is dying before our eyes." Another distinguished author, Mgr. Henri Delassus, Doctor in Theology, writes as follows: "The first thing to do is to change French legislation. French law, for the last 120 years, is legalizing a falsehood. It considers as French those who are not French, since they are Jews. French legislation, should be in harmony with truth. It ought to restore to the Jews their Jewish National­ ity, in conformity with reason, history, justice and humanity. The legislation introduced by the Revolution represents the Jew as French. He is not French The Jews must cease to be officers, magistrates, professors, civil servants, barristers, attorneys, doctors in the public service We must repeal the law by which Jews have been allowed to usurp the title of French citizens and declare them deprived of French citizenship. Without any foolish acceptation of persons, without a trace of inhuman violence, by an abstract legal provision which cannot wound anybody's self-love and of which, consequently, nobody can complain, Jewish functionaries must be obliged to resign from Government positions Tt is especially to financial centralization that the Jews owe the greater part of their strength. But that financial centralization could not have been maintained if the Jews had not succeeded in securing political centralization Accordingly, without a change in the legis<28)

<2*>

La Mijxterieuxe.

Internationale

was p u b l i s h e d b y ( » . J ? i \ i n c h e * n i \

Paris, ht

Juive

(pp. 270-21%). This work

1936.

166

TTTK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST
2

lation introduced by the Revolution, the restoration of the French State is impossible."* ** Perhaps the most forcible testimony to the necessity of this measure is that to be found in the series of articles contributed to the Civilta Catloliea in October, November and December. 1890. These articles form a complete treatise on The Jewish Qitestiott in Europe, its causes, its effects and the remedies advo­ cated. After having spoken of various unsatisfactory remedies, the writer continues: " In order that the Christian nations may be delivered from the yoke of Judaism and Freemasonry, which is daily growing more oppressive, the only way open to them is to go back along the road they have traversed, to the point where they took the wrong turning. If the Jews are not rendered harm­ less by means of special laws depriving ihcm of that civil equality to which they have no right, nothing useful or lasting will be accomplished. In view of their presence in different countries and their unchangeable character of foreigners in every nation, of enemies of the people of every country that supports them, and of a society .segregated from the societies amongst which they live; in view of the Talmudic moral code which they follow and the fundamental dogma of their religion which' spurs them on to get hold of the possessions of all peoples by any means in their power, as, according to it, they are entitled to rule the world: in view of the fact that the experience of many centuries and our present experience have proved conclusively that the equality of civil rights with Christians, granted them in Christian States, has had for effect the oppression of Christians by them, it follows as a necessary consequence that the only way to safeguard the rights of Christians, where the Jew< are permitted to dwell, is to regulate their sojourn by laws such that it will be impossible for them to injure Christians. "This is what was done in the past. This is what the Jews have been seeking to undo for the last hundred years. This is what will have to be done over again, sooner or later, whether one likes it or not. The position of power to which the laws inspired by the Revolution have raised them in our day is digging under their feet an abyss just as deep as the height to which they have ascended. When the storm, which they by their display of power arc provoking, bursts, they will be hurled down headlong in a catastrophe as unparalleled in their annals as the elTrontcry with which they are to-day undermining the life of the nations that have exalted them *' It is certain that one of the signs of the end of the world foretold in Holy Scripture is the entrance of Israel into the one True Fold. I'ul we are not convinced that there are indications (•29) 7,rx Pourquoi th la Cuern Mondial?., published by Desclce, De Broiuwr o( Cu». Lillo and Paris in 1922.

THE JEWISH

NATION

167

of t h a t c o n v e r s i o n v i s i b l e a t p r e s e n t . T h i s p e o p l e s c a t t e r e d o v e r the f a c e of t h e e a r t h is t o - d a y w h a t it b e c a m e a f t e r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of J e r u s a l e m , w i t h o u t a k i n g , w i t h o u t a p r i e s t h o o d , w i t h o u t a t e m p l e , w i t h o u t a n a t i v e land, a n d , at t h e s a m e t i m e , a m o s t b i t t e r e n e m y of t h e N a m e a n d of the C h u r c h of J e s u s C h r i s t , T r u e G o d a n d T r u e M a n , crucified by t h e i r ' a n c e s t o r s . W e see no p r o o f s , e v i d e n t o r o t h e r w i s e , t h a t it is likely t o c h a n g e for the b e t t e r a n d w e l c o m e a s i t s S a v i o u r t h a t J e s u s w h o m it p u t t o death ft is c e r t a i n t h a t a t p r e s e n t t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n as a whole s h o w s a n i n c o m p a r a b l y g r e a t e r t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s t h e h a t ­ red a n d d e s t r u c t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y t h a n t o w a r d s a b e n e v o l e n t a t t i t u d e t o it a n d a d e s i r e t o s e e it p r o s p e r . " ft is c l e a r f r o m the f o r e g o i n g t h a t • o u r efforts t o u n d o t h e effects of t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n a n d to p e r m e a t e t h e political life of t h e n a t i o n s w i t h C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s will i n v o l v e us in c o n ­ flict w i t h J e w i s h N a t u r a l i s m . It is e q u a l l y c e r t a i n t h a t w e s h a l l have to c o m b a t J e w i s h N a t u r a l i s m in o u r e n d e a v o u r s t o o r g a n i z e economic life on t h e b a s i s of m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t . fn r e g a r d to t h e e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e w o r l d , P o p e Pius X I , in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , On the Social Order, insists that " t h e n o n l y will it be p o s s i b l e t o u n i t e all in h a r m o n i o u s s t r i v i n g f o r t h e c o m m o n g o o d , w h e n all s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y h a v e the i n t i m a t e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e m e m b e r s of a s i n g l e f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n of t h e s a m e H e a v e n l y F a t h e r , and f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e y are o n e b o d y in C h r i s t a n d e v e r y o n e m e m b e r s o n e of a n o t h e r . To h a v e l a s t i n g p e a c e in s o c i e t y , t h e n , w e C a t h o l i c s m u s t s t r i v e t<> b r i n g b a c k t h e g r e a t t r u t h t h a t e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e d m u s t t r e a t o n e a n o t h e r as m e m b e r s of C h r i s t . It is, as w e h a v e s e e n , p a r t of w h a t w e p r o m i s e C h r i s t a s K i n g , w h e n w e m a k e s u b ­ mission t o O u r H e a v e n l y F a t h e r a l o n g w i t h C h r i s t a s Priest, a t M a s s . N o w , t h e a i m of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n is t o s u b s t i t u t e for t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l M e s s i a s in w h o m w e a r e m e m b e r s of o n e B o d y , t h e rule of t h e n a t u r a l M e s s i a s . A c c o r d i n g l y , in v i r t u e of C a t h o l i c p r i n c i p l e s , w e m u s t o p p o s e t h e e f f o r t s of t h e J e w s t o g e t c o n t r o l
(:K)1

(30) The special position of La Cirilta Cattolira a m o n g s t Catholic reviews a n d the encomiums bestowed on it b y Sovereign Pontiffs deserve to lie wore widely known. Let us m e n t i o n a few of them. Pope P i u s I X gave the review its s t a t u s in the following t e r m s : " B y this letter, in v i r t u e of O u r Apostolic A u t h o r i t y , We erect a n d constitute in p e r p e t u i t y the College of W r i t e r s of the P e r i o d i c a l La Cirilta Ctttiolivtt" Pope Benedict XV blessed its w o r k : ' ' W e bless the fruitfu]_ Apostolate which the venerable review. La t Vrilta ('uttolic.a, e a r r i e s on courageously a n d u n w a v e r i n g l y on behalf of the C h r i s t i a n cause.' Pope P i u s XI praised its devotion to the Holy See : " F r o m y o u r assiduous activity a n d from the whole life of La Cirilta Cattotica there radiates that special devotion to the Holy See, which h a s deservedly won for you the benevolence and e-deem of O u r Predecessors a n d O u r s . " t^ ) Encyclical Letter. Quadra ye*/mo Anno.
7 ]

168

TIIK MYSTICAK

BODY 01-

CHRIST

of t h e e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . .How c a n w e s u c c e e d in g e t t i n g e m p l o y e r s and e m p l o y e d to t r e a t o n e a n o t h e r as m e m ­ b e r s oi C h r i s t , if w e a l l o w social o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p a s s i n t o t h e h a n d s of t h o s e w h o h a v e p e r s i s t e n t l y d e n i e d a n d r e j e c t e d H i s D i v i n e M i s s i o n a n d for w h o m t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l K i n g d o m of H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y is s i m p l y a f r a u d u l e n t a t t e m p t t o t u r n I s r a e l a s i d e f r o m its d e s t i n y ? W e h a v e , t h e r e f o r e , to resist and d e f e a t J e w i s h e f f o r t s (o d o m i n a t e s o c i a l o r g a n i s m s a n d m o u l d t h e m a l o n g n a t u r ­ a l i s t i c l i n e s , in o p p o s i t i o n t o O u r L o r d a n d H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y . T h e G u i l d s of t h e M i d d l e A g e s , w h i c h , a s w e h a v e s e e n , r e f l e c t e d t h e s o l i d a r i t y of t h e m e m b e r s of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t in economic organization, rendered wonderful services to their m e m ­ b e r s in t i m e s of s i c k n e s s a n d n e e d , t i n t s efficaciously p r e v e n t i n g J e w i s h m o n e v - l e n d e r s f r o m g a i n i n g c o n t r o l of f a m i l i e s a n d p r o ­ perty.^) W c t o o in o u r d a y m u s t s a f e g u a r d t h e p o o r a n d n e e d y f r o m b e i n g t o r t u r e d b y J e w i s h m o n e y - l e n d e r s . O u r a c t i o n in t h i s c o n ­ n e x i o n m u s t , h o w e v e r , n o t be m e r e l y t h e n e g a t i v e o n e of c o m ­ b a t i n g illegalities and g e t t i n g laws Mutably a m e n d e d , b u t the p o s i t i v e o n e of s e t t i n g u p o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h i c h will r e n d e r s e r ­ vices similar to those r e n d e r e d by the Guilds. Besides this safe­ g u a r d i n g of t h e p o o r a n d n e e d y , t h e r e is t h e m o r e f a r - r e a c h i n g q u e s t i o n of t h e c r e a t i o n of m o n e y a n d t h e r e g u l a t i o n of t h e v o l u m e of e x c h a n g e - m e d i u m u s e d b y C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e s . T h a i p o w e r m u s t n o t b e a l l o w e d t o fall i n t o , s o m e w o u l d s a y , t o r e m a i n in, J e w i s h h a n d s o r i n t o t h e h a n d s of n o m i n a l o r e r s t w h i l e C h r i s t i a n s , M a s o n s a n d o t h e r s , w h o a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n , o r in a l l i a n c e w i t h , J e w s . W e m u s t c o m b a t J e w i s h a t t e m p t s to b r i n g u n d e r their d o m i n a t i o n individual Catholics and Catholic countries, even m o r e vigorously t h a n we must struggle against Freemasonry, because the Jews f o r m a more strongly organized and m o r e cohesive naturalistic force than Freemasonry.
( 3 3 )

T H E DUAL C I T I Z E N S H I P OF T H E JEW'S. R e a d in t h e l i g h t of w h a t h a s b e e n w r i t t e n , t h e f o l l o w i n g o b ­ s e r v a t i o n s will h e l p r e a d e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s i t u a t i o n of a J e w w h o b e c o m e s a c i t i z e n of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r F r a n c e or I t a l y and, say, an I r i s h m a n w h o b e c o m e s a citizen of o n e of t h e s e S t a t e s . T h e m e m b e r s of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n , w h i l e r e t a i n i n g t h e i r p r i m ­ a r y a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e i r o w n n a t i o n , a r e a l s o c i t i z e n s of o t h e r n a (32) Of. The Workingmti/t,'* Guilds of fhe Middle. Jr/es, hv Godefroid K u r t h (The M a r i a Hegina Scries, No. 2, T h e F o r u m P r e s s , C o r k ) . W3) The J e w s , as wo shall see, exercise a very real a n d efficacious p o w e r of influence in F r e e m a s o n r y a n d d i r e c t its action, t h r o u g h the B ' n a i B ' r i t h Lodges, which d o not a d m i t n o n - J e w s , b u t whose members a r e a d m i t t e d to o r d i n a r y Masonic Lodges.

THE JEWISH NATION

169

tions. Given the Messianic aspirations of their own nation, they are bound to strive for the domination of their nation over the others, as Ihey arc firmly convinced that in this way alone justice and peace will reign upon the earth. The positions attained by them in the councils and legislative assemblies of other nations must logically be for them, at least primarily, a means for ad­ vancing the domination of their own people. That Christ should reign over nations, that the influence of His Supernatural Life should be felt in all public life, elevating and purifying it, is utterlyabhorrent to their Naturalism. They entertain considerable contempt for the national patriot­ ism of non-Jews, though in public pronouncements they may pan­ der to it for the sake of their own interests. If the Jews, for ex­ ample, assisted at a peace conference merely as representatives of a Palestinian State, their role thereat would be proportioned to the importance of that State, but when they assist as citizens and representatives of England, France and the United States, then we know that English, French and American citizenship will be utilized for the furtherance of the interests of a nation that believes firmly that English, French and Americans are des­ tined by God to be subject to it. The primary allegiance of an Irishman, who has become a citi­ zen of the United States, is to the United States. He may retain his sympathies with Irish national aspirations, but—to put it mildly—he is not imbued from birth with the idea that the Trish nation is destined to rule over the Americans and all other nations. Besides, if the irishman in question is still a Catholic and believes firmly in the Supernatural Messias already come, he will be con­ vinced that any subordination of the legitimate interests of the nation of which he is citizen to those of any other nation will be sinful. If, in any public capacity, he found his sympathies with Irish national aspirations (which, as has been said, do not include a programme of bringing other nations into subjection) coming into conflict with the mission entrusted t o him of safeguarding primarily the interests of the U.S.A., he would in conscience be obliged to resign. Otherwise, he would fail in his duty to the Supernatural Messias, Our Lord Jesus Christ. The Jew, to be consistent, would fail in his duty to the Messias to come, if he did not subordinate the interests of every other nation to those of his own. There is, accordingly, a vital difference of attitude, which has its ultimate ground in the doctrines respectively held with regard to the Messias. The naturalistic adventure upon which Europe embarked at the French Revolution has been disastrous for the nations of Western Europe, for it has simply meant, as we have seen, that they have allowed the Jewish Nation to impose its national form upon them

170

THK M Y S T I C A L B O D Y O F C H R I S T
(84)

and thus bring about their downfall and decay. The Jewish religion of the Natural Messias necessarily aims at this imposi­ tion of the Jewish national form. The evil was inaugurated by the putting of all religions on the same level and the admission <if the Jews to full citizenship. So the first step to be taken to undo the Naturalism of the French Revolution is to withdraw citizenship of other States from all Jews and limit them to citizen­ ship of one State, their o\vii. Have the Jews a right to Palestine as the portion of the earth's surface in which they may set up a separate State? It is clear from all that has been said about their rejection of the true Supernatural Messias that they can no longer lay claim to it by Divine Right. They were assigned that part of the earth as their inheritance on condition of their being obedient to God. They disobeyed God's command lo hear His Son, by their rejection of Our Divine Lord before Pilate and on Calvary, and they persist in their disobedience. Accordingly, there can be no question of ;i right based on a divine promise. \ s the attempt to set up a Jewish State in Palestine is an effort to dcf\ God, it has been suggested that some other country should be set aside for the Jewish Nation, by international agreement. In that hypothesis all Jews should be made citizens of thai Slate only. Very strict regulations should be made concerning the Jews sojourning in States other than the Jewish State. In addition the Arabs have a natural right t > the country they < have occupied for the last thirteen hundred years. Canon Aiendzen wrote as follows on thi aspect of t h e question, in the Catholic (iazrite (London) of August. l Mn: "The Arab population, which has occupied the country for the lasi 1.300 years, has definite and inalienable rights which must be respected. The Jews are foreign­ ers in Palestine and their intrusion seems an act of unprovoked injustice, h would obviously be unjust if sonic great power by force made Kngland a national home for the Danes on the strength of that people once having been masters of this country a thousand years ago. The Jews have practically evacuated Pales(3-0 "The apostasy oF the Greeks was punished by the Mohammedans who annihilated their Empire. The instrument chosen by the anger of heaven to punish the degenerate Christianity of our day is the Jewish Nation. The power of the Jewish Nation goes on iner-pasing with the spread of the evil spirit, which, in the organization of society, has sub­ stituted the right* of man i'or the Iiighls of (iod" (Ciriltn f'ttttohca, 20th December, l-W, IhUu QuCsfiotit (liiuhtivu in f'Juro/ta). cr>) TJ > writer of the article on the Jewish question in the (Jiriltn ('attolivft of December, I Mill), alread\ referred to, holds thai the once Christian Stales must go back awl take the road they missed at I he French devolution. They mu*t "take away eiputl citizenship from the Jews, for these bitter haw no right to it." At the time that article was written, the return of the Jews to Palestine had not yet appeared on the horizon.
(351 ( K

T H E J E W I S H NATION*

171

tine since 138 A.D., and their intrusion into it after having left it for eighteen hundred years seems unjustifiable, on any known principle of equity. The Mandator}- Power, which at present is the government de facto, is clearly acting against elementary laws of fairnes> in promising to a race, alien in religion, speech and blood, a country already occupied by another nation." The Jewish claim to Palestine is implicitly a denial that they have disobeyed God and missed their vocation by their rejection of the Supernatural Messias. It is the assertion in action that the promised Messias has not yet come and that the day of their national domination over the world will yet dawn. The final re­ sult will inevitably be another disastrous blow to their hopes. All their naturalistic attempts to impose their will on God, instead of accepting His, are, needless to say, doomed to failure, and every failure involves the Jewish Nation in dire catastrophes. In his Letter to the members of his own race, the ex-rabbin Drach expresses these truths in touching fashion. Amongst other things he writes: "The holy men of the Old Testament, the only true Israelites, did not ascribe to the Messias they expected, as the present-day Synagogue does, the mission of leading back our exiled nation to Palestine, tfoc Promised Land, and rewarding it with the glory of this world and the abundance of its goods, but of bringing about our spiritual redemption, as Our Lord Jesus Christ has really done. The prayer called the * Eighteen Bene­ dictions ' which you recite three times a day furnishes an un­ assailable proof of the truth of this s t a t e m e n t .
tt{m

T H E CATHOLIC CHURCH AN'l) ANTJ-SEMIT1SM.

The Catholic Church condemns hatred and want of charity between nations as it condemns them between individuals. By nature we are brothers and by our supernature, the Divine Life of Grace, we are united in a brotherhood which is infinitely nobler still. "Above the brotherhood of humanity and fatherland,** said Pope Pius XI, in a passage already (|itoled, "there is a brother­ hood which is infinitely more sacred and more precious, the bro­ therhood which makes us one in Christ, our Redeemer, namely, our kinship in the Catholic Church, the Mystical Bodv of Christ Himself/' The Church condemns in a more particular manner haired of the Jews. Why is hatred of the Jewish race, as such,- especially odious? Because they are the nation and race in which the Word became flesh. Our, Lord is a Jew of the House of David. This hatred is commonly designated by the term " Anti-Semitism."<37)
(3G» j;Harmonic e'ntre VRathe H he St/nagor/ftf, vol. L p f) (37) Ct The My*thal Body of Christ in ihi Modern World* p. 277, where mention is made of the fact that the t*-riu in too wido and too vague. Cf. article in the Civil*ri Cnttofira, \ih October, 1WX». p. 7,

where a similar remark is nnvde.

172

TT1L M Y S T I C A L

ttODY

OF

CHRIST

" O n M a r c h 2 5 , 192S, t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n of t h e H o l y Office a b o l ­ i s h e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c a l l e d The Friends of Israel, w h i c h in a c t i o n a n d l a n g u a g e h a d d e p a r t e d f r o m t h e m i n d of t h e C h u r c h a n d of t h e F a t h e r s a n d h a d a d o p t e d a m o d e of p r o c e d u r e a b h o r r e n t to the Sacred L i t u r g y / ' The Friends of Israel fell i n t o N a t u r a l i s m , while ostensibly striving to o v e r c o m e J e w i s h N a t u r a l i s m . Never­ t h e l e s s , in t h a t s a m e d e c r e e , t h e C h u r c h i n s i s t s u p o n t h e fact t h a t s h e " h a b i t u a l l y p r a y s for t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e w h i c h w a s t h e c u s t o d i a n of t h e d i v i n e p r o m i s e s d o w n to J e s u s C h r i s t , a n d this, in s p i t e of, n a y r a t h e r , o n a c c o u n t of, t h e i r s u b s e q u e n t b l i n d n e s s . A c t u a t e d b y t h i s s p i r i t of c h a r i t y , t h e A p o s t o l i c S e e h a s p r o t e c t e d t h i s p e o p l e a g a i n s t u n j u s t t r e a t m e n t a n d , a s it c o n d e m n s e v e r y f o r m of h a t r e d a n d j e a l o u s y b e t w e e n n a t i o n s , so in a s p e c i a l m a n n e r it c o n d e m n s h a t r e d of t h e p e o p l e o n c e c h o s e n b y God. T h i s h a t r e d is c o m m o n l y d e s i g n a t e d a s A n t i - S e m i t i s m / ' T h e J e w s look u p o n t h e m s e l v e s as the " Chosen P e o p l e , " be­ cause they hold that they a r e the people destined to b r i n g happi­ n e s s t o t h e w o r l d in t h e M e s s i a n i c e r a y e t t o c o m e . Catholic w r i t e r s w o u l d do well n o t to p a n d e r to this N a t u r a l i s m , b y s p e a k i n g of t h e J e w s s i m p l y as t h e C h o s e n P e o p l e , for t h u s t h e y i n c r e a s e t h e c o n f u s i o n of t h o u g h t in m o d e r n t i m e s . T h e J e w s w e r e c h o s e n t o be t h e c u s t o d i a n s of t h e d i v i n e p r o m i s e s d o w n t o J e s u s C h r i s t , of w h o m t h e y w e r e t o be t h e f o u n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e flesh. They h a v e n o t c e a s e d to be t h e r a c e in w h i c h t h e " W o r d w a s m a d e flesh," a n d , as s u c h , t h e y a r c t h e o b j e c t of s p e c i a l l o v e o n t h e p a r t of O u r L o r d . L>ut t h e N a t u r a l i s m b y w h i c h t h e y r e j e c t O u r L o r d a n d c o n t i n u e t o h o l d t h a t t h e h a p p i n e s s of t h e w o r l d is t o c o m e t h r o u g h t h e i r M e s s i a n i c a s p i r a t i o n s is false a n d m u s t b e e v e r y ­ where combated.
( 3 8 )

If w e t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n of t h e G e r m a n racial t h e o r i e s in t h e E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r , Mil hrennender Sorge, a n d in t h e L e t t e r of t h e S a c r e d C o n g r e g a t i o n of S e m i n a r i e s of A p r i l . 1938, t h e p r e s e n t N a t i o n a l - S o c i a l i s t h a t r e d of t h e J e w i s h r a c e is still m o r e s e v e r e l y c o n d e m n e d , b e c a u s e it is b a s e d on b l a s p h e m o u s and heretical presuppositions. L e t us s e e briefly w h a t t h e s e p r e ­ suppositions arc. T h e S e c o n d P r o p o s i t i o n c o n d e m n e d in t h e L e t t e r of t h e S a c r e d C o n g r e g a t i o n of S e m i n a r i e s r u n s a s f o l l o w s : " T h e v i g o u r of the r a c e , a n d b l o o d - p u r i t y , m u s t be p r e s e r v e d a n d c u l t i v a t e d b y e v e r y m e a n s ; a n y t h i n g t h a t c o n d u c e s t o t h i s r e s u l t is b y t h e v e r y fact honourable and permissible." The Eourth Proposition is: " T h e e s s e n t i a l a i m of e d u c a t i o n is t o d e v e l o p t h e c h a r a c t e r s of t h e r a c e a n d t o i n f l a m e m e n ' s m i n d s w i t h a b u r n i n g l o v e of t h e i r o w n r a c e a s of t h e s u p r e m e g o o d . " T h e F i f t h P r o p o s i t i o n i s : " R e l i g i o n is s u b j e c t t o t h e l a w of r a c e a n d m u s t b e a d a p t e d to i t . " T h e S i x t h <38) The Mystical Bod,/ of Christ in the Modern World, p . 275.

TIIK I E W I S H

NATION

173

is: "The primary source and supreme rule of the whole juridical order is the racial instinct." The Catholic Church teaches that all the baptized, as members of Christ, are meant to live their lives in complete subjection to their Head. All their political and economic activities must be in accordance with Christ's law and wishes, in view of their divinization in and through Christ, True God and True Man. The minimum that the Catholic Church, which has been instituted by Christ to speak in His Name, can demand, is that Christ's mem­ bers should not be forced by society to go against their Head. Tt is for the Catholic Church, not for any other body, to say what is for or against Christ, that is, what is moral or immoral. Now the National-Socialist deification of the German race teaches that the German race, as the highest embodiment of the divine here below, has the right to say, through its representatives and lead­ ers, what is moral and what is immoral. The leaders have to listen to the voice of the blood, the racial instinct, and enunciate its indications to the people. This instinct never errs, even when its decisions are against positive morality or international mor­ ality. The condition of its proper functioning, however, is the purity of the blood. Race-mixtures are disastrous and especially any mixture of Jewish blood with Nordic blood.< While insisting upon the loathsomeness of " Anti-Semitism/' however, we must not forget the complementary truth of the loathsomeness of Naturalism. On the one hand, the Church con­ demns race-hatred in general and hatred of the Redeemer's race in particular. On the other hand, the Church insists, as we have seen, on the duty of combating Naturalism in public and private life, approves of love of native land and extols true supernatural patriotism. We have the right and the duty to defend our coun­ try and our nation against the unjust aggression of another nation. This duty is still more strongly urged upon us when it is question of our country's fidelity to Christ the King. We must, therefore, always and everywhere combat Naturalism in general, and in par­ ticular we must be vigilant in regard to the Naturalism of the Jewish Nation. The tireless energy with which His own nation pursues the elimination of the influence of the Supernatural Life of Grace is doubly painfuj to Our Lord's Sacred Heart. The combat against Naturalism in general and, therefore, against the organized Naturalism of the Jewish Nation, is urged
39)

fSW The New Facial

Pagamism,

p i p . 3, 4.

This question will be treated at length later on, when wc come to examine the National-Socialist movement in its proper perspective as a national reaction against the domination of Judaeo-Masonic natural­ istic internationalism. We shall see that it has turned wrong, because it has sought its inspiration in ideas drawn from decaying non-Catholic Christianity and anti-supernatural philosophy.

174

TIIK

MYSTICAL

T.ODY O F

CHRIST

u p o n u s , for e x a m p l e , by P o p e L e o X I I I (TametsU 1900) a n d P o p e P i u s X I (Quas Primus, 1925, a n d Quadragesimo Anno, 1931). W e a r e w a r n e d a g a i n s t J e w i s h N a t u r a l i s m e x p l i c i t l y in a w h o l e s e r i e s of P a p a l D o c u m e n t s t p m \ e d by P o p e H e n c d i c t X I V . As For U s , " w r i t e s t h a t l e a r n e d Pontiff, " i n this* m a t t e r , a s in al] o t h e r s . W e f o l l o w t h e line of c o n d u c t a d o p t e d bv O u r V e n e r a b l e P r e d e c e s s o r s , the R o m a n Pontiffs. A l e x a n d e r " III ( 1 1 5 9 - 1 1 8 1 ) f o r b a d e C h r i s t i a n s . , u n d e r s e v e r e p e n a l t i e s , t o e n t e r t h e s e r v i c e of J e w s f o r a n y l e n g t h y p e r i o d o r to b e c o m e d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s in t h e i r h o u s e h o l d s . ' T h e y o u g h t n o t , ' he w r o t e , ' to s e r v e J e w s for p a y in a p e r m a n e n t w a y / T h e s a m e Pontiff explains the reason for t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n a s f o l l o w s : — ' O u r w a y s of life a n d t h o s e of J e w s a r e u t t e r l y d i f f e r e n t , a n d J e w s will e a s i l y p e r v e r t t h e s o u l s of s i m p l e folk t o t h e i r s u p e r s t i t i o n a n d unbelief, if s u c h folk a r e l i v i n g in c o n t i n u a l a n d i n t i m a t e c o n v e r s e w i t h t h e m / I n n o c e n t III ( 1 1 9 8 - 1 2 1 6 ) , a f t e r h a v i n g m e n t i o n e d t h a t J e w s w e r e b e i n g a d m i t t e d by C h r i s t i a n s i n t o t h e i r c i t i e s , w a r n e d C h r i s t ­ i a n s t h a t t h e m o d e a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n s of a d m i s s i o n s h o u l d be s u c h a s t o p r e v e n t t h e J e w s f r o m r e t u r n i n g evil for g o o d : ' W h e n t h e y a r e t h u s a d m i t t e d o u t of p i t y i n t o f a m i l i a r i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h C h r i s t i a n s , t h e y r e p a y t h e i r h o s t s , a s t h e p r o v e r b s a y s , like t h e r a t h i d d e n in t h e s a c k , o r t h e s n a k e in t h e b o s o m , o r t h e b u r n i n g b r a n d in o n e ' s l a p / T h e s a m e P o n t i f f s a y s it is fitting for J e w s t o s e r v e C h r i s t i a n s , but n o t f o r C h r i s t i a n s t o s e r v e J e w s , a n d a d d s : ' T h e s o n s of t h e f r e e - w o m a n s h o u l d n o t ' s e r v e t h e s o n s of t h e b o n d - w o m a n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e J e w s , a s s e r v a n t s r e j e c t e d by that Saviour whose death they wickedly contrived, should r e c o g n i s e t h e m s e l v e s , in fact a m i in d e e d , t h e s e r v a n t s of t h o s e w h o m t h e d e a t h of C h r i s t h a s s e t free, e v e n a s it h a s r e n d e r e d them bondmen/ T h e s e w o r d s m a y be r e a d in t h e D e c r e t a l , Etsi Judaeos, In l i k e m a n n e r , in a n o t h e r D e c r e t a l , Cum sit nimis, u n d e r t h e s a m e b e a d i n g , De Juduris cf Sarar.nris (On J e w s a n d S a r a c e n s ) h e f o r b i d s p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s t o be b e s t o w e d on J e w s : * W e f o r b i d t h e g i v i n g of p u b l i c a p p o i n t m e n t s t o J e w s b e c a u s e t h e y profit by t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s tints a f f o r d e d t h e m t o s h o w t h e m ­ selves bitterly hostile to Christians* If a n y o n e s h o u l d a s k w h a t is f o r b i d d e n by t h e A p o s t o l i c S e e to J e w s d w e l l i n g in t h e s a m e t o w n s as C h r i s t i a n s . . . he has only to read the Con­ s t i t u t i o n s of t h e R o m a n P o n t i f f s , O u r P r e d e c e s s o r s , N i c h o l a s I V ( 1 2 8 8 - 1 2 9 4 ) ; P a u l IV ( 1 5 5 5 - 1 5 5 9 ) ; S a i n t P i u s V ( 1 5 6 6 - 1 5 7 2 ) ; G r e ­ g o r y X I I I ( 1572-1585); and C l e m e n t VIII (1592-1605), which are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , as t h e y a r e t o be f o u n d in t h e BuUarrum Iio-manwm"^ A s m y r e a d e r s m a y be u n f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e d o c u m e n t s , it m a y be w e l l t o q u o t e , a s a s p e c i m e n of t h e i r t e n o r , t h e o p e n i n g
u

< °) Encyclical Letter, A

4

quo

p r i m u m

(1751).

THE JEWISH

NATION

175

p a s s a g e f r o m t h e A p o s t o l i c L e t t e r , Antiqui Judacontm, of P o p e G r e g o r y X I I I , J u n e 1, 1581. " T h e p e r v e r s i t y of t h e J e w s of old," w r i t e s t h a t g r e a t Pontiff, w h i c h w a s the s o u r c e of t h e i r c o n t i n u a l r e s i s t a n c e t o G o d ' s l o v i n g k i n d n e s s , s h o w e d itself in even m o r e d e t e s t a b l e f a s h i o n in t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s , i n a s m u c h a s these l a t t e r s i n n e d still m o r e g r i e v o u s l y t h a n t h e i r a n c e s t o r s did by r e j e c t i n g t h e S o n of G o d a n d i m p i o u s l y p l o t t i n g Mis D e a t h . H a v i n g t h u s g i v e n G o d a d d i t i o n a l c a u s e for a n g e r a n d b e c o m e more w i c k e d even t h a n their p r o g e n i t o r s , they were driven from their o w n c o u n t r y , d e l i v e r e d u p t o p e r p e t u a l b o n d a g e , a n d s c a t t e r e d far a n d w i d e o v e r t h e face of t h e e a r t h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y h a v e n o w h e r e m e t w i t h g r e a t e r k i n d n e s s t h a n in the d o m i n i o n s of Christian rulers. E s p e c i a l l y h a s t h i s b e e n t h e c a s e in t h e t e r r i ­ tories subject to the Apostolic See. T h e Sovereign Pontiffs, ever a n x i o u s for t h e c o n v e r s i o n of t h e J e w s , h a v e r e c e i v e d them kindly, h a v e g r a c i o u s l y a l l o w e d t h e m t o d w e l l a m o n g s t t h e i r o w n s u b j e c t s a n d h a v e a l w a y s s t r i v e n w i t h p i o u s zeal to d r a w t h e m to t h e l i g h t of t r u t h . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y h a v e h e l p e d t h e m t o s e ­ cure t h e n e c e s s a r i e s of life, h a v e ' f o r b i d d e n all to i n j u r e o r i n s u l t t h e m a n d in t h e i r b e n e v o l e n c e h a v e b e s t o w e d m a n y p r i v i l e g e s upon t h e m for t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n . T h e J e w s , h o w e v e r , in n o w a y softened bv these benefits and with their ancient anti-Christian a t t i t u d e u n c h a n g e d , d o n o t c e a s e , in t h e i r s y n a g o g u e s a n d e v e r y ­ where, to rage against O u r Lord J e s u s Christ now gloriously r e i g n i n g in h e a v e n . M o v e d by an i n t e n s e h a t r e d of t h e m e m b e r s of C h r i s t , t h e y c o n t i n u e t o p l a n h o r r i b l e c r i m e s a g a i n s t t h e C h r i s t ­ ian r e l i g i o n w i t h d a i l y i n c r e a s i n g a u d a c i t y / '
14

T h e s p r e a d of t h e s p i r i t of t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n h a s c a u s e d t h e R i g h t s of G o d t o b e o b s c u r e d . T h e y m u s t be u n e q u i v o c a l l y p r o c l a i m e d , a n d t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t m a d e k n o w n . W e h a v e t o u n d o t h e t r i u m p h s of J u d a e o Masonic N a t u r a l i s m and guide aright the national reactions that h a v e c o m e o r a r e c o m i n g e v e r y w h e r e a g a i n s t t h e d o m i n a t i o n of the t w o n a t u r a l i s t i c I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m s of J e w r y a n d F r e e m a s o n r y . All this w e m u s t d o , w h i l e k e e p i n g o u r souls free f r o m h a t r e d , for w e c o u l d n o t face C h r i s t t h e K i n g in j u d g e m e n t , if w e h a t e d His o w n race and nation. O u r reaction a g a i n s t J e w i s h N a t u r a l i s m m u s t be s u p e r n a t u r a l . O n e of t h e r e a s o n s w h y n o n - C a t h o l i c w r i t e r s s o m e t i m e s fail t o m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e d a t t i t u d e w i t h r e ­ g a r d t o t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n is b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a vivid r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e c o r r u p t i o n a n d d e c a y of t h e i r n a t i o n a l life, w h i c h is t h e i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of J e w i s h influence. In t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s t h i s truth and a r o u s e t h e i r peoples to defend their traditions, t h e y a r e u n f o r t u n a t e l y liable t o e r r . U n l e s s g u i d e d by C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y a n d T h o m i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y , n a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s a r e in d a n g e r of t u r n i n g w r o n g a n d p l u n g i n g still d e e p e r i n t o t h e m i r e of N a t u r a l ­ ism.

1/0

TIIK MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

As an example of disordered reaction to Jewish Naturalism, w e may mention Arnold Lcese's pamphlet, Race and Politics, a
Coimtcr-blast to the Masonic Teaching of Universal Brotherhood,

published by the Imperialist Fascist League. This pamphlet is deeply impregnated with the false racial theories of Rosenberg and German racialism in general. The moral law, binding upon nations as upon individuals, disappears in favour of the instincts of the Aryan Race. " The true Internationalism," we read, " is the instinctive respect of one Aryan Nation for another." Again we find: " The real value of the Aryan o r Nordic Race is in its in­ stincts, which result from the experience of its ancestors handed down as an hereditary memory, and may very truly be said to be the highest form of knowledge." A leaflet of the same League points out that the imposition of the Jewish National form proceeds by the propagation of "crazy cull>, unhealthy m\ .-.licism, pseudo-science and sham philosophies." Surely it ought to be manifest to the members of the League that Rosenberg's race theory is a typical example of a "crazy cult" and a "sham philosophy/' leading men still further away from Our Divine Lord. In face of Jewish Naturalism, then, we must proclaim the supremacy of the Supernatural Life of the Mystical Body, by which we arc spiritual descendants of Abraham, over the natural life of Abraham's descendants according t o the llcsb, as over every form of national life. " All are not Israelites that are of Israel; neither are all they that are the seed of Abraham, children/* * * In face of Rosenberg's naturalistic deification of the German race and bis rejection of Jewish blood as poisoned, we must proclaim that the Mystical Ih>dy of Christ is the one divinely-instituted supernatural society in which all. both Jew and Gentile. Gorman and non-Gorman, find redemption. As Abraham merited by his faith and obedience to be the ancestor of the Head of redeemed humanity, who was, therefore, of Jewish blood; so wc, by our faith and obedience, are his spiritual descendants, spiritually Semites, members of the Mystical Body of Abraham's seed. This is what Pope Pius XI emphasized when he used the expression: " Wc are spiritually Semites," addressed to the members of a Belgian pilgrimage in September, 1938. Pope Pius XFs phrase is an echo of the one used by Pope Pius IX to the Jewish convert priests, the Fathers Lemann: "You are the sons of Abraham and 1 also."* )
4 1 (42) 43

(«> Rom., IX, G, 7. If the Arabs may be spoken of as the descendants of Ishmael, we seo that Mohammedanism, too, goes hack to Abraham. In this case, too, it is a question of physical descent, and the Messias,. Mahomet, has already come. (4.'t) "Tos e.stix fitii Ahrahac rt etjo" This is quotod in thr hook, La

THK JEWISH

NATION

177

The phrase used by P o p e Pius X I has been very frequently quoted, in f a c t , s o f r e q u e n t l y t h a t o n e is inclined t o s u s p e c t t h a t it is b e i n g u s e d a s p r o p a g a n d a w i t h a v i e w t o e m p h a s i z i n g o n e aspect of t h e q u e s t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n o n e h a r d l y e v e r finds any a l l u s i o n t o t h e p r e v i o u s p o r t i o n of t h e P o p e ' s d i s c o u r s e . P o p e Pius X I a l s o s a i d : *' I t is i m p o s s i b l e for C h r i s t i a n s t o b e A n t i Semites, b u t W e a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t e v e r y o n e h a s t h e r i g h t t o defend himself, in o i l i e r w o r d s , t o t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e c a u t i o n s for his p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t t h r e a t e n s his l e g i t i m a t e interests." H e n c e w e find in t h i s p r o n o u n c e m e n t of P o p e P i u s X I t h e t w o c u r r e n t s w h i c h , d o w n t h e c e n t u r i e s , r u n t h r o u g h t h e official d e ­ c l a r a t i o n s of t h e H o l y S e e c o n c e r n i n g t h e J e w s . > On the one hand, t h e S o v e r e i g n P o n t i f f s s t r i v e t o p r o t e c t t h e J e w s f r o m physical v i o l e n c e a n d t o s e c u r e r e s p e c t for t h e i r f a m i l y life a n d their w o r s h i p , a s t h e life a n d w o r s h i p of h u m a n p e r s o n s . O n t h e other h a n d , t h e y a i m u n c e a s i n g l y a t p r o t e c t i n g C h r i s t i a n s f r o m the c o n t a m i n a t i o n of J e w i s h N a t u r a l i s m a n d t r y t o p r e v e n t J e w s from o b t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o v e r C h r i s t i a n s . T h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e second c u r r e n t n e e d s t o b e s t r o n g l y s t r e s s e d , b e c a u s e , t o s o m e extent, it h a s b e e n l o s t s i g h t of in r e c e n t t i m e s . C a t h o l i c s n e e d to be m a d e f a m i l i a r , n o t o n l y w i t h t h e r e p e a t e d P a p a l c o n d e m n ­ ations of t h e T a l m u d but w i t h t h e m e a s u r e s t a k e n by t h e S o v e r e i g n Pontiffs t o p r e s e r v e s o c i e t y f r o m t h e i n r o a d s of J e w i s h N a t u r a l ­ ism. O t h e r w i s e t h e y will be e x p o s e d t o t h e r i s k of s p e a k i n g of Pope St. P i u s V a n d P o p e B e n e d i c t X I V , for e x a m p l e , a s a n t i S e m i t e s , a n d s o s h o w i n g i g n o r a n c e of t h e m e a n i n g of S u p e r n a t u r a l Life and of t h e r u l e of C h r i s t t h e K i n g o v e r s o c i e t y .
(44

T h e p o i n t h a s b e e n r a i s e d t h a t P o p e P i u s X I ' s a p p e a l in t h e Encyclical L e t t e r , On the Troubles of Our Time, to " a l l t h o s e who still b e l i e v e in G o d a n d a d o r e H i m l o y a l l y a n d h e a r t i l y " t o unite a g a i n s t t h e e n e m i e s of r e l i g i o n is a d d r e s s e d t o t h e J e w s who b e l i e v e in G o d a s w e l l a s t o C a t h o l i c s a n d n o n - C a t h o l i c C h r i s t Cause des restes d'Israel introduite au Con cite Oecumenitjue du Vatican, by the F a t h e r s L e m a n n . For the full t e x t of Pope P i u s X I ' s Discourse, cf. The Kingship of Christ and Organized Naturalism, by the present writer (The F o r u m Press, Cork). The A n t i p h o n of the M a g n i f i c a t o f the first vespers of Q u i n q u a g e s i m a Sunday expresses the same idea in succinct fashion. I t r u n s as fol­ lows: "Noble A b r a h a m , the F a t h e r of o u r faith, offered a holocaust on the a l t a r in the place of his s o n . " Cf. the text of Gal., I l l , 2 9 : '/And if y u u be Christ's, then you a r e the seed of A b r a h a m , h e i r s according to the p r o m i s e . " M. D r a c h quotes this text when, a d d r e s s i n g his fellow-Israelites, he s a y s : " I t is only through Jesus t h a t you can be children of A b r a h a m " {UHarmonie entre
Vftgh.Rc et la Synagogue* vol. I, -p. 25).

