2007


 Yeditepe
University
 
 Kerem
Köseoğlu
 



 
 


[ORGANIZATIONAL
 LEARNING]


The
Art
&
Practice
of
the
Learning
Organization




CONTENTS

Abstract....................................................................................................................................................................................4
 Literature
Review................................................................................................................................................................4
 What
is
Organizational
Learning ..................................................................................................................................5
 Definition............................................................................................................................................................................5
 Characteristics
of
a
Learning
Organization .........................................................................................................5
 Disciplines
of
the
Learning
Organization ..................................................................................................................6
 Systems
Thinking............................................................................................................................................................6
 Balancing
Process
with
Delay...............................................................................................................................6
 Self
Sustaining
vs
Self
Limiting
Growth ...........................................................................................................6
 Shifting
the
Burden ...................................................................................................................................................7
 Tragedy
of
the
Commons........................................................................................................................................7
 Personal
Mastery ............................................................................................................................................................7
 Mental
Models..................................................................................................................................................................8
 Building
a
Shared
Vision..............................................................................................................................................8
 Team
Learning .................................................................................................................................................................8
 Learning
Disabilities ..........................................................................................................................................................9
 “I
Am
My
Position” .........................................................................................................................................................9
 “The
Enemy
Is
Out
There”...........................................................................................................................................9
 The
Illusion
of
Taking
Charge....................................................................................................................................9
 The
Fixation
on
Events.................................................................................................................................................9
 The
Parable
of
the
Boiled
Frog..................................................................................................................................9
 The
Delusion
of
Learning
from
the
Experience .............................................................................................. 10
 The
Myth
of
the
Management
Team.................................................................................................................... 10
 Laws
of
Learning
Organizations................................................................................................................................. 11
 Steps
To
A
Learning
Organization............................................................................................................................. 13
 Assessing
Learning
Culture ..................................................................................................................................... 13
 Promoting
the
Positive.............................................................................................................................................. 13
 Safety
for
Thinking...................................................................................................................................................... 13
 Rewarding
Risk‐Taking............................................................................................................................................. 14
 Helping
People
Becoming
Resources.................................................................................................................. 14
 Putting
Learning
Power
To
Work......................................................................................................................... 14
 Mapping
the
Vision ..................................................................................................................................................... 15


.................................................. 18
 UK ..................................................... 18
 EU.......................... 16
 Culture
and
Learning
Organizations ............................................... 17
 Scope
of
Orientation ...Bringing
Vision
to
Life ................................................... 22
 Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 21
 Common............................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
 Variables .......................................................................... 16
 Transformational
Leadership ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
 Abstract.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16
 Leader
as
Designer................................................................................................................... 21
 Findings.............................................................................................. 20
 UK .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
 Leadership
in
Learning
Organizations ... 20
 EU........................................................................................................................... 16
 Leader
as
Teacher.............................................................................. 17
 Masculanity
vs
Femininity ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
 A
Holistic
Model............................................................................................................................................................................. 22
 
 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 18
 Methodology ......... 15
 Getting
the
Show
On
The
Road .................. 15
 Connecting
Systems................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 21
 UK ......................................................................................................................................................................... 17
 Uncertainty
Avoidance ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 19
 UK .................. 17
 Level
of
Power
Distance. 17
 Individualism
vs
Collectivism.................................. 19
 Model
&
Findings .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22
 References ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
 EU........................................................... 19
 EU....................................................................................... 16
 Leader
as
Steward ..................................................................................................... 18
 Sample
Article
on
Learning
Organizations..........................


 Flood
 discussed
 the
 concept
 of
 organizational
 learning
 of
 Peter
 Senge.
Effects
of
leadership
style
and
culture
on
 learning
 organizations
 are
 also
 within
 the
 scope
 of
 this
 paper.
 where
 individual
 action
is
the
intervening
variable.
As
a
result
 of
 organizational
 action.
 Nonaka
 and
 Takeuchi
 started
 by
 differentiating
 “Tacit
 Knowledge”
 from
 “Explicit
 Knowledge”.
 a
 sample
 empirical
 research
has
been
analyzed.
Checkland
and
Ackoff.
 Common
 discussed
 the
 concept
 of
 learning
 organizations
 in
 political
 environments
 to
 improve
 public
 policy
 making.
 Finally.
 Results
 showed
a
negative
relationship
between
the
 misalignment
 of
 information
 flow
 and
 organizational
performance.
 environmental
 response
 modifies
 individual
 belief
 and
 the
 recursive
cycle
sustains
itself.
 In
 double
loop
learning.
 ABSTRACT
 This
 paper
 outlines
 the
 concept
 of
 learning
 organizations.
 Churchman.
 The
 author
 developed
 concepts
 by
 integrating
 them
with
key
theorists
such
as
Bertalanffy.
 formal
 and
 easy
 to
 communicate
 information.
 In
2003.
 In
 1993.

 In
2002.
 These
 mechanisms
 are
 critical
 for
 learning
 organizations.
 the
 disciplines
 and
 disabilities
 of
 organizational
 learning
 are
 underlined.
 They
 stated
 that
 tacit
 knowledge
 can
 be
 transformed
 into
 explicit
 knowledge
 (externalization).
 