<W Cf. article Juifs de la Vol Chretienne. 0

et Chretien*,

in thf Dirtionnaire

Apologetique

178

THK

MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

i a n s . S t a r t i n g f r o m t h i s , it is i n s i n u a t e d t h a t t h e P o p e d e s i r e s an o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y b a s e d on c o m m o n belief in G o d . N o w , the a p p e a l is c e r t a i n l y a d d r e s s e d t o all s i n c e r e b e l i e v e r s in G o d t o b e g t h e m t o c o m b a t t h e C o m m u n i s t p r o p a g a t o r s of a t h e i s m a n d i r r e l i g i o n a n d t h u s w a r d off' t h e g r e a t d a n g e r t h a t t h r e a t e n s all, but s u r e l y it m u s t not be t a k e n a s d e n y i n g all t h a t t h e s a m e H o l y P o n t i f f h a d s a i d in hi?* o t h e r K n c y c l i c a l s a l r e a d y q u o t e d . If J e w s a r e s i n c e r e in t h e i r belief in G o d , t h e y o u g h t t o c o m b a t C o m m u n ­ i s m , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r b e l i e v e r s in G o d , but a n a p p e a l t o t h e m to d o s o d o c s n o t i m p l y an a c c e p t a n c e of c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e m f o r a n a t u r a l i s t i c a n d a m i - s u p e r n a t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . T h a t w o u l d m e a n t h e d e n i a l of w h a t P o p e P i u s X I h a d a l r e a d y w r i t t e n in t h e K n c y c l i c a l s , Quas Primas a n d Quadragesimo Anno, a n d w o u l d m a k e null a n d void t h e p r i n c i p l e s s o c l e a r l y e n u n c i a t e d in t h e l a t e r K n c y e l i c a l L e t t e r . Mit Hrennender Sorge. " B e l i e f in G o d will not in the l o n g r u n be p r e s e r v e d p u r e a n d g e n u i n e , if it is n o t s u p p o r t e d by belief in C h r i s t . . . . a n d belief in C h r i s t will n o t be p r e s e r v e d t r u e a n d g e n u i n e , if it i> not s u p p o r t e d a n d p r o t e c t e d b y belief in t h e C h u r c h . " Can w e >uppose P o p e Pius X I t o h a v e a p p e a l e d f o r a n o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y in w h i c h be­ lief i n t h e d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t a n d t h e C h u r c h , w h i c h t h e J e w s d o n o t a c c e p t , w o u l d be r e l e g a t e d t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d ? C a n w e con­ c e i v e t h a t t h e P o p e w h o s a i d " e v e r y t h i n g m u s t c r u m b l e t h a t is n o t g r o u n d e d o n t h e o n e c o r n e r s t o n e w h i c h is C h r i s t J e s u s ' * w a s d e s i r o u s of a n o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y b a s e d on i n d i f f e r e n c e to t h e d i v i n i t y of J e s u s ?<
45)

REASON FOR SPKCJAL O P P O S I T I O N TO T H E J E W I S H NATION. Up t o C a l v a r y , t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n , w h i c h w a s 10 b e f o u n d in t h e a n c i e n t w o r l d , w a s a c o m p o u n d of t h e selfc e n t r e d r e s i s t a n c e lo t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e , w h i c h is t o be f o u n d i n f a l l e n m a n , a n d of t h e h a t r e d a r o u s e d b y J e w i s h p r i d e . J e w i s h n a t i o n a l p r i d e , w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d in t h e r e j e c t i o n of O u r L o r d a t t h e P r a e t o r i u m a n d o n C a l v a r y , did n o t a r i s e in a g e n e r a t i o n . It w a s a g r a d u a l g r o w t h a n d it p l a y e d its p a r t in t h e h a t r e d w h i c h t h e J e w s d r e w o n t h e m s e l v e s b e f o r e t h e c o m i n g of O u r L o r d . S t i l l , u p t o C a l v a r y , s a l v a t i o n w a s f r o m t h e J e w s , in t h e s e n s e t h a t H e W h o w a s 10 r e s t o r e t h e Real L i f e of t h e w o r l d w as t o be of t h e i r r a c e a n d l i e w a s t o a s k t h e m t o b e t h e h e r a l d s of the R e a l L i f e a n d of the D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r . S i n c e C a l v a r y , t h e i r s e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s and p e r s i s t e n t r e s i s t a n c e lo o r d e r d r a w upon them e v e n g r e a t e r h a t r e d a n d o p p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e i r f e l l o w - m e m b e r s of t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c camp. T h e i r efforts to lead t h e w o r l d to a M e s ­ s i a n i c e r a of definitive p e a c e , b y t h e i m p o s i t i o n of t h e i r n a t i o n a l
y

^ ' C'f. munism.

(4

Encyclical Letter. JJirini

/frdettiptor/s,

On At/teistic

Com­

THE JEWISH

XATIOX

179

form, a r e o p p o s e d , a s w e h a v e s e e n , n o t o n l y t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l Life of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , h u t also to t h e n a t u r a l d e ­ v e l o p m e n t of n a t i o n a l life. T h e i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t is o p p o s i t i o n t o and d i s l i k e of t h e J e w s . W h e n t h e n a t u r e of t h e i r i n i l u e n c c b e ­ comes m a n i f e s t t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n , v i o l e n t r e s e n t m e n t is a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e . W e m a y e x p r e s s t h e t r u t h c o n t a i n e d in t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h in a n o t h e r w a y . T h e mart w h o o b s t i n a t e l y r e s i s t s D i v i n e G r a c e will n o t r e m a i n an u p r i g h t n a t u r a l m a n . H e will s i n k d o w n t o an i n f r a - h u m a n level a n d he will h a v e a d e b a s i n g i n f l u e n c e o n those a r o u n d h i m . So t h e J e w i s h X a i i o n , in its o b s t i n a t e r e s i s t ­ ance t o t h e R e a l L i f e of t h e w o r l d , h a s d e v e l o p e d u n n a t u r a l t r a i t s and is d r a g g i n g t h e w o r l d d o w n t o a n i n f r a - h u m a n level. A n d t h e poor d e l u d e d a n d d e b a s e d w o r l d , in a n effort to s a v e itself, t u r n s upon t h e J e w s w h o h a v e d o n e s o m u c h t o lead it a s t r a y . T h e r e is a f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e i n o r i g i n b e t w e e n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e J e w s a n d o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . O p p o s i t i o n t o the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h is o p p o s i t i o n , led b y S a t a n , t o t h e S u p e r ­ n a t u r a l L i f e a n d t o t h e r e a l o r d e r of t h e w o r l d : t h e p a r t i c u l a r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e J e w s h a s i t s o r i g i n in a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r pride a n d a g a i n s t t h e i r e f f o r t s t o i m p o s e t h e i r d o m i n a t i o n . This pride a n d t h e s e i n o r d i n a t e a m b i t i o n s a r e the c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e i r special r e s i s t a n c e to t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l Life and o r d e r of t h e w o r l d , at t h e i n s t i g a t i o n of S a t a n . G o d is d r a w i n g g o o d o u t of evil. H o m e - s i c k n e s s a f t e r t h e u n i t y of t h e C h r i s t i a n w o r l d t h a t e x i s t e d before t h e 16th c e n t u r v is g r o w i n g g r e a t e r , as the t r u e c h a r a c t e r of t h e g o a l t o w a r d s w h i c h J e w i s h X a t u r a l i s m is l e a d i n g b e c o m e s more evident. A f e w e x t r a c t s f r o m t h e a r t i c l e in t h e Civiltt) CaUolicu will help t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e p o i n t s . " W h e n X a p o l e o n \ t h o u g h t of g r a n t i n g full e q u a l i t y of civil r i g h t s t o t h e J e w s in F r a n c e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c e n t u r y , t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d l a w y e r . P o r t a l i s , d r e w up a d o c u m e n t . . . in w h i c h he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , in t h e c a s e of the J e w s , r e l i g i o u s t o l e r a n c e s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e g r a n t i n g of civil s t a t u s . ' T h e J e w s . " lie said, ' a r e n o t m e r e l y a religious s e c t b u t a p e o p l e . T h i s p e o p l e , w h i c h f o r m e r l y h a d its own t e r r i t o r y a n d i t s t>wn g o v e r n m e n t , h a s b e e n d i s p e r s e d , b u t not b r o k e n u p . It m o v e s all o \ e r t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e s e e k i n g a refuge b u t n o t a jwlria <>r n a t i v e l a n d , it is to be found a m o n g s t all t h e n a t i o n s b u t it is n e v e r a s s i m i l a t e d , li l a k e ^ u p l o d g i n g e v e r y w h e r e a s a f o r e i g n e r on f o r e i g n ^oil. T h a t c o m e s from t h e n a t u r e of J e w i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . " H e n c e it s t a n d s out a s c l e a r as n o o n - d a y t h a t t h e J e w s e v e r y ­ where form a n a t i o n within a nation, and that, a l t h o u g h they live in F r a n c e , G e r m a n y a n d E n g l a n d , t h e y n e v e r b e c o m e F r e n c h , Germans, or English. T h e y remain J e w s and nothing but J e w s . ... I t f o l l o w s a s a c o r o l l a r y of t h i s c o n d i t i o n of t h i n g s t h a t in

180

T H K M Y S T I C A L B O D Y OK

CHRTST

no country has the Jew a native land, a yafrift, that is, the land of his fathers. Accordingly, the patriotism of which he contin­ ually boasts and of which be pretends to be the apostle, in order to attain his own end of ruining and devouring" the nations that have been foolish enough lo grant him the rights of citizenship, is simply a monstrous imposture. Tim is the reason why the loathsome pwfessions of spy and traitor come natural to him. Bismarck's saying, namely, that * Cod has created the Jew to serve as a spy to anybody who needs one is w«U-known, as is also thai of Count Cavottr who used t o say of a Jew, his con­ fidant: * Tic is most useful to me, in order to give publicity to whatever J want lo make known. I have hardly finished speak­ ing to him, when he has betrayed me.' "Last July, the Krcttzzcitomf/ of Merlin related the following incident from the Mnwtoirrs of an army officer: 'During the war of 1S70, I was attached to the Tenth Army, commanded by Gen­ eral Voigts-Khctz. 100.000 tbalers had been assigned to that general to pay spies. He returned to Merlin, however, with the sum intact, because he could not succeed in hiring any amongst the French. On the other hand, in the war against Austria in 1866, things were quite different. The Jews came in crowds and sold us cheaply information about all the movements of the Im­ perial Army. These Jews were subjects of Austria and therefore voluntary spies/ "History is full of betrayals on the pari of Jews. . . . The Jew, Goldsmit, a few ycar.s ago, stole the most closely guarded maps of the Prussian Higher Command and sold them. The Jew, Klootz, betrayed the Knglish General Hicks and his forces, in the Soudan, lo the Mahdi's savage hordes. The Jew, Adlcr. betrayed the confidence placed in him by Krajewski and delivered him over to Prussia. The Jew, Detilz, betrayed the Duchess of Merry for the sum of 500,000 francs. And thus it has always been down the ages, from the Jew. Scdecia. who poisoned Charles the Bald, to the Jewess PaVva who a short time ago, in Paris, was manoeuvring to steal the plans of the Kreuch army in order to sell them."* ™
1 4

DIVINE

PKOYIPEN0E

AND

TilE

JEWISH

NATION.

When Our ford, the supreme manifestation of the fatherhood of God, came amongst the Jews, they turned against 1 lim and rejected His message of Supernatural Life and peace. To have accepted Him and the real order of (be world would have meant that I bey were prepared to acknowledge that the domination of their nation over others was not the supreme good and the final destiny of the universe. This they would not do. They refused and, as a nation, continue V* refuse lo admit the reality of the
< " Op. oil., 4th Oct., HflO.
ir

THE

JEWISH

NATION

181

S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e a n d t o a c k n o w l e d g e C h r i s t as its unique s o u r c e . A s a n a t i o n , t h e y c o n t i n u e clown t h e a g e s to w a r a g a i n s t t h e i d e a of t h e r e b e i n g a n y h i g h e r social e n t i t y t h a n the J e w i s h n a t i o n . T h e i r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , in so far a s it is co­ o r d i n a t e d , is b a s e d o n t h e i d e a t h a t u n i t y is to c o m e t o t h e worWl, not t h r o u g h t h e s u p r a n a t i o n a l M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s I, b u t through t h e i r n a t i o n . T h e i r u n y i e l d i n g opposition to the Super­ n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e a n d t o t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r h a s m e a n t the e x i s t e n c e of a d d i t i o n a l w e a k n e s s a n d division a m o n g s t t h e E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s a n d in t h e r e s t of t h e w o r l d . B e c a u s e t h e n a ­ tions of E u r o p e h a d a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , they w e r e c h a r g e d w i t h a s p e c i a l m i s s i o n to d r a w t h e r e s t of t h e w o r l d i n t o t h e u n i t y of t h a t B o d y . If t h e J e w i s h n a t i o n a s s u c h h a d h u m b l e d itself a n d s i n c e r e l y r e p e n t e d a n y t i m e f o r t h e l a s t 1,900 y e a r s , it w o u l d h a v e i m m e d i ­ a t e l y m e a n t a n e n o r m o u s i n c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r s of m e m b e r s of C h r i s t in t h e w o r l d , for t h e y w o u l d h a v e p u t t h e i r r e s t l e s s energy i n t o m i s s i o n a r y w o r k for H i m . But alas: " A l l the day long h a v e I s p r e a d m y h a n d s to a people that believeth not and contradicteth m e " (Rom., X, 2 1 ; Is., L X V , 2). " T h e Messias," w r i t e s F a t h e r L i b e r m a n n , C.S.Sp., ' ' a p p e a r e d a m o n g s t t h e J e w s . T h e y did n o t a c c e p t H i m . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y p e r s e c u t e d H i m . . . . T h e y w e r e in a h u r r y t o g e t r i d of H i m . So g r e a t in f a c t w a s t h e i r h a t r e d of H i m t h a t t h e y w o u l d h a v e killed H i m b e f o r e t h e t i m e fixed b y G o d ' s e t e r n a l d e c r e e s , if t h e y h a d b e e n a b l e . F o r t h e p a s t 1,800 y e a r s s i n c e H i s D e a t h , t h e y s e e k H i m a n d t h e y c a n n o t find H i m . T h e y l o o k for H i m in all t h e g r e a t c a l a m i t i e s w h i c h fall u p o n t h e m . T h e y r e j e c t e d t h e T r u e M e s s i a s , t h e O m n i ­ p o t e n t S o n of G o d , a n d t h e y f o u n d B a r c o c h e b a s in o n e of t h e i r g r e a t e s t afflictions. I t w a s j u s t a n d fitting t h a t i n s t e a d of find­ i n g O u r S a v i o u r t h e y s h o u l d h a v e f o u n d t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e i r r u i n in B a r c o c h e b a s , s i n c e t h e y h a d p r e f e r r e d B a r a b b a s t o Him."* * Y e t , in s p i t e of t h a t a g e l o n g o p p o s i t i o n , G o d h a s n o t a l l o w e d t h a t n a t i o n t o d i s a p p e a r " w h o s e a r e t h e f a t h e r s , a n d of w h o m is C h r i s t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e flesh, w h o is o v e r all t h i n g s , G o d blessed for ever. A m e n " ( R o m . , I X , 5). T h e y have been p r e s e r v e d b y a s p e c i a l m y s t e r i o u s d e s i g n of D i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e .
( 4 7 ) 48

T H E T W O CAMPS. T h e o r d e r of t h e w o r l d d e m a n d s t h a t t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n s h o u l d p a s s f r o m t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c a r m y of t h e e n e m i e s of C h r i s t i n t o t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l c a m p of t h e m e m b e r s of H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y , for, here b e l o w t h e r e are only t w o c a m p s , the S u p e r n a t u r a l and the Naturalistic. This g r e a t t r u t h m u s t not be obscured, no m a t t e r h o w < Cf. lira nail* e.t Natioiuilisme, by C. Barthas. <*S) Commentary on St. Jofm's Gospel, p. 319.
47)

182

THK

M Y S T I C A L HODY O F C H R I S T

strongly one may feci the necessity of stressing the special mys­ terious design of [)i\ iue Providence in preserving the Jewish Nation, in spite of their continued resistance to His love. Certain phrases used by M. Jacques Maritain in T<es Jvifs par mi Irs Nation*, a pamphlet published by Les Editions dtt Cerf of Paris, arc, it seems to me, calculated lo obscure the clear-cut issue between Naturalism and S u p r a n a t u r a 1 i * m . ' The author writes as follows: " T o the eyes of a Christian who remembers that the promises of Cod arc without repentance, Israel continues its sacred mission, but continues it in the darkness of the world, pre­ ferred on that unforgettable occasion to faith in God. Israel, like the Church, is in the world and yet is not of the world: but from the day the Jews stumbled because their leaders chose the world, Tsrael forms pari of the world, remains a prisoner and a victim of that world it loves and of which it is not a part, of which it never shall be or can be a pari. This is how we ought to con­ template the mystery of Israel in the light of Christian Revela­ tion. . . . If the world hates the Jews, it is because it feels that they will be always supernatural! iiW* foreign to it . . . it is the vocation of Israel which the world detests. To be bated by the world is the glory of the Jews as it is also the glory of Christians who live by faith."< ' Now, the world of which Our Lord speaks in the Gospel is the entire collection of forces marshalled by Satan against the Super­ natural Life of Graced" Ii is therefore the naturalistic camp, of .which Satan is the leader. The Jews, under their rulers, entered that camp and led the others in the attack on the Supernatural Life in Person, Our Lord Jesus Christ. They occupy a special place in that camp, it is hue, because of God's loving preservation of them in spite of their obstinacy and pride, but in the conflict which di\ides the world into two opposing armies, there must not be any shadow of doubt about their being in the vanguard of visible opposition to the Supernatural. We must not begin to con­ sider them as a force apart as it were, opposed both to Our Lord and to the world. They form, in the naturalistic camp to-day, as at any time for the past l/XX* years, the most strongly organized and most cohesive visible force. Our Lord's Sacred Heart is wrung at the sight of His own people leading* the opposition to Him. Butour place is with J Urn and along with those who express submission
f49) (50 4 5 21

(49; With regard to the conversion of the Jews, ef. The Mystical of Christ in tin Modern World, pp. 281-287.
n

Body

<50i A English translation of this pamphlet, with some additions, has been published undev the title Ant i-Snniiixnu bv the Centenary Proas (London). 161) Italics in text. > Op. eit.. pp. 19. -21. <5*1 Cf. e.g., the able worfc ,»r Andre v'harae. 1/1nrredutiti des Jaift
(3a

dan* h Novvcaa

Testament,

pp. 212-245.

THE

JEWISH

NATION

183

to G o d t h e F a t h e r in t h e M a s s . G o d ' s special P r o v i d e n c e in r e ­ gard t o t h e o n c e c h o s e n p e o p d e m u s t n o t m a k e us h e s i t a t e a b o u t the c a m p t o c h o o s e w h e n B e l a K u n r e c e i v e s m a r c h i n g o r d e r s f o r the a t t a c k o n t h e M a s s i n B a r c e l o n a a n d t h r o u g h o u t S p a i n o r , if he is still a l i v e , at s o m e d a t e in t h e f u t u r e , in D u b l i n a n d t h r o u g h ­ out I r e l a n d . M . M a r i t a i n s p e a k s of t h e J e w s a s a m y s t i c a l b o d y in a n o t h e r sense f r o m t h e C h u r c h , b u t h i s u s e of t h e e x p r e s s i o n t e n d s , a s T have s a i d , t o r e n d e r o b s c u r e t h e r e a l p o s i t i o n of I s r a e l in t h e world. H e r e a r e his o w n w o r d s in t h e s a m e w o r k : " T h e C h u r c h , as y o u k n o w , is n o t m e r e l y a r e l i g i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . She is, a c c o r d i n g t o h e r o w n t e a c h i n g a b o u t herself, a m y s t e r i o u s b o d y in which living b o n d s u n i t e souls a m o n g s t themselves and with God, in v i e w of a d i v i n e t a s k t o b e a c c o m p l i s h e d . S h e is t h e M y s t i c a l Body of C h r i s t . N o w , in a v e r y d i f f e r e n t s e n s e , J e w i s h t h o u g h t is c o n s c i o u s t h a t I s r a e l is, in i t s w a y , a m y s t i c a l b o d y . A r e c e n t w o r k b y E r i c h K a h l e r , Israel vntcr den V oik em [ I s r a e l a m o n g s t the N a t i o n s ] , i n s i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y o n t h i s p o i n t . T h e b o n d w h i c h u n i t e s I s r a e l is n o t t h e b o n d of flesh a n d b l o o d a l o n g w i t h c o m ­ m u n i t y of c u s t o m s a n d h i s t o r y . I t is a s a c r e d a n d s u p r a - h i s t o r i c bond, n o t of p o s s e s s i o n b u t of l o n g i n g for t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of a p r o ­ mise. . . . I s r a e l p a s s i o n a t e l y h o p e s for, l o o k s f o r w a r d to a n d longs f o r t h e c o m i n g of G o d in t h e w o r l d , t h e K i n g d o m of God here below. T h e J e w s w a n t , w i t h an e t e r n a l will, a will t h a t is s u p e r n a t u r a l a n d u n r e a s o n a b l e , t o r e a l i z e j u s t i c e , in t i m e , in n a t u r e and in t h e S t a t e . '
V 5 i )

B u t is n o t t h e d e s i r e t o i m p o s e o n e ' s will on G o d i n s t e a d of c o n f o r m i n g o n e ' s will t o G o d ' s W i l l , t h e v e r y a n t i t h e s i s of t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l M e s s i a s , O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , a n d is it n o t t h e r e f o r e n a t u r a l i s t i c ? O n e can well see t h a t it is u n ­ r e a s o n a b l e , b u t h o w is it t r u l y s u p e r n a t u r a l ? T h e J e w s , i n s t e a d of a c c e p t i n g t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l M e s s i a s a n d s t r i v i n g u n d e r H i s l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h a t r e l a t i v e c o n d i t i o n of j u s t i c e t h a t is p o s s i b l e for our fallen r a c e h e r e on e a r t h , w a n t a natural M e s s i a s w h o will r e s t o r e t h e g a r d e n of E d e n h e r e b e l o w . T h e y r e f u s e t o a c c e p t t h a t p e r f e c t j u s t i c e is r e s e r v e d for o u r r i s e n life w i t h C h r i s t in heaven. T h i s a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e of r e v o l t l e a d s to d i s ­ aster for individuals and n a t i o n s . Tn t h e S p a n i s h c r i s i s , M . M a r i t a i n s e e m e d t o lose s i g h t of t h e fact t h a t t h e h o r r i b l e d e s i g n s of t h e J e w i s h R u l e r s of R u s s i a w e r e a c o n s e q u e n c e of I s r a e l ' s r e f u s a l t o c o n f o r m its will t o t h e will of God. I t w a s a l s o a s i g n of t h e d e p l o r a b l e d e c a y of t h e d o c t r i n e of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t in t h e w o r l d t h a t a m a n of M . M a r i t a i n ' s k n o w l e d g e a n d a b i l i t y s h o u l d s e t o u t to d i r e c t t h e w o r l d , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i n t e r e s t s of O u r D i v i n e L o r d in S p a i n , (54) Les Juifs parmi les Nations, p. 19.

184

THK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

i n c o m p l e t e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e S p a n i s h H i e r a r c h y . T h i s h e did in t h e i n t e r v i e w r e p o r t e d in The Commonweal. ( U . S . A . ) of F e b r u a r y 3 , 1939. H e left his r e a d e r s u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h o s e w h o a c c e p t e d t h e g u i d a n c e of t h e official r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of O u r L o r d i n S p a i n w e r e n o t t h i n k i n g on t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l p l a n e . Xo w o n d e r R i g h t R e v . M g r . L . F . H a w k s w r o t e as f o l l o w s in The Catholic Standard and. Times of P h i l a d e l p h i a : " T h e r e a r e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s | i n t h i s i n t e r v i e w ] of a l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r . In a n s w e r ­ i n g t h e m , M a r i t a i n r e p e a t s ( w i t h o u t a n y a t t e m p t a t p r o o f ) all t h e a c c u s a t i o n s w h i c h have b e e n m a d e familiar to us by the vari­ o u s R e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g in t h i s c o u n t r y . So f a r f r o m e x ­ p l a i n i n g h i s o w n p o s i t i o n , h e h a s o n l y g i v e n e x c u s e for all the accusations that have been made against him. F o r Maritain there i s o n l y o n e s i d e : a n d t h a t s i d e is t h e o n e o p p o s e d t o t h e c a u s e of G e n e r a l F r a n c o . A m o r e o n e - s i d e d e x p r e s s i o n of o p i n i o n could h a r d l y b e p r i n t e d . Tt is a l m o s t s h o c k i n g in i t s s p l e e n , t h e m o r e s o w h e n i t is i n t e r l a r d e d w i t h c o n s t a n t a p p e a l s t o c h a r i t y a n d to impartiality. The Commonioeal h a s d o n e a s e r v i c e in p r i n t i n g this interview . X o Catholic need take the M a r i t a i n position seri­ ously." J E W I S H CONVERSIONS TO CHRISTIANITY. T h i s is a n a s p e c t of t h e J e w i s h q u e s t i o n a b o u t w h i c h o n e r e g r e t s t o b e o b l i g e d t o s p e a k , b u t it is n e c e s s a r y t o d o s o b e c a u s e of t h e c o n f u s i o n p r o d u c e d in s o m e m i n d s o n r e a d i n g s u c h p h r a s e s a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : " T h e s p i r i t u a l f a t h e r s of B o l s h e v i s m a r e n o n J e w s . I t is t r u e t h a t M a r x w a s a J e w , b u t h e w a s b a p t i z e d a t t h e a g e of s i x . " L e t us begin with s o m e testimonies w i t h r e g a r d to the n a t u r e o f M a r x ' s c o n v e r s i o n a n d t h e n e x a m i n e t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n of J e w i s h C o n v e r s i o n s . T h e first t e s t i m o n y w i l l be t a k e n f r o m t h e w e l l - k n o w n b o o k , The Cause of World Unrest " T h e r e is o n e (55) T h e J o i n t L e t t e r of the S p a n i s h Bishops was given t o the -world o n the F e a s t of the Most P r e c i o u s Blood of O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , Jaily 1, 1937. I n i t t h e i r L o r d s h i p s w r o t e : " T h e N a t i o n a l Movement [of G e n e r a l F r a n c o ] has released a c u r r e n t of love which has concen­ t r a t e d r o u n d the name a n d historical essence of S p a i n , -with aversion for the foreign elements who occasioned o u r r u i n . A n d as love of c o u n t r y , when s u p e r n a t u r a l i z e d t h r o u g h the love of J e s u s C h r i s t , o u r G o d a n d L o r d , touches the s u m m i t s of C h r i s t i a n c h a r i t y , we have wit­ nessed a n o u t b u r s t of v e r i t a b l e c h a r i t y which has found its m a x i m u m e x p r e s s i o n in the blood of t h o u s a n d s of S p a n i a r d s who have given i t t o the c r y of 'Long lives S p a i n ! Long live C h r i s t the K i n g ! ' " Cf. P o p e P i u s X I P s B r o a d c a s t to S p a i n , quoted on' p . 337. < ) Bolshevism is not Jewish, p. 3. T h i s p a m p h l e t is p u b l i s h e d by t h e W o b u r n Press. T h i s book was published in 1 9 2 0 with a preface by M r . II. A. G-wynne. _ I n all p r o b a b i l i t y Mr. Victor E. M a r s d e n , for m a n y y e a r s t h e Morning Post's c o r r e s p o n d e n t in Russia, had a considerable p a r t i n w r i t i n g it. I am q u o t i n g it, because it refers to books which I have n o t been able to procure.
( 5 t M 7 T ( 5 6 ) 5G

THE JEWISH

NATION

185

very remarkable coincidence with regard to these two men [Lassalle and MarxJ/' writes the author, " which has never before been noticed. They were not only Jews; but they both, in their youth, dedicated their lives to revenge. "Ferdinand Lassalle (or Lassal) was born of Jewish parents at Breslau, on April 11th, 1825. In Breslau, it should be explain­ ed, the Jews were not emancipated until 1842. In his youth he kept a diary, and that diary (for the years 1840-1) was afterwards published by Herr Paul Lindau. "In that diary (on February 1st, 1840) Lassalle writes: ' I think I am one of the best Jews in existence, although I disregard the ceremonial law. I could, like the Jew in Bulwer's Leila, risk my life to deliver the Jews from their present crushing condi­ tion.' He speaks of his childish dream ' to make the Jews armed —I at their head—free.' And on July 30th, 1840, commenting* on certain accusations of ritual murder then being made against the Jews, he says: *. . . the time will soon be at hand when we, in very deed, will help ourselves to Christian blood. Aide-toi et le ciel Vaidera. The dice are ready: it only depends on the player/ " So far Lassalle. Let us now turn to Marx. " In his Karl Marx, His Life and Work, John Spargo says that the true patronymic of the family seems to have been Mordechai. Mordechai, a grandfather of Karl Marx, was a rabbi: ' one of a long line of rabbis, unbroken from the sixteenth century until his son Heinrich, father of Karl Marx, adopted law instead of religion for a career. On his mother's side also, Karl Marx had a long line of rabbinical ancestors.' But in 1824, when Karl was six years old, Heinrich and his wife suddenly embraced Christianity, and they with their children were baptized. Mr. Spargo tries to make out that Heinrich forsook Judaism as a matter of convic­ tion, but we can hardly credit such an explanation, and for the following reasons: At the time Heinrich adopted Christianity the J e w s in the Rhine Province (the Marxes lived in Trier) were subject to extortion and mild persecution at the hands of the Prussian officials; the Code Napoleon of March 17th, 1808, had been issued provisionally for a period of only ten years fixing the status of Jews in the Rhine Province; and Heinrich Marx was a convinced disciple of that enemy of Christianity, Voltaire. More­ over, Liebknecht, long the intimate associate of Karl. Marx, and himself a Jew and a revolutionary, says in his Memoirs that the acceptance of Christianity by the parents was compulsory, that it was due to an official edict by the Prussian Government com­ pelling all Jews holding official positions or engaged in the learned professions to forego these or formally renounce Judaism. The same writer says that the boy Karl felt keenly this insult to his race, of which he was so proud, and that his whole life vjas a
1

reply

and

a

revenge.*

186
u

THK

MYSTICAL

BODY

OF

CHRIST

S p a r g o a n d t h e o t h e r b i o g r a p h e r s of K a r l M a r x n a t u r a l l y d o n o t a c c e p t t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r h e r o ' s a c t i v i t i e s , a n d d o t h e i r b e s t to discredit L i e b k n e c h t . But the s t o r y , despite their efforts, is, a s w c h a v e s e e n , h i s t o r i c a l l y c r e d i b l e . " H e r e then wc have a motive hitherto unsuspected by those G e n t i l e s w h o follow t h e R e d B a n n e r — t h e m o t i v e of d e s t r o y i n g t h e C h r i s t i a n n a t i o n s in r e v e n g e for t h e w r o n g s of J u d a i s m . " T h e s e c o n d t e s t i m o n y will be f r o m a n a u t h o r w h o h a s m a d e a s p e c i a l s t u d y of the s e c r e t o r i g i n s of B o l s h e v i s m . H e r e is h o w S a l l u s t e in Les Origines Secretes du Bolchevisme, p p . 44, 4 5 / d e s c r i b e s the conversion of Heinrich M a r x and his f a m i l y : " M a r x ' s f a t h e r had b e c o m e e x t e r i o r l y a c o m ert lo P r o t e s t a n t i s m , while c o n t i n u i n g to p r a c t i s e t h e J e w i s h r e l i g i o n at h o m e . Young M a r x ' s i n f a n c y w a s t h u s s t e e p e d iti t h e t r a d i t i o n s of h i s r a c e : God lias given tfie world to the Jews. They will reign over it for ever when the Messiah shall have come. Jews alone have the right lo own. When the Messiah shall have come, two hundred mules will be required to carry the keys of the trunks (or boxes) in which the riches taken from Iho Christians -will be heaped up, etc Of this doctrine, the y o u n g Israelite was to retain a b o v e all t h e idea of a n e x p r o p r i a t i o n on a v a s t s c a l e , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e t r i u m p h of his r a c e . " T h e J e w i s h w r i t e r , B e r n a r d L a / . a r e , in / / A nlisemifisme, is in practical agreement with Salluste. He attaches no importance to M a r x ' s conversion to P r o t e s t a n t i s m . He w r i t e s : " T h i s d e ­ s c e n d a n t of a line of r a b b i n s a n d d o c t o r s i n h e r i t e d all t h e l o g i c a l v i g o u r of his a n c e s t o r s , l i e w a s a c l e a r a n d lucid T a l m u d i s l . . . . a T a l m u d i s t w h o s t t i d i e d s o c i o l o g y a n d a p p l i e d his n a t u r a l a p t i ­ t u d e for e x e g e s i s to t h e c r i t i c i s m of p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y . H e w a s full of t h a t old H e b r e w m a t e r i a l i s m w h i c h e v e r d r e a m s of a p a r a ­ d i s e on e a r t h a n d a l w a y s r e j e c t s (be h o p e held o u t of t h e c h a n c e of a G a r d e n of K d e n a f t e r d e a t h . B u t he w a s n o t m e r e l y a logician, he w a s also a r e v o l u t i o n a r y , a rebel and a b i t t e r c o n t r o ­ v e r s i a l i s t . J u s t like H e i n e a l s o , his g i f t s of s a r c a s m a n d i n v e c t i v e c a m e to h i m from J e w i s h sources. . . In g e n e r a l the J e w s , e v e n t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , h a v e k e p t t h e J e w i s h s p i r i t , a n d if t h e y h a v e given up religion and faith, they have n e v e r t h e l e s s been f o r m e d , t h a n k s t o t h e i r a n c e s t r y a n d e d u c a t i o n , b y t h e influence of J e w ­ i s h n a t i o n a l i s m . T h i s is t r u e in a v e r y s p e c i a l w a y of t h e J e w i s h r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s w h o l i v e d in t h e first half of t h i s | 1 9 i h | c e n t u r y . H c i n r i c h Heine and Karl M a r x are t w o typical e x a m p l e s / '
5 8 )

Jt is well t o a d d t h a t M a r x w r o t e a n a r t i c l e o n t h e J e w i s h q u e s t i o n in w h i c h he a t t a c k e d t h e J e w s w h o h a d b e c o m e w e a l t h y a n d w i s h e d t o s e t t l e d o w n in t h e s o c i e t y of t h e i r d a y i n s t e a d of w o r k i n g f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w of t h e w h o l e e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n o f (5Sj ThK hook is out of print a n d \* very d i f f i c u l t to p r o c u r e .

THE

JEWISH

NATION*

187

s o c i e t y . O n t h e s t r e n g t h of t h a t a r t i c l e , s o m e w r i t e r s h a v e e v e n s p o k e n of M a r x a s a n a n t i - S e m i t e . Salluste insists, on the c o n t r a r y , t h a t it w a s t h e n t h a t h e s h o w e d himself m o s t profoundly imbued w i t h the true J e w i s h r e v o l u t i o n a r y spirit. A s r e g a r d s J e w i s h c o n v e r s i o n s in g e n e r a l , J e w i s h h i s t o r y h a s a l a s , f a m i l i a r i z e d us w i t h p r e t e n d e d c o n v e r s i o n s s u c h a s t h a t of M o r d e c h a i ' s ( M a r x ' s ) f a m i l y . I n t h e Dietionnaire Apologetique de la For Chretienne^) \{ \ t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s c o n ­ c e r n i n g c o n v e r s i o n s f r o m J u d a i s m :—
( 5 9 ) w e nc

From 313 A.D. to 1100 A J). " T h e r e a r e conversions to Christianity which are not sin­ c e r e a n d t h e J e w s t r y t o w e a n t h e faithful f r o m C h r i s t . This is t h e r e a s o n w h y t h e C h u r c h f o r b i d s t h e J e w s t o h a v e C h r i s t i a n s l a v e s , t o live on f a m i l i a r t e r m s w i t h C h r i s t i a n s o r t o hold public positions. From 1100 A.D. to 1500 A.D. ' ' S o m e J e w s p r e t e n d t o be s i n c e r e l y c o n v e r t e d . F o r c e d conversions were (and are) against the will of die Church. . . . I n S p a i n , d u r i n g the t r o u b l e s of 1391, t h o u s a n d s of J e w s a s k e d for b a p t i s m . M o s t of t h e m p r e ­ t e n d e d to b e C a t h o l i c s e x t e r i o r l y , b u t p r a c t i s e d J u d a i s m in secret. T h e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e , w h o h a d no illusions w i t h r e g a r d to their sincerity, called these n e w Christians * M a r r anos,' which means ' d a m n e d ' or ' e x c o m m u n i c a t e d . ' and h a t e d t h e m e v e n m o r e t h a n t h e y did the J e w s . The Spanish Inquisition was founded in 1480 against these pretended converts from Judaism and Maho mm e danism . . . Whenever a Jew b e c a m e a Catholic, there was immediately a concerted attack o n h i m t o b r i n g him b a c k . T h i s w a s t h e chief a c c u s a t i o n levelled a g a i n s t t h e J e w s of S p a i n , b y F e r d i n a n d a n d I s a b e l l a , in t h e i r E d i c t of E x p u l s i o n of 1492. . . . T h e P o p e s a n d t h e C o u n c i l s a r e continually obliged to forbid Catholics to m a r r y J e w s , to e a t w i t h t h e m , o r t o i o i n in t h e i r c e l e b r a t i o n s . From 1500 A.D. to 1789 A.D.
11 il

u

" P r e t e n d e d c o n v e r s i o n s t o C a t h o l i c i s m o n t h e p a r t of J e w s , b e c o m e m o r e n u m e r o u s , e s p e c i a l l y in S p a i n a n d P o r t u g a l . . . . A l i f e t i m e of f e i g n e d c o n v e r s i o n d i d n o t c a u s e t h e J e w s a n y remorse. I t s e e m e d q u i t e n a t u r a l t o t h e m to p r e t e n d t o b e sincerely Catholic from g e n e r a t i o n to generation while being r e a l l y r e a d y t o t h r o w off t h e m a s k a t t h e first o p p o r t u n i t y . From 1789 to the present dag. " T h e M a r r a n o s of S p a i n a n d P o r t u g a l c o n t i n u e to lead a d o u b l e life. C a t h o l i c s e x t e r i o r l y , the}* a r e J e w s in t h e b o s o m of
u

(59) " M a r x hated e v e r y t h i n g p. 3). (60) A r t i c l e Jidfs et Chretiens,

Jewish'*

(Bolshevism

is not

Jewish,

cols. 1676-1631.

188

T F I K MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

their families. . . . There are doubtful conversions amongst those who, at Berlin, frequented the Salon of Henrietta Hcrz, as also in the Lraijuv of Virtue,< i> which was inaugurated there,
fi

and

in

the

Jewish.

Association

for

Civilization

and

Science,

founded in 1819 by" Xeinz, Cans and Moser. . . . Graetz shows that H. Heine and Boerne were Jews, Jews through and through, that it was only in outward appearance that they had separated themselves from Judaism, * like soldiers who adopt the dress and flag of the enemy in order the better to strike him down and annihilate him 'W-K . . . Karl Marx's father had abjured Judaism with just as little conviction as Heine." According to George Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers in The Czech Con­ spiracy (p. 73), dubious conversions are very numerous to-day. So we may have some future rivals of Karl Marx amongst the " Christian" refugees to whom hospitality has been so freely accorded. Pitt-Rivers writes as follows; * By the time I reached * Vienna, motoring from Poland, in the beginning of September (1938), mass migrations of Viennese Jewish 'refugees' to Eng­ land and other parts of the British Empire were well on the way. Approaches to the British Consulate in Vienna were blocked with thousands of Jews clamouring for British visas. A large quota were besieging the English Chaplaincy, applying for baptismal certificates, in order to qualify for the special benefits and assist­ ance in registering for employment in England, under the schemes of the ' Committee for Non-Aryan Christians ' and other associated bodies. By the unflagging and persevering efforts of the tem­ porary English chaplain, the permanent resident.F^nglish chaplain being on leave, hundreds of Viennese Jews were Aveckly being baptised at the improvised font in the * official-chapel/ at the English chaplain's residence, which is situated opposite the Eng­ lish Church. The Church, unfortunately, was not then available, owing to its being closed for the annual cleaning and re-decora­ tions. Through the courtesy of the temporary English chaplain I received personal assurance that the good work of * Conversion' was proceeding with the utmost possible dispatch. I gladly under­ took to testify to the work of this hard-pressed representative of the Church of England, who. without other clerical assistance, succeeded in converting, preparing for baptism, and baptising so many hundreds of Jewish candidates for entry into the Anglican community, of whom not one in a hundred could speak a word of English. (Qualifications for Baptism were strictly laid down and complied with. Only those were accepted who were furnished with (a) a British visa, (b) an Attsttwis o r release from the Judiseher < > The name was jiiven in irony. (C2) This sentence has been suppressed in th,- Fn-nch Kdition Graelz's History of the Jew*.
ttl

of

THK

JEWISH

NATION

389

K u l t u r B u n d , t h e J e w i s h C o n g r e g a t i o n , a n d ( c ) t h e G e r m a n police p e r m i t lo l e a v e t h e country—and n o t r e t u r n . Of c o u r s e , in a d d i ­ tion, c o n v e r t s p a i d t h e m o d e r a t e b a p t i s m a l fees. " I a m i n f o r m e d that it t a k e s four d a y s b e t w e e n application " a n d b a p t i s m , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e t h e c a n d i d a t e s a r c en tit led t o four h o u r s i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e t e n e t s of t h e A n g l i c a n faith and in the C a t e c h i s m . T h i s , it m u s t be a d m i t t e d , is not t o o l o n g a p e r i o d for t h o s e w h o c a n n o t s p e a k a w o r d of E n g l i s h . I a m i n f o r m e d , also, t h a t it is t h r o u g h t h e A n g l i c a n d o u r of b a p t i s m a l w a t e r s that alien J e w s can m o s t rapidly p r e p a r e for * assimilation a n d a b s o r p t i o n ' in t h e i r n e w E n g l i s h h o m e - l a n d , f l o w i n g w i t h m i l k ( c a n n e d in S w i t z e r l a n d a n d i m p o r t e d u n d e r a r r a n g e m e n t s of t h e Milk M a r k e t i n g B o a r d ) , a n d hone}' ( i m p o r t e d from Russia u n d e r a r r a n g e m e n t s of t h e B o a r d of T r a d e ) . > A c c o r d i n g t o The Catholic Times ( L o n d o n ) , of J a n . 2 0 t h , 1939, M g r . J o s e p h G r o s z . A d m i n i s t r a t o r A p o s t o l i c of S z o m b a t h e l y , H u n g a r y , g a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , in his first p a s t o r a l l e t ­ t e r of t h e y e a r , r e g a r d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n of J e w i s h c o n v e r t s : " In these d a y s , " he w r i t e s , " m a n y J e w s are t u r n i n g to the Church a n d a s k i n g t o b e b a p t i s e d . T h e C h u r c h d o e s n o t h e s i t a t e to o p e n h e r d o o r s t o t h o s e w h o s e e k C h r i s t in g o o d f a i t h , b u t s h e f e a r s , in t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h a t t h e r e a r e a m o n g t h e a s p i r a n t s s o m e w h o a r e s e e k i n g b a p t i s m , u r g e d on, n o t b y t h e m o t i v e s of c o n s c i e n c e b u t b y f e a r of e x t r a n e o u s e v e n t s a n d b y m a t e r i a l in­ terests . . . . The clergy must show great prudence. Therefore w e o r d e r t h a t t h o s e w h o w i s h to be r e c e i v e d i n t o t h e C h u r c h m u s t be g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t w o "or t h r e e h o u r s a w e e k for t h r e e m o n t h s . T h i s o r d e r c a n b e s e t a s i d e o n l y in c a s e of d a n g e r of d e a t h . W h e n t h e civil f o r m a l i t i e s h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d , p e r m i s s i o n t o c o n f e r b a p t i s m m u s t b e s o u g h t f r o m t h e b i s h o p ; e a c h c a s e will be e x a m i n e d s e p a r a t e l y , a n d w i t h o u t this e n q u i r y no p e r m i s s i o n will b e g r a n t e d t o b a p t i s e J e w s . " F o r a s i n c e r e c o n v e r s i o n to the C a t h o l i c F a i t h , h u m b l e s u b ­ m i s s i o n t o G o d is i n d i s p e n s a b l e . J e w i s h p r i d e i n s i s t s u p o n i m ­ p o s i n g t h e will of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n on God. S o l o n g as t h a t m e n t a l i t y l a s t s , s i n c e r e c o n v e r s i o n s a m o n g s t t h e m e m b e r s of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n will be r a r e . Catholic writers rarely stress the g r e a t e r h u m i l i t y t h a t is n e e d e d from m e m b e r s of t h e J e w i s h N a ­ tion t h a n f r o m o t h e r s , for c o n v e r s i o n a n d after c o n v e r s i o n , b e c a u s e of t h e i n s u l t s offered b y t h e m to t h e S a c r e d H e a r t of J e s u s d o w n the a g e s since Calvary. T h e y s h o u l d do s o . J e w i s h r e s i s t a n c e to t h e love of G o d h a s b e e n m o r e s t u b b o r n t h a n t h a t of t h e o t h e r n a t i o n s a n d w o u n d s t h e H e a r t of O u r D i v i n e L o r d in a w a y t h a t t h e o b s t i n a c y of n o o t h e r n a t i o n c a n d o .
M(fi3

(03) F o r f u r t h e r evidence of pretended Jewish Isabella of Spain, Chap. XV. by William Walsh.

conversion-,

s^e

190

THK MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

THE JEWISH

PROBLEM,

B Y LOUIS GOLDIXG.

Because of the widespread propaganda for the diffusion of this hook, it is well lo refer to it, at least, briefly. I intend, first of all, to point out two of the many historical inaccuracies in the \olume and then to treat of the absolutely vital defect in the standpoint from which the book is written, namelv, its Xaturalism.<G4>

1AM us begin with Mr. Golding's denial of the historical accur­ acy of the four Kvangelisis. In that he follows the modern Jew­ ish exegesis which is striving to make Pilate and only a small section of the Jewish Nation, the Sadducces, responsible for the death of Our Divine Lord. "The historical Gospels," he writes, *' exclude from all participation in the arrest, trial and crucifixion, the religious leaders of the people, the creators of modern Juda­ ism—the Pharisees/ Xow it is quite clear from the four Evange­ lists that there was a " United Front" amongst the different sections of the Jewish people against Jesus. The Naturalism of the different groups, resulting in part from their perverted desire to rule all nations in the temporal order and in part from their racial pride in their descent from Abraham, led to the rejection of the Supernatural Messias, who spoke of the entrance of the Gentiles into a kingdom higher and nobler than that of the Jewish Nation. Wounded national pride effected the union between them against the God-Man. Mr. Golding asserts that " the last mention of Pharisaic con­ tact with Jesus . . . in St. Mark is in Chapter XII, 13."< > Surely he knows that the scene at the foot of the Cross is described in St. Mark, XV, 31, 32. There " the chief priests mocking said with the Scribes one to another: He saved others: himself he cannot save. Let Christ, the King of Israel, come down now from the Cross, that we may sec and believe." He cannot he unaware of the fact that the Scribes were chiefly Pharisees. The Gospels
7 65

tto) It is truly amazing to find writers ignorant of the elements of Catholic teaching and yet having the audacity to ipose as learned exponents thereof. For example, Mr. Golding, on page 63 of this work, says: "It was in 1215 that the Fourth Lateran Council recognised officially the doctrine of Transubstantiation, that is, that in the ceremony of the Holy Communion, the consecrated elements become the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ. ' Mr. Golding might have consulted some standard Catholic -work about the meaning of Transubstantiation and of Holy Communion as well as of a definition of faith, before venturing to talk about the simplicity and ignorance of Catholics as he does _ in the lines immediately following. He only provokes a smile at his own impertinence. (G5) Op, cit., p. 25 in note. Of course, Mr. Golding speaks of Mark, not St. Mark. T have inserted the title of supernatural reverence and distinction before the Evangelist's name.
? <

THE

JEWISH

NATION

191

bind together Scribes and Pharisees and almost confound them, for the vast majority of the doctors of the law at the time of Christ belonged to the sect of the Pharisees. On page 61, Mr. Golding commits another historical blunder. "A wave of blood accusations," he write-, " .swept over Poland in the eighteenth century, which was responsible for the dignified Report of Cardinal Ganganelli (afterwards I'ope Clement XIV), in which he completely exonerated Jews of all coiieeivability of blame for such outrages." 1 am not going to deal with the whole question of Ritual murder. > I merely want to point out here that the statement made by Mr. Golding with regard lo Cardinal Ganganelli's report is false. Cardinal Ganganelli sets aside a number of accusations of ritual murder as n o t .sufficiently .sup­ ported by proofs, but he accepts two cases, lie writes in his re­ port: " I admit as true the case of Blessed Simon, a child of three years, put to death by the Jews at Trent, in 1475, out of hatred for the Faith of Jesus Christ, though that murder has been denied by Basnage and Wagenseil, . . . I admit also as true a second murder which took place in 1462, in the village of Kinn. in the diocese of Brixen. Blessed Andrew, a little child, was there
ftl(J) tu7

(66) A complete refutation of the falsification of history of which such Jewish writers as Professor Klausner and Mr. Uolding are guilty concerning the death of Our Lord Jesus Christ, is to be found in the two very able studies presented for degrees at Louvain and Paris respectively by Tabbe Andre Charue and Tabbe C\ Barthas: L Incredulite des Juifs dans le Souvenir Testament, par Tabbe Andre Oharue (Dissertation for the degree of Master i n Theology in the University of Louvain); Svangile et Nationalisme, par Pabbe* C. Barthas (Thesis for the Doctorate in Theology at the Catholic Institute of Paris). Klausner is a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. His work is entitled Jesvx of ycczareth, Hi* Times,' His Life, and His
Teaching. in the article, Juifs et. Chretiens, of the Divtiannaire Apoiogetigite de fa Foi Chretienne and in the splendid work of H. de Vries d e Heekelingen, Jvifs et Cotholiqites, pp. 66-85. The Dictionnaire Apologetique de la Foi Chrctiume gives a list

(67) Readers who wish to study i t will find it treated in able fashion

of Papal documents dealing with the question of Ritual Murder. "Some are favourable to the Jews," remarks the writer, "others a r e unfavourable." Amongst the documents that are unfavourable, the Bull Beatus Andreas (22nd Feb., 1755) of Pope Benedict XIV is very important. On the other side, the Bull of Pope Innocent IV. of 5th July, 1247, is well known. I make particular mention of the fact that there are Papal documents that are unfavourable to the Jews because of Cecil Roth's statement: 'The Catholic Church never gave the slightest countenance to the calumny" (The Ritual Murder Libel aixd the Jew, p. 20). Of course, the Catholic Church does not coun­ tenance calumny—that is certain, but there are official documents of the Catholic Church unfavourable to the Jews in this matter.

192

TITK M Y S T I C A L

CODY OF

CHRIST

c r u e l l y d o n e l o d e a t h b y t h e J e w s o u t of h a t r e d f o r t h e F a i t h of Jesus Christ."f ' T h e most i m p o r t a n t point, h o w e v e r , with r e g a r d lo M r . Goldi n g ' s b o o k is t h a t it a s s u m e s as f a l s e t h e g r e a t c e n t r a l t r u t h s of t h e w o r l d , n a m e l y , that O u r L o r d Jcsu^ C h r i s t w a s t r u l y G o d a n d truly Alan and that l i e came to r e s t o r e S u p e r n a t u r a l Life to t h e world. T h e s e g r e a t t r u t h s a r e held by M r . Holding to be so un­ w o r t h y of s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t h e d o c s n o t e v e n m e n t i o n t h e m . Y e t the. h i s t o r y of t h e J e w i s h X a t i o n is a c o m p l e t e p u z z l e , unless w e grasp that they are a people w h o have missed their v o c a t i o n . T h e y h a v e d o n e s o , b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e s o u g h t a n d still s e e k to i m p o s e ; t h e i r will o n God i n s t e a d of s u b m i t t i n g t o t h e Supernatural Messias whom H e has sent. T h e y refuse to accept O u r L o r d a n d w o r iv u n d e r H i s b a n n e r f o r t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e a n d r e a l o r d e r of t h e w o r l d . T h a t is t h e r o o t c a u s e of t h e J e w i s h P r o b l e m , a n d t h a t p r o b l e m is e s s e n t i a l l y a n d d i r e c t l y a p r o b l e m for t h e J e w s t h e m s e l v e s , especially for their leaders. I thus deny emphatically Mr. Golding's statement t h a t "there is n o c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e J e w s t h e m s e l v e s c a n m a k e t o w a r d s a s o l u ­ t i o n of t h e J e w i s h p r o b l e m w h i c h is n o t s o o n e r o r l a t e r p r o ­ nounced an exaggeration." T h e r e is o n e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e y c a n m a k e , namely, humble, sincere, unfeigned conversion to t h e Super­ n a t u r a l M e s s i a s a n d a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s o n e n a t i o n a m o n g s t o t h e r nations. T h e only difference b e t w e e n t h e m and o t h e r n a t i o n s will c o n s i s t in t h e i r b e i n g b u r d e n e d w i t h a d e e p e r d e b t of r e p a r a t i o n to G o d t h e F a t h e r a n d H i s S o n , J e s u s C h r i s t , w h o m in t h e i r p r i d e t h e y h a v e r e j e c t e d a n d c o n t i n u e t o r e j e c t . S u c h a c o n v e r s i o n will n e v e r b e p r o n o u n c e d a n e x a g g e r a t i o n . T h e J e w i s h p e r s i s t e n c e in l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o a M e s s i a n i c a g e , while rejecting the Supernatural Messias w h o has already come, is t h e k e r n e l of t h e J e w i s h P r o b l e m s i n c e C a l v a r y . T h e c h a n g e of a t t i t u d e i n v o l v e d in t h e a c c e p t a n c e of o r d e r is t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h is i n c u m b e n t o n t h e J e w s , a n d in p a r t i c u l a r o n t h e i r r u l e r s . T h o s e l e a d e r s m i s l e d t h e i r p e o p l e , w h e n thev induced t h e m to reject O u r L o r d , and t h e y continue to mislead t h e m since. T h e Gentile n a t i o n s are deeply c o n c e r n e d in t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n ' s a c c e p t a n c e of t h e t r u t h a b o u t O u r L o r d
08

St. Simon is commemorated in the Roman M a r t y r o l o g y on t h e 21th March. We there read: "Passion of Si. Simon, a child who was most, cruelly put to death by (he Jews and who a f t e r w a r d s became famous because of the numerous miracles wrought by his i n t e r c e s s i o n . "
The Diction nnire .1 pologvt if/ iu <]<> la Foi (Jhrefiennc s p e a k s also of

Pope. ^ Pius VI Ps a p p r o v a l of (he cult of Blessed Dominic of V a l in the -diocese of S a r a g o s s a a n d of t h a t of the holy child of L a G u a r d i a in the diocese of Toledo, as well as of the a p p r o v a l of the S a c r e d Con­ g r e g a t i o n of Riles or' the, cult of the little boy, Laurence, of M a r o s t i c a , in the dio'-ese of Viee.nza (1867) and of t h a t of R u d o l p h of Berne, in the diocese of Basle ( 1 8 6 9 ) .

THE
6 9

JEWISH

NATION

J e s u s C h r i s t / ' b u t , g i v e n t h e J e w i s h l o a t h i n g of t h e v e r y idea of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l , t h e i r p r e s e n t t a s k is p r i m a r i l y o n e of selfdefence a g a i n s t t h e i n r o a d s of J e w i s h N a t u r a l i s m . They must undo t h e w o r k of t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n . Jn t h a t p r o c e s s , t h e } can i n d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s p r e p a r i n g t h e J e w i s h m i n d a n d h e a r t f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e r e a l o r d e r of t h e w o r l d . (69) " N o w . if the offence of them he the riches of the world, and the d i m i n u t i o n of them, the riches of the Gentiles, how much more the fulness of t h e m ? " (Rom., X I , 12). A P P E N D I X. Programme of Christ the King Programme of the Jewish throvgh His Mystical Body, the Sation since the rejection of Catholic Church. C-hrist before Pilate and or< Calvary. FIRSTLY (I) The, Cut Indie Churchy SupermturaI a n d Supranational, is the One Way established by God for the o r d e r e d r e t u r n of human beings to Him. All States and N a t i o n s are b o u n d to acknowledge it as .such, and all men of nil n a t i o n s are called upon to e n t e r it as .Members of Christ. „ SECONDLY (II) The Catholic Church is the sole divinely-uppointed Guardian of the whole m o r a l law, n a t u r a l and revealed.
t

FIRSTLY < I) Tlu Jewish Nation uuder the Natured MLSSias will estab1 ish union among the n a t i o n s T h a t necessarily involves aim­ ing at the e l i m i n a t i o n of ever} vestige of the S u p e r n a t u r a l Lift that comes from Christ.

SECONDLY ( I I ) The Jewish Nation undo the Natural Alexias will decide what is mora 1 and wh at it. immoral. THIRDLY (III) Divorce and Polygamy will t a k e the place of C h r i s t i a n Marriage.

THIRDLY f i l l ) Gh rist ia n Af a r r iage, the foundation of the Christian Family, as the Symbol of the union of C h r i s t and H i s Mystical Body, is One and Indissoluble. FOURTHLY (IV) Children m u s t be e d u c a t e d as Members of Christ's Mystical Body, so t h a t they m a y be able to look a t e v e r y t h i n g , n a t i o n a l i t y included, from t h a t s t a n d p o i n t .

FOURTHLY ( I V ) As the d o c t r i n e of member ship of Christ is a c o r r u p t i o i of the t r u e Jewish message t o tht world, all trace of membership of Christ and of the. Super natural JJfe of Grave must be rliminoted from education. NonJews m u s t be t r a i n e d to accept submission to the Jewish N a t i o n , a n d non-Jewish n a t i o n a l i t y m u s t not conflict with Jewish world­ wide supremacy.

194

THE MYST1CAE BODY OF CHRIST
FIFTHLY FIFTHLY (V) Complete Socialization of [rroptrty, either in the form of ownership of everything by the State or by the relatively few financiers who control the State, must be aimed at. Ownership "/ propf'rly^ especially in land, makes for independence, so it
•mnt ht rl{minuted.

{V) Ownership of property should be widely diffused* in order to

facilitate families in 'procuring .a sufficiency of material goods for their members. .Unions of owners and workers in Guild•will reflect the solidarity of the Mystical Body of Christ. SIXTHLY
<VI) The Monetary service of production System of a

country is meant to be at the
in view of

the virtuous life of Members of Christ in happy families.

SIXTHLY (VI) Money is the instrument by which State-control or Statesocialization h brought about. Instead of the correct order of finance for production and pro­ duction for Members of Christ,
men must be subservient duction and. production to to pro­ fin-

'incd. State-control can be main­ tained by means of financial control.

C H A P T E R IX. T H E SECOND VISIBLE ORGANIZED NATURALISTIC FORCE—FREEMASONRY. N A T U R A L I S M AND SUPERNATURALISM.

W e h a v e s t u d i e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n , t h e n o n - s e c r e t o r g a n i z e d n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r c e . .Let u s n o w t u r n t o t h e s e c r e t o r g a n i z e d n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r c e , F r e e ­ m a s o n r y . T h e M a s o n i c S o c i e t y , o r g r o u p of S o c i e t i e s , is, a s h a s been a l r e a d y r e m a r k e d , a v i s i b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t i t s n a t u r a l i s t i c or a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r is s e c r e t o r c a m o u f l a g e d . Rela­ tively f e w of i t s m e m b e r s a r e a w a r e of t h e N a t u r a l i s m o r A n t i S u p e r n a t u r a l i s m of i t s e n d , a s w e l l a s of i t s r i t u a l a n d s y m b o l i s m . L e t u s m a k e c l e a r , f i r s t of all, w h a t w e m e a n by the N a t u r a l i s m of F r e e m a s o n r y . I . A s w e h a v e s e e n , Super naturalism affirms t h a t t h e Life of G r a c e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e L i f e of t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y , is infinitely h i g h e r t h a n t h e n a t u r a l life of h u m a n r e a s o n a n d t h a t t h e u n i q u e S o u r c e of t h a t L i f e in t h e e x i s t i n g o r d e r is O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t . T h e l o s s of S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e t h r o u g h t h e fall of t h e first A d a m has b e e n r e p a i r e d t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of the S e c o n d A d a m . Naturalism, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , affirms t h a t o u r h i g h e s t life is t h e life of r e a s o n a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , d e n i e s t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a n y s u c h t h i n g a s a fall f r o m , or loss of, S u p e r ­ natural Life. I I . Supernaturalism affirms, a s is l o g i c a l , t h a t it is o n l y t h r o u g h c u l t i v a t i o n of o u r m e m b e r s h i p of O u r L o r d ' s M y s t i c a l B o d y t h a t we c a n b e g o o d m e n a n d t r u e a s w e o u g h t t o be. Naturalism, also logically, affirms t h a t it is a m a t t e r of i n d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r o n e invokes O u r L o r d J e s u s Christ, or M a h o m e t or Buddha, or nobody at all. I I I . Supernaturalism teaches that the Catholic Church, the M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , is i n f i n i t e l y h i g h e r a n d n o b l e r t h a n a n y n a t u r a l s o c i e t y , w h i l e i n s i s t i n g t h a t o r d e r e d love of c o u n t r y a n d n a t i v e l a n d m u s t be s e d u l o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d . The naturalistic'men­ tality, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , i n s i s t s t h a t t h e h i g h e s t social o r g a n i z a t i o n is t h e i n d i v i d u a l S t a t e o r t h e w h o l e g r o u p of S t a t e s t e n d i n g t o coalesce i n t o a W o r l d - S t a t e . I V . •The Catholic Church will a i m a t p e r m e a t i n g all social life, political a n d e c o n o m i c , w i t h t h e s p i r i t of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y .

196

THE

MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

The State or Group of States a i m e d at 1>y N a t u r a l i s l s w i l l s e e k t o e l i m i n a t e e v e r y v e s t i g e of S u p e r n a t u r a l Life f r o m s o c i a l o r g a n ­ ization.' W e s h a l l n o w s e c that all t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of N a t u r a l i s m a r c l o b e f o u n d in F r e e m a s o n r y .
!1

TEACHING OF THK CATHOLIC CHURCH

CONCERNING

T H E XATUR \LTSM O F F R E E M A S O N R Y . T h e t e a c h i n g <>f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h is i m p a r t e d t o u s a u t h o r i ­ t a t i v e l y b y P o p e L e o X I H in h i s E n c y c l i c a l L e t t e r o n F r e e ­ masonry.
t

Freemasonry Stands for the Supremacy of Human Reason. " F r o m w h a t W e h a v e a l r e a d y w r i t t e n , it is i n d i s p u t a b l y evid­ ent t h a i t h e i r | l h e F r e e m a s o n s ' ) u l t i m a t e a i m is to u p r o o t c o m ­ p l e t e l y t h e w h o l e r e l i g i o u s a n d p o l i t i c a l o r d e r of t h e w o r l d w h i c h h a s b e e n b r o u g h t i n t o e x i s t e n c e b y C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d t o r e p l a c e it b y a n o t h e r in h a r m o n y w i t h t h e i r w a y of t h i n k i n g . This will mean that the foundation and laws of the new structure of society will he diawn /torn pure Natural ism. . . . N o w t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d o c t r i n e of t h e N a t u r a l i s t s , a s is c l e a r f r o m t h e i r v e r y n a m e , is t h a t h i t m a n n a t u r e a n d h u m a n r e a s o n m u s t be in all t h i n g s m i s ­ tress and guide " S i n c e , h o w e v e r , it is t h e s p e c i a l a n d e x c l u s i v e f u n c t i o n of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h t o p r e s e r v e f r o m a n y t r a c e of c o r r u p t i o n a n d to set forth in their i n t e g r i t y the t r u t h s divinely e n t r u s t e d to her k e e p i n g a l o n g w i t h h e r <>wn a u t h o r i t y t o t e a c h t h e m t o t h e w o r l d a n d t h e o t h e r h e a v e n l y a i d s t o s a l v a t i o n , it is a g a i n s t t h e C h u r c h t h a t t h e r a g e of t h e e n e m i e s of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a n d t h e i r m o s t f e r o c i o u s a t t a c k s a r e chiefly d i r e c t e d . N o w , if t h e m o d e of a c t i o n of t h e M a s o n i c S e c t in r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s be e x a m i n e d , e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e v e r i t is m o r e at l i b e r t y t o c a s t off r e s t r a i n t , i t w i l l be b r o u g h t h o m e o a n y i m p a r t i a l o b s e r v e r t h a t it is a i m i n g a t p u t ­ t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e t h e p o l i c y of t h e N a t u r a l i s t s . Denial of the Fall. " B e s i d e s , s i n c e h u m a n n a t u r e is s t a i n e d b y o r i g i n a l sin a n d is t h e r e f o r e m o r e p r o n e t o v i c e t h a n i n c l i n e d to v i r t u e , f o r a v i r (1) " W h a t Naturalists or nationalists aim a t in philosophy, t h a t the s u p p o r t e r s of fAberalism, c a r r y i n g o u t the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d d o w n by N a t u r a l i s m , a r c a t t e m p t i n g in the d o m a i n of m o r a l i t y a n d politics. T h e f u n d a m e n t a l d o c t r i n e of Rationalism is the s u p r e m a c y of the human reason, which, refusing d u e submission to the divine a n d e t e r n a l reason, p r o c l a i m s its own independence a n d constitutes itself the supreme p r i n c i p l e a n d source a n d j u d g e of t r u t h " (Encyclical L e t t e r of Pope Leo XITT on Human Liberty).

FREEMASONRY

197

tuous life it is indispensable lo restrain the disorderly movements of the soul and bring the passions into subjection to lo.-son. fn this struggle, what appeals to nature must very often be despised, and the greatest labour and hardships must be endured, in order that reason may always remain in triumphant control. Now, the Naturalists and the Masons, not accepting by faith what we know by Divine Revelation, deny that the first Adam fell. They, con­ sequently, hold that free will is in no way weakened or rendered prone to evil (Cone. Trid., Sess. VI, De Justify c. 1).
" On the contrary, exaggerating rather our natural virtue and

goodness and considering it to be the only fount and rule of jus­ tice, the idea does not occur to them that there is need of con­ tinual effort and unremitting attention, in order to keep in check the revolt of our passions and to maintain them steadily under control. This is the reason why we see human beings beset with so many temptations to indulge in the pleasures of the senses. This is also the explanation of the publication of journals and pamphlets that arc both unrestrained and indecent as well as of the awful licentiousness of stage plays and the scandalous treat­ ment of artistic subjects according to the shameless laws of socalled realism. This, too, is the pretext by which the systematic pandering to effeminacy and luxury and the continual pursuit of every form of pleasure, by which virtue may be lulled to sleep, are excused or justified. . . . " What We have said can be confirmed by a fact that is novel not so much in itself as in its open admission. Since, in general, no one obeys cunning and crafty schemers so readily as those whose self-control has been sapped and broken by subjection to the yoke of their passions, there have been found in the Masonic Society men who have proclaimed their determination to strive skilfully and cunningly to saturate the masses with every form of vice, so that thus they Would be at the beck and call of their leaders for their future projects, wo matter what may be their nature.
P r o p a g a t i o n of Religious
u

Indifference.

if those who are received into the society are not obliged to abjure Catholic teaching explicitly, .this, instead of being an obstacle to Masonic aims, is on the contrary helpful to them. First of all, in this way they easily deceive the simple-niinded and the unwary and induce many others to join their ranks. Secondly, as all wht) present themselves from any form of religion are readily
received, Freemasons thereby incvlcate the great error of this age, namely, that religion is a matter of indifference and that one religion is as good as another. Such an attitude of mind is equiva­ lent to the destruction of religion, and especially of the Catholic religion, which, since it is the One True Religion, is treated with

198

T H K MYSTICAL RODY OF CHRIST
it

the gravest injustice and offered the worst form of insult when is placed on the same level as other for?ns of worship . . . .

" Although as a rule, they admit the existence of God, they iheuiselve.s openly avow that they do not all firmly assent to this truth and hold it with unwavering conviction. For they do not attempt to hide the fact that this question of God is the chief source and cause of discord amongst them; nay, it is well-known that recently it has been the subject of a serious disagreement in their ranks. As a matter of fact, however, they allow their mem­ bers the greatest licence on the point, so that they are at liberty to hold that God exists or that God does not exist, and those who obstinately contend that there is no God are as heartily welcome as those who, while asserting that there is a God, have wrong ideas about Him, like the Pantheists. This is purely and simply the suppression of the truth about God, while holding on to some caricature of the Divine Nature.
Elimination of the Supernatural Life from Society.

" From the points We have summarily touched upon, it is quite clear what the Masonic Society is and what it is aiming at.
Its chief dogmas arc so completely and manifestly at with human reason that nothing more wicked can he variance conceived.

To wish to destroy Religion and the Church which God Himself lias founded and which Me watches o \ c r to the end of time, to strive to bring back, after a lapse of eighteen centuries, the cus­ toms and morals of the pagans is the height of folly and outrageous impiety. Neither is it less horrible nor more tolerable that the benefits mercifully won by Jesus Christ, not only for men in their individual capacity but as linked together in families and States, should be repudiated. Kven our enemies do not hesitate to give testimony of the very high esteem in which they hold these bene­ fits. In this mad and wicked design, the implacable hatred and thirst for vengeance with which Satan himself is animated against < )ur Lord Jesus Christ become almost visible to our bodily eyes. . . . With regard to family-life, the leaching of the Naturalists may be summed up as follows: Marriage belongs to the class of commercial contracts, which can be rightly revoked at will by those who have contracted them. The rulers of the State have power over the marriage bond. In the education of youth, nothing that concerns religion is lo be taught as certain and fixed. Each one must be left free to follow whatever he may prefer, when he has reached man's estate. All these points are fully accepted by
u

the Freemasons; and not only do they agree to them, but they have long endeavoured to get them embodied in laws and institu­ tions. Already in many countries, even in those supposed to be

Catholic, it has been enacted that no marriages other than civil

FREEMASONRY

199

marriages will be considered lawful; in other places, the law allows divorce; and in others, every effort is being made to make it law­ ful as soon as possible. Thu> the lime is rapidly approaching when the nature of the matrimonial contract will be completely perverted. It is in danger of becoming an unstable union entered into under the passing influence of passion and liable to be dis­ solved when that influence has grown weak. With the greatest* unanimity, the Masonic Society also endeavours to get control of the education of the young. . . . "In political organization, the Naturalists lay down that alt men have the same rights and are all equal and alike in every respect; that every one is by nature free; that no one has the right to exercise authority over another; that it is an act of violence to demand obedience on the part of men to an authority
not emanating from themselves. . . . They hold also that the State should not acknowledge God ; that out of the various forms of religion, there is no reason whg one should take precedence over another. According to them, all should be on the same level.

Now, that these views are held also bv the Masons and that they too want to set up States constituted in this wise is too well-known to need proof. For a long time they have been openly striving with all the strength and resources at their command to bring this about; and they thus prepare the way for the bolder spirits who are ready t<» hurl society into an even worse condition, in their mad longing in arrive at equality and community of goods, by the destruction of all distinctions of rank and property. . . . A number of groups of Communists and Socialists are planning and extolling a revolutionary upheaval of this kind, and the Mas­ onic Society is not only not opposed to their designs but greatly favours them, as its principles are identical with theirs. ff they do not endeavour to realize their aims at once and everywhere,, this is not because they arc restrained by their teaching or for lack of firmness of purpose, but partly on account of the strength of that divine religion which cannot be destroyed, and partly be­ cause the more balanced members of the community do not wish to be the slaves of secret societies and vigorously resist their in­ sane strivings . . . . " What We have said . . . must be understood of the Masonic Society as a body and inasmuch as it includes the associations similar to it and linked up with it, but not as referring to each of the individual members. Amongst the associates there may be many, who, though blameworthy in having joined such associa­ tions, arc yet neither themselves sharers in the crimes of these societies nor aware of the ultimate object at which they are aim­ ing. In like manner, some of the affiliated societies perhaps, by no means approve of certain extreme conclusions, the baseness of which appa!> them, though they would be quite consistent ini

200

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

accepting them, since they follow necessarily from their common principles. Some of them, again, are obliged by circumstances of time and place to l i m i t themselves to projects .less ambitious than chey themselves would wish or than the others usually attempt They arc not on this account to be reckoned as outside the Masonic federation, because membership of the Masonic federation is to be judged, not so much by acts or achievements, as by the acceptance of a sc( of guiding principles."
(2)

FINAL AIM—NATURALISTIC WORLD-STATE OR WORLD REPUBLIC. We have just seen that Pope Leo XIII teaches that Free­ masonry is not only not opposed to the designs of the Socialists and Communists but greatly favours them, as its principles are identical with theirs. Now Pope Benedict X V , after having spoken of "Naturalism, that awful pest of our epoch," went on to say: "The advent of a Universal Republic, which is longed for by all the worst elements of disorder, and confidently expected by them, is an idea which is ripe for execution. Prom this republic, based on the principles of absolute equality of men and community of possessions, would be banished all national distinctions, nor in it would the authority of the father over his children, or of the public power over the citizens, or of God over human society, be any longer acknowledged. If these ideas are put into practice, there will inevitably follow a reign of unheard-of terror. Already, even now,, a large portion of Europe is going through that dole­ ful experience and We sec that it is sought to extend that awful state of affairs to other regions."< > That is the World-State at which Communists aim. And, as Freemasonry has the same fundamental principles as Commun­ ism, that too is the Woi Id-Republic for which Masonry is work­ ing, though some Masons may be unaware of it. The logical con­ clusion from the principles of the French Revolution is Commun­ ism. Since all men are equal, property, the greatest source of social inequality, must be suppressed. Some Masons resent that logic and try to stem the tide. Their reaction, needless lo say, will not avert the evils inherent in the principles of the Society to which they have sworn allegiance.
3

MASONIC CONSTITUTIONS. Let us now set forth the Naturalism of Anderson's
of the
(2)

Constitutions

FreemasonsM)

The first of the charges or obligations of the Freemasons,
genus. (3) Motu Propria, Bon urn Sane, July 25, 1920. (*) Anderson's New Book of the Constitutions is the oldest and most

Encyclical Letter, Humanum

important official 'publication of the Grand Lodgn of England.

FREEMASONRY

201

namely, that concerning Cod and Religion, in Anderson's Consti­ tutions (edition of 1723) reads as follows: "A Mason is obliged by his tenure, to obey the i-.o'al law: *" and if he rightly under­ stands the Art, he will never he a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious Libertine. lUit though in ancient times Masons were charg'd in every country to be of the religion of that country or nation, what­ ever ii was, yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their par­ ticular opinions to themselves; (hat is, to be ffood*men and true, or men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Centre of Union, and the means of conciliating true Friendship among persons that must have remained at a perpetual Distance." Later on in Section V I on Pcliaviour u e read: . . no private Piques or Quarrels must be brought within the door of the Lodge, far less any Quarrels about Religion, or Nations, or State Policy, we being only, as Masons, of the Catholic Religion above men­ tioned; we are also of all Nations, Tongues, Kindreds, and Lang­ uages, and are resolved against All Politicks, as what never yet condue'd to the Welfare of the Lodge, nor ever will. This Charge has been always strictly enjoin'd and observ'd; but especially ever since the Reformation in Britain, or the Dissent and Secession of these Nations from the Communion of Rome."
1

Two points in these " Charges " must be stressed. First of all, belief in the existence of God is not clearly demanded or en­ joined. The whole wording is redolent of that ambiguity which is so calculated to deceive the ignorant and unwary. " Atheism is not condemned, but just sufficiently disavowed to meet the ex­ igencies of the time, when an open admission of it would have been fatal to Masonry. It is not said that Atheists cannot be ad­ mitted or that no Mason can be an Atheist, but merely that if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist, that is to say, he will not hold or profess Atheism in a stupid way, for instance, by statements that shock religious feeling and bring Masonry into bad repute. And even such a stupid Atheist incurs (5) The Constitutions of Freemasonry or Ahiman Rezon, published by the Grand Lodge of Ireland, in 1858, adds on here as a true Noachida." In a note it is stated that this means Sons of Noah, the first name of Freemasons. The text of these Constitutions is that of Anderson's second edition of 1738. The Catholic writer, Arthur Preuss, in A Study of American Free­ masonry, pp. 350, 351, says: It is to be regretted that Dr. Mackey should devote so large a portion of his Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry to the rehearsal of Masonic myths and fables; myths and fables which have been palmed off aa facts by the writers he so justly condemns . . . . the fable of Noah; thg fable of Euclid: the fable of Pythagoras; the fable of King Solomon a.nd the Solomonic Temple." Dr. Mackey's works are among the standard works of American Freemasonry.
4< 11

202

TIIK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

n o . s t r o n g e r c e n s u r e t h a n t h e s i m p l e a s c e r t a i n i n g of t h e f a c t t h a t he does not rightly understand the Art, a merely theoretical judge­ m e n t w i t h o u t any practical sanction. Such a d i s a v o w a l tends r a t h e r to e n c o u r a g e m o d e r n positivist A t h e i s m . The same w r i t e r g o e s o n t o s a y : " S c a r c e l y m o r e s e r i o u s is t h e r e j e c t i o n of A t h e i s m b y t h e B r i t i s h , A m e r i c a n a n d G e r m a n G r a n d L o d g e s in t h e i r s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e G r a n d O r i e n t of F r a n c e . The English G r a n d L o d g e , it is t r u e , in i t s q u a r t e r l y C o m m u n i c a t i o n of 6 t h M a r c h . 1878 ( C h r . . 1878. I, 1 6 1 ) , a d o p t e d f o u r r e s o l u t i o n s , in w h i c h belief in t h e G r e a t A r c h i t e c t of t h e U n i v e r s e is d e c l a r e d t o b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a n c i e n t l a n d m a r k of t h e o r d e r , a n d a n e x ­ plicit p r o f e s s i o n of t h a t belief is r e q u i r e d of v i s i t i n g b r e t h r e n b e ­ l o n g i n g t o t h e G r a n d O r i e n t of F r a n c e , a s a c o n d i t i o n f o r e n t r a n c e into the Knglish Lodges. Similar m e a s u r e s w e r e t a k e n by the Irish. Scottish, and N o r t h A m e r i c a n Grand L o d g e s . But this belief in a Great Architect is so vague and symbolical, that almost every kind, of Atlieistu and even of 'stupid Atheism' may be covered by it, Moreover, British and American Grand Lodges declare that they are fully satisfied with such a vague, in fact, •merely verbal declaration, without further inquiry into the nature of this belief, and that they do not dream of claiming for Free•masonry that it is a ' churchy a council,'' a synod/ Conse­ quently, even those are acknowledged as Masons who, with Spencer and other Naturalist philosophers of our age, call God the hidden, all-powerful principle working in nature." F a t h e r G r u b c r t h e n q u o t e s e x t r a c t s f r o m v a r i o u s Masonicw r i t e r s a n d o r a t o r s to s h o w h o w v a g u e a n a f f i r m a t i o n a b o u t G o d will s a t i s f y t h e M a s o n i c a u t h o r i t i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , a n A m e r i c a n G r a n d O r a t o r , Z a b r i s k i e of A r i / . o n a , o n 13th N o v e m b e r , 1889, p r o ­ claimed that individual members -may believe in many Gods, if their conscience and judgment so dictate." F a t h e r Gruber then c o n c l u d e s : " T h u s the whole c o n t r o v e r s y t u r n s out to be m e r e l y n o m i n a l a n d f o r m a l . . M o r e o v e r , it is to b e n o t i c e d t h a t t h e c l a u s e d e c l a r i n g belief in t h e G r e a t \ r c h i t e c t a c o n d i t i o n of a d m i s s i o n w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e t e x t of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e G r a n d L o d g e of K n g l a n d o n l y in 1815, a n d t h a t s a m e t e x t s a y s : ' A M a s o n t h e r e f o r e is p a r t i c u l a r l y b o u n d n e v e r to a c t a g a i n s t t h e d i c t a t e s of h i s c o n s c i e n c e . ' w h e r e b y t h e G r a n d L o d g e of K n g l a n d s e e m s to a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t l i b e r t y of c o n s c i e n c e is t h e s o v e r e i g n p r i n c i p l e of F r e e m a s o n r y p r e v a i l i n g o v e r all o t h e r s w h e n in conflict w i t h t h e m . . . . T h u s t h e G r a n d O r i e n t of F r a n c e is r i g h t f r o m t h e M a s o n i c p o i n t of v i e w a s t o t h e s u b s t a n c e of t h e q u e s t i o n ; but it has deviated from- tradition by discarding symbols and symbolical formulae, which, if rightly understood, in no way imply
, , ( f i ) 1 1 11

< s A r t i c l e on " Masonry " i The Catholic Encyclopaedia, ») H. G r u b e r . S.J. F a t h e r ( J r u h e r ^ knowledge of the subject tpio«Honed.
u

by Rev. was u U

FREEMASONRY

203

dogmatic assertions, and which cannot he rejected without injuring the work of Masonry, since this has need of ambiguous religious formulae, . . . F r o m t h i s p o i n t of v i e w the s y m b o l of t h e G r a n d A r c h i t e c t of t h e U n i v e r s e a n d of t h e B i b l e a r e indeed of t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e for M a s o n r y . " T h e s e c o n d p o i n t t h a t n e e d s t o b e s t r e s s e d in c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e s e " C h a r g e s " is t h e f u n d a m e n t a l e r r o r of M a s o n r y , n a m e l y , its N a t u r a l i s m . The order of the world, as has been already stated, demands the acceptance by all men of Supernatural Life, w h i c h is a p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h e I n n e r L i f e of t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y It is o n l y t h r o u g h t h a t D i v i n e L i f e t h a t o u r n a t u r a l life, i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o c i a l , c a n b e lived in o r d e r . The Unique Source ,,f that lAf-e is Our Lord Jesus Christ, a n d h u m a n beiug> a r c i n t e n d e d to r e ­ c e i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n of t h a t L i f e b y b e i n ^ i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Mini t h r o u g h M e m b e r s h i p of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , s u p r a n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y of H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y , t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . All n a t i o n s a r e m e a n t t o e n t e r t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t a n d o r g a n i z e t h e i r n a t i o n a l life in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e D i v i n e P l a n . Sow Masonry everywhere, English Masonry as well as French Masonry, refuses to accept the Divine Plan for order : it puts itself above the Mystical Body of Christ and aims at drawing all States and \utions into a natural­ istic, supranational unity. H o w d o w e p r o v e t h a t M a s o n r y refu.-e^ the D i v i n e C l a n ? A c ­ c o r d i n g t o t h e s e c t i o n of A n d e r s o n ' - * C o n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h wc h a v e quoted, t h e M a s o n i c Society obliges it- m e m b e r s to o b s e r v e the m o r a l l a w a n d t o be g o o d m e n a n d t r u e , but i n s i s t s t h a t in o r d e r t o b e m o r a l l y g o o d m e n . it is a m a t t e r of i n d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r G o d ' s p l a n f o r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n of o u r S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e t h r o u g h O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t is a c c e p t e d o r n o t . N o w . b y o r i g i n a l sin we lost Supernatural Life, and we need Divine Grace that wc may live an o r d e r e d life, y e t . this .society pro­ claims that one can be a good own and a true man, while remaining utterly indifferent to the Unique Source of Grace, Our Lord Jesus Christ, and to His Divinity. T h a t is e q u i v a l e n t l y a d e n i a l of t h e Fall a n d is p u r e N a t u r a l i s m . ' T h e i m p o r t a n c e of
l T

< ) I n the 1738 e d i t i o n of A n d e r s o n ' s Constitution*, tin n a t u r a l i s t i c or p u r e l y r a t i o n a l n o n - C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r of F r e e m a s o n r y i.s cveu more s t r o n g l y emiphasized t h a n in the 1723 edition. In ancient t i m e s / ' we there r e a d , the Chrlsti-an Masons were charged to comply with the Christian usage* of each c o u n t r y where they travelled or -worked: but M a s o n r y being' f o u n d in all n a t i o n s , even of diverse religion*, they are now g e n e r a l l y c h a r g e d to adhere to t h a t religion, in which all men agree, l e a v i n g each B r o t h e r his own p a r t i c u l a r o p i n i o n . The Constitutions of Freemasonry or Ahimun Pc:on, published by the G r a n d Lodge of I r e l a n d in 1858, as a l r e a d y stated, follows the 1738 edition of Anderson'.s Constitutions. In this volume an a p t i l l u s t r a ­ tion of the N a t u r a l i s m of F r e e m a s o n r y , t h a t is, of its systematic ificulcation of indifference to O u r L o r d , th^ Unique Source of Super­ n a t u r a l Life, is to he found. Th* p r a y e r s u> he u?ed in th*- v a r i o u s
11 ,?