 LITERATURE
REVIEW
 In
1975.
 Argyris
 and
 Schon
 made
 the
 distinguishment
 between
 single‐loop
 and
 double‐loop
 learning.
 Kim
 integrated
 March
 and
 Olsen’s
 approach
 with
 another
 model
 from
 Kofman
 into
 a
 single
 model.
 organizations
 try
 to
 solve
 current
 problems
 with
 methods
 from
 the
 past.
 and
 encouraging
 interaction
 among
 teachers
 and
 workers.
 team
 and
 organization.
entities
seek
to
change
 deeper
 aspects
 of
 the
 organization
 to
 solve
 the
sources
of
problems.
 In
 single
 loop
 learning.
 while
 explicit
 knowledge
 defines
 systematic.
In
 their
 model.
 they
 have
 found
 a
 relationship
 between
 individual
 beliefs
 and
 organizational
 action.
Imants
made
a
detailed
analysis
of
 paradoxes
 for
 organizational
 learning
 in
 schools
 and
 came
 up
 with
 two
 observed
 mechanisms:
 Steering
 information
 about
 teaching
 and
 learning.
 This
 process
 is
 very
 important
for
a
learning
organization.
Beer.
 where
 he
 analyzed
 all
 the
 possible
 breakdowns
 in
 the
 organizational
 information
 flow
 leading
 to
 failures
in
organizational
learning.
 the
 steps
 required
 to
 transform
 an
 organization
into
a
learning
organization
are
discussed.
 Peter
 Senge’s
 “The
 Fifth
 Discipline:
 The
 Art
 &
 Practice
 of
 the
 Learning
Organization”
can
be
considered
as
 the
 most
 comprehensive
 guide
 about
 learning
 organizations.
 The
 term
 tacit
 knowledge
 is
 used
 to
 define
 subjective
 personal
 information.
Nick
Bontis
made
an
empirical
test
 on
 flow
 of
 information
 across
 three
 levels:
 Individual.
 In
 1978.
 In
 2004.
 Another
 book
 of
 interest
is
Saunders
&
Kline’s
“Ten
Steps
To
 A
 Learning
 Organization”.

 In
 terms
 of
 books.
 After
 the
 definitions
 of
 learning
 organizations.
 After
 defining
 the
 common
 laws
 of
 learning
 organizations.
 In
 1995.
March
and
Olsen
attempted
to
link
 up
individual
and
organizational
learning.
 where
 an
 organizational
 transformation
 process
 towards
 a
 learning
 organization
 is
 being
 .
 In
 1999.


 individual
 evaluations
 and
 decisions.
 a
 learning
 organization
 is
 an
 organization
 that
 has
 developed
 the
 continuous
 capacity
 to
 adapt
 and
 change.
 on
 the
 other
 hand.
Just
like
people
have
to
learn
all
the
 time.
 where
 error‐ corrections
 involve
 the
 modification
 of
 organizations
 objectives.
right?
Team
B
is
no
 longer
 a
 group
 of
 people
 thinking
 individually.
 will
 experience
 being
 part
 of
 something
 larger
 than
 themselves.
 Details
 about
 both
 of
 these
 books
 can
 be
 found
 in
 the
references
section
of
this
paper.
They
have
learned
to
think
like
 a
single
system.
 How
 is
 that
 possible?
 What
 is
 the
 difference
of
such
organizations?
 Imagine
 two
 basketball
 teams
 with
 similar
 members.
 and
 therefore.discussed
 in
 a
 step‐by‐step
 guide.
 which
 passing
 sequences
 are
 proven
 to
 be
 good.
 People
 in
 an
 organization
 learn
 all
 the
 time.
 They
 know
 each
 other’s
 strengths
 and
 weaknesses
 very
 well.
 To
make
a
long
story
short.
 However.
 People.
 and
 some
 will
 be
 better
defenders.
 where
 errors
 are
 corrected
 dependent
 on
 past
 routines
 and
 present
 policies.
On
the
other
hand.
 etc.
a
team
of
people
with
IQ
levels
of
 120
can
make
a
decision
which
sounds
to
an
 outsider
as
if
it
has
been
made
by
a
mind
of
 level
 60.
 members
 of
 team
 B
 are
 playing
 together
 since
 a
 year.
 policies
 and
 standard
 routines.
 It
is
important
to
understand
that
becoming
 a
learning
organization
is
not
a
goal
to
reach
 and
 pass.
 WHAT
 IS
 ORGANIZATIONAL
 LEARNING
 DEFINITION
 The
idea
of
organizational
learning
is
based
 upon
 destroying
 the
 illusion
 that
 an
 organization
 is
 created
 of
 separate.
 their
 cooperation
transforms
them
into
one
single
 system
 that
 acts
 and
 achieves
 far
 beyond
 CHARACTERISTICS
 OF
 A
 LEARNING
 ORGANIZATION
 Although
they
will
discuss
in
more
detail
in
 advance.
 some
 will
 be
 short
 (but
 agile).
 team
 B
 is
 much
more
likely
to
win.
 Double‐loop
 learning
 challenges
 assumptions
 and
 norms
 of
 an
 organization.
 Most
 organizations
 engage
 in
 single‐loop
 learning.
 Some
 will
 be
 better
 shooters.
 imagine
 that
 team
 A
 has
 just
 been
 founded
 this
 morning
 with
 kids
 from
 different
neighborhoods.
 here
 are
 the
 characteristics
 of
 a
 learning
organization:
 • • There
 exists
 a
 shared
 vision
 which
 everyone
agrees
on
 People
 discard
 their
 old
 ways
 of
 thinking
 and
 the
 standard
 routines
 they
use
to
solve
problems
 There
 is
 an
 open
 systems
 approach
 among
all
members
 People
 openly
 communicate
 with
 each
 other
 horizontally
 and
 vertically
 without
 fear
 of
 criticism
 and
punishment
 People
 sublimate
 their
 personal
 self
 interest
to
work
together
to
achieve
 organizations
shared
vision
 • • • .
 unrelated
 forces.
organizations
also
have
to.