?

1

204

T H E MYSTICAL CODY OF

CHRIST

the Masonic Socicly in the world, as the only body capable of bringing about union amongst men divided by their allegiance to relatively unimportant warring sects, is implicitly understood in every line of the C o n s | n u i o n s . It is explicitly afiinncd in such places as the hellow-Crafis* or Companion Masons' song, part of which runs a s follows:
;

I

Hail Masonry! thou Craft divine! Glory of Earth, from Meav'n revealed; Which dost with jewels precious shine, From all but Masons* eyes concealed.
TT

As men from Unites distinguisht are A Mason other men excels; For what's in Knowledge choice and rare Hut in his Breast securely dwells. In virtue, then, of knowledge revealed from heaven, communi­ cated to men by this Society which professes indifference to the Divinity of Our Lord Jesus Christ, a Mason is raised as far above a man who believes in the Divinity of Our Lord and accepts His teaching, as a human being is above a brute beast. The folly of attaching importance to membership of the Mystical Body of Christ, in comparison with membership of Freemasonry, could hardly be more strongly emphasized. Thus we sec that Free­ masonry not only inculcates indifference to the Divine Plan for order through membership of the Mystical Body of Christ, but .even puts itself above the Mystical Body. Again, the whole force of the arguments used by Masons on
behalf of the beneficent, unifying influence of Masonry seems lo repose on the assertion that human reason inculcates religious indifference. For example, Lord Amplhill, Pro-Grand Master, in a speech quoted in the History of the Uank of England Lodge, de­

clares: I have said enough to remind you that the purpose of Freemasonry is religious; for what is religion except the service of God. . . . Rut do not misunderstand me: I am not saying or thinking that Freemasonry is a religion, o r that it can take the place of any dogmatic religion that has a name, a definite exist­ ence and a creed. What 1 do say, and firmly believe is, that the object of Freemasonry is to assist men of all creeds to live religi­ ous lives and to practise more truly the religion which they pro­ fess." Hence this society, which professes itself deeply religious Lodges and Hoyal Arch Chapters and Kncampmouts of High Knightn Templars are almost all in two alternative forms. One of these^ is purely naturalistic: the other makes mention of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
(8)

u

(8) History

of the Hank of England

Lodge, pp. 1 3 , \% by Stephen A .

Pope.

FREEMASONRY

205

and respectful of the service of God, avoids awakening the minds of its members to the great objective truth that the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity has come down into the world to indicate precisely how God in Three Divine Persons ought to be worshipped and served. Not only does it thus avoid calling the attention of its members to the importance of discovering which is the One True Religion established by God become Man, but it urges them to disregard the matter and gloss over it as unimportant. Hence it attempts to drive home in practice the pernicious error that according to the natural law one religion is as good as another. The plague of religious indifference has so weakened men's minds with regard to God's designs that they are almost incap'able of seeing the awful disorder of such Naturalism. It will, therefore, be well to dwell upon it a little. To enter a society in which men surrender their wills unre­ servedly to the heads of the society, by taking an oath of blind obedience, is an immoral act, contrary to man's God-given rational nature. The revolt is, however, still more heinous, when it is question of entrance into a society making open profession of Naturalism. As there are only two camps here below, revolt against Christ the King is, objectively, entrance into the camp of Satan. This Naturalism is the fundamental error of Masonry and it is common to all the sections of Masonry, Anglo-Saxon, French, Italian and Spanish. Corruption of the idea of God has inevitably followed on the rejection of the one way instituted for return to God. namely, membership of the Mystical Body of Christ. The French Grand Orient has betrayed the presence of this cor­ ruption and degradation with regard to God, more openly than English or Irish Masonry. That is the whole significance of the controversy about the deletion of the expression, The Great Archi­ tect of the Universe, by the French Grand Orient.' ' Pope Leo XIII, in the Encyclical Letter, flumanum genus, has emphatically pointed out the decay that is the morally necessary consequence of Naturalism." "The Naturalists," he writes, "go much further still. For. having in foolhardy fashion turned their backs upon the right road in matters of the utmost importance, they arc carried headlong to extremes, either on account of the frailly of human nature, or because God justly chastizes their pride. Thus it comes to pass that even those truths that are grasped by the light of human reason are no longer considered by them as indubitably c o tain. Such, for example, are the existence of God, the complete immateriality of the human soul and its im­ mortality. The Masonic sect, owing to a like error of direction,
9

<*) The Manifesto published in 1938 by the Duke of Connaught, in his capacity as Grand Master of English Masonry, re-affirms the ne ceBsity of faith in the Supreme Being for recognition by the Grand Lodge of England, but it leaves the question exactly where it was.

206

Till-: MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

has fallen into the same peril. Although, as a rule, they admit the existence of God, they themselves bear witness to the fact that they all do not firmly as.-ent lo this truth or hold it with unwaver­ ing conviction."' ' To sum up, then, the retention by the Grand Lodge of Kngland of ihe article relating to the Grand Architect of the Universe does not signify thai Kuglisb Masonry is Christian, for English Masonry does urn accept the supremacy of the Mystical Body of Christ. On the contrary, English Masonry is anti supernatural and antiChristian like the other sections of the Masonic Brotherhood, for it puts Mahomet and Buddha on the same level as Christ, thus denying Christ's role as the One Mediator.*") Neither does this article mean that English Masonry professes belief in a transcend­ ent God as we know Him, for it is compatible with acceptance of Pantheism, thai is, with the identification of God with man. French (Grand Orient) Masonry has shown this Pantheistic conception of the idea of God more fully and more explicitly than English Freemasonry. An open avowal of Atlreism or of the deification of man would have been impolitic in England in 1878 when the French Grand Orient deleted the paragraph referring to the ex­ istence of God from its constitutions. The retention of the vague term, " Great Architect of the Universe," enabled English Free­ masonry to pose as religious, while continuing its work of sapping the belief of Englishmen in the Divinity of Our Lord Jesus Chris I and in the reality of that Supernatural Life of Grace coming to us from Tlim, by which we are true men as wc ought to be.
10

CM) The present writer has shown from Masonic writer* of the highest repute, such as Wilmshurst, Pike and Milton Stewart, that th*doctrine, conveyed in veiled terms by the symbolism of Freemasonry, in Pantheism, and that the final result to which initiation tends i* the pantheistic deification of man, particular stress bring laid upon the, generative powers of the human race. The initiation* of the ancient pagan niyste ries and of modern Masonry are ceremonious revelations, indirect and graduated, of the pantheistic deification of man. The*** revelations are .made to new adepts when they have previously sworn to cleave to this object in mind and heart and to keep the secret. uud<;r pain of death. They thus enter objectively into Satan's camp and subject themselves to him h i his struggle against Our Lord Jesus C'hrist. This pantheism terminating, as it does, in the deification of the generative function of the human race, goes far to explain the steadily increasing cult of nakedness in the modern dcsupernaturalized world. Of. The Mystical Body of Christ, in the Modern World, Appendix VI, pp. 3 1 0 - 3 5 1 . Of. also £ Initiation- Maronniqve., by (J. Nicoullaud, and American Free Masonry, bv A. Preuss, pp. 1-30 169, in which I he same doctrine is proved conclusively. H i ) In The Freemason of August M i l l , 7fhtf»\ we read : " At a Masonic service . . . in Parish Church of St. Andrew, Rainsbottom . . . Bro. the Bishop of Hulme, Past Prov. (2rand Chaplain, Worcester, said the true spirit of Freemasonry was charity. Freemasonry was not of neces­ sity Christian. The Name of the Lord Jeaus Christ would not be found
v
J

FREEMASONRY

207

" Besides," writes M. Leon de Puncins, * it does not follow that * there are no relations between Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry and Latin Freemasonry. America has not completely broken with the Grand-Orient and English Freemasonry is in close louch with the American Branch. England is also in touch with several Misonie Branches in Central Europe which in their turn are in relation with the Grand-Orient. In addition, England maintains direct contact with Latin Branches of Freemasonry which in no way differ from the Grand-Orient. If we open the English Masonic Calendar tor 1930, we find that the Grand Lodge has official relations with Por­ tugal, Spain, with the remnant of Italian Freemasonry and with Latin America. "That cuts the ground from under all the affirmations of Eng­ lish Freemasonry [about complete rupture with the Grand Orient], for no highly-placed Mason is ignorant of the fact that Spanish, Portuguese and Brazilian Masonries, to mention only a few, are actively political and anti-religious after the fashion of the French Grand-Orient. Spanish Freemasonry stirred up an international agitation in favour of the Anarchist, Ferrer. Portuguese Free­ masonry played an active part in the [Portuguese] Revolution of in the prayers, nor in the offerings of praise, but anyone who recognized the Supreme feeing of God, if nothing else disqualified him, might be­ come a member of the great order. Though Freemasonry was ^ not Christian, at least it was true to say that it was religious." In the issue of March 26th, 1927, of the same periodical, we read: " Bishop Wekion, P.G.C., erstwhile Bishop of Calcutta and Metropolitan of India, in his Recollections and Reflections, says that Freemasonry, which is so groat a power iu India, may be taken to establish the possibility of uniting tihe votaries of many different religions in the common worship of one Almighty Creator." Again, The Freemason of 3rd November, 1917, gives an account of the installation of a Mohammedan, Brother Anik, jus Venerable of the Wantage Lodge of London, treating the event as m. new title to glory on the part of English Masonry. The Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught, expressed his regret at not being able to assist at the ceremony. In the sot-lion " Notes on the Book of Constitutions," XW2 edition, of The Mvsunie. Record, Sept., 1927, we find the following con.merits : (3) Charges concerning God and Religion. " Let a man's religion or mode of worship be what it may, etc. Hence not necessarily Christian. " Therefore the Sacred Book is that which contains the Sacred LAW A the individual concerned. When any Sacred Book other than the Bible is used for the pur­ pose of obligating any member of a non-Christian faith, the V.S.L. must be in the Lodge and must be opened; for any Brother who has been O.B. [obligated a Brother] on the V.S.L. [Volume of the Sacred Law^ has the right to insist on its presence within the Lodge. The u«c of the other sacred writings is for the convenience of the candidate. "There is nothing to prevent a man believing also in one or more inferior Gods provided that he acknowledges One Supreme God." Cf. Reflections on Freemasonry, by an Anglo-Catholic, pp. 52-60.
11 11 11

208

TIIK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

1910, which began bv the assassination of King Carlos and his son "<«> Sir Alfred Kohbins, who for a number of vcars was high up in the administration of British Freemasonry, was sent to North and South America in the Spring of 1924 as the accredited repre­ sentative of the Knglish Grand Master, the Uuke of Connaught. He gives .some interesting- evidence with regard to the links be­ tween the (irand Orient and the Grand Lodge of Kngland, in his book, Enytish-Speakiny Freemasonry. We read "therein : "From the Gulf of Mexico l o the Slra'us of Magellan tho various national governing Masonic bodies rue of the Latin ((irand (trient) type. Such of the Central and South American (irand Lodges, or Grand Orients . . . as agree with the Knglish formulae of fundamentals, the United Grand Lodge of Kngland recognises as being in friendly association. In four of these-—Argentine. Brazil, Uruguay and Chile Knglish-speaking and F.nglish-working lodges exist, . . . all in friendly, all in differing relations with the Grand Jurisdiction in whose country they reside, and to whose sovereignty, under Masonic International Law, they arc bound to have regard In Brazil there is no Lodge warranted by Kngland: but some fif­ teen Knglish-speaking and Knglish-working Lodges exist by war­ rant from the (irand Orient of Brazil, their internal affairs being represented at that body by a (irand Council constituted under an Anglo-Brazilian Masonic Agreement of 1912 thus in harmony with the National Grand (Orient) bodies in four of the greatest South American countries, Knglish-speaking and working Freemasonry has a corporate existence, fully recognised not onlv bv those bodies but bv the United (irand Lodge of Eng­ land." M. de Poncins quotes an interview given by Sir Alfred Robbins to The Scotsman, June 6, 1927, in which he stated that be had been amicably received by the Grand Masters of the Grand Orients of Brazil, Argentine and I'ruguay. He also quotes a statement by Sir Alfred to the members of the Swiss Lodge. Helvetica, in Lon­ don, to the effect that he had come back from South America with an admiration for Latin Masonry which he would never have had if his knowledge of it had been limited to correspondence and reading. Sir Alfred on pages 18 20 of his book gives clear proof of the vagueness of meaning of the " fundamental Grand Architect of the Universe " as well as of the fact that Freemasonry is not Christian. He there writes as follows: The foundations on which English-speaking Freemasonry so long has stood is a reverential belief in the Eternal, with an inner realization of His revealed will (12) JtcfusA par la I'rotse, p. 102. For documents concerning the Portuguese Hevnhition, cf. he Portugal Ifcnait, bv M. de Poncins.
11:11 41

n:i* Jttfua/: par la Presxe, p p . 103, 104.

FREEMASONRY

209

and w o r d . / / recognizes that both belief and revelation exist in various forms T h e o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n inside a L o d g e o r in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h M a s o n i c g a t h e r i n g s is as firmly f o r b i d d e n a s ever. T h i s d o e s n o t p r e v e n t m e m b e r s of different d e n o m i n a t i o n s and c r e e d s i n s t i t u t i n g L o d g e s w h i c h , n o t by r u l e b u t b y u n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g , a d m i t a s m e m b e r s n o n e s a v e t h o s e of t h e i r o w n belief. In England many Lodges are entirely composed of A n g l i c a n s , M e t h o d i s t s a n d C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t s , as well as of Jews; w h i l e o v e r ­ seas, a s h a s b e e n i n d i c a t e d , t h e r e a r c L o d g e s of M o h a m m e d a n s , B u d d h i s t s a n d P a r s e e s , a m o n g t h e g r e a t e r d i v i s i o n s of t h e w o r l d ' s religious t h o u g h t s "< >
14

OPPOSITION OF FREEMASONRY CATHOLIC CHURCH.

TO

THE

T h e o p p o s i t i o n of all t h e b r a n c h e s of F r e e m a s o n r y t o t h e Catholic C h u r c h is t h u s e s s e n t i a l a n d i n e r a d i c a b l e , for it is t h e o p p o s i t i o n of N a t u r a l i s m t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l Life w h i c h c o m e s from O u r D i v i n e L o r d . It is, in o t h e r w o r d s , t h e o p p o s i t i o n of A n t i - C h r i s t "to C h r i s t , h has been t h o u g h t necessary to stress this g r e a t t r u t h , b e c a u s e of t h e s t a t e m e n t s o n e s o m e t i m e s h e a r s , even f r o m C a t h o l i c s , t h a t C o n t i n e n t a l F r e e m a s o n r y is q u i t e dif­ ferent f r o m E n g l i s h F r e e m a s o n r y . T h e latter, they say, has no c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e f o r m e r a n d is m e r e l y a b e n e v o l e n t a s s o c i a ­ tion, i n w h i c h n o n - C a t h o l i c s find f r i e n d s h i p a n d h e l p , b u t w h i c h Catholics m a y n o t e n t e r b e c a u s e of t h e o a t h of s e c r e c y i m p o s e d on i t s m e m b e r s . S t a t e m e n t s such as these are u t t e r l y mislead­ ing. T h e y b e t r a y c o m p l e t e i g n o r a n c e of t h a t w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s the e s s e n t i a l d e f e c t in all f o r m s of F r e e m a s o n r y , n a m e l y , i t s Naturalism. T h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r in t h e 16th c e n ­ tury, b y w h i c h e a c h P r o t e s t a n t S t a t e r e l e g a t e d t h e c a r e of r e l i ­ gion t o a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t , p r e p a r e d t h e w a y for t h e u p r i s e of a purely n a t u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y a p i n g t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y of t h e M y s t i c a l Body of C h r i s t . S a t a n u r g e d t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of s e t t i n g u p a s o ­ ciety b a s e d u p o n t h a t n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n in w h i c h all m e n a g r e e . Thus, h e u r g e d , s i n c e m e n a r e r a t i o n a l , y o u can m a k e t h e m g o o d and t r u e , a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e w o r k for t h e b r o t h e r h o o d of m e n uf ail n a t i o n s , s o m u c h e n d a n g e r e d b y all the q u a r r e l s b e t w e e n Christian d e n o m i n a t i o n s . S a t a n p l e a d e d , t o o , for an o a t h of s e c r e c y , knowing its appeal to the curious and the a d v e n t u r o u s . Thus U4) S t u d e n t s of I r i s h H i s t o r y would do well to read w h a t S i r Alfred Itobbins says a b o u t the action of I r i s h M a s o n r y in connexion with the uprise a n d collapse of the I r i s h V o l u n t e e r s in 1779-1783, on p p . 200-202. In the o r d i n a r y histories, there is never any mention of F r e e m a s o n r y
in c o n n e x i o n wi t h the movement.

Italics in the above q u o t a t i o n s are mine.

210

TIIK MYSTICAL

BODY O F

CHRIST

w a s b r o u g h t i n t o e x i s t e n c e a n a t u r a l i s t i c c a r i c a t u r e of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t , in w h i c h m e n r e j e c t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of G r a c e a n d , in a d d i t i o n , g o a g a i n s t t h e i r n a t u r a l r e a s o n b y a n oath of blind obedience. T h e so-called R e f o r m a t i o n (really a Revolu­ t i o n , n o t a R e f o r m a t i o n ) did n o t a t t e m p t t o s e t up a s u p r a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n in t h e p l a c e of t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . It s i m p l y re­ s u l t e d in t h e s e p a r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s , c a l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s N a t i o n a l C h u r c h e s , f r o m t h e O n e T r u e C h u r c h of C h r i s t . The s e t t i n g u p of a s u p r a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s r e s e r v e d for the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n of 1789. M o d e r n l l i s i o r y , since that M a s o n i c o - N a t u r a l i s t i c Revolution, h a s b e e n , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , an a c c o u n t of t h e diffusion of its prin­ c i p l e s t h r o u g h o u t K u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a , r e s u l t i n g in t h e d o m i n a t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c s u p r a n a t i o n a l i s m of F r e e m a s o n r y , b e h i n d which h a s b e e n l o o m i n g u p t h e still m o r e s t r o n g l y o r g a n i z e d n a t u r a l i s t i c s u p r a n a t i o n a l i s m of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n . " R u s s i a " o r " M o s c o w " is m e r e l y a p r o l o n g a t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p l e s of 1789 a n d a m a t e r i a l ­ i s t i c a d a p t a t i o n of t h e m t o a c t i o n on t h e p a r t of t h e s e n a t u r a l i s t i c organizations. I n r e c e n t y e a r s , a s e r i e s of n a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s in t h e n a m e of t h e c o n c e p t of n a t i v e l a n d a g a i n s t t h e c o r r u p t i o n and d e f o r m a t i o n c a r r i e d o n b y t h e s e n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r c e s , h a v e been taking place. U n l e s s t h e i n t r i n s i c evil of t h e N a t u r a l i s m of t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n a n d , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e , i t s p l a c e in the s t r u g g l e of S a t a n a g a i n s t t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of the w o r l d , are c l e a r l y g r a s p e d , M o d e r n H i s t o r y s i n c e 1789 is u n i n t e l l i g i b l e .
( 1 5 J

I t is a p i t y t h a t M r . H i l a i r e Belloc, w h o h a s clone s u c h m a g ­ n i f i c e n t w o r k w i t h r e g a r d to t h e h i s t o r y of t h e s o - c a l l e d R e f o r m ­ a t i o n , has n o t clearly g r a s p e d this point. H i s t r e a t m e n t of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n a n d of s u b s e q u e n t revolu­ tions suffers from the fact t h a t he ascribes the opposition between t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a n d F r e e m a s o n r y , n o t t o a n e s s e n t i a l and l o g i c a l l y i n e v i t a b l e conflict of p r o g r a m m e s , b u t t o a n a c c i d e n t a l a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s . T h e p a s s a g e in w h i c h h e h a s e l a b o r a t e d t h i s t h e o r y is t o be f o u n d in a n a r t i c l e o n t h e M a s o n i c h a t r e d of I t a l y , in G . K s Weekly D e c e m b e r 2 6 t h , 1935, w h i c h r u n s a s fol­ l o w s : " T h e d o c t r i n e s [of F r e e m a s o n r y ] a r e h a r m l e s s e n o u g h ; but t h e r e is t h i s a b o u t it w h i c h is r e m a r k a b l e a n d c o u l d o n l y be ex­ p l a i n e d b y t h e a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s t h a t , w h e r e v e r t h e Catholic C h u r c h is p o w e r f u l , M a s o n r y b e c o m e s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d i r e c t i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s w h i c h a i m a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of C a t h o l i c society. " T h e r e is n o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e q u a i n t H e b r a i c r i t u a l ( i n v e n t e d a p p a r e n t l y a t t h e e n d of t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) a n d h o s t i l i t y to t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . Still l e s s is t h e r e a n y a p p a r ­ e n t r a t i o n a l l i n k b e t w e e n t h e v a g u e h u m a n i t a r i a n i d e a l s w h i c h run t h r o u g h M a s o n r y a n d t h e b o d y of C a t h o l i c d o c t r i n e . T h e main
y i

< ) Cf. The Rulers of Russia. ( T h i r d E d i t i o n ) , p. 55. These reactions will be d e a l t "with in C h a p t e r X V I .

15

FREEMASONRY

211

complaint is that Masonry being non-doctrinal saps organized and doctrinal religion, but that does not explain the conflict. "The connection between one thing and another in practical life depends not only on links that can be rationally explained but also upon mere association of ideas. If a man meets with insult from another man in a red cloak the association of red cloaks with insult would arise, though it would be slight. But if a second man in a red cloak is rude to him and then, after some interval, a third man in a red cloak plays a practical joke upon him, he will come to identify the wearing of red cloaks with hostility to himself. If a body of men whose bond is fidelity to a particular creed are in practice constantly at loggerheads with those who care nothing about the creed but are given to playing the flute, the followers of the creed will inevitably get into a state of mind where flute-playing is to them an abomination. The doctrine of adult baptism has nothing whatever to do with the doctrine that fermented liquor is an evil, but by an association of ideas there arose after a few generations a permanent hostility between Bap­ tists on the one hand and hearty drinking on the other. "That is the answer to those who say that there cannot be any real hostility between Masonry and Catholic society. It is an hostility bred from an association of ideas which has existed so long that it has taken on strength and struck roots and become permanent. It has body and real existence. Go wherever you will in any Catholic nation or polity—Ireland, France, Belgium, Vienna, Portugal, Spain—everywhere you will find Masonry fur­ nishes the framework, the organization and the directive, of at­ tack against the social and religious tradition of the people. " International Masonry therefore has already a natural anti­ pathy to the presence of a new powerful Catholic state, such as Italy was manifestly becoming. Still, that tendency was vague; what made it exceedingly active was the direct attack made by the new Italian government on the Masonic Lodges and the com­ plete success of that attack. . . . Therefore it is that all over the world (in America, for instance, where there are more Freemasons than in all the rest of Christendom put together, in Mexico, where the government is openly Masonic, in Bohemia, where the gov­ ernment is also purely Masonic, as may be seen in the persons of Masaryk and Bencs) Masonry is working against Italy. It is only one of the many highly comic things about our modern press in England that a matter of this importance is never spoken of. . . The public is left not only ignorant of the international role of Masonry, it is ignorant also of a thousand other things which the newspaper monopolists have either never heard of or arrange to keep silent about." A connexion or an opposition based on association of images (and ideas) is accidental. The thought of something as linked

212

THE MYSTICAL

BODY O F

CHRIST

u p w i t h o r o p p o s e d t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e a r i s e s in a m a n ' s m i n d on the occasion of t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n i m a g e ( a n d c o n s e q u e n t t h o u g h t ) of t h e f o r m e r o b j e c t , b e c a u s e of s e n s e - i m p r e s s i o n s in the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e t h o u g h t of the s e c o n d o b j e c t a r i s e s , b e c a u s e of a n a s s o c i a t i o n of s e n s e - i m p r e s s ­ i o n s w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n q u i t e o t h e r w i s e , if t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e h a d b e e n o t h e r w i s e . T h e r e is n o t h i n g in t h e n a t u r e of t h i n g s io a s s o c i a t e t h e o b j e c t s . A l o g u a l o r o b j e c t i v e c o n n c x i o n o r o p p o s i t i o n , on t h e c o n t r a r y , is o n e t h a i i - s e e n by t h e m i n d t o be i n v o l v e d in the n a t u r e of t h i n g s : ii is e s s e n t i a l . Of t h i s lat­ t e r k i n d is t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n the N a t u r a l i s m of t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of t h e M a s o n i c B r o t h e r h o o d a n d t h e S u p e r u a t u r a l i s m of t h e M y s t i c a l Body of C h r i s t , the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . < Masonry will s e n d u p a s m o k e s c r e e n a n d a d v a n c e t o b a t t l e b e h i n d N a ­ t i o n a l i t y . S c i e n c e , P r o g r e s s a n d t h e r e s t of t h e w e l l - w o r n s h i b ­ b o l e t h s for w h i c h so n i n n y n o n - C a t h o l i c s a n d r e c r e a n t C a t h o l i c s h a v e crucified O u r S a v i o u r a g a i n s i n c e 1789. b u t , b e c a u s e of its N a t u r a l i s m , M a s o n r y is a l w a y s , in t h e l a s t r e s o r t , a i m i n g a t the e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a c t of w o r s h i p of t h e M a s s . and of t h e D i v i n e Life p e r m e a t i n g s o c i e t y t h e r e f r o m . T h e opposition between the Catholic Church and F r e e m a s o n r y will b e c o m e c l e a r e r w h e n o n e r e a l i z e s (he m e a n i n g of M a s o n i c " t o l e r a n c e . " T h e f o r m a t i o n in " t o l e r a n c e " g i v e n in t h e L o d g e s a i m s not m e r e l y at (hat negative mental s t a t e which puts religiU<>) F a i h e r Gruber, IS.J., i n the article on F r e e m a s o n r y i n the Catholic Encyclopaedia is very definite about the r a d i c a l opposition between F r e e m a s o n r y and the Catholic Church. H e writes : " Certainly F r e e m a s o n r y a n d ' C h r i s t i a n ' or ' Catholic ' religion are not opposed to each other when Masons, some erroneously, others hysterically, under­ s t a n d ' C h r i s t i a n ' or ' Catholic ' in the above described Masonic sense, or when M a s o n r y itself is m i s t a k e n l y conceived as an o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n i n s t i t u t i o n . But between ' Masonry and 'Christian or 'Catholic* religion, conceived as they really are; between ' v n sect rt»r ion Freevtasonry and ' dogmatic, orthodox Christianity, or (•atholicism, there is radical apposition. It is v a i n to s a y : Though M a s o n r y is officially u n s c c t a r i a n / it does not p r e v e n t i n d i v i d u a l Masons from being sec­ t a r i a n in t h e i r non-Masonic r e l a t i o n s ; for in its official ' u n s e c t a r i a n i s m ' F r e e m a s o n r y necessarily comhats all t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y -contains beyond the ' universal religion in which all men a g r e e / consequently all t h a t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the C h r i s t i a n a n d Catholic religion. These character­ istic features F r e e m a s o n r y combats not only as_ superfluous a n d merely subjective, b u t also as s p u r i o u s a d d i t i o n s d i s f i g u r i n g the objective universal t r u t h , which i t professes." T h i s last r e m a r k is to be found b l u n t l y expressed in Pike's Morals and Dogma of the A. and A. Scottish /fife, where v.e r e a d : " M a s o n r y teaches, and has pre-served in their p u r i t y , the c a r d i n a l tenets of the old p r i m i t i v e faith which underlie a n d are the foundation of all religions. AH t h a t ever existed have h a d a basis of t r u t h , a n d edl have overlaid t h a t t r u t h with e r r o r s . " T h u s , a c c o r d i n g to P i k e , the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h h a s s u p e r i m p o s e d erron­ eous teachings on the t r u t h s of n a t u r a l Religion, which M a s o n r y has preserved pure. Italics min-e.
v 1G) 1 7 1 } 1

FREEMASONRY

213

ous truth and error on the same level, treating them both with indifference; it aims at the production of a positive hatred of what it calls the "intolerance" of the Catholic Church, namelv, the Catholic Church's insistence on the oneness of the Divine Plan for order. ^ The stressing of the importance of toleration and in­ difference is intended to produce a mentality in which hatred and contempt for the " intolerance and unyielding attitude of the Catholic Church are blended. Why is this? Because the steadfast hold of the Catholic Church on the one true order of the world is utterly hateful to Satan who has rejected that order for him­ self. He calls that hold upon order " intolerance " and unceasingly inculcates hatred of it. This is the reason why Masonic orators and writers like Pike, in Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, continually inveigh against superstition and point out the deadly opposition between it and glorious Masonic light. The formation in Masonic " tolerance," then, is really a formation in hatred of the firmness and strength of the Catholic Church, in standing for the Supernatural Life and order of the world. This is the ultimate reason why Anglo-Saxon Masonry, ostensibly so conservative, has consistently favoured movements towards the Left, opposed to the true order of the world. The Masonic Society as a whole forms a solid phalanx in the naturalistic camp of Satan, in spite of some superficial manifestations of lack of cohesion. In the world, there are only two camps, the camp of Our Divine Lord and the camp of Satan. Accordingly, Masonry will inevit­ ably tend towards more flagrant opposition to Our Lord's pro­ gramme for the organization of society.* * Satan will see to it. He will strive to have the process of suggestion, to which Masons are subjected in the Lodges, continued, until the deformation of the intelligence and the perversion of the will have reached the point at which he is aiming. This must be always borne in mind. The subjects who are found not to be apt pupils are not allowed to pass on to the higher degress: they are left under the impress­ ion that, as Master-Masons, they have attained to the dignity that is of really practical importance.
17 (18)

(W) This reasoning is based on the inevitable consequences of opposi­ tion to God involved in Masonic Naturalism. Robison, in his celebrated work, Proofs of a Conspiracy, confirms this a priori argument by an a posteriori one from the evil results he had himself seen. " Accord­ ingly we see," he writes. " that in every quarter of Europe where Free­ masonry has been established, the Lodges have been seedbeds of public mischief. . . . Freemasonry has been abused, and at last totally per­ verted and so will and must any such secret association, so long as men are licentious in their opinions or wicked in their dispositions " (Op. cit., 3rd edition, pp. 464. 466). (18J Ordinary Masons a r e ignorant of the superimposed strata of

214

THI\ MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

Masons arc gradually " formed" both by personal penetration of t h e d o c t r i n e u n d e r l y i n g M a s o n i c s y m b o l s a n d c e r e m o n i e s a n d p e r s o n a l a c c e p t a n c e of t h e S a t a n i c c o n s e q u e n c e s t h e r e o f , a n d also by systematic "lectures." E.ioteric initiates, w h o are largely i g n o r a n t of e s o t e r i c M a s o n r y or t h e i n n e r s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s y m ­ bolic t e a c h i n g of t h e o r d e r , f o r m t h e b u l k of t h o s e w h o f r e q u e n t t h e L o d g e s . > T h e r e a l l y i n i t i a t e d , t h e esoteric M a s o n s , are t h o s e w h o h a v e p e n e t r a t e d fully i n t o t h e h i d d e n m e a n i n g of L o d g e s y m ­ b o l i s m a n d w h o h a v e a c c e p t e d all t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of t h a t p e n e ­ t r a t i o n . T h a t is t h e r e s u l t of p e r s o n a l w o r k on t h e p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l M a s o n a n d no d e g r e e can c o n f e r i t . T h e f o l l o w i n g is an o u t l i n e of t h e " f o r m a t i o n " g i v e n b y the " l e c t u r e s . " T h e s u b l i m e m i s s i o n of M a s o n r y is p r o c l a i m e d t o be t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e r e l i g i o n of T o l e r a t i o n . R e s p e c t for C a t h ­ o l i c i s m a s for e v e r y f o r m of C h r i s t i a n i t y is a t first i n s i s t e d u p o n , b u t it is p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t o l e r a n t C a t h o l i c i s m is t h e e n e m y of genuine Christianity. As the Jesuits and o t h e r Religious Orders interpret the Catholic religion with intolerance, M a s o n r y must c o m b a t t h e m , in p u r s u i t of its s u b l i m e m i s s i o n . T h e n , l a t e r on, d o g m a t i c t e a c h i n g is a s s a i l e d a s the s o u r c e of i n t o l e r a n c e , for d o g m a is i n t o l e r a n t by n a t u r e . F i n a l l y , to s a v e h u m a n i t y from i n t o l e r a n c e , t h e C h u r c h itself m u s t be a t t a c k e d , b e c a u s e the C h u r c h ' s d o g m a t i c t e a c h i n g l e a d s to i n t r u s i o n s i n t o p o l i t i c s . T h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ' s claim t h a t all the a c t i o n s , p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o ­ m i c , of m e m b e r s of C h r i s t , m u s t be .subject t o C h r i s t , is t r e a t e d a s an i n t r u s i o n i n t o p o l i t i c s . H o w d o e s this X a t u r a l i s m p e n e t r a t e f r o m the l o d g e s i n t o m a s s e s of the p e o p l e : ' T h e j o u r n a l i s t in his a r t i c l e s , t h e w r i t e r in his b o o k s , the d r a m a t i c a u t h o r a n d f i l m - p r o d u c e r in t h e i r c o m ­ p o s i t i o n s , the s o n g - w r i t e r in his s o n g s , t h e p r o f e s s o r in his lec­ t u r e s , the t e a c h e r in his c l a s s e s , all s p r e a d a b r o a d t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c i d e a s w i t h w h i c h t h e y h a v e been i m p r e g n a t e d in M a s o n i c r e ­ u n i o n s . A n d as t h e M a s o n s w h o t h u s a c t as p r o p a g a n d i s t s do not a v o w t h a t t h e y are M a s o n s , t h e i r a c t i o n is not r e c o g n i z e d as
{19 ( 2 0 )

secret societies of which Masonry is composed. Of. Le Pouvoir Occulte con t re. la France, by Oopiu-Albancelli, pp. 228. etc. Of course, certain nobles and other highly-placed personages arc advanced to the higher grades without any increase in their esoteric knowledge. " They serve as birdlime for f o o l s , according to the wellknown expression of Piccolo Tigre, the conspirator of the Italian Alba Vcndita. < ) For an explanation of how it is possible to be a Mason for years and yet be ignorant of the real secrets of Masonry, see Preuss, American Freemasonry, Chapters I, I I . (20)^ The Masonic work properly M> called is the inner secret, ritualistic work hy which Masons are made and educated for the outer work, consisting in action For the welfare of mankind according to Masonic principle* " (article by Father Cruhor. S . J . . in the Catholic Encyclopaedia).
M 19 <(

FREEMASONRY

215

Masonic action. For example, the moderate paper, seeminglyrespectful of religion, may have, without its being known, its Mason or Masons, who insert therein what it is safe to say, going as far as is possible for the moment and biding their time till public opinion is formed and ready to accept something stronger In the lodges, these Masons come in contact with those who are engaged on the anti-Catholic papers.< Besides the direct action of its own members on the public. Masonry aims at creating sub-masonries or associations for the propagation of its ideas. These associations vary according to the types of intelligences for which they are destined, but, in spite of differences, the naturalistic and anti-supernatural note is always present. The gradations of this ever-present characteris­ tic range from rabid anti-Catholicism to " broad-minded " indifferentism. The Orange Society and Rotary are two examples of such sub-masonries. In addition to the creation of associations for the dissemination of Masonic ideas, Masonry aims at securing entrance into and arriving at the control of associations which it has not created. Freemasonry thus succeeds in setting in motion a vast number of people and gets them to work for ends un­ known to them. "Those who support themselves by the labour of their hands," writes Pope Leo XIII in his Encyclical Letter on Freemasonry, are especially exposed to the allurements of men whose ways lie in fraud and deceit. Therefore, they ought lo be helped with the greatest possible kindness, and to be invited to join associations that are good, lest they be drawn away to others that are evil. For this reason. We greatly desire that . . . the guilds may be restored."' ' The forces that control Masonry proceed slowly and cautiously, getting in the so-called " progressive " ideas. P.ut when the people are completely blinded and powerless, the moderate leaders, who were allowed to figure on the stage during the period of prepar­ ation, disappear, and others more fanatically " progressive/' take their places to serve their turn. It must also be borne in mind that ministers of State are, to a very large extent, dependent upon the permanent officials. During the years of preparation, Masonry aims at getting hold of the key-positions on Government clerical
21) 22

(21) All this naturalistic action is, of course, strengthened a hundred­ fold by the influence of the organized leaders of the Jewish Natidn in Masonry and in the Press of the world. Masonic action in dividing and weakening is directed and inspired hy the leaders of the Jewish Nation. For Jewish influence in Freemasonry see Freemasonry and Jewish influence in Press, see Grossmacht
300-302.
(22) Cf. The Mystical edition, pp. 77-113.

the Anti-Christian

Movement^

by Rev, E. Cahill, S.J..
Pre.xse*

bv Dr. Eberlc, pp.
World,

pp. 74-95.

For

Body

of Christ

in the Modem

third

216

THE MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

s t a f f s . T h u s e v e n t h e g o o d m e n w h o b e c o m e m i n i s t e r s v e r y fre­ q u e n t l y find t h e m s e l v e s p o w e r l e s s t o a r r e s t t h e d o w n w a r d t r e n d . W e h a v e s e e n the a m b i g u i t y of t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n s of A n d e r s o n w i t h r e g a r d t o God a n d R e l i g i o n , a n d t h e i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t s , w i t h r e g a r d to o p p o s i t i o n to t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a n d t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e of t h e w o r l d , in an o a t h - b o u n d n a t u r a l i s t i c s o c i e t y , in w h i c h h a t r e d of " s u p e r s t i t i o n " a n d " i n t o l e r a n c e " is i n c u l c a t e d . L e t us n o w p a s s o n t o c o n s i d e r t h e effect of t h e s i m i l a r l y a m b i g u o u s l a n g u a g e with r e g a r d to political action, FREEMASONRY AND POLITICAL ACTION.

L e t u s first t a k e t h e t e s t i m o n y of F a t h e r G r u b e r , S.J., in t h e a r t i c l e o n F r e e m a s o n r y in t h e Catholic Encyclopaedia, from which w e have already quoted. " A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of M a s o n i c L a w , " h e w r i t e s , " i s t h a t ' t r e a s o n ' a n d ' r e b e l l i o n ' a g a i n s t civil a u t h o r i t y a r e declared only political c r i m e s , w h i c h affect t h e good s t a n d i n g of a B r o t h e r n o m o r e t h a n h e r e s y , a n d f u r n i s h n o g r o u n d f o r a M a s o n i c t r i a l . T h e i m p o r t a n c e w h i c h M a s o n r y a t t a c h e s to t h i s p o i n t is m a n i f e s t f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t it is s e t f o r t h in A r t i c l e I I of t h e ' O l d C h a r g e s / w h i c h defines t h e d u t i e s of a F r e e m a s o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e S t a t e a n d t h e civil p o w e r s . C o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n j u n c t i o n of t h e ' G o t h i c ' c o n s t i t u t i o n s of o p e r ­ a t i v e M a s o n r y , it is n o l e s s a m b i g u o u s t h a n A r t i c l e I c o n c e r n i n g G o d a n d r e l i g i o n . . . . T h e s e c o n d " a r t i c l e of m o d e r n S p e c u l a t i v e F r e e m a s o n r y (1723) r u n s a s f o l l o w s : ' O f t h e Civil M a g i s t r a t e s , s u p r e m e a n d s u b o r d i n a t e . ' A M a s o n is a p e a c e a b l e S u b j e c t t o t h e Civil P o w e r s , w h e r e e v e r h e r e s i d e s o r w o r k s , a n d is n e v e r t o be c o n c e r n e d in P l o t s a n d C o n s p i r a c i e s a g a i n s t t h e P e a c e a n d W e l f a r e of t h e N a t i o n , n o r t o b e h a v e h i m s e l f u n d u t i f u l l y t o i n f e r i o r M a g i s t r a t e s ; for as M a s o n r y hath always been injured by W a r , Bloodshed and C o n f u s i o n , so a n c i e n t K i n g s a n d P r i n c e s h a v e b e e n m u c h d i s ­ p o s e d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c r a f t s m e n , b e c a u s e of t h e i r P e a c e a b l e n e s s a n d L o y a l t y , w h e r e b y they practically a n s w e r e d the Cavils of t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s a n d p r o m o t e d t h e H o n o u r of [ t h e ] F r a t e r ­ n i t y , w h o e v e r flourished in T i m e s of P e a c e . So t h a t if a B r o ­ t h e r s h o u l d be a R e b e l a g a i n s t t h e S t a t e , b e is n o t t o be c o u n ­ t e n a n c e d in h i s R e b e l l i o n , h o w e v e r h e m a y be p i t i e d a s a n u n ­ h a p p y m a n ; a n d , if c o n v i c t e d of n o o t h e r C r i m e , t h o u g h t h e l o y a l B r o t h e r h o o d m u s t a n d o u g h t to d i s o w n his R e b e l l i o n , a n d g i v e n o G r o u n d of p o l i t i c a l J e a l o u s y t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , they c a n n o t expel him from the L o d g e and his R e ­ l a t i o n to it r e m a i n s i n d e f e a s i b l e / " H e n c e r e b e l l i o n by m o d e r n s p e c u l a t i v e M a > o n r y is o n l y d i s ­ a p p r o v e d w h e n p l o t s a r e d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e peace and welfare of the nation. T h e b r o t h e r h o o d o u g h t to d i s o w n the rebellion, b u t

FREEMASONRY

217

only in order to preserve the fraternity from annoyance by the civil authorities. A brother guilty of rebellion cannot be expelled from the Lodge; on the contrary, his fellow Masons are particularly obliged to have pity on his misfortune when he (in person or before the courts) has to suffer from the consequences of his rebellion, and give him brotherly assistance as far as they can. Freemasonry itself as a body is very peaceable, but it does not disapprove, on the contrary, it commends those brethren who, through love of freedom and" the national welfare, successfully plot against monarchs and other despotic rulers, while as an association of public utility it claims privilege and protection through kings, princes, and other high dignitaries, for the success of its peaceful work. ' Loyalty to freedom/ says The Freemason's Chronicle (1875, I, 81), 'overrides all other considerations' . . . . The protestations (of loyalty to the government) of English and American Freemasons in general may be deemed sincere, as far as their own countries and actual governments are concerned. Not even the revolutionary Grand Orient of France thinks of over­ throwing the actual political order in France, which is in entire conformity with its wishes. The question is, whether Freemasons respect a lawful Government in their own and other countries,
when it is not inspired by Masonic principles. In this respect

both English and American Freemasons, by their principles and conduct, provoke the condemnatory verdict of enlightened and impartial public opinion. We have already above hinted that Article II of the 'Old Charges' is calculated to encourage rebell­ ion against governments which are not according to the wishes of Freemasonry. The Freemason"s Chronicle but faithfully ex­ presses the sentiments of Anglo-American Freemasonry, when it writes: 'If we were to assert that under no circumstances had a Mason been found willing to take arms against a bad government, we should only be declaring that in trying moments, when duty, in the Masonic sense, to State means antagonism to the govern­ ment, they had failed in the highest and most sacred duty of a citizen. Rebellion in some cases is a sacred duty, and none but a bigot or a fool will say that our countrymen were in the wrong, when they took arms against King James II. Loyalty to freedom in a case of this kind overrides all other considerations, and when to rebel means to be free or perish, it would be idle to urge that a man must remember obligations which were never intended to rob him of his status of a human being and a citizen* (The Free­ masons Chronicle 1875, 1, 81). Such language would suit every anarchistic movement equally. The utterances in question were made in defence of plotting Spanish Masons.
t

Only a page further on, the same English Masonic Magazine writes: 'Assuredly Italian Masonry, which has rendered such in­ valuable service in the regeneration of thai magnificent country, is

41

218

T H E M Y S T I C A L B O D Y O F CHRIST

w o r t h y of t h e h i g h e s t p r a i s e ' . . . . Kossuth, w h o ' h a d been l e a d e r in t h e r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t A u s t r i a n T y r a n n y / w a s e n t h u s i a s t i c ­ ally received by A m e r i c a n M a s o n s , solemnly initiated into F r e e ­ m a s o n r y a t C i n c i n n a t i , 2 1 s t A p r i l , 1852, a n d p r e s e n t e d w i t h a g e n ­ e r o u s gift. . . . G a r i b a l d i , ' t h e g r e a t e s t F r e e m a s o n of I t a l y ' ( I n ­ t e r n . Bull., B e r n e , 1907, 9 8 ) , a n d M a z z i n i w e r e a l s o e n c o u r a g e d b v A n g l o - A m e r i c a n F r e e m a s o n s in t h e i r r e v o l u t i o n a r y e n t e r p r i s e s (The. Freemason's Chronicle, 1882, I, 4 1 0 ; 1893, I, 1 7 5 ; 1899, I I . 34). T h e c o n s i s t e n t M a s o n / s a y s 'The. Voice" ( C h i c a g o ) , will n e v e r b e f o u n d e n g a g e d in c o n s p i r a c i e s o r p l o t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e of o v e r t u r n i n g a n d s u b v e r t i n g a g o v e r n m e n t b a s e d u p o n the M a s o n i c p r i n c i p l e s of l i b e r t y a n d e q u a l r i g h t s ' (The Freemason"s Chronicle, 1892, I, 2 5 9 ) . ' B u t / d e c l a r e s P i k e (The Inner Sanctu­ ary, I V , 5 4 7 ) , ' w i t h t o n g u e a n d p e n , w i t h all o u r o p e n a n d s e c r e t i n f l u e n c e s , w i t h t h e p u r s e , a n d if n e e d b e , w i t h t h e s w o r d , w e will a d v a n c e t h e c a u s e of h u m a n p r o g r e s s a n d l a b o u r t o e n f r a n c h i s e "human t h o u g h t , to give f r e e d o m to the h u m a n conscience ( a b o v e all f r o m p a p a l u s u r p a t i o n s ) a n d e q u a l r i g h t s l o the p e o p l e e v e r y ­ w h e r e . W h e r e v e r a n a t i o n s t r u g g l e s t o g a i n or r e g a i n its f r e e ­ d o m , w h e r e v e r t h e h u m a n m i n d a s s e r t s its i n d e p e n d e n c e a n d the p e o p l e d e m a n d t h e i r i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s , t h e r e shall g o o u r w a r m ­ e s t s y m p a t h i e s '."
4 4

T h e effect of t h e a m b i g u o u s n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r m a t i o n of M a s o n r y in r e g a r d to t h e S t a t e , a c c o m p a n i e d a s it is b y d e n u n c i a t i o n s of " t y r a n n v " a n d " u s u r p a t i o n / * c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e d e n u n c i a t i o n s of " s u p e r s t i t i o n " a n d " i n t o l e r a n c e " in r e g a r d to r e l i g i o n , will be t h e t e n d e n c y a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d t o f a v o u r Left m o v e m e n t s / '
3 3

c2:i) The moral conduct of mankind is grounded on faith in God kept true and p u r e ' (Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius X I , Mit brennendcr Sorge, already quoted). Purity of belief in God. the Pope says, depends upon bid ief in Christ and II is Church. Accordingly where there is revolt against Our Lord and His Church, moral decay i< inevitable. Masonry inevitably tends to the l^>ft, since Masons not o n l y become members of the anti-supernatural camp of Satan, but take an oath that is anti-rational^ M. Copin-AIbancelli pertinently r e m a r k s in his book, Le Pouroir Occult? contrr la France^ that the statement, of principles by which Freemasonry was'presented to the public was a masterpiece. The declar­ a t i o n completely concealed the revolutionary end in view a n d thus made certain of the toleration of the reigning powers, while drawing to the society ;i number o f l n u i e s t p e o p l e and e \ m of Catholic--. The, society oven made profession of principles which it intended to a t t a c k , but at, the same time it ]>repared the way for the deformation and falsifica­ t i o n of these same principle.^ by the inclusion of certain contradictory principles. . . . On the one, hand, the first article of the s t a t u t e s pro­ claimed : ' Freemasonrv stands for the existence of God a n d the immortality of the soul. It respects the religious beliefs of all it* adherents. I t forbids all religious discussions/ On the other h a n d , the same article declared that ' Freemasonry was philosophical and progressive, a n d had, for object, the search for t r u t h , and for p r i n c i p l e ,
1

il

FREEMASONRY

219

States in which the Divine Order of the world is acknowledged will be classified as " tyrannies," in proportion to the extent in which they accept Our Lord and the Supernatural Life. Accord­ ingly, as the advent of Naturalism in Protestant countries is only a question of time, the terms " tyranny," " despotism " and "usurp­ ation," are not applied to them as freely and as vigorously as they were to the realms of the Bourbons and the Hapsburgs in days gone by. In Catholic countries, as has been already pointed out, violent revolution is always aimed at, in order to get rid of the existing social structure in which the Kingship of Christ is respected. MASONIC DECLARATIONS OF LOYALTY. In accordance with the principle laid down in the Constitutions concerning " Behaviour in Presence of Strangers not Masons," Masonry changes its attitude according to the times and the cir­ cumstances. In that Constitution, which is the fourth of those on Behaviour, it is enjoined that "you shall be cautious in your words and Carriage, that the most penetrating Stranger shall not be able to discover or find out what is not proper t o be intimated: and sometimes you shall divert a Discourse, and manage it pru­ dently for the Honour of the Worshipful Fraternity." M. CopinAlbancelli in his able works, Lr Povvoir Ocntlte contre lo France, and La Conjuration Juice con/re le Monde Chretien, points out that, when Masonry w a s introduced into France, it began by ap­ pearing t o be as anti-revolutionary as English Masonry w a s , or at least until recently, said to b e . Here are some of the de­ clarations of a Masonic orator as reported by Brother . '. de la Tierce w h o wrote, in 1747. An Apoloyj/ for the Order of Free­ masons: " LeS us try to define a Ma.son in order to know him bet­ ter. Represent to yourselves a man fearing God, faithful and loyal to his King, giving to everyone his due. not doing to others what he would n o t like t o have done l o himself, and you have the pic­ ture of a true Mason. These are his mysteries and these his sc-.
(W

absolute liberty of conscience. Now liberty of conscience was not abso~ lute if a m a n were obliged to proclaim the existence of God and the immortality of the oul. In the same way, the search for truth could not be prevented from questioning the religious beliefs of the members.
a

s

the wishes of its founders." m) " I swear . . . in the presence of the (Jreai Architect of the universe and of thi* august Lodge, to live and die in the Catholic, Apos­ tolic and Roman religion in which I was born, to be faithful to my King, against whom I will never bear arms, never to enter into any conspiracy against the State, likewise never to infringe the laws of "Masonry in general and the particular Constitution of this Lodge, etc., etc." (Oblig­ ations of Venerable of French Lodge in the 18th centurv, as quoted in R.I.S.S., 11th March, 1928, p. 226).

By means of such a programme, Freemasonry could vary according to

220

THE MYSTICAL BOL>Y OF CHRIST

crets. . . . I have said that a Mason is a God-fearing man, for he who abandons his religious duties is not a Mason. Such a being usurps the name of Mason and has never deserved to bear it. . . . Sacred Laws of Religion, lo you honour is due." According to these declarations, then, Masonry would be an association of God­ fearing loyal men and the same conclusion, adds M. Copin-Albancelli, could be drawn from many other pronouncements which were made from the first appearance of Freemasonry to the eve of the Revolution of 1789 and again from 1815 to 1870. Besides, the Statutes of the French Masonic Federations formerly forbade all political discussions in the Lodges and imposed respect for every form of religious belief as a fundamental obligation. "It is in this fashion," continues the same writer, "that Free­ masonry begins in Catholie countries. But wait till it has suc­ ceeded in getting itself accepted and you will see it seize power and do as it did in France in 1793 and as it is doing at the present time, namely, assassinate or banish those princes to whom it had sworn fidelity and massacre or rob the ministers of that religion whose sacred laws it had invoked.* ^ The solemn declarations change, too, for we read in the programme of the Masonic Review, Acacia, in 1902, that 'Freemasonry is the Counter-Church, the Counter-Catholicism, the Church of Heresy.' The Bulletin of the Grand Orient of France gave utterance, in 1885, to the following ' profession of faith': * We. Masons, must aim at the complete destruction of Catholicism/ In 1902. Brother, .". Delpech, in a speech printed in the official report, said: * The triumph of the Galilean has lasted twenty centuries. His vogue, however, is now on the wane in its turn. The mysterious voice which once upon a time on the mountains of Epirus announced the death of Pan, to-day proclaims the downfall of that deceitful God who promised an era of justice and peace to those who believed in Him. . . . Freemasons, it is with pleasure that wc proclaim the fact that we have contributed to the overthrow of the false prophets. The Roman Church, built upon the Galilean myth, began t o decay rap­ idly from the time of the foundation of the Masonic Association. Politically, Freemasons have often changed their coats, but Free­ masonry has always clung firmly to the principle of the extermin­ ation of all superstitions and fanaticisms.* " Now, if, as Brother Delpech hokb, Freemasonry has always been aiming at the destruction of the Catholic Church, what are we to think of the declarations made by Freemasons in the 18th century and in the first half of the 1'Mh century? . . . . The proofs of the ferocious hatred of Masonry for the Catholic Church < ) T h e hook from which these extracts arc taken. I.e. Foucovr Occulta contre la France (pp. 88, 90, etc.), was p u b l i s h e d in T910. The open attack on CatludiciMn had been g o i n g on sinci* the b e g i n n i n g of the century.
25
25

FREEMASONRY

221

are so evident in our day that hypocrisy has become impossible. Freemasonry sees this and with the same energy with which dur­ ing 150 years (with the exception of the period of the Great Revo­ lution), it affirmed its respect for religion, it now proclaims that it is aiming at the overthrow of the Catholic Church. It even goes so far as to declare that it has never varied on this point. Hence we may conclude that, as it asserted the opposite during 150 years, the sect lied during these 150 years." M. Copin-AIbancelli holds that the Masonic Society is so "cautious in Words and Carriage " at any epoch that " the most penetrating Stranger" can discover only what the society does not wish to conceal, with the result that its pronouncements are in flagrant contradiction with its subsequent actions. lie says also that many of the individual members who make the pro­ nouncements may be in good faith, but being unaware of the Jewish power over Masonry, are ignorant of the end towards which they arc being manoeuvred. In the steady movement to the Left, he stresses the iniluence of Jewish Naturalism.' '^ Ch. Nicoullaud, another writer whom we have cited, stresses the in­ fluence of Satan in the same steady movement towards the Left. These two theses, narpely, that Masonry's movement to the Left is due to the influence of Satan and that it is due to the action of Jewish Naturalism, are not actually exclusive hut complementary. It is hardly necessary to quote passages from Masonic docu­ ments to show that Masonry is working for a naturalistic Federa­ tion of the World. They can be found in abundance in La Dictature de la Franc-Magonncrie en France, by Michel and G. Goyau's work, Uhttc de Patrie et VHumanitarisme, as well, of course, as in L. de Poncins' splendid works. Here are some taken from the first-mentioned work: Freemasonry does not concede to anyone rhe dignity of an adversary except to the Pope" (Convent. Intern, de Bruxelles, 1904). " My Brothers . ' . , allow me to express the hope that Freemasonry, which has done so much for the emanci­ pation of the human race and to which history is indebted for
2 11

National Revolutions, will also be able to briny about that greater Revolution which is the International Revolution' (Official Rult* etin of (irande Loye de France^ October, 1^22). "This Interna-

national Revolution is ! r e e n i a s o u r v \s work for to-morrow" (As­ sembly of Grand Loge de France, 1932) "The principal tasks of the League of Nation* are the organization of peace, . . . the creation of international notes the extension of pacifist 1^6) He does this in the work from which a few extracts have been quoted, but more especially in La Conjuration Jmve contre le Monde Ohrdtien. M. Ch. Nicoullaud, in his work UEqnsode Anti-Maconniqut\ pp. 153-159, insists upon the action of Satan on those who parody the Divine Symbolism of Catholicism in the Lodges. M. NicouIIaud's prin cipal work is VInitiation Macnnniqite.

222

THE MYSTICAL BODY OK CHRIST

education, relying notably on the spread of an international lang­ uage, . . . . the creation of a European spirit, of a patriotism of the League of Nations: in a word, the formation of the United
States of Europe, or rather of the Federation of the World "

(Assembly of the Grande Loge de France. 1922.) IS BRITISH MASONRY ALSO MOVING TO THE LEFT? Throughout her work. Secret Societies and Subversive Move­ Mrs. Webster insists upon the distinction between GrandOrient Masonry and British Masonry. She thus shows that she does not grasp the meaning of organized Naturalism, with its in­ evitable tendency to the Left, or the fact that a society not sub­ ject either to Church or State is in fundamental opposition to the Divine Plan for order. Though she asserts on page 285 that Brit­ ish Masonry is essentially an honest institution, yet, on page 293, she expresses the fear that "should the control ever pass into the wrong hands and the agents of (Illuminizcd) Secret Societies succeed in capturing a number of lodges, this great stabilizing force might become a gigantic engine of destruction." Again, on page 325, at the end of the chapter on Secret Societies in England, she concludes: " How, in the face of these declarations coming from those inside the Movement, can anyone maintain that Uluminism is dead and that Secret Societies present no danger to Christian civilization?" Grand Orient or "Continental " Masonry was once just as patriotic as British Masonry proclaims itself to be. This latter, too, is fundamentally, by its nature as a Secret Society, against the order of the world and forms a section of the naturalistic army. It too is condemned by the Church.< > British Masonry is not exempt. The following pronouncement of Pope Pius IX is quite clear and definite on the point: "If some think that the Apostolical Constitutions anathematizing secret societies and their adepts and abettors have no force in the countries where such societies are tolerated by the civil authorities, they are certainly grievously mistaken. As you know, Venerable Brethren, Wc have already reproved and Wc now again reprove and condemn that false and pernicious doctrine." We may add to this statement the Letter addressed by the same Pontiff l o the Bishops of Brazil some ten years later/
ments,
27 (28) 291

(27) The universality of the Papal condemnations of Freemasonry is
treated by Father Cahill, S.J., in Freemasonry
Movement, pp. 131, 132, 254. t Allocution, Midtiplices
281

and the
en. On.

Anti-CktUtian
Frcrmasonry
s

inter

Machination

15th September, 1865. < ) Letter, Exortae in ista ditione,
29

April 29th, 1876.

FREEMASONRY

223

The Brazilian F r e e m a s o n s h a d b e e n p r e t e n d i n g that the Pontifical C o n d e m n a t i o n s a p p l i e d o n l y t o M a s o n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s in E u r o p e , n o t t o t h o s e of t h e N e w W o r l d . M a s o n i c s o c i e t i e s in E u r o p e , t h e y s a i d , w e r e h o t b e d s of c o n s p i r a c y , w h i l e t h o s e in A m e r i c a w e r e e n g a g e d e x c l u s i v e l y in p h i l a n t h r o p i c w o r k s a n d w e r e z e a l ­ o u s for t h e p r o g r e s s of c i v i l i z a t i o n . P i u s I X r e p l i e d t h a t all the M a s o n i c A s s o c i a t i o n s in t h e O l d a n d t h e N e w W o r l d w e r e c o n ­ d e m n e d , e v e n t h o s e t h a t p r e t e n d e d t o be c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h w o r k s of b e n e v o l e n c e . " I n o r d e r t h a t in s u c h an i m p o r t a n t m a t ­ t e r , " he w r o t e , " t h e r e m a y n o t r e m a i n a n y d o u b t o r a n y r o o m for i l l u s i o n , W e h a s t e n t o d e c l a r e a g a i n a n d to c o n f i r m t h a t all Ihc M a s o n i c S o c i e t i e s , b o t h t h o s e in B r a z i l and t h o s e t h a t a r e t o be f o u n d a n y w h e r e else in t h e w o r l d , a r e p r o s c r i b e d b y t h e A p o s ­ tolic C o n s t i t u t i o n s , a n d all t h o s e w h o h a v e h a d t h e m i s f o r t u n e t o g i v e t h e i r n a m e s to a n y o n e of t h e m , by t h e v e r y f a c t , fall u n d e r the e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e s e r v e d t o t h e R o m a n Pontiff. T h e A p o s ­ tolic C o n s t i t u t i o n s a p p l y t o all t h e s e M a s o n i c A s s o c i a t i o n s , e v e n if a g r e a t m a n y people, either deceived themselves or seeking to d e c e i v e o t h e r s , affirm t h a t t h e y a r c c o n c e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h w o r k s of b e n e v o l e n c e a n d t h e a d v a n c e m e n t of c i v i l i z a t i o n . ' ^ '
30

A l r e a d y in 1928, M. P i e r r e C o l m e t , o n e of the a b l e s t of c o n ­ t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s o n M a s o n i c q u e s t i o n s , c o m m e n t i n g in t h e Revue Internationale des Sociites Secretes, on t h e ( t h e n ) r e c e n t p r o m o t i o n of t h e P r i n c e of W a l e s t o t h e r a n k of F i r s t P r i n c i p a l of t h e U n i t e d C h a p t e r of S t . J a m e s , a s a r e w a r d for h i s M a s o n i c z e a l , s a i d : " A l a s ! in s p i t e of all a p p e a r a n c e s t o t h e c o n t r a r y a n d l e a v i n g o u t of a c c o u n t o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s , w c b e g t o w a r n o u r E n g ­ l i s h f r i e n d s t h a t t h i s m e a n s t h e e n d of a d y n a s t y a n d of a w o r l d . T h i s is n o t a p r o p h e c y , f o r t h a t w o u l d be r i d i c u l o u s o n o u r p a r t : it is t h e l e s s o n of h i s t o r y . " I n D e c e m b e r , 1937, a r e m a r k a b l e a r t i c l e b y t h e P o l i s h w r i t e r o n J ' u d a e o - M a s o n i c a c t i v i t i e s , EM a l y n s k i , a p p e a r e d in Conlre-Re'volution, the r e v i e w s o a b l y e d i t e d b y M . L e o n d e P o n c i n s . T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a few of t h e s a l i e n t p a s s a g e s of t h i s e x c e l l e n t s t u d y of a difficult q u e s t i o n : " B r i t i s h F r e e m a s o n r y is at t h e m o m e n t c o v e r e d by the R o y a l m a n t l e . T h e n o b l e p e r s o n a g e s w h o b e l o n g to it a n d w h o g o v e r n it officially a r e a g u a r a n t e e t h a t e v e r y t h i n g is c o n d u c t e d in t h e m o s t h o n o u r a b l e f a s h i o n , . . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s u b v e r s i v e cells s e e m t o b e u n d e r ­ m i n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e of E n g l i s h M a s o n r y in an u n d e r g r o u n d m a n ­ n e r , a s t h e y did in t h e c a s e of t h e F r e n c h M a s o n r y of the 18th c e n t u r y . T h e y s e e m to b e a c t i n g , in E n g l a n d a s e l s e w h e r e , w i t h t h e t a c t a n d d i s c r e t i o n r e q u i r e d to c a r r y on Ihc w o r k of c o r r u p ­ tion a n d p e r v e r s i o n i m p e r c e i v e d . Are w e a c t u a l l y a s s i s t i n g a t t h e silent p r e p a r a t i o n s '»f a n e w h i s t o r i c a l t r a g e d y w h i c h is as y e t
( T. :;15, 516.
; j n )

/,(/

F > ti

<ic-M

<i,tit)

t<r r/r.

l>v K

I\

Hum

Bcnoit.

Vol

TI

pp

224

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

hidden in the depths of the lodges and does not appear on the surface? It would be very difficult to answer categorically yes or no. What is certain is that in England a great uneasiness is be­ ginning to be felt; it bears an astonishing resemblance to the sym­ ptoms indicative of the presence of a cancer in the human organ­ ism before it is diagnosed clearly, something disagreeable and out of the ordinary, but which cannot be said to be actual suffer­ ing "Certain incidents in Knglish political life, even when the Con­ servatives arc in power, arc so abnormal that it is impossible to give a rational explanation of them. At the memorable and deplor­ able Paris Conference of 1929, with a Coalition Government com­ posed of Conservatives and Liberals without any strictly Left ele­ ments. Kngland, the country always renowned for its ' respecta­ bility/ was quite ilciini icly in favour of the Bolsheviks. She seemed, besides, to ha\e a certain partiality for all the countries, parties and movements with pronounced socialistic, or at least Jewish and radical, tendencies. It was pretty evident that Eng­ land had become the avowed champion of Israel and of 'democ­ racy* and that anything opposed to Judaism and 'democracy* was by the very fact taboo. Still more recently, it was with astonishment that one beheld the strange sympathy of the Eng­ lish Government and of Conservative personages such as the Dean of Canterbury and the Duchess of Atholl for the Red Government of Valencia. The thesis which holds that Mr. Lloyd George or Mr. Kden is the person exclusively responsible for such extraor­ dinary political action seems to us untenable . . . . "Though we can behold the French aristocrats of the 18th century (inly through the somewhat deforming prism of history, it is difficult to believe thai they were animated by what is called in modern language the Masonic spirit, it seems to us still more difficult to imagine the noble lords and honourable gentlemen who govern England filled wiLh a spirit of destruction of the estab­ lished order. On the contrary, their innate attachment to all that is traditional sometimes even seems exaggerated, if it is permitted to speak of exaggeration in the right direction. . . . Nevertheless, yon will meet many of them who will speak to you of progress, of the necessity of keeping abreast of the times, of the impossi­ bility of resisting the forward movement, of broadmindedness, of that clearsightedness which consists in canalizing the inevitable revolutionary movement in view of the spirit of the times, by be­ coming oneself a sort of revolutionary or at least a champion of 'democracy/ Exactly the same sentiments were being first whis­ pered, then openly proclaimed, in the aristocratic salons of St. Petersburg, for some years before that city became the Lenin­ grad of the Jewish rogues and robbers, just as at Paris and even at Versailles before 1789. Other Englishmen, less superficial in

FREEMASONRY

225

character, h a v e s o m e w h a t different views. T h e y a d m i t t h a t they have a p r o f o u n d p e r s o n a l d i s l i k e of t h e B o l s h e v i k s . . . . b u t t h e y add t h a t p o l i t i c s a r e p o l i t i c s j u s t a s b u s i n e s s is b u s i n e s s . . . . " T h e m e m b e r s of t h e E x t r e m e R i g h t , t h e ' D i e - H a r d s , ' as they a r e c a l l e d , l i s t e n i n c r e d u l o u s l y , w h e n y o u s p e a k t o t h e m of a real r e a c t i o n . T h e i r i d e a is t o f o l l o w t h e s o - c a l l e d ' p r o g r e s s ' which i n e v i t a b l y g o e s t o t h e L e f t , n o m a t t e r w h a t h a p p e n s , but to f o l l o w it a s s l o w l y a s p o s s i b l e , p r e v e n t i n g o t h e r s , t h a t is, t h e S o c i a l i s t s a n d t h e R a d i c a l s , f r o m a d v a n c i n g too r a p i d l y . T h a t is the m a x i m u m of w h a t c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m o s t c o n s e r v a t i v e m e m b e r s of t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , w h i c h is s u p ­ posed t o be t h e r a m p a r t of t h e t r a d i t i o n s of Old E n g l a n d If w e r e a d t h e n u m e r o u s Xlenwires of t h a t e p o c h , w h i c h h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d , w e shall find t h e s a m e m e n t a l a t t i t u d e , r e s u l t i n g from Masonic initiation, before the F r e n c h Revolution, and before the r e v o l u t i o n s of t h e m i d d l e of t h e 19th c e n t u r y . A n d if w e h a v e n o t c o m p l e t e l y l o s t t h e f a c u l t y of m e m o r y , w e shall r e m e m b e r its c o n s e q u e n c e s in p r a c t i c e b e f o r e t h e R u s s i a n R e v o l u t i o n We h a v e m a d e u s e of t h e w o r d ' I n i t i a t i o n / in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h r e c e i v e d M a s o n i c u s a g e , b u t w e s h o u l d s p e a k r a t h e r of s l o w , m e t h o d i c a l saturation/* M a y w e n o t s e e a c o n f i r m a t i o n of M a l y n s k i ' s w a r n i n g s in a p a m p h l e t e n t i t l e d Britain's Lost Victory, by D. M. T o u c h e ? W e r e a d in t h i s p a m p h l e t a n u m b e r of s t a t e m e n t s m a d e a few y e a r s a g o b y m e n w h o a r e p r o m i n e n t in E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l life, s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h g o f a r t o s h o w t h a t t h e y w e r e g r i p p e d by the v i r u s of t h e o r g a n i z e d n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r c e s . Here are some of t h e s e p r o n o u n c e m e n t s * . " W e h a v e a b s o l u t e l y a b a n d o n e d e v e r y idea of n a t i o n a l i s t l o y a l t y . W e a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y p u t t i n g a w o r l d loyalty b e f o r e l o y a l t y to o u r c o u n t r y . " " E v e r y p o s s i b l e effort s h o u l d be m a d e t o s t o p r e c r u i t i n g f o r t h e a r m e d f o r c e s . " And w h i l e t h e s e t h i n g s w e r e b e i n g s a i d in E n g l a n d , the G e r m a n a r m y w a s r e v i v e d b y t h e b a n k e r s of L o n d o n a n d N e w Y o r k , led b y t h e B a n k of E n g l a n d / * ' * T h e g r e a t moneylenders, w o r k i n g from L o n d o n and N e w Y o r k , d e t e r m i n e d to r e s t o r e the s t r e n g t h and p r o s p e r i t y of B i s m a r c k ' s R e i c h in o r d e r t h a t t h e said R e i c h s h o u l d p a y t r i b u t e t o t h e said m o n e y l e n d e r s : h e n c e t h e c o n t i n u o u s v i r u ­ lent a b u s e of t h e F r e n c h , h e n c e t h e d i s m e m b e r m e n t of t h e A u s t r o H u n g a r i a n E m p i r e , h e n c e t h e c u t t i n g - d o w n a n d final e x t i n c t i o n of R e p a r a t i o n s . T h e m o n e y l e n d e r s , w i t h t h e B a n k of E n g l a n d
{ 3 1 ) C 3 2 ) ( s y ) t( 34 44

< D Published hy the I n d i v i d u a l i s t Bookshop, Fleet Street, London, in 1941. (32) M . A t t l e e a t S o u t h y o r t , October 2nd, 1934. (33) Sir Stafford C r i p p s , Oct, 3, 1936. The p a m p h l e t s t a t e s (p. 19): " The [ R u s s i a n ] C o m i n t e r n s u p p o r t e d the pacifists because pacifism, by weakening B r i t a i n , increased the p r o b a b i l i t y of a world wa,r, to be followed by a world r e v o l u t i o n . " m) The WecMif lie view, M a y 30, 1940. \i
r

3

226

THK MYSTICAL

BODY O F

CHRIST

a t t h e i r h e a d , o n l y m a d e fools of t h e m s e l v e s . T h e v w e r e b l i n d e d b y greed."* * A c c o r d i n g to Hilaire Belloc, then, the m o n e y l e n d e r s blundered i n t o t h e s e c o n d g r e a t w a r (1939?). M a j o r D o u g l a s , as we s h a l l s e e l a t e r , h o l d s t h a t t h e w a r n o w b e i n g w a g e d a n d t h a t of 1914-1918 a r e b o t h p a r i of a v a s t p l a n f o r t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e w o r l d . Fie also h o l d s t h a t t h e H a n k of K n g l a n d w a s n o t lead­ i n g b u t led f r o m U.S.A.< >> T h e w a r f o r e s e e n b y M a j o r D o u g l a s h a s c o m e . P e r h a p s the b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n of its effects o n K n g l a n d is t o he f o u n d in the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t f r o m ihc Catholic Herald of F e b r u a r y 6, 1942: " T w o w a r s a r e b e i n g w a g e d a g a i n s t K n g l a n d . T h e first w c k n o w all a b o u t . I t is b e i n g f o u g h t in K u r o p e , in A f r i c a , in A s i a . . . . C u t t h e s e c o n d is n o l e s s i m p o r t a n t a n d n o o n e b o t h e r s a b o u t it. O n t h i s f r o n t t h e o u t l o o k is m u c h d a r k e r . It is t h e w a r a g a i n s t t h e s p i r i t a n d t r a d i t i o n s of K n g l a n d , a n d t h e e n e m y lies w i t h i n o u r g a t e s . W e l l m a y G e r m a n p r o p a g a n d i s t s e x c l a i m t h a t o n one side w e are being Americanized and on the o t h e r Sovietized. O p e n a n y p a p e r o r p a m p h l e t , a n d y o u will l o o k in v a i n for a m e n ­ t i o n of ' G o d a n d M y R i g h t , ' of t h e i d e a l s of St. G e o r g e , of the M o n a r c h y , of o u r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h e r i t a g e , of o u r C h r i s t i a n f o u n d ­ a t i o n s a n d f a i t h , of o u r l i t e r a t u r e , of o u r h o m e s t h a t w e r e c a s t l e s , o f o u r s q u i r e s , e t c . , e t c . , o r , if y o u find t h e m m e n t i o n e d , it will g e n e r a l l y be w i t h a veiled or open s n e e r . "
86 3r

W e have already r e m a r k e d that the D e c l a r a t i o n m a d e on be­ half of E n g l i s h M a s o n r y b y t h e D u k e of C o n n a u g h t , in 1938, l e a v e s t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e G r e a t A r c h i t e c t of t h e U n i v e r s e e x a c t l y a s it w a s . T h e s a m e r e m a r k m u s t be m a d e w i t h r e g a r d t o w h a t the manifesto says about political action. T h e English G r a n d Lodge d o e s n o t t a k e p a r t in p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , t h e m a n i f e s t o affirms. Our c o n t e n t i o n is t h a t i t s m e m b e r s d o s o . I t is v e r v l i k e w h a t a m e m b e r of t h e M a s o n i c C o u n c i l (of F r a n c e ) s t a t e d t o a r e p o r t e r of t h e n e w s p a p e r , Le Temps, in 1 8 9 9 : " W e p r o s c r i b e all political d i s c u s s i o n s . W e k e e p a l o o f f r o m all p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n . W e n e v e r p r e s e n t a c a n d i d a t e a t a n y e l e c t i o n / ' Of c o u r s e , it is q u i t e t r u e that they never present candidates, openly s t a t i n g that they are M a s o n s , b u t in 1893, s i x y e a r s b e f o r e t h e i n t e r v i e w g i v e n t o Le Temps, a n o t h e r m e m b e r of t h e C o u n c i l , R r o t h e r . ' . A m i a b l e , c o u l d s a y : "Oar c a n d i d a t e s w o n all a l o n g t h e line, a n d s o our g r o u p in t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y h a s b e e n n o t i c e a b l y i n c r e a s e d . On b e h a l f of t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y of t h e ' G r a n d O r i e n t , ' 1 c o n g r a t u (»5> H i l a i r e Belloc in The Weekly He vtcu\ October 10, 1940. (36) W i t h both of those ^views of M a j o r Douglas the present writer is in agreement. In a d d i t i o n , this book is i n t e n d e d to make clear that socialization is p a r t of the process of d e s u p e r n a t u r a l i z a t i o n t h a t is iroing on in the world.

FREEMASONRY
37

227

late the Freemasons who are to-day the chosen representatives of universal suffrage."* ' The manifesto of 1938 has been characterized as downright hypocrisy by a French writer in the Revue Internationale des Soci^tis Secretes (October, 1938). "Let English Freemasons," he writes, " re-read with candid and open minds Anderson's Consti­ tutions of 1723, and they will see that they contain in germ the principles of revolt against revealed religion and against legitim­ ate governments, which the manifesto seems to repudiate. If from Lisbon to Moscow almost the whole continent of Europe has been turned topsy-turvy, it is because Freemasons have drawn the logical consequences from the revolutionary ideas extolled by the Constitutions." The facts of European history are against the Duke of Connaught's manifesto. In a pamphlet, published by The Britons, entitled Despotism in Disguise, these facts are summed up as follows: " T o attempt to trace in detail the intrigues of British Freemasonic ministers on the continent would necessitate the re-writing of history since the middle of the 18th century, but interlinear reading is scarcely necessary, even in the most liberal histories, to discover that Brother . *. Palmerston was a F. M. before he was a British Minister: perhaps he was the most outstanding example of a whole line of politicians prepared in the lodges to step, when the time was ripe, on to the political stage.t * Once one has grasped
38

at considerable length of the action of Palmerston as British Foreign Secretary and Supreme Pontiff of Freemasonry. Palmerston's pro­ gramme, given to the world in The Globe of 12th May, 1849, will be treated of later. " In 1851,. the French Republic was ill, and Louis Napoleon, a Oarbonaro, called in to doctor it, was proclaimed Emperor of the French. According to Domenico Margiotta, Sovereign Grand Inspec­ tor General of the ancient and accepted Scottish Rite, an International Masonic Council was sitting at that time in London, composed of Mazzini, Kossuth, Felix Pyat, Lemmi and others, with Lord Palmer­ ston, a prominent Freemason, in waiting. They were in close com­ munication with Cavour, Rattazzi, Crispi, and Garibaldi in Italy. Their main object was tho unification of Italy and the destruction of the temporal power of the Pope. In 1860, Garibaldi, Grand Master General of the Rites of Memphis and Misraim, with a thousand Mas­ onic followers, invaded and occupied the Kingdom of Naples. An English gentleman,, who was then a Protestant and a Freemason, in the volunteer force, was solicited by an officer of his corps, to join the English Legion in support of Garibaldi. He was informed that the Legion would be equipped and supported by Freemasons. Subsequently a Mason, holding the highest (position in one of the Essex Lodges, candidly acknowledged to him that English Freemasonry had been in communication with Mazzini, and had entrusted him with money for the purpose of the campaign. Pius IX, who had watched the storm brewing from afar, when he issued the Encyclical Qui Pluribus in 1846-

<87) La Conjugation t ) In Les Socidtis
88

Juive, by M. Copin-AIbancelli, pp. 201, 202, Secretes et la Societe, vol. II, Deschampte treats

22S

TIIK MYSTICAL

B O D Y OK

CHRIST

t h e m a i n f a c t s of t h e J u d a e o - M a s o n i c p l a n — a n d t h i s c a n o n l y be d o n e by r e a d i n g t h e a u t h o r i t i e s on t h e s u b j e c t — i t is s u r p r i s i n g b o w e a s y it b e c o m e s to h u d a s o l u t i o n to s u c h b a t t l i n g p r o b l e m s a s t h e c o m p l e t e a n d p h e n o m e n a l a c c o r d g i v e n by m e m b e r s of di­ v e r g e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s to a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n p o p u l a r a c t of l e g i s ­ l a t i o n , o r the d i s a s t r o u s c o n t i n u i t y of p o l i c y s h o w n by s u c c e e d i n g a n d o p p o s i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t s in f o r c i n g on a d a n g e r * m s s i t u a t i o n abroad." KREKMASONRY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE.

S o c i a l o r L e g a l J u s t i c e c o n s i d e r e d in t h e s u b j e c t s of a S t a t e , is t h e v i r t u e by w h i c h t h e y a r e e n a b l e d t o s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e C o m m o n G o o d of the s o c i e t y all t h e a c t s of t h e v i r t u e s a n d t h u s a l w a y s act so a s to f a v o u r t h a t g o o d a n d e n r i c h it. N o w , F r e e ­ m a s o n r y is o p p o s e d t o t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of t h a t v i r t u e in t w o w a y s . F i r s t of all, a s it is o n l y t h r o u g h t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e t h a t c o m e s from O u r L o r d that h u m a n beings can maintain their o r d e r e d t e n d e n c y to C o d , t h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h e w h o l e u n i v e r s e , the Naturalism of Freemasonry hinders the development of S o c i a l J u s t i c e . * * W e m a y express this, perhaps m o r e clearly, by s a y i n g t h a t F r e e m a s o n r y a i m s a t t h e f o r m a t i o n of a m e n t a l i t y c o n t e m p t u o u s of a n d h o s t i l e to m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t ' s M y s t i c a l B o d y . N o w , P o p e P i u s X I i n s i s t s t h a t " t h e n o n l y will it be p o s s ­ ible t o u n i t e all in h a r m o n i o u s s t r i v i n g for t h e c o m m o n g o o d , w h e n all s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y h a v e t h e i n t i m a t e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e m e m b e r s of a s i n g l e f a m i l y a n d c h i l d r e n of t h e s a m e H e a v e n l y F a t h e r , a n d f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e y a r c ' o n e b o d y in C h r i s t , a n d e v e r y ­ o n e m e m b e r s o n e of a n o t h e r ' ( R o m . , X I I , 5 ) , s o t h a t ' if o n e m e m b e r suffer a n v t h i n g . all m e m b e r s suffer w i t h i t * (T Cor., X I I , 26)."U°>
3 0

S e c o n d l y , F r e e m a s o n r y e x p l i c i t l y e x c l u d e s Social J u s t i c e b y t h e M a s t e r M a s o n s ' O a t h o r o a t h t a k e n a t t h e r e c e p t i o n of t h e T h i r d D e g r e e . T h e f o l l o w i n g is t h e r e l e v a n t p o r t i o n of t h e t e x t of t h a t o a t h :— " 1 f u r t h e r m o r e s o l e m n l y v o w a n d d e c l a r e t h a t I will n o t d e f r a u d a b r o t h e r M a s t e r M a s o n , o r s e e h i m d e f r a u d e d of the most trilling a m o u n t , w i t h o u t giving him due and timely now, seeing" i t d e s c e n d i n g upon Borne, delivered in ^ 1-S65 a solemn allocution, M ult iplices inter, in which he deals exclusively w i t h Free­ masonry, lie calls it ' t h e enemy of t he C h r i s t i a n name ' (The X /{<///.< in /*'rt cmumn /•//, by A. Cowan, pp. 81, 82). CW) " J n the state of fallen n a t u r e M a n ' s r a t i o n a l will is liable to fail to observe the o r d e r of loving his own p r i v a t e good in s u b o r d i n a t i o n to t h e common good of the whole universe, namely God. On account of the c o r r u p t i o n of his n a t u r e , he will prefer his own p r i v a t e good, if he is not purified a n d s t r e n g t h e n e d by the Grace of God " ( l a I l a e , Q.109, a.3, c) ('to) Encyclical L e t t e r , Quadmyesimo Anno.
n

FREEMASONRY

229

notice thereof; that I loill also prefer a brother Master Mason in all my dealings, and recommend him to others as much as lies in my power so long as he shall continue to

act honourably, honestly and faithfully towards me and others. All these several points 1 promise to observe with­ out equivocation or mental reservation of any kind, under no less a penalty, on the violation of any of them, than to have my body severed in two, my bowels torn thereout and burnt .to ashes in the centre, and those ashes scattered be­ fore the four cardinal points of heaven, so that no trace or remembrance of me shall be left among men." The Master Masons' Oath ends as follows: " So help me God, and keep me steadfast in this grand and solemn obligation, being that of Master Mason " (Manned, of
Freemasonry).^ )
1

The Rev. C. Penney Hunt, B.A., in his work, The Menace of Freemasonry to the Christian Faith (Fourth Edition, p. SO), says that " it is customary to leave out that clause in the printed rituals of to-day." In the article on Freemasonry, by Father Gruber, S.J., in the Catholic Encyclopaedia, we read that, according to " Duncan's 'American Ritual* the Royal Arch Mason even swears: ' I will assist a companion R. A. Mason, when 1 see him engaged in any difficulty and will espouse his cause so as to extricate him from the same, whether he be right or wrong'." "It is a fact attested by experienced men of all countries," the same article continues, " that, wherever Masonry is influential, non-Masons have to suffer in their interests from the systematic preference which Masons give each other in appointments to offices and positions. Even Bismarck (Gedanken mid Erinnerungen, 1898, I, 302 sqq.) com­ plained of the effects of such mutual Masonic assistance, which is detrimental alike to civic equality and to public interests. In Ma­ sonic books and magazines, unlawful and treacherous acts, per­ formed in rendering this mutual assistance, are recommended and praised as redounding to the glory of Freemasonry. The inexor­ able laws of war themselves/ says the official orator of the Grand Orient of France, Lefebvre d'Aumale (Solstice, 24th June, 1841), ' had to bend before Freemasonry, which is perhaps the most striking proof of its power \ " By its explicit opposition to Social Justice, Freemasonry con­ stitutes a serious obstacle to the union and good order which it is the aim of the corporate organization of society to promote.
1

(41) Quoted in The X Mays i<n Freemasonry,

by A. Cowan.