 Now.
 In
 one
 sentence.
 Each
 member
 knows
 where
 the
 other
 one
 would
 be
 waiting
 for
 a
 pass.
and
to
act
like
one.
 In
 contrast.
team
B
happens
 to
become
a
“learning
organization”
because
 individuals
 are
 so
 well
 organized.
 Some
 people
 will
 be
 long
 (but
 slow).
 how
 they
 fake.

 Despite
the
fact
that
both
teams
are
built
by
 members
 of
 the
 same
 strength.
 it
 can
 provide
 possibilities
 of
 dramatic
 jumps
 in
 improvement.
 this
 is
 a
 natural
 thing.
 learning
 organizations
 use
 double‐loop
 learning.
 It
 is
 an
 ongoing
 process
 of
 a
 lifetime.
 Each
 member
 of
 the
 each
 team
 will
 have
 their
 own
 strengths
 and
 weaknesses.


 And
 when
 finally
hot
water
starts
to
flow.
 they
 should
 be
 able
 to
 forecast
 the
 global
 consequences
 of
 each
 action
 performed.

 If
 you
 are
 not
 aware
 of
 this
 delay.
 the
 harder
 it
 will
 become
 to
 keep
 costs
 low
 When
 the
 market
 is
 satisfied.
 Which
 might
 be
 true.
 driver
 reaction
 time.
 When
 sales
 volume
 is
 increased
 once
 more.
 When
 you
 think
 that
 the
 water
 is
 too
 cold.
 and
 it
 is
 one
 of
 the
 key
 points
of
organizational
learning.
 SELF
 SUSTAINING
 VS
 SELF
 LIMITING
 GROWTH
 We
all
tend
to
believe
that
growth
is
a
good
 concept
 to
 force
 in
 a
 competitive
 market.
 you
 try
 to
 balance
 it
 by
 increasing
 the
 flow
 of
 hot
 water.

 SYSTEMS
THINKING
 Systems
 thinking
 is
 an
 approach
 to
 integration
 that
 is
 based
 on
 the
 belief
 that
 the
 component
 parts
 of
 a
 system
 will
 act
 differently
 when
 isolated
 from
 the
 system's
 environment
 or
 other
 parts
 of
 the
 system.
it
will
be
so
 hot
that
it
can
damage
your
skin.
 This
 approach
 proposes
 to
 view
 systems
 in
 a
 holistic
 manner.
 DISCIPLINES
 OF
 THE
 LEARNING
ORGANIZATION
 Just
 like
 an
 airplane
 is
 built
 by
 different
 pieces
 which
 must
 be
 working
 together
 to
 make
 it
 fly.
 weather
 conditions.
 The
 managers
 will
 probably
 want
 to
 make
 a
 new
 investment
 of
 new
 plant
 to
 be
 able
 to
 produce
 more
 so
 the
 company
 can
 grow
 more.
 A
 simple
 example
 to
 this
 idea
 is
 the
 attempt
to
balance
the
water
temperature
in
 the
 shower.
 but
 with
 one
 prerequisite:
 Speed
 of
 growth
 must
 be
 balanced.
 the
 company
 may
be
caught
off
guard
and
start
to
 re‐invest
again.
 If
 people
 are
 expected
 to
 act
 together
 as
 a
 single
 organism.
 having
 these
 disciplines
 in
 an
 organization
 is
 not
 enough.
 Let’s
 assume
 that
 we
 want
 to
 improve
 the
 braking
system
of
a
car.
There
is
a
delay
 between
the
time
you
turn
the
knob
and
the
 temperature
changes.
 Consider
 an
 electronics
 company.
 This
 phenomenon
 is
 observable
 in
 many
 places.
 hydraulics.
 tires.
Instead
of
looking
at
 the
material
composition
of
each
element
in
 great
 detail.
 Here
 is
 an
 example
 to
 systems
 thinking.
 • • BALANCING
PROCESS
WITH
DELAY
 A
 balancing
 process
 is
 a
 process
 where
 a
 condition
 or
 an
 action
 causes
 a
 response
 .
 the
temperature
doesn’t
change
at
the
exact
 moment
you
turn
the
knob.