CHAPTER LINKS KETWEEN ORGANIZKD FORCES. THE HEADSHIP

X. ANTl-Sl PERNATl RAL
7 T

OF SATAN THOMAS.

ACCORDING

TO

ST.

T h e special h a l l - m a r k of S a t a n is o p p o s i t i o n to G o d ' s R i g h t s a n d t o o r d e r e d r e t u r n t o G o d . O u r L o r d c a m e " to g a t h e r t o g e t h e r in o n e t h e c h i l d r e n of G o d , t h a t w e r e d i s p e r s e d ' ' ( S t . J o h n , XT, 5 2 ) . S a t a n ' s a c t i o n a l w a y s t e n d s to s e p a r a t e f r o m God a n d t o d i v i d e . T h e r e a r c n o t t w o w o r l d s ; t h e r e is o n l y o n e . F r o m t h e m o m e n t t h a t a m a n r e j e c t s t h e D i v i n e O r d e r of t h e w o r l d a n d r e m a i n s in o r e n t e r s a s o c i e t y t h a t p r o c l a i m s t h a t it c a n p e r f e c t h u m a n n a t u r e r e g a r d l e s s of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e , of w h i c h O u r L o r d J e s U s C h r i s t a l o n e is t h e S o u r c e , t h e n , c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , h e t a k e s his p l a c e u n d e r t h e b a n n e r of S a t a n , w h o s e w h o l e b e i n g is, b y his o w n d e l i b e r a t e a c t . t u r n e d a g a i n s t t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . M a n ' s r e j e c t i o n of G o d ' s o r d e r l e a d s t o w o r s h i p of h i m s e l f — P a n t h e i s m * and Mumanitarianism. But m a n is w e a k a n d falls r e a d i l y u n d e r t h e s w a y of t h e P r i n c e of N a t u r a l i s t s , t h e first w h o r e j e c t e d G o d ' s i n f i n i t e l y l o v i n g o i l e r of a s h a r e in H i s o w n I n n e r L i f e . " T h e w o r l d , " w r i t e s P o p e L e o X J11, " i s a l w a y s c o n s i s t e n t in i t s w a y . N e a r t h e S o n s of G o d a r e p r e s e n t t h e s a t e l l i t e s of t h a t g r e a t a d v e r s a r y of t h e h u m a n r a c e who., a r e b e l f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g a g a i n s t t h e M o s t H i g h , is n a m e d in t h e G o s p e l t h e p r i n c e of t h i s w o r l d . . . . Full of t h e s p i r i t of S a t a n w h o , a c ­ c o r d i n g t o t h e w o r d s of t h e A p o s t l e , k n o w s h o w t o t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f at n e e d i n t o an a n g e l of l i g h t , it [ M a s o n r y | g i v e s p r o m i n ­ e n c e t o its h u m a n i t a r i a n o b j e c t , b u t it s a c r i f i c e s e v e r y t h i n g t o its s e c t a r i a n p u r p o s e . . . . to m a k e w a r a g a i n s t God a n d a g a i n s t PI is C h u r c h . " ' »
( ! ) 2

S t . T h o m a s s h o w s , in ihc S e c o n d P a r t of t h e Summa, that there cannot be i w o final e n d s for m a n . ' In t h e Third part of t h e S u m m a . h e c o n t r a s t s t h e h e a d s h i p of t h e d e m o n o v e r sinful b e i n g s w i t h t h a t of < hir L o r d J e s u s
3 1

< ' ' T h o s e who a n ; not in the .state of Grace a r r n o t h i n g (nihil) (St. Thorn., Comment, in II ov/ Corinth.). <> Apostolic L e t t e r of Pope Leo X T I L M a r c h 19th. 1902. 2 Ta I Lie, Q.l, a.5.

l)

LINKS

BETWEEN NATURALISTIC

FORCES

23T

C h r i s t o v e r t h e m e m b e r s of H i s M y s t i c a l B o d y . " T h e h e a d n o t only a c t s i n t e r i o r l y o n t h e m e m b e r s of t h e b o d y , b u t a l s o g u i d e s t h e m e x t e r i o r l y , d i r e c t i n g t h e i r a c t s t o a n end. A c c o r d i n g l y , a p e r s o n c a n be said t o be t h e h e a d of a b o d y of m e n , e i t h e r in both of t h e s e w a y s , a n d t h u s C h r i s t is H e a d of t h e C h u r c h or o n l y f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w of e x t e r i o r g u i d a n c e , a n d in t h i s m a n n e r , a n y p r e l a t e o r p r i n c e is h e a d of the' g r o u p s u b j e c t t o him. I t is in t h i s l a t t e r f a s h i o n t h a t t h e devil is h e a d of all evil inen.'*' O u r L o r d , t h e n , is H e a d b y i n t e r i o r a n d e x t e r i o r influ­ e n c e ; t h e d e m o n is h e a d b y e x t e r n a l influence, d i r e c t i n g t h e a c t s of s i n n e r s tp his o w n e n d . T h e e n d c h o s e n by t h e d e m o n is t h e t u r n i n g a w a y f r o m G o d ( t o s e l f ) . T h i s t u r n i n g a w a y f r o m God is l o o k e d u p o n a s an e n d , i n a s m u c h as it is d e s i r e d u n d e r t h e p r e ­ t e n c e of l i b e r t y (sitb specie Jibcrtatis). " i n a s m u c h , t h e r e f o r e , as men a r e d r a w n to this end by sinning, they come u n d e r the gov­ e r n m e n t a n d d i r e c t i o n of t h e evil o n e a n d he is a c c o r d i n g l y s t y l e d their h e a d . " S a t a n d e s i r e s the d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e o r d e r by w h i c h m e n r e t u r n to G o d , a n d s o he l u r e s t h e m on t o i m i t a t e a n d follow h i m s e l f in t h e a u t o n o m o u s use of i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d free-will. O w i n g to the o b j e c t i v e a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m of F r e e m a s o n r y , F r e e m a s o n s a r e s p e c i a l l y e x p o s e d to S a t a n i c i n f l u e n c e . A n d S a t a n p r o f i t s by t h e o p p o r t u n i t y offered h i m . W e h a v e a s t r i k i n g p r o o f of it in t h e t e s t i m o n y of B i o t h e r . *. O s w a l d W i r t h , t h e w e l l - k n o w n w r i t e r on M a s o n i c questions. He s a y s : " A force, superior to themselves, c a u s e s M a s o n s to act t o g e t h e r a n d c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s w i t h a n i n t e l l e c t u a l v i g o u r , w h i c h t h e y c e r t a i n l y do not p o s s e s s i n d i ­ v i d u a l l y . S u c h is the f a c t w h i c h h a s b e e n i r r e f u t a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d a n d w h i c h w c h a v e s i m p l y g o t t o a c c e p t . It is for e a c h o n e to i n t e r p r e t t h i s fact in h i s o w n way."*''
4) ( 5 ) 1

U» I l i a P . , Q.b, a.7. '5) I n l a P . , Q. 114. a . 3 , a<! 2, JSt. Thomas had a l r e a d y pointed out t h a t if some sins are p e r p e t r a t e d w i t h o u t a n y t e m p t a t i o n on the p a r t of the devil, yet by sin men a r e m a d e the sons of the devil, inasmuch as they i m i t a t e him who first s i n n e d a n d follow his banner. H e r e in IITa P., Q.8. a.7, ad 2, he r e p e a t s the same d o c t r i n e : " Accordingly the first sin of the devil, who was a s i n n e r from the beginning, as we read in I St. J o h n , III, has been p r o p o s e d to all as an example to be followed. Some i m i t a t e t h i s example, t h a n k s to his p r o m p t i n g s a n d suggestions; others do so of their own volition w i t h o u t any suggestion on his p a r t . A n d t h u s , t h a t is, inasmuch as they i m i t a t e him, the devil is the head of all evil men, as we read in the Book of Wisdom, II, 24 : B u t by the envy of the devil d e a t h came i n t o the world, and they follow ( i m i t a t e ) him t h a t are on his side.' " I n a r t i c l e 8 of this same Question, St. Thomas teaches that A n t i C h r i s t is said to he head of all men on account of his s u p r e m e wicked­ ness. I n him the influence of S a t a n reaches its c u l m i n a t i n g ipoint. '6) Quoted from Oswald W i r t h , Le Symbolisme, by Mgr. J o u i n . in Pevur fnter. de* Sorietes Secretes, 19th A p r i l , 1925.* p . 277.
1

232

THK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

W c h a v e a n o t h e r p r o o f in a r e m a r k a b l e p a s s a g e f r o m a r e p l y of t h e S u p r e m e C o n g r e g a t i o n of t h e H o l y Office t o a n u m b e r of U . S . A . I l i s h o p s . T h i s c . \ r c l l e n i s t a t e m e n t of t h e final r e s u l t of t h e f o r m a t i o n g i v e n in s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s r u n s as f o l l o w s : " ff o n e takes into consideration the i m m e n s e development which these s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s h a v e a t t a i n e d : t h e l e n g t h of t i m e t h e y a r e p e r ­ s e v e r i n g in t h e i r v i g o u r : t h e i r f u r i o u s a g g r e s s i v e n e s s ; t h e t e n ­ a c i t y w i t h which their m e m b e r s cling to the association and to the f a l s e p r i n c i p l e s it p r o f e s s e s ; t h e p e r s e v e r i n g m u t u a l c o - o p e r a t i o n of s o m a n y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of m e n in t h e p r o m o t i o n of e v i l ; o n e c a n h a r d l y d e n y t h a t t h e Supreme Architect of t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s ( s e e i n g t h a t t h e c a u s e m u s t be p r o p o r t i o n e d to t h e ' e f f e c t ) c a n b e n o n e o t h e r t h a n h e w h o in t h e s a c r e d w r i t i n g s is s t y l e d t h e Prince of t h e w o r l d ; a n d t h a t S a t a n h i m s e l f , e v e n b y h i s p h y s i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n , d i r e c t s a n d i n s p i r e s a t l e n s t t h e l e a d e r s of t h e s e bodies, physically co-operating with them."<
7)

T h e L e o T a x i l affair ( 1 8 9 2 - 1 8 9 7 ) h a s b e e n u s e d t o t h r o w d i s ­ c r e d i t o n e v e r y a t t e m p t t o p o i n t o u t t h e r e a l i t y of S a t a n i c a c t i o n o n t h e w o r l d in a n d t h r o u g h S e c r e t S o c i e t i e s . Nevertheless, t h e r e is a n a b u n d a n c e of e v i d e n c e t h a t will a m p l y r e p a y r e s e a r c h and study, and the non-Catholic historian, Mrs. W e b s t e r , w h o h a s m a d e s u c h a p r o f o u n d s t u d y of t h e s e s o c i e t i e s , d o e s n o t h e s i ­ t a t e t o w r i t e a s f o l l o w s in h e r s p l e n d i d w o r k , The French Revo­ lution ( p . 2 3 ) : " W h e n w e s t u d y t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h t h e y [ t h e subversive elements w h o engineered the Revolution or, at least, figured in t h e f o r e g r o u n d ] c a r r i e d o u t t h e i r d e s i g n , w h e n w e r e a d of t h e f r i g h t f u l p r o f a n i t y t h a t w a s i n a u g u r a t e d d u r i n g t h e T e r r o r , t h e d e s e c r a t i o n of c h u r c h e s , t h e b l a s p h e m i e s a g a i n s t C h r i s t a n d t h e H o l y V i r g i n , a n d t h e w o r s h i p of M a r a t , it is a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s b e l i e v e in d e m o n i a c a l p o s s e s s i o n , t o d o u b t t h a t t h e s e m e n , i n f l a m e d w i t h h a t r e d a g a i n s t all s p i r i t u a l i n f l u e n c e s w o r k i n g f o r g o o d in t h e w o r l d , b e c a m e i n d e e d t h e v e h i c l e s for t h o s e o t h e r s p i r i t s , t h e p o w e r s of d a r k n e s s , w h o s e c a u s e t h e y h a d m a d e t h e i r o w n . A n d in t h e i r h i d e o u s d e a t h s . . . w e r e t h e y not, p e r h a p s , l i k e t h e G a d a r e n e s w i n e , v i c t i m s of t h e d e m o n s t h a t d r o v e t h e m to destruction ? "
( 8 )

S a t a n p a r o d i e s the a c t i o n of O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , t h e M e d i a ­ t o r b e t w e e n G o d a n d fallen h u m a n i t y , e x e r c i s e d in t h e C h u r c h a n d t h r o u g h t h e S a c r a m e n t s , by u r g i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c o u n ­ t e r - C h u r c h w i t h s y m b o l i c r i t e s , in t h e effort to s e c u r e w h a t h e s o u g h t in his t h i r d t e m p t a t i o n of O u r L o r d : " A g a i n t h e devil t o o k H i m u p i n t o a v e r y h i g h m o u n t a i n , a n d s h o w e d H i m all »7) Acta »V. St'tlis, Vol. 1, p. J u l y I-'Jth, [ri«5. t'f. Pru masonry and the Anti-Christian Movement, by Kev. E. Ca-hilh .S.J., p . 67, '8) Cf. Episode Antl-M'aconnique, by Ch. N i c o u l l a u d , p . 147. etc. F o r an excellent s u m m a r y of the Leo T a x i ] affair, in English, cf. p p . 70-71 in F a t h e r C a h i l l ' s work quoted in previous note.

LINKS BETWEEN

NATURALISTIC FORCES

233

t h e k i n g d o m s of t h e w o r l d a n d t h e g l o r y of t h e m . A n d he s a i d t o H i m : All t h e s e will I g i v e t h e e , if f a l l i n g d o w n , t h o u w i l t adore m e " (St. M a t t h . , IV, 8-9). M o n s i e u r " Ch. N i c o u l l a u d in VInitiation Maconnique r e t u r n s a g a i n a n d a g a i n t o t h e idea t h a t M a s o n i c "initiation" is t h e r e c e p t i o n of t h e " s a c r a m e n t s " of Satan. H i s t h e s i s is c o n f i r m e d b y t h e t e x t of t h e d o c u m e n t , Ecclesiam ( 1 8 2 1 ) of P o p e P i u s V I I : " T h e y ( t h e F r e e m a s o n s ] b l a s p h e m o u s l y p r o f a n e a n d defile t h e P a s s i o n of J e s u s C h r i s t b y t h e i r s a c r i l e g i o u s c e r e m o n i e s . T h e y d i s h o n o u r t h e S a c r a m e n t s of t h e C h u r c h ( f o r w h i c h t h e y s a c r i l e g i o u s l y s u b s t i t u t e o t h e r s in­ v e n t e d b y t h e m s e l v e s ) a n d e v e n t u r n i n t o ridicule the v e r y m y s t e r ­ ies of t h e C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n . " >
(9

THE JEWISH

NATION AND

FREEMASONRY.

A n e x c e l l e n t o u t l i n e of t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t w o visible o r g a n i z e d a n t i - s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s is t o be f o u n d in t h e c h a p t e r of L e o n d e P o n c i n s ' w o r k , La Franc-Maconnerie, Puissance Occulte, i n w h i c h h e t r e a t s of t h e J e w i s h i n f l u e n c e in F r e e m a s o n r y . H e s u m s u p a s f o l l o w s : " T o - d a y J e w s a r e n u m e r o u s in F Y e e m a s o n r y a n d in m a n y p l a c e s t h e i r i n f l u e n c e is h e l d t o b e p r e d o m i n ­ a n t , e s p e c i a l l y in C e n t r a l E u r o p e . W e find, t h e n , a n a l l i a n c e and** close c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o forces, w i t h the J e w i s h in­ f l u e n c e in t h e a s c e n d a n t in p l a c e s , b u t i t w o u l d be a n e x a g g e r a t i o n t o c o n c l u d e t h a t M a s o n r y is a J e w i s h c r e a t i o n . A s a m a t t e r of f a c t , w e find f e w J e w s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g s of F r e e m a s o n r y . Jew­ i s h i n f l u e n c e a t t h e o r i g i n w a s r a t h e r of an i n d i r e c t c h a r a c t e r
( l 0 )

O) L e t t e r , Ecclesiam. " T h e y [the H i g h e r Degrees] a r e n o t C h r i s t i a n , b u t horrible travesties a n d blasphemies. T a k e the degree said to be most C h r i s t i a n arid the ' h i g h e s t . ' There a r e different versions of it. B u t we have in all, i n c l u d i n g the version k n o w n as The A n c i e n t a n d Accepted Rite,/ a b l a s p h e m o u s c a r i c a t u r e of the L o r d ' s S u p p e r , though i n ' The A n c i e n t a n d Accepted R i t e ' the blasphemous c h a r a c t e r is toned d a w n . . . T h e evidence I q u o t e i n these p a p e r s is b u t the tiniest fraction of the whole ( a t my d i s p o s a l ) . I have r a n s a c k e d the o r d e r from top to bottom, a n d I claim now t o know t h a t t h e r e is no other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The first issue of t h i s i n d i c t m e n t has been for m a n y months before those leaders of my own C h u r c h who hold h i g h p o s i t i o n s in the C r a f t : I have repeat­ edly challenged them, if I am m i s t a k e n , to give me the t r u e e x p l a n a ­ t i o n — a n d in v a i n " (The Menace of Freemasonry to the Christian Faith, by Rev. C. P e n n e y H u n t , B.A.).
(

(to) T h e fine s u m m a r y of the question in Freemasonry avid the Anti^ Christian Movement, by Rev. E. Cahill, S.J., has been a l r e a d y referred to. H e , with o t h e r w r i t e r s , m e n t i o n s the little known fact t h a t the Masonic coat-of-arms still used by t h e G r a n d Lodge of E n g l a n d is of Jewish design. F r o m an a r t i c l e on " Anglo-Jewish Coats of A r m s / ' by Lucien Wolf (The Jevish Historical Society of England* 1893-1895), we .learn t h a t the designer was Jacob J e h u d a Leon, s u r n a m e d Templo.

234

THK MYSTICAL BODY OF
u

CHRIST

a r i s i n g from the J e w i s h Cabala.< > . . . . If w e d e s i r e t o g o t o t h e r o o t of t h e m a t t e r , w e a r e f o r c e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t the s u p r e m e g u i d i n g f o r c e of F r e e m a s o n r y is n e i t h e r K n g l i s h n o r G e r m a n n o r e v e n "Jewish. T h e g u i d i n g f o r c e is n o t c o r p o r e a l b u t s p i r i t u a l . " M . de P o n c i n s then q u o t e s the f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m La Trahison Spirit v ell e de la F .'. M b y J- M a r q u e s - R i v i e r e : " T h e Utopia of m a n self-sufficient of h i m ­ self is a f o r m of e g o i s m w h i c h is m o n s t r o u s , s u p e r - h u m a n , in a w o r d , diabolical. S u c h a s u g g e s t i o n , u n d e r t h e c o l l e c t i v e f o r m in w h i c h w c m e e t it at t h e p r e s e n t d a y . can be explained only by assigning to it a superhuman origin It is t h i s s p i r i t , off­ s p r i n g of t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , w h i c h p r e s i d e d o v e r t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e L o d g e s d r a w n u p b y A n d e r s o n , s p i r i t u a l d e s c e n d a n t of t h e e n e m i e s of t r a d i t i o n . It r e i g n e d o v e r t h e c o r r u p t s o c i e t y of t h e 18th c e n t u r y a n d g e t t i n g c o n t r o l of t h e m a s s e s p r o v o k e d t h e h i d e ­ o u s b u t c h e r y k n o w n as t h e R e v o l u t i o n of 1789. . . . S i n c e t h e n it holds sovereign sway over western civilization." \\\ this quota­ tion from M. j . M a r q u e s - R i v i e r e , M. de P o n c i n s e m p h a s i z e s the c o - o r d i n a t i n g i n f l u e n c e of S a t a n u p o n the t w o visible s e c t i o n s of the naturalistic army. T h i s is p r e c i s e l y w h a t m u s t be i n s i s t e d u p o n , in v i e w of the o p p o s i t i o n to t h e D i v i n e P l a n for o r d e r in t h e w o r l d , b u t it is w e l l to add a f e w w o r d s a b o u t a n i m p o r t a n t a g r e e m e n t c o m e to b e t w e e n a c c r e d i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e t w o visible sections themselves.
( i 2 )

I n D o m e n i c o M a r g i o t t a ' s L i f e of A d r i a n o L e m m i , e n t i t l e d Adriano Lemmi, Chef Supreme des Frauc-Macons, t h e r e is an a c c o u n t of t h e pact s i g n e d b e t w e e n A l b e r t P i k e . S o v e r e i g n G r a n d C o m m a n d e r of t h e A n c i e n t a n d A c c e p t e d S c o t t i s h R i t e , on the o n e h a n d , a n d A r m a n d L e v y , L i f e M e m b e r of t h e S u b l i m e F e d e r a l C o n s i s t o r y of P'nai FVrith of G e r m a n y , on the other, for t h e R'nai
( 1 3 }

» According lo Bernard La-zare, the Jewish writer of L'AntiSemitisme, p. 339. "There were Cabalistic Jews around the c r a d l e of Freemasonry, as certain rites still in existence prove conclusively.'' " The Jew found in Freemasonry a suitable soil foi- the cultivation of his propaganda. As early as 1754 Martinez Paschales had gauged li­ vable, and had. as far as possible, annexed ij. by creating new and superior degrees. . . . The Jews have swarmed into it, from the carliesi times, and controlled the higher grades and councils of the ancient and accepted Scottish rite since the beginning of H i e nineteenth century (The X Rays in /•'rmna-xoti/•//, by A. Cowan, p. 0 1 ) . (12' In 1781, an international congress of Freemasons took place, known as the ' Convent of Wilhemsbad. If uas attended by se\eral Knglish brothers, by delegates of the French lllumiuati. by Leasing u illi a company of Jews, by Mirabeau, by Dohnt. and by Kniggp representing Weishairpf. • • • The Convent paved the wa,\ for the French "Revolu tion " (The X Hays irt Freemcwmry, by A. Cowan, pp. 07, G8). d-'n The document i^ signed by Tike with hK name as Initialed Member Limmud Knsoph. Levy signed with a similar esoteric signa­ ture.

fll

LINKS BETWEEN NATURALISTIC FORCES

235

BYith of America. Germany and England. The B'nai BYith Lodges or Lodges of the Sons of the Covenant are Masonic Lodges exclusively Jewish. By this treaty, signed in 1874. " the Supreme Dogmatic Directory of Universal Freemasonry recognizes the Jewish Lodges, such as they already exist in the principal coun­ tries. The central headquarters of the B'nai B'rith will be at Hamburg and the Sovereign Body will take the title of Sovereign Patriarchal Council. The secret of the existence of the Confeder^ ation [of B'nai BYith Lodges] will be kept rigorously by those members of High Grade Masonry to whom the Supreme Dogmatic Directory will judge it advisable to make it known. " Neither the Sovereign Patriarchal Council of Hamburg, nor any lodges under its obedience, will figure on the annual reports of the Sovereign Administrative Directory; but the Sovereign Patriarchal Council will send direct to the Sovereign Dogmatic Directory a contribution representing 10 per cent of the personal subscriptions of the members of the Jewish Lodges. " N o Brother Mason of the official rites, who is not a Jew. can demand entrance into a Jewish Lodge no matter what ma\ be his [Masonic] rank"< The document goes on to say that no one but a Jew may entei the B'nai B'rith Lodges except visitors of the highest degreesChosen Magi of the Third Degree of the Supreme Rite and In­ spectors-General of the Palladium. Initiation into the Jewish Lodges will not be by degrees and, needless to say, members of Jewish Lodges may be members of other Lodges. In this way, control is exercised and the impulses originating in the Secret Councils of the Jewish Nation are communicated to Masonry. Thus we have one of the chief factors in the explanation of the sympathy and support of Masons all over the world for Jewish projects. An example of this Judaeo-Masonic solidarity was seen in the case of t h e Spanish " R e d " Government. The first B'nai B'rith Lodge was founded in New York in 1843. The Lodges are now numerous in the world, and there is at least one such Lodge in Ireland. The secrecy of the B'nai BYith is delicatelv hinted at in the book by Paul Goodman. IV nai JVrith, The First 'F.oftf/e of FnylaniL 1910-1935, published by the Lodge, London, 1936. On page 12, Goodman writes: " 'Benevolence, Bro­ therly Love, and Harmony/ the Motto of the Order in its internal affairs, \v;i> to be the rule of conduct of the * brethren —as the members are called--and to foster these ideals between them in matters affecting the Lodge, at meetings and in personal conduct, it was considered a point of honour that every member shall re­ gard all proceedings as confidential, and shall not communicate the same, directlv or indirectly, t o any person not a member of
U)
n 4 )

Op. cit.. pp. 224-5.

236

T11K M Y S T I C A L

BODY OF

CHRIST

t h e o r d e r . " W h e n o n e t a k e s a c c o u n t of t h e J e w i s h skill in d i s ­ s i m u l a t i o n , o n e will a g r e e t h a t B ' n a i B ' r i t h s e c r e t s will b e w e l l g u a r d e d , e v e n if w e t a k e a t t h e i r f a c e - v a l u e t h e s e v e r y r e s e r v e d declarations. W e h a v e s e e n t h a t , for t h e s a k e of s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e o r d e r e d d e v e l o p m e n t of S t a t e s , t h e m e m b e r s of t h e J e w i s h N a t i o n m u s t b e p e r m i t t e d t o b e c i t i z e n s of o n l y o n e S t a t e — t h e i r o w n . C i t i z e n ­ s h i p of a n e a r t h l y c o u n t r y , h o w e v e r , is o n l y a m e a n s f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t of c i t i z e n s h i p of o u r h e a v e n l y c o u n t r y , s o w e m u s t p r a y f o r t h e c o n v e r s i o n of t h e J e w s t o t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l M e s s i a s . W c h a v e t h e t w o f o l d d u t y of p r o t e c t i n g o u r c o u n t r i e s a g a i n s t t h e i r n a t u r a l i s t i c s t r i v i n g s a n d of p r a y i n g f o r t h e i r s i n c e r e r e p e n t a n c e f o r t h e s u f f e r i n g s t h e y h a v e inflicted o n O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t . W e h a v e t h e s a m e d o u b l e d u t y w i t h r e g a r d t o m e m b e r s of t h e Masonic Society.
( 1 5 J

(15) Cf. The X Rays

in Freemasonry,

by A. Cowan, pp. 121, 122.

A P P E N D I X . T h e first of t h e p r a y e r s w h i c h f o l l o w is t h e o n e for t h e c o n ­ v e r s i o n of t h e J e w s a p p r o v e d f o r g e n e r a l u s e : t h e s e c o n d is t h a t w h i c h is r e c i t e d by t h e g r o u p of J e w i s h c o n v e r t s w h o f o r m La Serf ion. Israel, of t h e A r e h c o n f r a t e r n i t y of P r a y e r a n d P e n a n c e of t h e B a s i l i c a of M o n t m a r t r e , P a r i s . T h e t h i r d p r a y e r is t h e o n e a p p r o v e d for t h e c o n v e r s i o n of F r e e m a s o n s . PRAYER FOR THK CONVERSION THK JEWS. OF

G o d of G o o d n e s s a n d F a t h e r of M e r c i e s , w e b e s e e c h T h e e , by t h e I m m a c u l a t e H e a r t of M a r y , a n d b y t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n of t h e P a t r i a r c h s and Holy Apostles, to look w i t h compassion upon the r e m n a n t of I s r a e l , s o t h a t t h e y m a y c o m e t o a k n o w l e d g e of o u r o n l y S a v i o u r J e s u s C h r i s t , a n d s h a r e in t h e p r e c i o u s g r a c e s of Redemption. Amen. (100 D a v s , o n c e a d a v . ) (The RaccoiJa, 8 t h E d i t i o n , p. 3 % ) . ISRAEL'S PRAYER OF REPARATION.

G l o r y , p r a i s e and! l o v e be t o T h e e , () C h r i s t , R e d e e m e r a n d K i n g ! " O J e s u s of N a z a r e t h , K i n g of t h e J e w s , " b e h o l d w e t u r n to T h e e , W h o m we h a v e pierced, and w e e p . P a r d o n m y God, p a r d o n us. R e m e m b e r n o l o n g e r , b u t , in the n a m e of t h e S a c r e d l l e a r l , r e c e i v e b a c k " I s r a e l , T h y C h i l d . " W e b e l o n g t o T h e e , O L o r d , W e w i s h t o be T h i n e . W e a c k ­ n o w l e d g e T h e e a s U n i v e r s a l K i n g a n d g l a d l y we c o n s e c r a t e to T h e e all t h a t w e a r e a n d all t h a t w e h a v e . Do T h o u e x e r c i s e

LINKS

BETWEEN

NATURALISTIC

FORCES

237

o v e r u s all T h y r i g h t s . W e r e n e w t h e p r o m i s e s of o u r B a p t i s m ; w e r e n o u n c e S a t a n , his s p i r i t a n d h i s w o r k s . W e p l e d g e o u r s e l v e s to w o r k w i t h all o u r p o w e r f o r t h e t r i u m p h of t h e R i g h t s of God and of T h y C h u r c h , a n d t h a t w e m a y r e p a i r by s u b m i s s i v e zeal a n d fidelity t o o u r F a i t h o u r p a s t s i n s a n d t h o s e of o u r f a t h e r s , w e e n t r e a t T h e e for t h e g r a c e of l o v i n g T h e e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g firmness in t h e l i g h t of G o d t h e H o l y G h o s t . D i v i n e H e a r t of J e s u s , Ave offer T h e e o u r p o o r a c t i o n s t o ob­ tain t h a t all h e a r t s a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e of t h e C h i l d r e n of I s r a e l m a y r e c o g n i z e T h y S a c r e d K i n g s h i p a n d t h u s a s s i s t in e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e r e i g n of T h y p e a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e w o r l d . O C h r i s t J e s u s , l o o k w i t h m e r c y on t h e c h i l d r e n of t h e r a c e which T h o u didst once prefer. M a y t h a t Blood w h i c h f o r m e r l y t h e y c a l l e d d o w n u p o n t h e i r h e a d s n o w d e s c e n d u p o n t h e m in b a p t i s m u n t o life a n d in r e d e m p t i o n . J e s u s , S o n of D a v i d , h a v e p i t y u p o n t h e m a l l ! I m m a c u l a t e H e a r t of M a r y , V i r g i n of I s r a e l , p r a y for t h e m ! PRAYER FOR T H E CONVERSION FREEMASONS. OF

O L o r d J e s u s Christ, W h o s h o w e s t forth T h y omnipotence most manifestly when Thou sparest and hast compassion, Thou W h o didst say, " P r a y for t h o s e w h o p e r s e c u t e and c a l u m n i a t e y o u , " w e i m p l o r e t h e c l e m e n c y of T h y S a c r e d H e a r t o n b e h a l f of s o u l s , m a d e in t h e i m a g e of G o d , b u t m o s t m i s e r a b l y d e c e i v e d b y t h e t r e a c h e r o u s s n a r e s of F r e e m a s o n s , a n d g o i n g m o r e a n d m o r e a s t r a y in t h e w a y of p e r d i t i o n . L e t not t h e C h u r c h , T h y S p o u s e , a n y l o n g e r b e o p p r e s s e d b y t h e m ; b u t , a p p e a s e d b y the i n t e r c e s s i o n of t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n , T h y M o t h e r , a n d t h e p r a y e r s of t h e j u s t , b e m i n d f u l of T h y infinite m e r c y ; a n d d i s r e g a r d i n g their p e r v e r s i t y , cause these very men to return to T h e e , that they m a y b r i n g consolation to the C h u r c h by a m o s t a b u n d a n t p e n a n c e , m a k e r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r m i s d e e d s , a n d s e c u r e for t h e m ­ selves a g l o r i o u s e t e r n i t y ; w h o livest and reignest world without end. Amen. (100 D a y s , o n c e a d a y ) . (The Raccolta, 8 t h E d i t i o n , p. 410).

PART III.

OCKHAMISM OR NOMINALISM and

POLITICAL AXD ECONOMIC DLCAY.

CHAPTERS

XI—XII.

C H A P T E R XL

THOMISM

AND

OCKHAMISM OR

NOMINALISM,

W e m u s t n o w e x a m i n e b r i e f l y t h e k e r n e l of t h e O c k h a m i s i s y s t e m of p h i l o s o p h y , t h e d i f f u s i o n - o f w h i c h h a s b e e n o n e of t h e m a i n f a c t o r s in m a n k i n d ' s f a i l u r e to r e t a i n its hold u p o n t h e r e a l o r d e r of t h e w o r l d a n d o n e of t h e m o s t p o t e n t causes,, in t h e i n ­ t e l l e c t u a l s p h e r e , of t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c d e c a y of E u r o p e . T o r e v e a l t o u s t h e d o c t r i n e of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y in w h i c h all t h e m e m b e r s of C h r i s t a r e d e s t i n e d t o s h a r e in t h e s a m e L i f e , t h e Life of S a n c t i f y i n g G r a c e , G o d w a s o b l i g e d t o m a k e u s e of o u r h u m a n i d e a s o r c o n c e p t s of " b o d y / ' " m e m b e r / ' a n d " l i f e . " It is c l e a r , t h e n , t h a t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e s e i d e a s will h a v e i m p o r t a n t r e p e r c u s s i o n s on o u r g r a s p of t h i s g r e a t t r u t h . T h e s y s t e m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e m p r o p o s e d b y W i l l i a m of O c k h a m differs e n o r m o u s l y f r o m t h a t of St. T h o m a s a n d b y its diffusion c o n t r i b u t e d l a r g e l y to t h e d o w n w a r d m o v e m e n t of E u r o p e . W e m u s t b e g i n b y o u t l i n i n g S t . T h o m a s ' s t h e o r y o'f t h e n a t u r e of t h e c o n c e p t a n d t h e n c o m p a r e O c k h a m ' s s y s t e m w i t h it, i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e c o m p a r i s o n b y t h e i d e a of " m e m b e r of t h e Mystical Body." THOMISM. S t . T h o m a s t e a c h e s t h a t t h e r e is c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n s e n s e a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e in t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l k n o w l e d g e . On t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s e n s e - d a t a , t h e i n t e l l e c t , by t h e p r o c e s s of a b s t r a c t i o n o r d e m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n , a p p r e h e n d s the n a t u r e o r f o r m or u n i v e r s a l u n i t y t h a n k s t o w h i c h it k n o w s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s p e r ­ c e i v e d b y t h e s e n s e s . T h e n a t u r e is a p p r e h e n d e d in t h e i n d i v i d u a l and, b e i n g d e m a t e r i a l i z c d , it is u n i v e r s a l . T h u s the n a t u r e d i r e c t l y g r a s p e d b y t h e h u m a n i n t e l l i g e n c e is u n i v e r s a l , not s i n g u l a r o r i n d i v i d u a l . A c c o r d i n g l y , w h e n w e s a y t h a t P e t e r is a m e m b e r of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y a n d t h a t P a u l is l i k e w i s e a m e m b e r of t h e same Body, w e express the fact that F e t e r and P a u l possess r e a l l y a n d d i s t r i b u t i v e l y all t h a t is e x p r e s s e d ( a n a l o g o u s l y ) b y s

242

TIIK M Y S T I C A L
v

BODY O F
1

CHRIST

t h e c o n c e p t s " m e m b e r a n d " b o d y / e x c l u s i v e of t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y w h i c h is d i r e c t l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l u n i t y / ' T h e c o n t e n t of t h e u n i v e r s a l c o n c e p t (id quod concipitur, in S c h o l a s t i c t e r m i n o l o g y ) is a t t r i b u t e d t o F e t e r a n d P a u l b u t n o t t h e m o d e of u n i v e r s a l i t y (modus turn/is). Are these judgements true? Y e s , if P e t e r a n d P a u l r e a l l y p o s s e s s , t h o u g h in an in­ dividual fashion, the m e m b e r s h i p which w e a t t r i b u t e to them. This s u p p o s e s , on t h e o n e h a n d , a c o n s t i t u t i o n of o b j e c t s a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a c o n s t i t u t i o n , of t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e , s u c h t h a t t h e c o n ­ t e n t of t h e u n i v e r s a l c o n c e p t s , i s o l a t e d in t h e m i n d f r o m t h e i r u n i v e r s a l m o d e of c o n c e p t i o n , is i d e n t i c a l w i t h w h a t t h i n g s a r e , c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t f r o m t h e i r c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l m o d e of r e a l i z a ­ t i o n . T h u s w e h a v e t h e t w o f o l d c o n d i t i o n of t h e m o d e r a t e R e a l ­ i s m of S t . T h o m a s :— a ) A psychological condition, n a m e l y , t h a t the mind, by the f a c t t h a t it g r a s p s a s e n s e - p e r c e p t i b l e o b j e c t i m m a t e r i a l l y , s t r i p s t h i s o b j e c t p r e c i s e l y of w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s i t s i n d i ­ viduality ; b ) An ontolof/ical condition of objects. T h e y m u s t be such t h a t their only difference, a p a r t from purely accidental v a r i a t i o n s , in r e l a t i o n to a g i v e n specific c o n c e p t , is t h e i r individual difference. In t h e i r i n n e r p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e y m u s t c o n f o r m to the s a m e objective law, t h e y m u s t be specifically a l i k e . T h e s e t w o c o n d i t i o n s c a n be r e a l i z e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o n l y if t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of a s e n s e - p e r c e p t i b l e o b j e c t is l i n k e d u p w i t h i t s m a t e r i a l i t y in s u c h w i s e t h a t t h e d e m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n of t h e o b j e c t i n v o l v e s i t s d i s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n . N o w t o d c m a t c r i a l i z e an o b j e c t is t h e s a m e t h i n g a s t o s t r i p it of its q u a n t i f i e d m o d e of b e i n g . T h e r e f o r e q u a n t i f i e d m a t t e r is t h e n e c e s s a r y p r i n c i p l e of t h e in­ d i v i d u a t i o n of s e n s e - p e r c e p t i b l e o b j e c t s . T h e r e is t h u s s o l i d a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e T h o m i s t i c t h e s i s of m a t t e r (materia signal a quantitate) a s t h e p r i n c i p l e of i n d i v i d u a t i o n a n d t h e u n i v e r s a l n a t u r e a s t h e d i r e c t o b j e c t of c o g n i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , w h e n w e s a y in faith t h a t P e t e r is a m e m b e r of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y a n d t h a t P a u l is l i k e w i s e a m e m b e r of t h e M y s t i c a l Body, w e a r e a t t r i b u t i n g to P e t e r and Paul an a b s o l u t e l y i d e n t i c a l g r o u p of i n l e l l i g i b l c n o t e s e x p r e s s i v c of a n o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o r f o r m . T h i s n a t u r e o r f o r m is a p p r e h e n d e d by a p r o ­ c e s s of a b s t r a c t ion c a r r i e d out i m m e d i a t e l y b y t h e i m m a t e r i a l
1

<D Of course, the words member of the Mystical Body manifest t o u s the d i v i n e intelligible reality they signify, only by analogy, t h r o u g h the gift of faith a n d by a process of n e g a t i o n , e l i m i n a t i o n , com­ p a r i s o n and p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y , but they do give us real knowledge of our ineffable r e l a t i o n to Christ, O u r Head. The gift of faith s t r e n g t h e n s the intelligence to g r a s p the s u p e r n a t u r a l o r d e r . We suppose aH this, as its d e v e l o p m e n t is not necessary for the p o i n t a t issue.

11

>}

THOMISM AND NOMINALISM

243

faculty called the intellectus agens on data attained by the senses. The nature found in them really exists, that is, it is an objective reality demanding to be respected in the organization of the world, though it has no existence outside the mind except in the individual man (and others) and as identical with them. >
(2

OCKHAMISM OR NOMINALISM. In man Ockham distinguishes three kinds of knowledge: In­ tuitive sense-knowledge, Intuitive intellectual knowledge and Abstract intellectual knowledge. Ockham's account of senseknowledge is much the same as that of his scholastic predecessors, an immediate, quantitative and therefore relative assimilation of material forms by our organic sense-faculties. Intuitive intellect­ ual knowledge is proper knowledge of the singular. Its object is not metaphysical individuality but internal or external individual facts, in a word, concrete experience. No matter what may be said to the contrary, it is merely a transposition of sense-experi­ ence to the intellect. Our first, immediate, and direct intellectual knowledge is, therefore, of the concrete and individual. Abstract intellectual knowledge presupposes this intuitive intellectual knowledge of the individual, and it results from an elaboration of individual perceptions, grouped according to their resemblances under some common point of view, which serves to designate all and each of them. Thus general concepts, whether formed from intuitions of individual objects or from concepts already uni­ versal, are nothing else than an immense natural system of signi­ fication of individual objects grouping them together in different ways and distributing them in classes duly labelled. Hence any universal term, instead of designating a certain species or nature common to many individuals, will have at most the value of a collective label summing up individual experiences in a handy way, according to a hierarchy of resemblances. The judgements em­ bodying such concepts are simply abridged and co-ordinated ex­ pressions of a number of individual experiences. Accordingly, the formation of a universal concept in Ockham's system is not a natural and primitive process of abstraction car­ ried out immediately on sense data. It is primarily and exclusively a process of reflex abstraction carried out on singular concepts. Ockham, with less reserve than Scotus, makes our intellectual knowledge begin by the direct apprehension of material singulars. He then reasons as follows: If the individual essences arc first known, the constitution of the universal ideas in our minds is only a secondary, reflex operation, carried out upon our primitive <2) For a full treatment of Thomism and Oc-khamism, in regard to the value of universal ideas, cf. the remarkable work of Pc-re Mardchal, 8. J., Le Point de Depart de la Meta physique, Cahier I.

244

THK MYSTICAL

B O D Y OK

CJ1R1ST

representations of individuals. It will be a sort of classification or arrangement, nothing more. Even though guided by the resembl­ ance of the sense-perceptible appearances, it will never give us de jure anything else than subjective points of view, general symbols, grouping together in a uniform series the individuals with which we have been in contact. There is nothing to guar­ antee us that these symbols, constructed and carved out by us in this way, express so many essential natures of and in the objects. It is clear that the procedure we have described, and about which a lot more could be written, leads straight lo a theory of know­ ledge which does not admit that the universal nature is in any way in things and which limits the scope of objectively valid knowledge to individuals. The nature xohich the intellect grasps becomes
merely a collection of individuals.

CONSEQUENCES OF OCKHAMISM OR NOMINALISM WITH REGARD TO FAITH IN THK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST. We can now indicate brielly some of the consequences of Ockhani's theory of knowledge. Ockham's teaching introduces into the philosophical explanation of the teachings of faith, ideas which combat the holding of the faith in its fulness and purity. As a Catholic, Ockham must have accepted in some way our membership of Christ's Mystical Body, thus admitting that we form with Our Lord, True God and True Man, a vast organism.< > As an organic whole this Body has a definite constitution or nature which must, be respected in the organization of society; and since it is charged with the interests of our highest life, it is above all States and nations. Ockhairfs philosophy, however, tended to (3) The first chapter of the Dogmatic Constitution of the Church drawn up fur -discussion at the Vatican Council is entitled "The Church is the Mystical Body of Christ." " The agnosticism of Ockham, an eccentric religious but a sincere believer, did not make him sceptical about transcendent realities. He found the lacunae of rational knowledge guaranteed to him in advance by revealed faith, to which he freely adhered" (Pore Marechal, S.J., on p. 1 9 4 of Le Taint de Depart de la Metaphysiique, Cahier I). After having given an account of the 51 articles taken from Ockham'* •works, and about which a condemnatory re-port was drawn up in 1326 at Avignon, whither Ockham had been summoned by the Pope in 1324,
3

says that there was no Papal condemnation of these articles or of the whole body of Ockhamism. lie adds that wo would nowadays expect a condemnation of these doctrines as a matter of course. The formula of retractation imposed by Clement VI on Ockham in 1 3 4 9 alludes only to his politico-ecclesiastical doctrines. It is doubtful whether Ockham was ever reconciled lo the Church and relieved of the excommunica­ tion pronounced against him in 1328. ITc may have been carried off by the Black Death bo fore the formula of retractation reached him.

the writer of the article on Ockham in the Dirtionnaire

de

Theologie

TH0M1SM

AND

NOMINALISM

245

produce a m e n t a l i t y opposed to this doctrine. F o r him, w e cannot have o b j e c t i v e k n o w l e d g e of a n a t u r e s h a r e d in b y all m e n , a s the T h o m i s t s u n d e r s t a n d it. T r u l y o b j e c t i v e k n o w l e d g e is l i m i t e d to i n d i v i d u a l s . N o w o n d e r t h e i d e a of t h e M y s t i c a l B o d y of C h r i s t lost c o n s i s t e n c y for m i n d s g r o w n a c c u s t o m e d t o O c k h a m ' s t e a c h ­ ing. T h e c o n c e p t of D i v i n e G r a c e , t h e L i f e - b l o o d f l o w i n g f r o m the H e a d t o t h e m e m b e r s of t h e B o d y , i n e v i t a b l y g r e w v a g u e a l s o . I t is n o t , t h e n , a m a t t e r f o r a s t o n i s h m e n t t h a t , s i n c e t h e r e a r e no n a t u r e s a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , n o n a t u r a l r e l a t i o n s of t h i n g s , O c k ­ ham s h o u l d p r o f e s s t h e m o s t a b s o l u t e v o l u n t a r i s m . T h e r e is n o such t h i n g a s g o o d o r evil in t h e n a t u r e of t h i n g s . E v e n h a t r e d of g o o d is n o t evil in itself. If G o d c o m m a n d e d it, it w o u l d n o t be evil a n y l o n g e r . As social o r d e r for O c k h a m ' s m i n d tended to b e c o m e r a t h e r a q u e s t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , h i s d o c t r i n a l difficulties w i t h t h e P o p e and t h e p a r t y s t r u g g l e s in t h e b o s o m of h i s r e l i g i o u s s o c i e t y i n ­ clined h i m t o m o d i f y h i s i d e a s of social o r d e r t o s u i t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Thus h e w a s led o n t o f a v o u r t h e " d e m o c r a c y " of M a r s i l i u s of P a d u a , w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s o n t h e will of t h e m a j o r i t y d e l e g a t i n g p o w e r t o t h e E m p e r o r o r R u l e r / * T h e w r i t e r of t h e a r t i c l e in t h e Dictionnaire de Theologie a d d s t h a t t h e a d v e r s a r i e s of t h e P o p e and of t h e * D i v i n e C o n s t i t u t i o n of t h e C h u r c h h a v e a l w a y s b e e n able t o find a b u n d a n t a r g u m e n t s in O c k h a m ' s Dialogue
4

NOMINALISM

AND

SEPARATISM.

A n o t h e r c o n s e q u e n c e of O c k h a m ' s t e a c h i n g is d e s e r v i n g of very s p e c i a l m e n t i o n . I t is t h r o u g h o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l g r a s p of t h e n a t u r e of a n o b j e c t t h a t w e a r e a b l e t o see t h a t o u r v i e w s of it are c o m p l e m e n t a r y a s p e c t s of o n e w h o l e . S e n s e - k n o w l e d g e t e n d s to s e c t i o n a n d s e p a r a t e : o n e i n d i v i d u a l is d i s t i n c t f r o m a n o t h e r . O c k h a m ' s t h e o r y of a n i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t u i t i o n of t h e s i n g u l a r o r i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t r e a l l y d e g r a d e s t h e i n t e l l e c t to t h e l e v e l of s e n s e . (4) " M a r s i l i u s of P a d u a a p p e a r s as the first of those noisy liberators who invoke the r i g h t s of the people only with a view to establish more firmly the u n r e s t r i c t e d absolutism of r u l e r s " {Rccherches sur VEsprit Politique de la Reforme, by G. de L a g a r d e , p. 56). The a u t h o r is a l l u d i n g to the d o c t r i n e of the Defensor minor of M a r s i l i u s . On the same page, he a t t r i b u t e s the movement in the 14th a n d 15th centuries, away from the. objective o r d e r g r a s p e d by St. Thomas, to the cumulative influence of R o m a n Law a n d N o m i n a l i s m . The influence of the " Royal Law a l l u d e d to by Godefroid Kurfch is evident. T h e Defensor Pads of M a r s i l i u s of P a d u a was condemned by Pope John X X I I in 1327. I n the Index libroriun prohibitorum published in 1564 by P o p e P a u l IV, the Defensor Pads is classed as heretical a n d as belonging to the first category of condemned works. Two of Ockham's works, the Opus nonaginta dierum a n d Dialogi et scripta omnia contra Joannem X X / / , are included in the second category. (5) G. de Lasrarde has p r o m i s e d a book on GaiUaume d Occam et la Democratic Religiev.se.
, ; 1

246

THK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

Nominalism tends to t r a n s f o r m our different mental representa­ t i o n s i n t o i s o l a t e d e n t i t i e s w i t h o u t a s u b s t a n t i a l n a t u r e . W i t h the p a s s i n g of t i m e t h i s w i l l g i v e r i s e t o t h e L i b e r a l i s m , S e p a r a t i s m a n d I n d i v i d u a l i s m of L o c k e , w h o s e p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c t h e o r i e s h a v e w e i g h e d so heavily on the m o d e r n w o r l d . L o c k e ' s philosophy is a p r o l o n g a t i o n of O c k h a m i s m in t h e d i r e c t i o n of E m p i r i c i s m . > T h e E m p i r i c a l f o r m of N o m i n a l i s m w i n d s u p in F a n t h e i s m as d o e s t h e I d e a l i s t f o r m . T h e N o m i n a l i s t U n i v e r s e is a d i s c o n t i n u ­ o u s u n i v e r s e of j u x t a p o s e d o b j e c t s , of w h i c h t h e g r o u p i n g s or a s s e m b l a g e s revealed by experience r e m a i n a m y s t e r y for h u m a n t h o u g h t . T h e r e a r e n o n a t u r e s of t h i n g s . T h e r e is n o vinculum substantiate^ t o u s e L e i b n i t z ' s e x p r e s s i o n , n o m e t a p h y s i c a l bond of u n i t y . T h e b e i n g s t h a t a r e in t h e w o r l d h a v e n o t h i n g t o link them together or explain them. Inevitably, then, " Nominalism, w h i c h lives a g a i n in P o s i t i v i s m o r S e n s i s m , c o m e s t o d o u b t of t h e r e a l a n d e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n of G o d a n d t h e w o r l d , b e c a u s e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n is n o t c a p a b l e of b e i n g verified b y e x p e r i e n c e . F r o m t h a t it is a n e a s y t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e is p e r h a p s o n l y o n e s u b s t a n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e real d i s t i n c t i o n of h u m a n individuals, which a p p e a r s so c l e a r a t the o u t s e t from the f a c t t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s e p a r a t e d in s p a c e , b e c o m e s d o u b t ­ ful. I t f o l l o w s a s a c o n s e q u e n c e t h a t t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r ­ i s t i c s of e a c h of t h e s e h u m a n i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p e r h a p s only phenomena, perhaps mere subjective representations. T h u s the e x t e r n a l w o r l d b e c o m e s p u r e l y a n d s i m p l y ' a p h e n o m e n a l possi­ b i l i t y of s e n s a t i o n s / t o u s e t h e e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t m o d e r n phil­ o s o p h e r , J o h n S t u a r t M i l l , w h o s e Logic is a S u m m a of N o m i n a l ­ i s m . N o m i n a l i s m i n t h e l o n g r u n d o e s a w a y w i t h all r e a l dis­ t i n c t i o n s , e v e n t h o s e t h a t it a l l o w e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a s b e i n g empirically evident, even the real distinction b e t w e e n t w o human b e i n g s e x i s t i n g a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of s p a c e . T h e u l t i m a t e c o n c l u ­ s i o n is a f o r m of P a n t h e i s m in w h i c h G o d is, a f t e r a c e r t a i n fash­ i o n , a b s o r b e d in t h e w o r l d . G o d is n o t , a s R e n a n u s e d t o s a y , H e is e v o l v i n g in t h e w o r l d , in t h e a s c e n d i n g m a r c h of e v o l u t i o n . All r e a l d i s t i n c t i o n s d i s a p p e a r i n t h e u n i v e r s a l flux of H e r a c l i t u s . " > A c c o r d i n g t o t h e R e p o r t of t h e G e n e r a l C h a p t e r of t h e D o m i n i ­ c a n O r d e r h e l d in 1346, P o p e C l e m e n t V I o r d e r e d t h e F r i a r s P r e a c h e r s t o a d h e r e s t r i c t l y t o t h e d o c t r i n e of St. T h o m a s . T h e s a m e P o n t i f f w r o t e a l s o t h a t s a m e y e a r t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s t h e L e t t e r , Singvlaris dilectionis, in w h i c h h e d r e w a s e r i e s of l e s s o n s f r o m t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n of N i c h o l a s of A u t r e c o u r t , a m a s ­ t e r of t h e U n i v e r s i t y .
(f> (7

(6) Cf. Le point de Depart de la Mctaphysique, Cabiers I a n d I I , by P e r e M a r e c h a l , S.J. Cf. also Precis d'llistoire de la Philosophie Moderne, by the same author. c?> Revue Thomistc^ 1938, article by P e r e G a r r i g o u - L a g r a n g e , O.P., on Pantheism and the Real Distinction.

THOMISM AND NOMINALISM

247

The Pope was himself a past student of the University and he expressed deep regret that " several masters and students of the Faculty of Arts despised Aristotle and the other ancient teach­ ers whom they should follow, and were turning to various other sophistical and foreign doctrines, said to be taught in other uni­ versities, opinions which cannot produce good fruit." By foreign doctrines taught elsewhere, the Pope meant doctrines taught at Oxford. " The Pope was not listened to," comments M. Maritain, and " from the second half of the 14th century onwards, Ockharnism, in a more or less mitigated form, reigned supreme in the University of Paris and in most of the Schools." God had made to the world the gift of St. Thomas and the ungrateful and wrangling world had not welcomed him. Luther's revolt brought home to many how far they had gone astray. Luther, who knew scholasticism chiefly through Gabriel Biel, the last great representative of Ockhamism, placed Ockham far above St. Thomas Aquinas whom he despised.* * As Father Denifle, O.P., expresses it: " Luther always remained an Ockhamist," so his mind was prepared for the rending of the Mystical Body of Christ and for the separation he inaugurated between the Christ­ ian and the citizen, between faith and works, and between Grace and nature, the latter being, according to him, essentially corrupt.di)
(8J 9 (ltn

(8) Antimodernc,

p. 137.

o> Cf. Luther,

by H. Grisar, S.J., vol.. I, P< 131.

I n 1520, Luther wrote against the theologians of Louvain and Cologne that " Ockham was without any doubt the first and ablest of the Scholastic D o c t o r s " (quoted by H. Denifle, 0 . P . , Luther et le Luthe'remivme. Vol. I l l , p. 202). If we are to believe Melancthon in his Preface to the second volume of Luther's Works, Wittenberg, 1546, " Luther was able to quote from memory Biel and d'Ailly almost word for word. He was deeplv .versed in Ockham's writings. * The latter he considered superior to Thomas and Scotus " (quoted b y Paul Vi^naux in Tjitther* Commentateur des Sentences, p. 45). <'0) Luther et le Luthiranisme, vol. I l l , p. 196. <it> We may add the testimony of Pere Geny, S.J., i n h i s Brevit Conspectus Ilistoriae Philosophiae. p. 198, to the effect that " the modern writers, who look upon Ockham as a precursor of the religious revolu­ tion of the 16th century, as well as of the philosophical revolution of the 17th, are right in their judgement."

CHAPTER NOMINALISM

XII. OF SOCIAL

AND THK ADVENT MATERIALISM. ISSUING FROM

THK

TWO

CURRENTS

OCKHAMISM.

W c h a v e s e e n t h a t S t . T h o m a s t e a c h e s t h a t t h e r e is c l o s e coll­ a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n s e n s e a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e in t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of o u r intellectual knowledge. O n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s e n s e d a t a , t h e i n t e l l e c t a p p r e h e n d s t h e n a t u r e of s e n s e p e r c e p t i b l e o b j e c t s a n d , t h r o u g h t h e a n a l o g y of b e i n g , b y r e a s o n i n g , it c a n a s c e n d t o God, w h o completely transcends the world. This h a r m o n i o u s func­ t i o n i n g of t h e t w o s e t s of f a c u l t i e s of t h e o n e b e i n g , m a n , g a v e p l a c e in t h e O c k h a m i s t s y s t e m t o a s i m p l e e x t r i n s i c c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s e n s e and intellect. O c k h a m j u x t a p o s e s in u s t w o f a c u l t i e s w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to him, s e e m to h a v e t h e s a m e formal object, the individual. Of c o u r s e , h e affirms t h a t t h e s e n s e f a c u l t i e s a r e m a t e r i a l a n d t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t is i m m a t e r i a l , b u t s i n c e t h e y b o t h h a v e t h e s a m e o b j e c t , o n e of t h e t w o b e c o m e s s u p e r f l u o u s . In t h e c o u r s e of t i m e , m o d e r n p h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h is e n t i r e l y N o m i n a l ­ i s t i n i t s a t t i t u d e t o t h e o b j e c t i v e v a l u e of t h e u n i v e r s a l n a t u r e s g r a s p e d by o u r i n t e l l i g e n c e in t h e d a t a of s e n s e , a n d t o (he r e a s o n ­ i n g b a s e d t h e r e o n , p r o c e e d s to sacrifice o n e of t h e t w o f a c u l t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e f a c u l t y sacrificed wc h a r e t h e t w o currents of N o m i n a l i s m i n t o w h i c h M o d e r n P h i l o s o p h y is d i v i d e d .
0 1

THE

FIRST

CURRENT, THE NOMINALISM OF DESCARTES.

W e h a v e , t h e n , on t h e o n e h a n d , t h e N o m i n a l i s m of D e s c a r t e s , M a l e b r a n c h c , Leibnitz and Spinoza, combined with an O n t o l o g i s m i n s p i r e d b y P l a t o n i s m . O n a c c o u n t of t h i s O n t o l o g i s m , M a l e ­ b r a n c h c t e a c h e s t h a t w c h a v e a n i n t u i t i v e k n o w l e d g e of G o d a n d (1) F o r the development of the ideas here briefly outlined, see Le Point de Depart de la. M eta physique, Cahicrs I ct J J, by P e r e M a r e c h a l , S.J., as well as Precis d'/iistoire de la Philosaphie Moderne, by the same author. I n the l a t t e r work, on p a g e 75, to m e n t i o n one p o i n t , we r e a d : " The d i s c r e d i t into which the universals fell from the decline of the Middle Ages o n w a r d s is d u e especially to the fact t h a t , i n N o m i n a l i s t fashion, they were held to he merely formal generalisa­ tions, not e x p l a n a t o r y p r i n c i p l e s . " Pere Mnrechal refers in p a r t i c u l a r to Descartes ( P r i n c i p i a I, Nos. 58, £9, V I I I , p. 23).

NOMINALISM AND SOCJAL MATKRJAL'ISM

249

of the order of being: in the case of Descartes and Leibnitz our ideas o f God, etc., are innate. This current issuing from Nominal­ ism inevitably leads to the Pantheism of Spinoza, bv which m a n is identified with Cod. So we see that, in the Cartesian school, it is the sense faculty that is sacrificed. The ''sensation" or "senseidea" differs from the other ideas by the fact that it is occasioned by the state of the material sensorium. as well as by the "confu­ sion" of its. content, in contrast with " t h e clear and distinct ideas." It does not differ by its intrinsic nature: it has become a special kind of "confused" intelligence. Since the origin of the content o f our ideas cannot be explained by the material passivity of our senses, and since the harmonious functioning of the two sets of faculties of the one nature h a s thus given place to a cor­ poreal automaton with merely local motion on the one band and a soul on the other, the innate ideas of Descartes and Leibnitz or the Ontologism of Malebranche become indispensable.
(2)

THK SKCOND CURRKNT, THE NOMINALISM OF LOCKK. The second current issuing from Nominalism is the o n e with which we are more particularly concerned in the account of the uprise of Social Materialism. This docs not mean that Cartesianism has not contributed to the advent of Ibis materialism, for it has exercised a considerable influence on the movement of ideas, but that the preponderating role has been taken by the Nominalism of l,ocke, Hume and Comic. This current gradually g o t rid of the intelligence, finally reducing it to the rank and function of an internal sense. Owing lo the fact that, since the Fall, sense life tends to dominate in man, it was the sensist cur­ rent which prevailed, in great part owing to the influence of Locke
(2) In preparation for what we have to say later about the Prussian reaction against the domination of Judaeo-M nsoury, it is H O . 1 1 to note here what M. Maritain points out in lit jit./•/«//x *///• Tintelligence (p. 30). T w o currents of Idealism have proceeded from the Cartesian explanation of knowledge. A pox If. Ire. current is to he seen in the dependence of our ideas, like the angelic ideas, on tin First Cause and Creative Truth, in the philosophies of Malebranche, Spinoza and Leib­ nitz. A negative current is to be found in the Cartesian view .that our ideas, like the angelic ideas, . d o not depend on things and arc not measured by them. Kant comes along and ascribes to those ideas that do not depend on things the properties of God's Creative Knowledge. The philosopher of Konigsberg does not assert that our ideas depend immediately on God like the angelic ideas, but that they are, like the D i v i n e ideas, the measure of things. Thus they are self-regulating and the human mind enjoys perfect autonomy. Fichtc. Schelling and Hegel represent the progress of (his current of thought, according to which, the autonomous human mind, having as its noblest manifestation the Prussian mind, is the source of the order of being.
b 1 1

250

THK

MYSTICAL

B O D Y OK CHRTST

o n K n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h t h o u g h t a f t e r h i s d a y . Of c o u r s e L o c k e is a h e s i t a n t s e m i - e m p i r i c i s t o r s e m i - s e n s i s t . H e r e t a i n s in h i s i d e a of s u b s t a n c e , for e x a m p l e , a v a g u e s o m e t h i n g of t h e T h o m i s t i c i n t e l l e c t u a l a p p r e h e n s i o n of t h e n a t u r e of b e i n g . Therefore, h e is n o t a r a d i c a l p h e n o m e n a l i s t o r s e n s i s t l i k e H u m e , b u t n e v e r ­ t h e l e s s t h e s e p a r a t i s m a n d i n d i v i d u a l i s m of L i b e r a l i s m a r e in g r e a t p a r t d u e to his w r i t i n g s . " N o t h i n k e r / ' w r i t e s M. Vialatoux, " h a s given a m o r e se­ d u c t i v e a n d a m o r e readily a c c e p t a b l e t u r n to his ideas than Locke. . . . T h e Reformation and the Renaissance, the empiric­ i s m of B a c o n , t h e r a t i o n a l i s m of D e s c a r t e s a n d H o b b e s , t h e s c i e n t i f i c p o s i t i v i s m of p h y s i c i s t s a n d d o c t o r s s u c h a s B o y l e a n d S y d e n h a m , t h e m e r c a n t i l e a n d l i b e r a l s p i r i t of t h e c a p i t a l i s t ' b o u r ­ geoisie/ the unvarying politeness, the practical common-sense, the w e l l b a l a n c e d m o d e r a t i o n of h i s c l a s s a n d h i s c o u n t r y . . . all t h e s e v a r i o u s g i f t s a n d i n f l u e n c e s l i l t e d h i m f o r t h e t a s k of g i v i n g h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s in a s i m p l e a n d e a s y f o r m t h e i d e a s a n d theories which their minds w e r e p r e p a r e d t o assimilate. A n d he h a s certainly wielded e n o r m o u s influence. I a m not alluding m e r e l y to that which h e exercised on his f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m e n , from H u m e a n d A d a m S m i t h to B e n t h a m , S t u a r t Mill a n d Spender, t h o u g h i t w a s e n o r m o u s a n d it w o u l d b e f a l s e t o s a y t h a t it d o e s n o t i n t e r e s t u s . 1 * ill w e m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t of all t h e K n g l i s h w r i t e r s admired and followed with such e x t r a o r d i n a r y e n t h u s i a s m b y t h e F r e n c h P h i l o s o p h e r s of t h e 18th c e n t u r y , h e w a s t h e m o s t p o p u l a r a n d t h e m o s t influential. H e it w a s w h o w o n o v e r t h e u n g r a t e f u l p o s t e r i t y of D e s c a r t e s . H e w a s t h e t e a c h e r , in l o g i c , p o l i t i c s a n d p s y c h o l o g y , a s well a s in s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , e c o n o m i c a n d p e d a g o g i c p h i l o s o p h y , of C o n d i l l a e , M o n t e s q u i e u , V o l t a i r e , d ' A l c m b e r t , D i d e r o t , H c l v c t i u s , d ' H o l b a c h , in a w o r d , of all t h e w r i t e r s of t h e K n c y c l o p c d i a . Kven R o u s s e a u c a m e u n d e r his sway. H e w a s t h e p r o f e s s o r of t h e s e c t of t h e E c o n o m i s t s . T u r g o t w a s his p u p i l , a n d i t h a s n o t b e e n sufficiently r e m a r k e d t h a t O u e s n a y w a s also. W h e n w e point o u t t h e influence which L o c k e h a d u p o n o u r 18th c e n t u r y , a r e w e n o t , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , a f f i r m i n g t h a t t h a t i n f l u e n c e is e x e r c i s e d i n d i r e c t l y u p o n o u r e p o c h
( 3 J

<3) T h e influence of Ockham on Locke is t r e a t e d a t some length in the work of K r a k o w s k i , Lt*s iSoiuves M edievaJes de la Vhilosophie de ]joeke, especially p p . 115-139. Though K r a k o w s k i ' s knowledge of Schol­ a s t i c Philosophy is imperfect, his historical i n f o r m a t i o n is useful. Locke was born in 1632 a n d died in 1704. I t is i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t , according to K r a k o w s k i (p. 41), q u o t i n g b e t t e r ' s Histoirc de la philosophic chretienne, the Summa totius Lof/ieae of William of Ockham was still in use as a m a n u a l a t Oxford a t the end of the 17th century. A c c o r d i n g to the same writer, the Ethics of B u r i d a n was r e p r i n t e d a t Oxford in 1637. his Politics in 1640. P e r e Marechal, S.J., quotes a G e r m a n work by T e l l k a m p to the same effect in Precis d Histoire de la Philosophic Mod erne i p . 242.

NOMINALISM AND SOCIAL MATERIALISM

251

and upon ourselves? When we study Locke, we find clearly for­ mulated the postulates which constitute the foundation of modern social life arid nrc the hidden, though mostly unsuspected, animat­ ing principles ol our institutions and of our modes of thought and action.""* Locke's " ideas " do not give him a grasp of the nature which is the principle of unity of a number of individuals of a species. They cannot do so, for, firstly, in his definition of " idea," he con­ founds sense-representation and intellectual concept/ ' and secondly, he is a Nominalist in regard to the idea of " species."* * It is true that he stops half way in his empiricism, for he wishes to safeguard a small number of traditional intellectual theses, but in his system there is continual sectioning and separation. For example, the moral truths that follow from the nature and des­ tiny of man are separated from the world of experience which is governed by its own " laws of nature," and society has no duty to God and Religion. A theory of knowledge, which breaks the harmonious union of intellect and sense in grasping the objective reality of the nature of man and the order of the world, and which gives the primacy to sense over reason, inevitably sections life into non-communi­ cating departments and posits individualism as the foundation o f all its social teaching. It inevitably leads to the denial of a uni­ versally valid order in the world and to the limitation of objective knowledge to that of individuals. The function of political society thus ceases to be deduced from the social nature of fallen man redeemed through membership of Christ. As a created entity, the State or political organization is meant, as we have seen, to aid man in' acknowledging and accept­ ing the order laid down by God for return to Himself, by fulfilling its duty to God. For Locke, on the contrary, the State, instead of being the well ordered organization of a natural society, is merely an artificial creation of autonomous persons. It is a free and artificial association of persons into which they enter from a previous non-social natural state, in view of safeguarding their civil interests, especially their property and their ownership of
5 6

ftconomique, by J. Vialatoux, pp. 125-126. <> " I have used it [the word ' idea '] to express whatever is meant by phantasm, notion, species, or whatever it is which the mind can bo employed about in thinking " (Essay on the Human Understanding, Book I, Chapter T). <> "And indeed it was only the doctrine of substantial forms, and the confidence of mistaken pretenders to a knowledge they had not, which first coined and then introduced animalitie^ and humanities, and the like; which yet went little further than their own schools, and could never get to be current amongst understanding men (Exxay on the Human Underxtandinq, Book III, Chapter VIII. Cf. Chapters III and VI in the same Book). <*) Philosophic 5
6 M

252

Tl-Ili M Y S T I C A L

BODY OF

CHRIST

m o n e y a n d l a n d s . T h e S t a t e , f o r L o c k e , is in f a c t o n l y a s o c i e t y of m u t u a l a s s u r a n c e s e t u p b y a g r o u p of f r e e p r o p r i e t o r s t o s a f e ­ guard themselves against loss. It has no d u t y to God. L e t us n o w illustrate these points by some quotations from Locke's works. I n Letters concerning Toleration, w e r e a d : " I e s t e e m it a b o v e all t h i n g s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h e x a c t l y t h e b u s i n e s s of t h e civil g o v e r n m e n t f r o m t h a t of r e l i g i o n , a n d t o s e t t l e t h e j u s t b o u n d s t h a t lie b e t w e e n t h e o n e a n d t h e o t h e r . . . . T h e c o m m o n w e a l t h s e e m s t o m e t o be a s o c i e t y of m e n c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y f o r p r o ­ c u r i n g , p r e s e r v i n g a n d a d v a n c i n g t h e i r o w n civil i n t e r e s t s . Civil i n t e r e s t s J call life, l i b e r t y , h e a l t h a n d i n d o l e n c e of b o d y , a n d t h e p o s s e s s i o n of o u t w a r d t h i n g s s u c h a s m o n e y , l a n d s , h o u s e s , f u r ­ n i t u r e , a n d t h e l i k e . It is t h e d u t y of t h e civil m a g i s t r a t e , b y t h e i m p a r t i a l e x e c u t i o n of e q u a l l a w s , t o s e c u r e u n t o all t h e p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l , a n d t o e v e r y o n e of his s u b j e c t s in p a r t i c u l a r , t h e j u s t p o s s e s s i o n of t h e s e t h i n g s b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s life. . . . T h e r e f o r e is t h e m a g i s t r a t e a r m e d w i t h t h e f o r c e a n d s t r e n g t h of all h i s s u b j e c t s , in o r d e r t o p u n i s h t h o s e t h a t v i o l a t e a n y o t h e r m a n ' s r i g h t s . N o w t h a t t h e w h o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e m a g i s t r a t e r e a c h e s o n l y t o t h e civil c o n c e r n m e n t s a n d t h a t all civil p o w e r , r i g h t a n d d o m i n i o n is b o u n d e d a n d c o n f i n e d t o t h e o n l y c a r e of p r o m o t i n g t h e s e t h i n g s : a n d t h a t it n e i t h e r c a n n o r o u g h t in a n y m a n n e r t o b e e x t e n d e d to t h e s a l v a t i o n of s o u l s , t h e s e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a ­ t i o n s s e e m to m e a b u n d a n t l y to d e m o n s t r a t e
( 7 J

" L e t u s c o n s i d e r w h a t a c h u r c h is. A c h u r c h t h e n T t a k e to b e a v o l u n t a r y s o c i e t y of m e n , j o i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o g e t h e r of t h e i r o w n a c c o r d , in o r d e r t o t h e p u b l i c w o r s h i p p i n g of G o d , in s u c h a m a n n e r a s t h e y jx.u)^e a c c e p t a b l e t o H i m , a n d e f f e c t u a l t o t h e s a l v a t i o n of t h e i r s o u l s . . . . It is n o t m y b u s i n e s s t o e n q u i r e h e r e i n t o t h e o r i g i n of t h e p o w e r a n d d i g n i t y of t h e c l e r g y . T h i s o n l y d o 1 s a y , t h a t w h e n c e s o e v e r t h e i r a u t h o r i t y be s p r u n g , s i n c e i t is e c c l e s i a s t i c a l , it o u g h t t o b e confined w i t h i n t h e b o u n d s of t h e c h u r c h , n o r can it in any maimer be e x t e n d e d to civil a f f a i r s ; b e c a u s e t h e c h u r c h itself is a t h i n g a b s o l u t e l y s e p a r a t e a n d d i s ­ t i n c t f r o m t h e c o m m o n w e a l t h . T h e b o u n d a r i e s on b o t h s i d e s a r e fixed a n d i m m o v a b l e . H e j u m b l e s h e a v e n a n d e a r t h t o g e t h e r , t h e things most remote and opposite, who mixes these societies which a r e in t h e i r o r i g i n a n d b u s i n e s s , a n d in e v e r y t h i n g , p e r f e c t l y d i s ­ t i n c t a n d infinitely d i l r c r e n t from each o t h e r " F o r t h e political s o c i e t y is i n s t i t u t e d f o r no o t h e r e n d , b u t o n l y t o s e c u r e e v e r y m a n ' s p o s s e s s i o n of t h e t h i n g s of t h i s life. T h e c a r e of e a c h m a n ' s s o u l , a n d of t h e t h i n g s of h e a v e n , w h i c h n e i t h e r d o c s b e l o n g to t h e c o m m o n w e a l t h , n o r can b e s u b j e c t e d t o it, is left e n t i r e l y t o e v e r y m a n ' s self. T h u s t h e s a f e g u a r d of (?) Philosophic Sconomique, by J. Via.la.toux, p p . 144-149.

NOMINALISM A N D SOCIAL MATERIALISM

253

man's life and of the things that belong unto this life, is the busi­ ness of the commonwealth; and the preserving of these things unto their own is the duty of the magistrate."' * Thus we see sectioning and individualism in the relations of religious bodies and the State. The State, though a created en­ tity, has no duty to God and religion, in fact, there s e e m s to be no Divine Plan for order. Instead of being born into a world with an established order, supernatural and natural, which they are bound to respect, individual human persons come into exist­ ence in a pre-social condition, out of which they emerge by freely contracting to set up the order that suits them, Locke borrows his method and his principles from Hobbes. Like liobbes, he derives the origin of society from a state of nature, in which man was not in society. For him as for Hobbes, society arises from a reciprocal agreement of free individual wills previously isolated and separated, in a vvord, from a "social contract." So from a state of dispersion and anarchy, these human atoms pass into a combination, but the law of the social organization which results from this contract remains individualist and separatist. Men simply seek in society a means of pursuing in security and peace their particular ends and of better defending their separate destinies against the danger of mutual encroachments on their respective properties.* ' Hobbes, stressing exclusively man's individualityheld that when abandoning the condition of war "which coincides with the free state of nature, the individuals contracting hand over all their rights, including their right of property, to the State, which has absolute power and is not responsible to anyone. Locke, on the contrary, stressing exclusively the independence of man's personality, holds that the autonomous persons, when making the social contract, keep their liberty, and above all, the unrestricted right of property. Before men freely agreed that all the wealth of the world would have its representation and its pledge in coined metal or money, the interest of each one was to limit his property to what he could make use of. With the advent of money, it became the interest of each to produce beyond his needs, becausehe could exchange the excess for money and utilize the money to purchase the labour of others, either to avoid working himself or
8 9

(8) These extracts are quoted from the London edition of 1765, printed fc'or A. Millar, etc. (9) " It is not -without reason that he fa man] seeks out and is will­ ing to join in society with others who are already united, or have & mind to unite for the mutual preservation of their lives, liberties and estates, which I will call by the general name, property. The great and chief end, therefore, of men uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property: to which in the state of Nature there are many things wanting " (Second Treatise on Civil Government, Chapter IX).

254.

THE MYSTICAL BODY OF
10

CHRIST

to i n c r e a s e h i s w e a l t h w i t h o u t l i m i t a t i o n . * )
LOCKE ON MONEY.

The a d v e n t of money

t h u s l e d i n e v i t a b l y t o a g r e a t i n e q u a l i t y in p o s s e s s i o n s .

L o c k e h a s t r e a t e d t h e q u e s t i o n of m o n e y in h i s e s s a y s o n the Consequences of the Flowering of Interest and Raising the Value of Money ,and Further Considerations Concerning Raising the Value of Money. T h e s e w e r e p u b l i s h e d in L o n d o n f r o m 1692 t o 1695 a n d w e r e d e s t i n e d t o e n l i g h t e n t h e E n g l i s h G o v e r n m e n t , t h e f o r m e r c o n c e r n i n g t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y of r e d u c i n g i n t e r e s t t o 4 p e r cent., the latter c o n c e r n i n g the r e m e d y to be applied to the d e p r e ­ c i a t i o n of t h e E n g l i s h s i l v e r c u r r e n c y a t t h e t i m e . I n r e g a r d t o the s e c o n d q u e s t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o A . E . F e a v e a r y e a r , < > L o c k e ' s E s s a y , Further Considerations, etc., w a s p u b l i s h e d in r e p l y t o a r e p o r t b y W i l l i a m L o w n d e s , S e c r e t a r y of t h e T r e a s u r y , e n t i t l e d An Essay for the Amendment of Silver Coins ( 1 6 9 5 ) . Lowndes w a n t e d t h e r e f o r m t o c o n s i s t in t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n of t h e c u r r e n c y at t h e e x i s t i n g v a l u e , L o c k e w a n t e d a r e t u r n t o t h e old s t a n d a r d . L o c k e ' s v i e w s w e r e a c c e p t e d a n d his Further Considerations have b e c o m e " a l m o s t a g o s p e l for ' s o u n d m o n e y ' m e n , " t o u s e F e a v e a r y e a r ' s e x p r e s s i o n . S i r R o b e r t P e e l , b o t h in 1819 a n d in t h e B a n k A c t of 1844, " s t o o d ' firmly b y t h e d o c t r i n e , w h i c h he o b ­ t a i n e d f r o m L o c k e , t h a t t h e u n i t w a s a d e f i n i t e q u a n t i t y of b u l l i o n w h i c h m u s t n o t b e a l t e r e d . All t h e b e s t k n o w n w r i t e r s of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r a i s e d t h e s e t t l e m e n t of 1819, b y w h i c h ,
n

(io) <*As much l a n d as a m a n tills, p l a n t s , improves, cultivates, a n d Can use the p r o d u c t of, so much is his p r o p e r t y . Now of those good t h i n g s which N a t u r e had provided in common, everyone had a r i g h t (as h a s been s a i d ) to as much as ho could use and had a p r o p e r t y in all he oould effect with his l a b o u r ; all t h a t his i n d u s t r y could extend to, to a l t e r from the state N a t u r e had p u t it in, was his. . . . I t was a foolish t h i n g , as well as dishonest, to hoard up more than he could make use of. . . . .Right a n d conveniency went together. Foi* as a m a n h a d a r i g h t to all he could employ his labour u p o n , so he had no t e m p t a t i o n to l a b o u r for more than he could make use of. . . . T h i s I d a r e boldly -affirm t h a t the same rule of property—viz., t h a t every m a n should have .as much as he could make use of, would still hold in the world . , . h a d not the invention of money, and the tacit a g r e e m e n t of men to put a value on it, introduced, by consent, l a r g e r -possessions and a r i g h t to them . . . hut since gold a n d silver, being little use to the life of m a n , in p r o p o r t i o n to food, r a i m e n t , and c a r r i a g e , has its value only from the consent of man . . . it is plain t h a t the consent of man has agreed to a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e and unequal possession of the e a r t h . . .' they h a v i n g , by consent, found o u t and agreed in a way how a man may, r i g h t f u l l y and without i n j u r y , possess more t h a n he could make use of by receiving gold and silver which may c o n t i n u e Jong in a m a n ' s possession w i t h o u t d e c a y i n g ' (Second Treatise on Civil Government, C h a p t e r V). < ) The Pound Sterling, a History of English Money, p p . 124-137.
1 u

NOMINALISM AND SOCIAL MATERIALISM

255

after the currency-inflation of the Napoleonic period, the old standard was restored. Largely as a result of Locke's influence, £3 17s, 103d. an ounce came to be regarded as ;i magic price for gold from which we ought never to stray and to which, if wc do, we must always return."* * Now, in both the above-mentioned measures, Locke saw a violation of the natural laws which preside over the development of public wealth. The value or purchasing power of money is due to the quantity or weight of the metal composing it. This quali­ tative or commodity-money, which is only a somewhat less com­ plicated form of barter, is the only form which Locke in these essays seems to consider possible. On that point we shall have more to say later, but let us first examine the effect of his theories on human society. Owing to the separatism and individualism consequent upon his Nominalism, Locke seems to think that once a man has given his consent to the institution of money and has fixed upon these metals, silver and gold, he has only to accept the results passively. These are, for example, what Locke terms the natural use or interest on money and the prices determined by the relation between the quantity of these commodities in the market and other commodities. "Economic phenomena," writes Monsieur Vialatoux, "are no longer human phenomena: they take place in a world apart and live their own life, so to say, without having to take account of moral ends or without being subject to efficacious voluntary action on the part of man or human society. They are sectioned off and are quite independent of our intervention, or rather, the only link which unites them to us is that by which they control our lives and by which we are chained to them. It is this theory of price, of which the essential postulate is the separation of economics from morality, which for Locke gives the key to the solution of the problem of interest, as later on it will give the key to the solution of the problem of wages. . . . It is always the quantity of money, symbol and pledge of wealth, which sets up the economic law. In its relation of exchange with the object it buys and with trade in this kind of article, it determines the price; in its relation with the trade of the country as a whole or the sale of goods in general it fixes the rate of interest. These things, then, are out­ side the scope and the competence of the laws drawn up'by men; they belong to another order and to another world. They are, I repeat, sectioned off from us; they arc independent of us. No human will, no human action, whether of individuals or groups, is in any way responsible for the effects of these anonymous causes. If sad results for the human race follow from them, it is only because of our ignorance and our blindness that we accuse
12

0*> F c a v e a r y e a r , op. cit., p. 137.

256

Till J MYSTICAL

RODY OF

CHRIST

o n e a not 1 K M - o f b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e Tor t h e m . As a m a t t e r of f a c t , t h e y a r e p h e n o m e n a of t h e s a m e k i n d a s all t h e o t h e r n a t u r a l phenomena " If o u r h u m a n i t y is p a s s i v e in p r e s e n c e of e c o n o m i c p h e n o m ­ e n a , it is b e c a u s e m o n e y is t h e o n l y a c t i v e f o r c e in t h a t s p h e r e , t h e one and oniv m o t o r o f the whole m e c h a n i s m . Money, how­ e v e r , h a s b e e n i n s t i t u t e d b y m a n a n d if it r u l e s u s a f t e r t h e f a s h i o n of a n u n y i e l d i n g d e s p o t , if w c a r e , so t o s a y , its p l a y t h i n g s a n d i t s p u p p e t s , it is beeau.se it h a s t h e r i g h t t o d o s o , for w e h a v e c o n s e n t e d t o a n d s e t u p i t s r u l e . Ii w e a r c o b l i g e d to b o w t o its b e h e s t s , it i s b e c a u s e i t s d o m i n a t i o n lias b e e n s e t u p a t t h e b e ­ g i n n i n g by t h e free d e c i s i o n o f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r e i g n wills/** * W c are thus back a t Locke's individualist and separatist t h e o r y of s o c i e t y . W e shall h a v e m o r e t o s a y a b o u t L o c k e ' s c o m m o d i t y t h e o r y oi m o n e v l a t e r , i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e g o l d s t a n d a r d a n d e c o n o m i c d e c a y in g e n e r a l . H e r e it i s sufficient to r e m a r k w i t h F e a v e a r y e a r t h a t n e i t h e r L o w n d e s n o r L o c k e u n d e r s t o o d t h e real c a u s e of t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n o f K n g l i s h m o n e y at t h e t i m e t h e y w e r e w r i t i n g . F e a v e a r y e a r w r i t e s : " N o b o d y u n d e r s t o o d w h y t h e v a l u e of m o n e y h a d fallen. L o w n d e s t h o u g h t t h a t , b e c a u s e t h e w a r h a d n e c e s s i ­ t a t e d so m a n y p a y m e n t s a b r o a d , s i l v e r b u l l i o n h a d b e e n e x p o r t e d in l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s t o m e e t t h e a d v e r s e b a l a n c e , a n d h a d b e c o m e s c a r c e in K n g l a n d . w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e p r i e c h a d r i s e n . L o c k e t h o u g h t t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n of m o n e y w a s e n t i r e l y d u e t o c l i p p i n g . H e did n o t a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n w h y it h a d o c c u r r e d s u d d e n l y , w h i l e c l i p p i n g h a d b e e n g o i n g o n for half a c e n t u r y . . . . T h e i n f l a t i o n of c r e d i t w a s t h e i m m e d i a t e c a u s e of t h e d e p r e c i a t i o n / * )
13 1 1 4

In i b i s c o n n e x i o n A r t h u r Kit s o n p e r t i n e n t l y r e m a r k s : " I t s h o u l d be r e m e m b e r e d t h a t c r e d i t a n d p a p e r c u r r e n c y affect p r i c e s a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r of g o l d ( a n d , of c o u r s e , s i l v e r ) c o i n s t h e s a m e a s t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s i m i l a r v o l u m e of g o l d ( o r s i l v e r ) c u r r e n c y , w h i c h is a f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e t r u t h of t h e Q u a n t i t y T h e o r y , " a s o p p o s e d to t h e b a r t e r o r c o m m o d i t y money theory/ *
1 0

<Philosophic 11 fo//oint'fpIC, p p . 137-1 HO. The I * omul Sir rh'ntf, p . 1 21. T h e a u t h o r a d d s in a note on p. Iti5 : Tin- a u t h o r s of (he Hullion Report of 1S10 a p p e a r to have been the ihM to dia.^noM* e o r n - c i l y t h e position of the c u r r e n c y in t h e period 1604 S w h e n t h e y staled t h a i , a t t h a t period, ( h e e f f e c t s o f (lie d e p r e c i a ­ tion of t h e coin h y w e a r and c l i p p i n g w e r e coupled with t h e effect of an excessive isMie of paper. MacLeod, Thvorij and Pravfirr of Hanking ( 0 . I X . ] ) a r s . 10 and fiOL a t t e m p t e d in destroy this theory, but most of his reasoning o n t h e point was fallacious, and the account given in the Bullion Report is an a d m i r a b l e s u m m a r y of the events a s they o c c u r r e d / ' < The HnnIn / V / Conspiracy, p. 03. " The Q u a n t i t a t i v e theory asserts t h a t (he value oF Ihe money u n i t is d e t e r m i n e d by the n u m b e r of units in eirculai ion multi plied by their velocity of c i r c u l a t i o n . " When Locke is speaking <>f the q u a n t i t y of money, he means the v a l u e
(M)
!