 Now.
 a
 learning
 organization
 is
 built
 by
 different
 disciplines
 which
 must
 exist
 together.
 we
 need
 to
 focus
 on
 the
 interaction
 between
 them.
 sales
 volume
 will
 decrease
 and
 the
 company
will
end
up
with
too
many
 people
&
resources
in
hand
 Let’s
assume
that
the
company
fired
 the
 excessive
 people
 and
 rented
 its
 investments.
 It
 is
 also
 important
 to
 make
 sure
 that
 they
 work
 together
well.
 However.
etc.
 you
 will
 keep
 turning
 the
 hot
 water
 knob
 until
 you
 get
 some
 temperature
 change.
 that
 tends
 to
 slow
 or
 cancel
 out
 the
 initial
 action.
 However.
 sensors.
 expanding
&
downsizing
companies.
 such
 as
 brake
 disks.
 road
 conditions.
 A
 member
 with
 a
 (only)
 personal
 or
 (only)
 departmental
 point
 of
 view
can
make
bad
decisions.
 who
 doubled
 its
 sales
 after
 three
 years
 of
 its
 foundation.
we
will
observe
some
typical
scenarios
 where
 lack
 of
 systems
 thinking
 is
 dangerous.
etc.
 such
 as
 job
 and
 stock
 markets.
 the
 growth
 of
 the
 company
 might
 have
 some
 counter
effects:
 • The
 bigger
 the
 company
 gets.
 However.


you
surely
can
manage
 stress
 in
 the
 short
 term.
 the
 resource
 ends
 up
 used
 up.
 However.
 or
 official
 regulating
 mechanisms.
 You
must
be
cautious
about
this.
 our
 vision
 will
 try
 to
 pull
 our
 mind
 Making
 sure
 that
 the
 company
 has
 self
 sustaining
 growth
 requires
 a
 good
 understanding
of
systems
thinking.
 in
 the
 long
run.
 However.
 Creative
 Tension.
leaving
the
real
problem
be.
 The
 ability
 to
 focus
 on
 ultimate
 intrinsic
 desires
 instead
 of
 secondary
 goals
 is
 a
 cornerstone
 of
personal
mastery.
 Symptomatic
 solutions
 can
 be
 used
 to
 gain
 time
 while
 working
on
the
real
one.
 SHIFTING
THE
BURDEN
 When
 a
 problem
 occurs
 within
 an
 organization.
 personal
 mastery
 happens
 to
 be
 one
 of
 the
 key
 points
 of
 organizational
learning.
 the
 symptoms
are
not.
 feed
 on
 that
 ground.
 their
 visions
couldn’t
sustain
any
longer.
 Solution
 of
 this
 problem
 is
 to
 focus
 on
 the
 fundamental
 solutions.

 • If
 you
 are
 producing
 more
 when
 demand
 is
 low.
 They
 work
 to
 survive
 and
 reach
 certain
 goals.This
 situation
 of
 self
 limiting
 growth
 will
 surely
 have
 a
 negative
 effect
 on
 the
 company.
Therefore.
 Surprisingly
 few
 employees
 seem
 to
 be
 experts
 at
 personal
 mastery.
At
first
they
are
rewarded
for
using
it.
 Throughout
 time.
 and
 producing
 less
 when
 demand
 is
 high.
 and
 when
 they
 became
 disappointed.
 a
 series
of
practices
should
be
applied.
 Solution
 of
 this
 problem
 is
 to
 manage
 commons
 through
 education
 &
 self‐ regulation
 systems.
 Organizations
 learn
 only
 through
 individuals
 who
 learn.
 It
 is
 the
 phrase
 used
 for
 the
 discipline
 of
 personal
 growth
 and
 learning.
 • .
 Second
 one
 is
 to
 keep
 learning
 how
 to
 see
 current
 reality
more
clearly.
the
real
source
of
the
problem
 is
 usually
 difficult
 to
 address.
 you
 have
 a
 self‐limiting
growth
 If
 you
 are
 producing
 less
 when
 demand
is
low.
 they
will
end
up
without
any
grass.
and
producing
more
 when
 demand
 is
 high.
 But
 eventually.
In
many
cases.
Symptom‐ curing
 solutions
 can
 only
 be
 short‐term
 oriented.

 As
 a
 discipline.
 A
typical
example
is
to
cure
stress
caused
by
 role
 conflicts
 by
 drinking
 or
 meditation.
people
 even
 resist
 against
 personal
 mastery
 because
 of
 their
 cynicism.
 personal
 mastery
 underlies
 two
 movements.
you
are
going
to
need
to
solve
the
 role
conflict
to
cure
stress.
people
tend
to
 “shift
the
burden”
to
the
symptoms
and
cure
 them.
 The
 first
 one
 is
 to
 keep
 clarifying
 what
 is
 important
 to
 us.
 TRAGEDY
OF
THE
COMMONS
 This
 phenomenon
 happens
 when
 individuals
 use
 a
 commonly
 available
 but
 limited
 resource
 on
 the
 basis
 of
 individual
 need.
 With
these
solutions.
 • PERSONAL
MASTERY
 Personal
 mastery
 is
 about
 becoming
 committed
to
clarifying
and
deepening
one’s
 personal
 vision
 and
 sustaining
 lifelong
 learning.
 you
 have
 a
 self‐sustaining
growth
 A
 common
 example
 of
 this
 problem
 is
 a
 common
 grass
 field
 of
 10
 farmers.
A
company
should
be
aware
of
the
 natural
 fact
 that
 the
 market
 will
 have
 mid‐ term
oriented
fluctuations.
 To
 develop
 a
 sense
 of
 personal
 mastery.
 Since
 an
 organizations
learning
capacity
can’t
exceed
 the
 level
 of
 its
 members.
 If
 they
 let
 their
sheep
multiply
when
grass
is
plentiful.
which
 are
the
following:
 • Personal
 Vision.
 who
 let
 their
 sheep.
 but
 only
 a
 few
 have
 an
 inner
 vision
 and
 keep
 learning
 to
turn
it
into
reality.
 They
 made
 the
 mistake
 of
 turning
 ideals
 into
 expectations.


Doing
this.
you
should
describe
the
path
 through
 which
 you
 arrived
 at
 your
 view.
But
it’s
also
important
to
let
 the
organism
know
where
to
go.
 Commitment
 to
 the
 Truth.• • up.
 It
 means
 continually
 broadening
 our
 awareness.
 while
 the
 reality
 tries
 to
 push
 our
 mind
 down.
 and
 what
 he/she
 is
 going
 to
 have
 to
 do.
 you
 will
 end
 up
 with
 a
 group
 of
 people
 having
a
common
vision.

 It
is
important
to
build
one
single
organism
 of
many
people.
and
individual
members
grow
more
 rapidly
as
well.
 Apple
 had
 a
 shared
 vision
 of
 “Computing
 for
 Everyone”.
 sustaining
 dialogue
 and
 discussion
 among
 members
 is
 • • • • .
Polaroid
had
a
shared
vision
of
 “Instant
 Photography”.
 BUILDING
A
SHARED
VISION
 Every
 member
 of
 an
 organization
 has
 his/her
 own
 goals.
 A
 realistic
 shared
 vision
 can
 only
 then
 be
 built
 by
 detecting
 the
 common
points
among
personal
visions.
 This
 means.
 You
 should
analyze
other
people’s
views
 and
 compare
 their
 path
 –
 idea
 with
 your
owns.
 It
 is
 not
 about
 seeking
 the
 truth.
 Structural
 Conflict.
 For
instance.
 It’s
 our
 responsibility
 to
 help
 our
vision
win.
and
 making
them
visible
to
everyone.
 generalizations
 and
 beliefs
 rooted
 deep
 inside
 of
 us.

 That’s
 also
 the
 reason
 why
 the
 best
 ideas
 usually
 fail.
 which
 affects
 how
 we
 observe
 and
 evaluate
 the
 things
 around
 us.
 To
 ensure
 team
 learning.
 each
 member
can
almost
“sense”
the
next
step
in
 the
 process.
 A
 shared
 vision
 starts
 with
 encouraging
 personal
 visions.
 an
 organization
is
a
group
of
people
who
come
 together
 to
 reach
 a
 common
 goal
 /
 vision.
When
teams
are
 learning.
 Inquire
 into
 other’s
 views.
 they
 produce
 extraordinary
 results.
 It’s
 our
 responsibility
to
help
our
vision
win.
 As
 mentioned
 before.
 TEAM
LEARNING
 Team
learning
is
a
system
in
which
energies
 of
 individual
 members
 work
 at
 cross
 purposes
 to
 maximize
 the
 success
 of
 the
 team.
 MENTAL
MODELS
 Mental
 models
 are
 assumptions.
 Therefore.
 Building
 and
 clarifying
 a
 shared
 vision
 and
 keeping
 the
 feedback
 towards
 members
 of
 the
 organization
 flowing
 is
 very
 important
 from
a
learning
organizations
point
of
view.
 we
 are
 not
 aware
 of
 our
 mental
 models
and
how
they
work.
 Our
 vision
 will
 try
 to
 sustain
 our
 development.
 how
 other
 members
 will
 act.

 Team
 learning
 is
 about
 knowing
 other
 members
 well.
 When
 that
 happens.
 Typical
 examples
 to
 organizations
 with
 a
 high
 level
 of
 team
 learning
 are
 NBA
 basketball
teams
and
experienced
jazz
trios
 who
improvise
a
lot.
 The
 ideas
 which
 we
 believe
 to
 be
 the
 best
 are
 usually
 rooted
 to
 our
 own
 mental
 models
 which
 may
 be
 far
 from
 the
 reality.
 Define
your
assumptions
clearly.
 Here
are
some
key
points
to
make
sure
that
 our
 ideas
 don’t
 rely
 on
 our
 mental
 models
 only:
 • Make
 your
 reasoning
 explicit.
 Encourage
 others
 to
 provide
 different
views.
 it’s
 rather
 about
 a
 willingness
 to
 root
 out
 the
 ways
 we
 limit
or
deceive
ourselves
from
what
 is.
 a
 team
 of
 managers
 with
 individual
 IQ’s
 of
 120
 can
 have
 a
 collective
 IQ
 of
 60
 if
 their
 team
 learning
discipline
is
weak.
 it
 is
 very
 important
 to
 keep
 improving
 our
 mental
 models
 and
 bringing
them
closer
to
the
reality.
 Very
 often.
 However.
 Encourage
 others
 to
 explore
 your
 view
and
point
out
gaps.
 while
 our
 beliefs
 in
 powerlessness
 or
 unworthiness
 tries
 to
 keep
 it
 back.