NOMINALISM AND SOCIAL MATERIALISM ECONOMIC LAWS BECOME EXCLUSIVELY PHYSICAL LAWS.

257

Locke's attitude towards money, with its separation or sec­ tioning, is only one instance—out of many—of the influence of Mathematical Physics on the thought and practice of the 18th and succeeding centuries. In other words, Locke's theory of money is only one instance of the growth of that Social Material­ ism, which is better known by the less objectionable name of Liberalism or Naturalism. The essential principle of Liberalism or Naturalism, the principle which runs through orthodox Eng­ lish and French Political Economy, represented by Adam Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Stuart Mill, Bastiat, J. B. Say and the Physio­ crats, is that Economic affairs are governed by Physical Laws of Nature, to which no political law should attempt to do violence.* ) Men must allow themselves to be governed by Nature and not attempt to violate her laws. It was in the name of this prin­ ciple, held to be approved by Science (with capital), that organ­ ized Naturalism, at the French Revolution, worked for the de­ struction of the Guilds of the Middle Ages, and that naturalistic Liberalism resisted the trade-union and reform movements. The laws voted in the first half of the 19th century for the pro­ tection of women and children were accepted by the dominant liberalistic school of thought both in England and France, only unwillingly and as exceptional measures. The need for protective measures for married women and children was justified by the argument that they were minors under tutelage and so incapable of contracting freely. It was only by a deviation from orthodox liberalistic principles, remarks M. Vialatoux, that unmarried women of legal age were given the advantage of the same pro­ tection. When the right of association was legally recognized for working men, it was regarded in France as the recognition of an area of individual liberty which had so far been unacknow­ ledged. Every movement of resistance to social amelioration and professional organization was made in the name of " Science."
16 (17)

" Sometimes the rigid determinism of economic laws was di­ rectly appealed to; more frequently, the appeal was indirect. The 'rights of liberty' and the principles of 1789 were invoked, these clearly involving an optimistic belief in the natural order, of the of the content of the coin or coins, what Arthur Kitson calls the
quality.
UG)
1?

Cf. VhiloKuithi? Rcon antique, by J. Vialatoux, pp. 3 and foil. < ) The English Poor Laws which attached the poor to their parisheswere modified in the interest of industry, not in the interest of the poor, in accordance with the tenets of Liberalism. We shall see later that the Socialist reaction against Liberalism has also been largely controlled and directed by naturalistic or anti-supernatural organized forces.
T

258

TIIK MYSTTCAL DODY OF CHRIST
08

world and in the spontaneous harmony resulting from the free play of economic forces." * Kven the "pessimists" of the Liberalistic School, Mai thus and Ricardo, who were aware that the spontaneous order of nature did not give rise exclusively to har­ mony and justice, nevertheless considered the free play of in­ dividual liberty the lesser evil. Liberalism o r Naturalism, therefore, claimed to be based on the modern science of Physics. What is the precise nature of this science and how does it differ from the Physics of Aristotle and the Scholastics? In the modern sense of the word, Physics is a comparatively recent science, in point of fact it has nothing in common with the old-time Physics except the name. This new type of Physical Science, while continuing to treat of bodies as such and of the order of the sense-perceptible world, thus keeping the same material object as the ancient Physics, con­ siders this object, no longer from the point of view of the intel­ ligibility of being, but from the point of view of mathematical quantity. In the physical world, it does not seek to discover under phenomena the intelligible connexions sought by the philosophy of the ancients, which explain phenomena only by transcending them. It is rather a science of the sense-perceptible world which applies to the detail of phenomena as they are co-ordinated in space and time, the formal connexions of mathematical relations. Thanks to the science of abstract quantity, it approaches that de­ ductive character to which it aspires and without which it would not be a perfect science. Modern Physics is a marvellous means for (he investigation of the world of sense, not from the point of view of being, but from the point of view of quantity. It abandons the idea of looking directly for real causes in themselves and aims above all at expressing in a coherent system of equa­ tions measures taken on things, ' This new Physics, instead of being the science of the nature or internal principle of the mutability and qualitative spontaneity of things is rather the mechanics of sense-experience, the science of the spatial and quan­ titative relations of phenomena. These mathematical functions which inform us bow one qua-itily varies when another varies are
(,n

H8) Philosophic ficoirowH/itt. I>y 1. Vialatmix, i>. lo. He adds: "This optimistic belied' was presem in the minds of I hose who drew up the principles of 1789, -due in part io I he, influence of phyaiocratic ideas in the. Constituent Assembly." This attiltide was nun forced by Masonic anti-supernatural propaganda. Workingmen were bound to observe the injunctions of the Law of Chapelier ( 1 7 9 1 ) , by which they were for­ bidden any association, corporation, or syndicate, because such federa­ tion would (.rouble the free play of supply ami demand in the labour market. Kconoimc freedom thus became t h e famous right to die :vf hunger. Cf. The Workingmndx Cirildx of thr Middle Ages, p. 4 2 . (W_J. Maritain, les ITeyns dn Havoir, p. 90. Cf. the important observations on page* 269 286 of the same work, also on pages 121-125.

NOMINALISM AND SOCIAL MATERIALISM
20

259

t h e o n l y l a w w i t h w h i c h m o d e r n P h y s i c s is c o n c e r n e d . * ' On the o t h e r hand, Aristotelian and Scholastic Second Philosophy, b e i n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n n e r n a t u r e s of t h i n g s , t r i e s t o e l u c i d ­ a t e t h e i r l a w s . T h i s it d o e s b y s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e l i n e s of d e v e l o p ­ m e n t of b e i n g s in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h w h a t t h e y a r e e s s e n t i a l l y . T h e l a w o r l a w s of m a n ' s b e i n g in t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n s e n s e a r e t h e l i n e o r l i n e s of c o n d u c t d e m a n d e d f r o m his a c t i v i t y b y his s p i r i t u a l form. T h e l a w s of a h u m a n b e i n g a r e t h u s laws of a p e r s o n s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s of s p a c e a n d t i m e , in c o n s e q u e n c e of h i s b e i n g i n c a r n a t e o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d in m a t t e r . M o r a l S c i e n c e or E t h i c s , s u p p o s i n g t h e d a t a of P s y c h o l o g y , t r e a t s of t h e s e l a w s . The laws elucidated by modern Physics are simply formulae ex­ p r e s s i n g t h e c o n s t a n t a n d g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s o r c o n n e x i o n s in v i r t u e of w h i c h o n e p h e n o m e n o n ( c a l l e d in t h i s c a s e , cause) c a n n o t a p ­ p e a r , d i s a p p e a r o r v a r y , w i t h o u t a n o t h e r p h e n o m e n o n ( c a l l e d in t h i s c a s e , effect) appearing, d i s a p p e a r i n g or varying. T h e s e laws, a s t r o n o m i c a l , p h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l , l a w of g r a v i t a t i o n , e t c . , i n d i c a t e how things behave, a b s t r a c t i n g from circumstances. They are c o n c e r n e d w i t h f a c t s , n o t w i t h t h e n a t u r e s of t h i n g s , i n d e e d , nature for m o d e r n s c i e n c e s i m p l y d e s i g n a t e s t h e w h o l e b o d y of e x t e r n a l p h e n o m e n a a s r e g u l a t e d b y l a w s in t h e s e n s e j u s t defined. This p h y s i c o - m a t h e m a t i c a l k n o w l e d g e of n a t u r e d i s r e g a r d s in t h e reality e v e r y t h i n g else e x c e p t q u a n t i t y and thus neglects w h a t the i n t e l l e c t is p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d in, t h e k n o w l e d g e of w h a t - i s , p r e ­ cisely w h a t A r i s t o t e l i a n P h i l o s o p h y s e e k s to d i s c o v e r . T h e t e r m law h a s t h r e e p r i n c i p a l m e a n i n g s . It is u s e d , firstly, to s i g n i f y t h e o b l i g a t o r y r u l e s p r e s c r i b e d to t h e m e m b e r s of an o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t y b y t h e a u t h o r i t y w h i c h is c h a r g e d w i t h t h e C o m m o n G o o d of t h a t s o c i e t y . T h e b o d y of t h e s e l a w s is called positive law. Second!//, l a w d e s i g n a t e s t h e line of d e v e l o p m e n t d e m a n d e d b y t h e n a t u r e of a b e i n g , t h e r u l e it m u s t follow to r e a c h i t s e n d , t h e p e r f e c t i o n of i t s n a t u r e . In t h e c a s e of m a n , (2°) Cf. J . V i a l a t o u x , La* Cite de Hobbes, p. 48, a n d J. M a r i t a i n , Reflexions sur l Intelligence, p . 183. " The m a t e r i a l object of p h i l o s o p h y a n d science may be the same— for e x a m p l e , the sense-perceptible world—the formal object, namely, t h a t which d e t e r m i n e s the specific n a t u r e of these intellectual disciplines, is essentially different in the two cases. I n the realm of c o r p o r e a l being, the scientist will study the laws of p h e n o m e n a by linking one "observable event with a n o t h e r observable event. If he trios to discover the struc­ t u r e of m a t t e r , it will be by r e p r e s e n t i n g to himself how a n d according to what laws the u l t i m a t e elements in the s t r u c t u r e of the edifice—mole­ cules, ions, atoms—behave in space and time. The philosopher will t r y to find o u t what the m a t t e r is whose behaviour the scientist depicts, t h a t i s , the n a t u r e of c o r p o r e a l substance considered in the linht of ens inteltigibile (the question whether it is capable of being divided up, in view of a s p a t i a l or s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l reconstruction of ions, atoms, etc., i n t o p r o t o n s a n d electrons . . . remains i n t a c t ) " (Les Degres du Savoir, p p . 93, 94).
} (

260

THK MYSTICAL

BODY O F

CHRIST

i t is t h e line of c o n d u c t d e m a n d e d by his s p i r i t u a l f o r m f r o m his a c t i v i t y , i n t e l l e c t u a l , m o r a l a n d e s t h e t i c . T h e b o d y of t h e s e n o n w r i t t e n l a w s is c a l l e d natural law. Thirdly, it is u s e d t o d e s i g n ­ ate a formula expressing constant and general relations between o b s e r v a b l e p h e n o m e n a . H e n c e we have political laws, moral laws, a n d physical l a w s , w i t h o n e idea a n a l o g o u s l y c o m m o n to the three a c c e p t a t i o n s , n a m e l y t h a t of order. A r i s t o t e l i a n P h i l o s o p h y is con­ c e r n e d w i t h law in t h e s e c o n d m e a n i n g , w h i l e m o d e r n P h y s i c s a i m s a t t h e e l a b o r a t i o n of l a w s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h i r d m e a n i n g of t h e t e r m . T h e s t o r y of t h e p r o g r e s s of M a t h e m a t i c a l P h y s i c s h a s l a r g e l v b e c o m e t h e a c c o u n t of t h e r e d u c t i o n of internal nature, t h a t is, n a t u r e in t h e s e n s e u n d e r s t o o d by A r i s t o t l e a n d t h e S c h o l a s t i c P h i l o s o p h e r s , t h e n a t u r e of m a n i n c l u d e d , t o external nature, that is, n a t u r e a s u n d e r s t o o d in m o d e r n s c i e n c e , n a m e l y , t h e a g g r e g a t e of t h e c o n n e x i o n s b e t w e e n s p a c e d a n d t i m e d p h e n o m e n a . The i n n e r d y n a m i c p r i n c i p l e , t h e n o r m of a b e i n g ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , h a s b e e n r e d u c e d t o p h e n o m e n a l e x i s t e n c e , finality h a s g i v e n w a y to mechanical movement. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e first t w o m e a n i n g s of t h e t e r m law h a v e b e e n r e d u c e d t o t h e t h i r d , a n d n o t o n l y p o s i ­ t i v e l a w s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s b u t t h e i n t e r i o r l a w s of m a n ' s s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e h a v e c o m e t o be c o n s i d e r e d m e r e l y a s p h e n o m e n a r e g u l ­ a t e d by determinism, spatial and temporal. This doctrine, accord­ i n g t o w h i c h m o r a l n a t u r e is r e d u c e d t o p h y s i c a l n a t u r e a n d w h i c h h o l d s t h a t p o l i t i c a l a n d m o r a l l a w s H a w s in t h e first a n d s e c o n d s e n s e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ) a r e m e r e l y l a w s of Social P h y s i c s ( l a w s i n t h e t h i r d s e n s e ) is t e r m e d M e c h a n i s m o r M a t e r i a l i s m . P o l i t i c s in t h i s s y s t e m is m e r e l y t h e a r t of c o n f o r m i n g t h e c o n d u c t of s o c i e t i e s a n d t h e l a w s of S t a t e s to t h e p h y s i c a l l a w s s o d i s c o v e r e d and formulated. ' H u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y is t h u s d i s r e g a r d e d . P o l i ­ tical l a w s , a c c o r d i n g t o A r i s t o t e l i a n a n d T h o m i s t i c P h i l o s o p h y , m u s t be in h a r m o n y w i t h t h e n a t u r a l l a w of w h i c h t h e y a r e e i t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t s o r applications to c o n c r e t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
1 2 1

P e r h a p s t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g e x a m p l e of t h e influence of N o m ­ i n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y , n u r t u r e d by M a t h e m a t i c a l P h y s i c s , on life, is t o be f o u n d in t h e s e p a r a t i o n of p o l i t i c s a n d e c o n o m i c s f r o m the m o r a l o r d e r of t h e D i v i n e P l a n a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , in t h e s u b s t i ­ t u t i o n of t h e e c o n o m i c m a n " for t h e m e m b e r of C h r i s t . * ' K e o n o m i c P h y s i c s , l i k e a s t r o n o m y a n d o t h e r b r a n c h e s of p h y s i c s , (2D Of. f fiilo<io/)hi{. firavnmit/ae. by .1. Y i a l a u m x , p p . xii-xxvi. '22) The economists' conception of affairs was based, however, on certain fallacies, the chief of which was (hat m a n wa< regarded as <ui economic a u t o m a t o n and nor, as a human being. For example, it was believed t h a t labour could move awa\ freely from t r a d e s in which work was scarce and wages were low, lo trades in which higher wages were offered. They forgot, however, that In i man beings have roots, which may he invisible, but which nevertheless exist. . . . F u r t h e r m o r e , th" sort of world visualised by the academic economists of the last century
lt 22 J u

NOMINALISM AND SOCIAL MATERIALISM

261

came to be treated as a section of Mathematical Physics. The "economic m a n " or homo occonomiens, was the social atom, everywhere identical with himself, always looking for the maxi­ mum of financial profit at the cost of the minimum of effort and therefore subject to exclusively physical laws. The difference between economic laws and the laws of gravitation or of the pro­ pagation of light was forgotten. In the case of the propagation of light, for example, we are dealing with physical events, in re­ gard to which we try to discover the order of ihe world as it came from the hand of God, utilizing for the purpose all the methods of modern science. In the case of political and economic arrange­ ments, we are dealing with the utilization by human beings of the knowledge thus acquired for their social structure. We must, therefore, be guided in everything by our knowledge otherwise obtained of the nature of man, fallen from his high supernatural estate and restored thereto by membership of Christ. To yield to the influence of Cartesian mechanics and Locke's individualism and separatism, and treat the human elements of society as so many elements subject to fixed unvarying movements exclusive of true spiritual liberty, is precisely the temptation to which Liberalism or Naturalism yielded. "The truth is that Liberalism does not consist merely in with­ drawing economics from subordination to politics, but in the fur­ ther step of withdrawing politics (and economics) from subjec­ tion to the moral law. Perhaps we may describe it in more general terms by saying that it consists in transforming some particular section or aspect of human activity, economic or poli­ tical, into a closed area, a separate domain, having its own auto­ nomous end, completely independent of the final spiritual end of man/^ " In such a system "the end of politics becomes the material prosperity, the power and success of the State, and everything that may procure such an end—even an act of treachery or an act of injustice—is politically good. The end of economics becomes the acquisition and limitless increase of riches, material riches as such, and everything that may procure such an end—even an act of in­ justice, even oppressive and inhuman conditions of life—is poli­ tically good If morality intervenes with its peculiar exigencies, it will be to engage in conflict with political and econo­ mical reality, with political and economic science." < > postulated a state oE continuous competition, with the weaker or less efficient going to the wall or being absorbed by the stronger and more efficient. The,y did not attempt to^cxplain from what source were fresh victims for this economic cannibalism to be obtained {The Future of Auditing, by A Group of Accountants, pp. 5, 6). (23) Philosophic ftconomir/ue, by J. ViaJatoux, p. G7. W Religion and- Culture, by J . Maritain (English Edition, Sheed ;m<\ Ward, pp 25, 26). M. Maritain blames the Cartesian spirit for fhis <?fnfe of separation and conflict.
2: 24

262

T H E MYSTICAL BODY OF

CHRIST

T h e F r e n c h E n c y c l o p e d i a , w h i c h h a d s u c h a n e n o r m o u s in­ f l u e n c e o n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n of 1789, h a d i t s o r i g i n in t h e u n i o n of t h e t w o c u r r e n t s i s s u i n g f r o m N o m i n a l ­ i s m , t h e c u r r e n t of C a r t e s i a n R a t i o n a l i s m a n d t h a t of E n g l i s h E m p i r i c i s m , [loth t h e s e c u r r e n t s w e r e i n f l u e n c e d b y M a t h e m a t i c a l P h y s i c s . As M a t h e m a t i c a l Science leaves finality, g o o d n e s s and t h e o b j e c t i v e o r d e r of t h e w o r l d o u t of a c c o u n t , t h i s influence w o r k e d i n e v i t a b l y in t h e d i r e c t i o n of s o c i a l M a t e r i a l i s m . T h e final r e s u l t m a y be s e e n e i t h e r in t h e E i b c r a l i s t i c S t a t e of t h e last cen­ t u r y , in w h i c h h u m a n b e i n g s w e r e h e a r t l e s s l y t r e a t e d a s r e p l a c e ­ a b l e c i p h e r s in t h e p r o c e s s of p r o d u c t i o n for t h e s a k e of finance or e l s e in t h e p r e s e n t J u d a c o - M a r x i a n S t a l e of K u s s k i , of w h i c h the w h o l e o r g a n i z a t i o n is b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t m a n is n o t a m e m b e r of C h r i s t b u t m e r e l y a n " e c o n o m i c a t o m . " A s Social S c i e n c e w a s s i m p l y a b r a n c h of P h y s i c s o r M e c h a n i c s , political l a w s in b o t h t h e s e t y p e s of S t a l e s w e r e a n d a r e m e r e l y t h e a p p l i c ­ a t i o n s of t h e d e t e r m i n i s m of s o c i a l P h y s i c s t o h u m a n r e g i m e n t a ­ tion. I n t h e n a m e of p r o g r e s s , m a n w a s a n d is t r e a t e d a s a m e r e i n d i v i d u a l d e v o i d of p e r s o n a l i t y a n d f r e e d o m . P e r h a p s t h e m o s t p e r f e c t e x a m p l e of t h e t r e a t m e n t of h u m a n b e i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o r m u l a e of M a t h e m a t i c a l P h y s i c s is t o b e s e e n in S o v i e t R u s s i a , w h e r e h u m a n i t y is b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o a m o u l d i n g p r o c e s s in v i e w of t h e e v o l u t i o n of t h e p e r f e c t " e c o n o ­ mic atom." T h e C o m m u n i s t n o v e l i s t , P a n f e r o v , in h i s n o v e l , Brnsski, h a s v e r y w e l t d e s c r i b e d t h e m e n t a l a t t i t u d e of t h o s e w h o p u t C o l l e c t i v i s m i n t o e f f e c t : " W e m u s t b e a t t h e i d e a of p r o p e r t y o u t of m a n , " t h e y s a i d , " j u s t a s d u s t is b e a t e n o u t of a m a t t r e s s . S i n c e t h e p e a s a n t is t r y i n g t o b a r g a i n w i t h u s let u s k n o c k t h e w i s h o u t of h i s h e a d / ' T h e C o m m u n i s t h e r o of t h i s n o v e l h a s c o m e t o a c c e p t t h a t t h e n a t u r e of m a n c a n b e m o u l d e d a n d r e ­ c o n d i t i o n e d . " W c a r c f e r t i l i z i n g t h e s o i l / ' h e s a y s , " i n o r d e r to breed a new nation Y o u j u s t r e f u s e t o be a s a c r i f i c e , a n d w e ' l l t w i s t y o u like a r a m ' s h o r n . " W e h a v e travelled a certain distance since Sir William P e t t y ( 1 6 2 3 - 1 6 8 7 ) , p h y s i c i a n t o t h e E n g l i s h a r m y in I r e l a n d a n d s e c r e ­ t a r y t o H e n r y C r o m w e l l , in h i s Political Anatomy of Ireland and Political Arithmetic, p r o p o s e d a m e t h o d of c a l c u l a t i n g t h e e x ­ c h a n g e v a l u e of h u m a n b e i n g s in t e r m s of m o n e y , a n d t h e e c o n o m ­ i s t R a s t i a t ( 1 8 0 1 - 1 8 5 0 ) , in his Harmonies fjronomiqncs, compared " s o c i a l m e c h a n i c s to t h e m e c h a n i c s of t h e h e a v e n l y b o d i e s , " b u t w e h a v e s i m p l y d r a w n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s of t h e i r social m a t e r i a l i s m . If P o l i t i c s a n d E c o n o m i c s a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m life in C h r i s t a n d t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n of m o n e y w i t h d r a w n f r o m s u b j e c t i o n t o t h e l a w s i n c u m b e n t o n m e m b e r s of C h r i s t , t h e n m a n will u l t i m a t e l y be held t o e x i s t m e r e l y t o p r o d u c e m a t e r i a l w e a l t h i n t h e m a n n e r con­ s i d e r e d m o s t f a v o u r a b l e for t h e s c h e m e s of t h e f i n a n c i e r s , a n d in

NOMINALISM AND SOCIAL

MATERIALISM

263

the n a m e of " p r o g r e s s " h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y will be t r o d d e n u n d e r foot. O n e l a s t r e m a r k m u s t be m a d e . I t m u s t n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t the E c o n o m i s t s of t h e F r e n c h E n c y c l o p e d i a h a d c o m e u n d e r o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s . I n s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s t h e y w e r e filled w i t h h a t r e d of O u r L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t a n d of t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e . F o l l o w i n g l'abbe B a r r u e l , R o b i s o n , in Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, s a y s : " T h i s g a n g of public c o r r u p t o r s h e l d t h e i r m e e t i n g s f o r m a n y y e a r s in t h e H o t e l d' Holbach at P a r i s , and Voltaire w a s their honorary P r e s i d e n t . T h e most e m i n e n t m e m b e r s w e r e d ' A l c m b c r t , Diderot, Coudorcct, La H a r p e , T u r g o t , L a m o i g n o n . T h e y t o o k t h e n a m e of E c o n o m i s t s and a f f e c t e d t o be c o n t i n u a l l y o c c u p i e d w i t h p l a n s for i m p r o v i n g C o m m e r c e , M a n u f a c t u r e s , A g r i c u l t u r e , Finance, etc. . . . But t h e i r d a r l i n g p r o j e c t w a s t o d e s t r o y C h r i s t i a n i t y a n d all R e l i g i o n and t o b r i n g a b o u t a t o t a l c h a n g e of G o v e r n m e n t . "
t 2 5 i

W Op. cit., p p . 535, 536. Cf. B a r r u e l , Memoires VHistoire du Jacobinisme, vol. I, p p . 343-355.

pour

PART IV.

POLITICAL DECAY and

THE DIVINE PLAN FOR ORDER.

CHAPTERS

XIII—XVI.

CHAPTER XIII. THE THE PROTESTANT REVOLT AGAINST ORDER.

PREPARATION OF WRONG DECISIONS.

NATIONAL

W h e n a h u m a n being c o m e s to a practical decision, both his i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d will a r e b r o u g h t i n t o p l a y . T h e i n t e l l e c t e n u n ­ c i a t e s t h e l a s t p r a c t i c a l j u d g e m e n t a b o u t a c o u r s e of a c t i o n w h i c h t h e w i l l f o l l o w s , b u t it e n u n c i a t e s t h a t j u d g e m e n t u n d e r t h e i n ­ f l u e n c e of t h e will. F o r a r i g h t d e c i s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t w o t h i n g s a r e n e c e s s a r y : f i r s t l y , t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e m u s t h a v e a firm g r a s p of t h e r e a l o r d e r of t h e w o r l d a n d of t h e final e n d of m a n , n a m e l y , u n i o n w i t h t h e B l e s s e d T r i n i t y t h r o u g h m e m b e r s h i p of C h r i s t ; s e c o n d l y , t h e w i l l m u s t b e s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e m o r a l v i r t u e s of p r u d e n c e , justice, fortitude and t e m p e r a n c e / T h i s is t h e t e a c h i n g of S t . T h o m a s w h o s a y s t h a t " f o r a r i g h t d e c i s i o n o r a g o o d c h o i c e , t w o t h i n g s a r e n e c e s s a r y : firstly, a r i g h t i n t e n t i o n of t h e e n d a n d t h i s is b r o u g h t a b o u t b y m o r a l v i r t u e . . . . secondly, a correct j u d g e m e n t a b o u t w h a t leads to the end, and t h i s c a n o n l y be b y r e a s o n r i g h t l y a d v i s i n g , j u d g i n g a n d o r d e r i n g . T h i s is t h e f u n c t i o n of p r u d e n c e a n d i t s a u x i l i a r y v i r t u e s . " To this m u s t be added w h a t the Angelic D o c t o r had j u s t previously s a i d : " I t is t h e f u n c t i o n of p r u d e n c e t o g i v e w i s e c o u n s e l s a b o u t w h a t c o n c e r n s t h e w h o l e life of m a n a n d t h e fir;al e n d of h u m a n life." I n t h e o r d e r of a c t i o n , S t . T h o m a s i n s i s t s t h a t t h e will f o l l o w s t h e l a s t p r a c t i c a l j u d g e m e n t , b u t h e i n s i s t s t h a t it is t h e will w h i c h m a k e s a p a r t i c u l a r j u d g e m e n t t o be t h e l a s t . > I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e will s w a y s t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e t o l o o k a t t h e m o t i v e s w h i c h a p p e a l t o it ( t h e w i l l ) a n d s h o w u p in a c l e a r l i g h t w h a t a t t r a c t s
1 1 ( 2 ) ( n ) (4

U) P n dence, of course, is in the intelligence, for essentially it is an intellectual v i r t u e , but it c a n n o t be present without justice, f o r t i t u d e a n d t e m p e r a n c e , for i t is a m o r a l v i r t u e by its m a t t e r . I t is a habit it* i n c l i n i n g t o knowledge and its object is the act of the will regulated according to the moral law. A c c o r d i n g l y , we speak of prudence as a moral v i r t u e . Cf. I a I l a e , Q.58, a.4, 5 ; H a H a e , Q.49, a.l, 2. " P r u d e n c e inclines the intellect t o j u d g e rightly, by a last p r a c t i c a l j u d g e m e n t , about p a r t i c u l a r actions in relation to the final end of man " ( G r e d t , Elemcnta Philosophiae, vol. I I , p. 358, ed. 5a). W I a I l a e , Q.58, a.4. Cf. l a H a e , Q.57, a.5. W I a H a e , Q.57, a.4, ad 3ura. < > Of. Thes. X X I of the X X I V theses of St. Thomas. 4

268

THK MYSTICAL BODY OF CHRIST

it. The last practical judgement can therefore be uniformly sound and good, only if the will be rectified by the moral virtues. The will has the preponderant role in our moral life. But the other condition is of vita! importance also. Fully prudent action sup­ poses a clear vision of the end of man and of the order of the world: the danger of disordered action is increased as the intel­ lect's grasp of order and of the Rights of God grows hazy. The intellect must hold up before the will the full order of the' world. Just as for a right decision the correct functioning of both in­ tellect and will is required, so a wrong decision in a particular set of circumstances may be the result of the defective functioning of either faculty. If we now apply analogously the principles of St. Thomas to the practical decisions of peoples and rulers of peoples at the time of the so-called Reformation, wc shall see that the wrong turning taken was in part due to the lack of a firm grasp of order in the intelligence and in part to the weakening of the will by the decay of the virtues of prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance/^ DECAY IN THE INTELLECTUAL GRASP OF ORDER. Four points must be singled out for particular mention in this connexion. Each in its own way contributed to the weakening of the hold of men's minds upon order. Two of them, the sojourn of the Popes at Avignon and the Great Schism of the West, were spectacular events looming large upon the European stage. The two others, the revival of Roman Law and the spread of Nominal­ ism, of which we have already spoken, though their influence was largely in the realm of the mind and therefore not so visible, nevertheless contributed to the steady weakening of the European mind in regard to the Divine Plan. We should mention also the general unbalancing effect of the Copernican astronomical dis­ coveries on agelong habits of thought, and the consequences of the Black Death. "The Black Death turned Christendom into a house <5) " Experience teaches that peoples have a certain Personality to which practically the same rules and the «amo reasoning can bv applied as to a particular person " (Bcnigni, /fi&ton'ae EcclesiaUicat
1 7

Propaedeutica,

p. 73).

Very often the influence of one person in aiding a nation to rejectdisorder and remain faithful to Our Lord is strikingly prominent, juai as there are outstanding examples of the opposite. In'thc case of Queen Isabella of Spain (1451-1504), we see a magnificent instance of what a clear intelligence and a firm will can do to help a country to take courage and go against the current. Tn the case of Cardinal Wolsev we behold what blindness and self-eentrednoss can do to accelerate the pace downhill towards final disaster. Readers can study the contrast in the splendid volumes, Itobdla of bpa%n by William r. Walsh, and Wohe >/ Uy T ilsiiro Belloc. f
% x

P R O T E S T A N T REVOLT AGAINST

ORDER

269

of m o u r n i n g , a n d h a d d r e a d f u l r e s u l t s of e v e r y k i n d : t h e w o r s t being t h a t priests b e c a m e so few, a n d bad priests so easily b e c a m e priests, t h a t the whole g r e a t Christian philosophy and morality were b r o u g h t into c o n t e m p t . . . . T h e Black D e a t h decimated the p r i e s t h o o d , l e a v i n g h a r d l y e n o u g h priests to g o r o u n d and a d m i t t i n g a good m a n y w h o had much better not have gone round. "<5>«> Exile at Avignon (1308-1377). T h e H e a d of t h e C h u r c h , t h e V i c a r of C h r i s t , is B i s h o p of R o m e . I n t h e City, a r o u n d w h i c h t h e P a t r i m o n y of S t . P e t e r h a d g r o w n u p , t h e P o p e w a s n o t s u b j e c t t o t h e influence of a n y t e m ­ p o r a l r u l e r . I n A v i g n o n , w h e r e t h e P o p e s s o j o u r n e d f r o m 13081377, t h a t i s , f r o m C l e m e n t V t o G r e g o r y X I , t h e P o p e w a s d o m i n ­ a t e d m o r e o r less by t h e K i n g of F r a n c e . T h i s d i m m e d t h e s e n s e of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l , s u p r a n a t i o n a l u n i t y of t h e C h u r c h , e s p e c i a l l y in t h e m i n d s of t h o s e n a t i o n s a n d t h e i r r u l e r s w h o h a d d i f f e r e n c e s with the F r e n c h Kings. In addition, d u r i n g this p e r i o d t h e re­ s e n t m e n t i n c r e a s e d a g a i n s t t h e h o l d i n g of b i s h o p r i c s a n d o t h e r b e n e f i c e s in d i s t a n t l a n d s b y officials of t h e P a p a l C o u r t . T h i s w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c a s e in E n g l a n d a n d p l a y e d i t s p a r t in d e t a c h i n g minds a n d h e a r t s from the H o l y See. Great Schism (1378-1417). G o d r a i s e d u p S t . C a t h e r i n e of S i e n n a lo p u t an e n d to the s o j o u r n a t Avignon, a n d b r i n g back the Pope to the E t e r n a l C i t y , t h e c e n t r e of u n i t y , b u t t h e g o o d w a s u n d o n e a n d t h e evils i n t e n s i f i e d b y t h e G r e a t Schism*, w h e r e i n h u m a n p a s s i o n s s t r u g g l e d a g a i n s t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h a t u n i t y of g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h all a c k n o w l e d g e d should exist. T h e concessions, too, w h i c h t h e rival c l a i m a n t s w e r e o b l i g e d t o m a k e to t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s a m o n g t h e d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s , c o n t r i b u t e d in s o m e d e g r e e to t h e d e c a y of faith. Influence of Roman Law and Ockhamism. T h e s p e c t a c l e of t h e s e q u a r r e l s a n d d i v i s i o n s w a s p r e ­ s e n t e d t o m i n d s w h i c h in m a n y c a s e s w e r e i m b u e d w i t h i d e a s o p ­ p o s e d t o t h e K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t . T h e r e v i v a l of R o m a n L a w h a d e n a b l e d t h e L e g i s t s t o d a n g l e b e f o r e t h e r u l e r s of t h e g r o w i n g n a t i o n s t h e u n q u e s t i o n e d a u t h o r i t y of t h e R o m a n E m p e r o r in m a t ­ t e r s of r e l i g i o n a s w e l l a s in t e m p o r a l m a t t e r s . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h this d e l e t e r i o u s influence w a s t h e effect of O c k h a m ' s p h i l o s o p h y . It w a s difficult for an O c k h a m i s t t o r e t a i n h o l d of t h e i n t e g r a l t r u t h a b o u t t h e i m m u t a b l e n a t u r e of t h e C h u r c h ' s g o v e r n m e n t a n d constitution. His w h o l e p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o r m a t i o n t e n d e d t o c o n ­ vince h i m t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e s of t h i n g s a n d t h a t '5 bis) Chaucer, b y G. K. Chesterton, p p . 40. 50. The The

270

THK MYSTICAL

BODY OF

CHRIST

all o u r v a l i d k n o w l e d g e w a s of i n d i v i d u a l s a n d of t h e i r d e m a n d s . N o w o n d e r , t h e n , t h a t O c k h a m i s t s , like d ' A i l l y a n d G e r s o n a n d m a n y of t h e d o c t o r s p r e s e n t a t t h e C o u n c i l s of B a s l e a n d C o n ­ s t a n c e , defended novel t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g C h u r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n and reform. T h e i r P h i l o s o p h y i n c l i n e d t h e m to c o n s i d e r t h o s e q u e s t i o n s a n d o t h e r s , like t h e r e l a t i o n s of C h u r c h a n d S t a t e , as q u e s t i o n s of w a r r i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s t o he s o l v e d a c c o r d i n g to the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of i h c m o m e n t . S i . J o a n of A r c w a s s e n t t o r e ­ m i n d t h e w o r l d of t h e fact t h a t p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y w a s a p a r t i ­ c i p a t i o n in t h e T e m p o r a l K i n g s h i p of C h r i s t , of w h i c h t h e a n o i n t ­ i n g a t t h e c o r o n a t i o n w a s a visible s i g n . She w a s t r e a t e d as O u r L o r d Himself had been.
(r,)

WKAKKN1XC OF THK WILL THROUGH OF THE VIRTUES.

THE

DECAY

D e c a y in c h a r i t y r e s u l t e d i n e v i t a b l y f r o m t h e c o r r o d i n g influ­ e n c e of O e k h a m i s m on t h e d o c t r i n e of o u r u n i o n w i t h o u r fellow h u m a n b e i n g s a s m e m b e r s of C h r i s t ' s M y s t i c a l B o d y . A l o n g w i t h i t w e n t d e c a y in t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h a t m e m b e r s h i p in p r a c t i c e , o w i n g t o r o u t i n e . T h i s is w h a t M r . Belloc t e r m s '* a c r y s t a l l i z a ­ t i o n of r e l i g i o n . " < " A s a n e x a m p l e of t h i s c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , " he w r i t e s , " t a k e t h e c o m p l e t e n e t w o r k of c l e r i c a l finance. T h e old s i m p l i c i t y t h e r e i n d i s a p p e a r e d . D u e s w e r e e x a c t e d on m e r e p r e ­ c e d e n t , t h o u g h t h e c a u s e s of s u c h p r e c e d e n t h a d c e a s e d t o be. . . . O r t a k e a g a i n s u c h a b u s e s a s p l u r a l i t i e s . In t h e e a r l i e r a g e s — f o r i n s t a n c e in K n g l a n d , a f t e r t h e c o n q u e s t — f o r a m a n t o hold e v e n t w o S e e s at o n c e w a s a t h i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y d o n e b u t not t o l e r a t e d . It w a s a s c a n d a l a n d a n o u t r a g e . In t h e l a t e r M i d d l e A g e s it b e c a m e a c c e p t e d ; still d e n o u n c e d a n d still s c a n d a l o u s , but accepted. W i t h this c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n , t h i s h a r d e n i n g of official a c t i o n , w e n t a p a r a l l e l ( a n d m u c h g r a v e r ) evil a m o n g t h e l a i t y : t o w i t , a r e l i a n c e upon t h e e x t e r n a l s of r e l i g i o n at t h e e x p e n s e of spiritual life."' '
7) 8

In t h e s c a n d a l of p l u r a l i t i e s , w e can s e e a t <>nc a n d t h e s a m e t i m e t h e d e c a y of c h a r i t y , j u s t i c e a n d t e m p e r a n c e . In t h e a v a r i c e of t h e c l e r g y , as s h o w n in o t h e r w a y s , a n d in t h a t of t h e inJlucntial l a i t y , a n d in [he c o n t e m p t for c e l i b a c y a m o n g t h e c l e r g y , w e b e h o l d t h e d e c a y of t h e s a m e v i r t u e s of c h a r i t y , j u s t i c e a n d t e m ­ perance. In t h e failure t o face t h e r e f o r m of t h e s e a b u s e s a n d o t h e r s , in s p i t e of t h e p r o t e s t s c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d o w n h i l l (G) " The K i n g d o m does not belong to the D a u p h i n but to God. Nevertheless, it is the will of God t h a t the D a u p h i n should be crowned and t h u s be empowered to hold the K i n g d o m in romtnendani (Proc&s de Ste. J e a n n e d'Arc, vol. I I , p. 456. Quoted by Pere H . Clerissac, O. ] \ , i n La Mcs&aglre de fa Politique Divine). W Nov the Reformation Happened* p. 44. '8) Ibid., p. 46.,

PROTESTANT REVOLT AGAINST ORDER

271

c o u r s e s of c o u n t r i e s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e l a c k of c h a r i t y a n d of f o r t i t u d e w a s p a t e n t . I n s p i t e of t h e e x h o r t a t i o n s of S t . V i n c e n t F e r r e r , t h e h a t r e d of S a t a n f o r t h e S u p e r n a t u r a l L i f e s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n lost s i g h t of. T h i s is a s u r e s i g n of t h e d e c a y of f a i t h in a n y e p o c h . W h e n o n c e t h e s t o r m h a d b u r s t a n d (hat h a t r e d w a s f r e e t o s h o w itself, it f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n in i n s u l t s t o all t h i n g s Catholic, especially to the Blessed Eucharist and to the Holy Sacrifice of t h e M a s s , t h e c e n t r a l p o i n t of C a t h o l i c life a n d w o r ­ ship. " ' T h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e w e a l t h y l a i t y , ' ' w r i t e s M r . Iielloc, " w a s m u c h w o r s e [ t h a n t h a t of t h e c l e r g y ) , a n d m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y , a s I h a v e s a i d , in t h e p o i n t of a v a r i c e . T h e r e w a s n o t h i n g m e n w o u l d n o t d o f o r t h e v i o l e n t a n d r a p i d a c q u i s i t i o n of w e a l t h . T h e y h a d n o t of c o u r s e t h e d o c t r i n a l d i s e a s e of o u r t i m e ; t h e y did n o t r e ­ g a r d t h e i r v i c e s a s v i r t u e s , n o r call t h e r a p i d g r a s p i n g of a f o r t u n e h e r o i c , a s w e d o . T h e k n o w l e d g e of r i g h t a n d w r o n g in this m a t ­ ter w a s still s o u n d b u t t h e p r a c t i c e w a s in ruins, . . . E v e r y P r i n c e w a s a v i d . R i g h t t o t h e h a n d of a p p e t i t e s so e a g e r a n d s o u n s c r u p u l o u s l a y t h e w e a l t h of t h e C h u r c h . . , . T h e last f a c t o r , t h e h a t r e d of t h e F a i t h , t h o u g h i t w a s n u m e r i c a l l y t h e s m a l l e s t by far, w a s m u c h t h e m o s t i n t e n s e , a n d w a s in t h e n a t u r e of a l e a v e n w h i c h c o u l d r a p i d l y i n f e c t all s o c i e t y , o n c e it w a s g i v e n plav." LUTHER AND OCKHAMISM.
( 9 1

W e have seen that the Nominalist Philosophy contributed directly to Locke's individualism and separatism. Indirectly, t h r o u g h i t s i n f l u e n c e o n t h e f o