 I
 am
 going
 to
 explain
 the
 most
 significant
 ones.

 THE
 PARABLE
 OF
 THE
 BOILED
 FROG
 This
 disability
 is
 about
 the
 famous
 story
 of
 the
 boiling
 frog.
 However.
 The
 reason
 of
 this
 phenomenon
lies
within
the
nerve
system
of
 THE
ILLUSION
OF
TAKING
CHARGE
 “Taking
charge”
is
the
term
to
take
initiative
 and
 act
 early
 before
 things
 get
 out
 of
 control.
 A
 proactive
 IT
 manager
 can
 foresee
 that
 the
 development
 requirements
 will
raise
dramatically
in
the
following
years
 because
 of
 the
 new
 ERP
 system
 they
 are
 planning
to
buy.
 
“THE
ENEMY
IS
OUT
THERE”
 People
tend
to
find
something
/
someone
to
 blame
 when
 they
 don’t
 succeed.
he
will
jump
out
immediately.

 This
 disability
 can
 be
 considered
 as
 a
 byproduct
 of
 “I
 Am
 My
 Position”
 disability.very
important.
 “I
AM
MY
POSITION”
 This
 is
 the
 tendency
 to
 put
 our
 own
 identities
 aside
 and
 define
 ourselves
 with
 our
 position
 in
 the
 organization.
and
can
decide
to
hire
their
 own
developers
to
cut
expenses.
 Don’t
 forget
 that
 in
 many
 cases.
 
 Marketing
 blames
 manufacturing
 for
 low
 quantity.
 When
 people
 don’t
 consider
 the
 whole
 system
 and
 the
 way
 it
 works.
he
will
miss
the
fact
 that
 the
 best
 programmers
 in
 the
 market
 are
 working
 as
 consultants
 or
 freelancers.
 lack
 of
 systems
 thinking
 will
 cost
 the
 company
 greatly
 in
 terms
 of
 software
 quality
and
productivity.
 However.
the
cure
for
this
disability
 is
 to
 promote
 systems
 thinking.
 they
 will
 have
 a
 hard
 time
 acting
together.
 This
 can
 cause
 an
 employee
 to
 limit
 his
 responsibilities
 with
 the
 boundaries
 of
 his
 position.
 Like
many
others.
 Long
 term
 orientation
is
also
useful.
 This
 may
 sound
 like
 a
 good
 idea.
 In
 this
 case.
 while
 celebrating
 the
 illusion
 that
 he
 “took
 charge
of
the
situation”.
When
that
happens.
 The
developers
he
can
hire
will
probably
be
 inexperienced
 or
 inadequate.
 it
 becomes
 very
 easy
 to
 find
 something
 to
 blame
 for
 their
failures.
 .
 LEARNING
DISABILITIES
 There
 are
 some
 common
 points
 of
 view.
 this
 proactive
 approach
 can
 lead
 to
 bigger
 problems
 sometimes.
 which
 will
 stop
 an
 organization
 from
 becoming
 a
 learning
 one.
 If
 you
 throw
 a
 frog
 into
 boiling
water.
 people
 will
 see
 their
 limited
 production
 only
 and
 might
 consider
 themselves
 successful
 even
 if
the
general
outcome
is
not
as
intended.
 THE
FIXATION
ON
EVENTS
 This
disability
is
about
the
tendency
to
focus
 on
 short‐term
 events
 instead
 of
 long‐term
 developments.
level
of
 team
learning
will
increase
with
practices.
 Consider
 a
 company
 outsourcing
 its
 software
 development
 needs
 to
 another
 company.
 If
 people
 define
 themselves
 with
 their
 position
 only.
 Consider
 a
 fresh
 production
 manager
 of
 an
 ice‐cream
 company
 who
 orders
 ingredients
 based
 upon
 the
 weekly
 orders
 of
 distributors.
 manufacturing
 blames
 marketing
 for
 pushy
 deadlines
for
massive
production.
if
you
put
him
into
cool
water
and
 boil
 the
 water
 gradually.
 he
 will
 probably
 miss
 the
 point
 that
 summer
 is
 approaching
 and
 ice
 cream
 orders
 will
 rise
 so
 quickly
 that
 he
 won’t
 have
 enough
 time
 to
 procure
 ingredients
from
suppliers.
 
 It
 can
 cause
 a
 blindness
 of
 the
 production
 caused
 by
 the
 interaction
 between
 many
 positions.
 he
 will
 be
 boiled
 without
 resistance.
 In
 this
 section.
 However.
 If
 he
 focuses
 on
 the
 weekly
 schedules
 only.
 proactiveness
is
reactiveness
in
disguise.
 Instead.


 the
 frog
 is
not
able
to
notice
it.

 Usually.
Like
in
other
teams.
 However.
 If
 we
 do
 it
 by
 ourselves.
American
 companies
would
have
reacted
immediately.
 when
 we
 are
 acting
 in
 an
 open
 system.
 On
 the
 other
 hand.
 In
 normal
 situations.the
 frog.
 A
 frog’s
 anatomy
 is
 built
 to
 make
 sure
that
it
will
react
upon
sudden
changes.
 management
 teams
 usually
 perform
 well.
Primary
 consequences
 usually
 lie
 in
 the
 distant
 future
 or
 a
 distant
 part
 of
 the
 system.
but
they
can
be
wrong
as
well.
 the
 market
share
of
the
hair
dryer
can
decrease
 because
“it
feels
cheap”.
 management
 teams
 can
 also
 fail
 on
 basic
 points.
 the
 R&D
 scientist
 shouldn’t
 hurry
 to
 “learn”
 that
 the
 new
 plastic
 type
 is
 better.
Just
 because
 something
 seems
 to
 work
 right
 in
 our
own
learning
horizon.
 The
 most
 important
 prerequisite
 of
 this
 method
 is
 getting
 feedback.
 For
 example.
they
got
“boiled”
over
time.
 Just
 because
 a
 hair
 dryer
 seems
to
weigh
less
after
changing
the
type
 of
 plastic
 of
 the
 cover.
 It
 is
 obvious
 that
 the
 second
 approach
 is
 more
 important
 from
 the
 learning
 organization
 point
 of
 view.
The
responsibility
of
this
team
 is
 to
 make
 sure
 that
 departments
 are
 interacting
correctly.
 
 .
 However.
doesn’t
mean
that
 it
 was
 correct
 generally.
and
the
common
goals
 are
 being
 approached.
 THE
 MYTH
 OF
 THE
 MANAGEMENT
 TEAM
 The
 management
 team
 is
 built
 of
 managers
 from
 different
 departments
 of
 the
 organization.
 we
 learn
 solidly.
 If
 Japan
 would
 have
 entered
 the
 market
 and
 gained
a
share
of
40%
in
one
year.
 solving
 an
 urgent
 problem
 is
 the
 subject
of
a
management
team
meeting.
 and
 like
 any
 other
 team.
 However.
 where
 Japanese
 companies
 slowly
 and
 gradually
 took
 over
 the
 market
 from
 a
 share
 level
 of
 4%
 to
 40%
 throughout
 1962
 –
 2005.
 the
 management
 team
 is
 built
 from
 humans.
 it
 is
 very
 hard
 to
 see
 the
 global
 results
of
our
decisions
and
actions.
 This
 parable
 happens
 in
 organizational
 life
 as
 well.
 One
 good
 example
 of
 this
 parable
 is
 the
 American
 automobile
 industry.
 real
 consequences
 of
 decisions
 in
 R&D
 will
 be
 visible
 after
 sales.
 After
 a
 year.
 If
 its
 environment
 changes
 slowly.
 This
 involves
 elimination
of
disabilities
mentioned
above.
 THE
 DELUSION
 OF
 LEARNING
 FROM
THE
EXPERIENCE
 It
 is
 certain
 that
 one
 of
 the
 best
 learning
 methods
is
learning
from
direct
experience.
 We
 need
 to
 see
 the
consequences
of
our
actions
to
“learn”
if
 we
did
it
right
or
not.
 questioning
 the
 company’s
 current
 policies
 will
 not.
 The
 things
we
learn
in
such
an
environment
can
 be
right.
 But
 under
 pressure.
 the
 quality
 of
 discussions
 and
 decisions
 will
 decrease.
and
 a
 good
 solution
 will
 be
 rewarded.
 It
 is
 a
 natural
 result
 of
 short
 time
 orientation
 and
 lack
 of
 systems
 thinking.
a
member
of
the
 management
 team
 can
 try
 to
 avoid
 things
 which
 will
 make
 him
 look
 bad.


 Perhaps
 worse
 than
 the
 scenario
 where
 he
 would
 admit
 that
the
project
delayed.
 who
 managed
 to
 save
 enough
 money
 simply
 moved
 to
 better
 cities.
 The
 manager
 may
 have
 saved
 the
day.
 low‐income
 people
 from
 better
 cities
 started
 to
 move
 to
 the
 aided
 cities
 to
 take
 advantage
of
the
aids.
 application
 failures
 because
 of
 lack
 of
 testing
will
give
the
developer
a
hard
time
at
 his
 performance
 appraisal.
 The
 reason
 behind
 this
 phenomenon
 was
 simple:
 People.
 The
 sun
 and
 wind
 were
 arguing
 about
 their
 powers.
 BEHAVIOR
 WILL
 GROW
 BETTER
 BEFORE
 IT
 GROWS
WORSE
 A
 solution
 to
 settle
 a
 problem
 of
 the
 past
 may
 affect
 the
 organizations
 current
 situation
in
a
negative
way.
 Insisting
 on
 familiar
solutions
to
solve
our
problems
will
 not
always
carry
us
to
the
best
scenario.
sales
 may
 decrease
 because
 many
 customers
 decided
 to
 rather
 wait
 for
 the
 next
 big
 discount
 instead
 of
 paying
 lots
 of
 money
 to
 the
famous
brand.
 the
 developer
 will
 be
 praised
 because
 of
 the
 undelayed
 deployment.
 THE
 HARDER
 YOU
 PUSH.
 but
 eventually.
 Did
 the
 sales
 manager
 really
 solve
 the
 problem
 of
 the
 new
 competitor?
 Or
 did
 he
 just
 postpone
 the
 problem
 to
 the
 future?
 From
 the
 learning
 organization
 point
 of
 view.
 The
 more
 the
 government
 provided
 financial
 aid.
 long‐term
 effects
 of
 each
 alternative
 solution
should
be
considered
carefully
with
 a
broad
vision.
 However.
 From
 the
 management
 point
 of
 view.
 the
 man
took
his
coat
by
himself.
 At
 the
 same
 time.
 a
 software
 developer
 may
 bypass
 the
 testing
 process
 to
 deliver
 a
 delayed
 project
 in
 time.
 The
 wind
 pointed
 a
 man
 and
 blew
 strongly
 to
 blow
 off
 his
 coat.
 the
 more
 effort
 seems
 to
 be
required.
 it
 was
 the
 suns
 turn.
 TODAY'S
 PROBLEMS
 COME
 YESTERDAY'S
"SOLUTIONS.
but
after
the
discount
is
over.
 An
 extreme
 example
 to
 this
 law
 could
 be
 a
 carpenter
 who
 is
 trying
 different
 type
 of
 hammers
to
get
a
nail
out
of
a
cabinet.
Consider
a
shoe
 company
making
a
big
seasonal
discount
to
 compete
 with
 the
 new
 company
 entering
 the
 market.
 THE
 EASY
 WAY
 OUT
 USUALLY
 LEADS
 BACK
 IN
 The
 more
 effort
 you
 expend
 trying
 to
 improve
 matters.
 The
 sun
 just
 shined
 warmer
 and
 brighter.
 In
 a
 typical
 example.
 problems
 will
 arise
 again.
 This
 law
 reminds
 us
 of
 the
 drunken
 man
 who
 is
 searching
 his
 keys
 (which
 he
 lost
 at
 some
 dark
 corner)
 under
 the
 streetlight
 because
 it
 is
 more
 luminous.
 Symptomatic
 cures
 upon
 problems
 will
 make
 things
 look
 better
 for
 a
 while.
 But
 the
 stronger
 it
 blew.
What
 he
really
needs
is
a
pair
of
pincers.
 THE
 HARDER
 THE
 SYSTEM
PUSHES
BACK
 The
 key
 word
 of
 this
 law
 is
 “eventually”.
 we
 are
 going
 to
 see
 the
 common
laws
which
make
an
organization
a
 learning
organization.
 over
 time.
 the
 more
 aid
 was
 needed.
A
dramatic
example
of
this
law
 is
 the
 government
 aid
 program
 of
 USA
 for
 the
 poor
 cities.
 and
 very
 soon.
 THE
 CURE
 CAN
 BE
 WORSE
 THAN
 THE
 DISEASE
 Alcoholism
 may
 start
 as
 simple
 as
 social
 drinking:
 A
 way
 to
 solve
 the
 problem
 of
 .
 the
 tightly
 the
 man
 wrapped
 his
 coat
 around
 himself."

 FROM
 A
 classical
 story
 between
 the
 wind
 and
 sun
 demonstrates
 this
 principle
 very
 well.
 LAWS
 OF
 ORGANIZATIONS
 LEARNING
 In
 this
 section.
 Later
 on.


 SMALL
 CHANGES
 CAN
 PRODUCE
 BIG
 RESULTS.
 new
 salespeople
are
hired
instead.
 growth
 has
 an
 optimal
 rate
 and
 all
 organisms
 follow
 this
 rule
 inevitably.
 A
 close
 example
is
IKEA
for
instance.

 For
instance.
 the
 process
 of
 decreasing
 costs
 and
 increasing
 quality
 can
 go
 together
 over
 time.
 most
 of
 the
 organizations
 today
 push
 to
 grow
 as
 much
 and
fast
as
possible.
 this
 approach
 of
 them
still
exists.
 continuous
 drinking
can
lead
to
a
much
bigger
problem
 in
 the
 long
 run:
 stress
 caused
 because
 of
 a
 diseased
 liver.
 more
effective
teaching
methods.
 When
 growth
 becomes
 excessive.
 Their
 character
 depends
 on
 the
 whole..
 
 To
 understand
 most
 managerial
 issues
you
must
view
the
whole
system
that
 .
 This
 systems
 thinking
 concept
is
called
as
“leverage”.
Some
items
in
 Ikea’s
 catalogue
 of
 2008
 are
 cheaper
 than
 the
catalogue
of
2007.
 some
 dilemmas
 are
 not
 dilemmas
 at
 all.

 In
 all
 natural
 systems.
it
is
a
better
idea
 to
 remove
 the
 factors
 limiting
 growth
 instead
of
pushing
growth.
 the
 organization
 will
 have
 a
 hard
 time
 coordinating
 itself
 and
 slow
itself
down.
 As
a
managerial
principle.
 CAUSE
 AND
 EFFECT
 ARE
 NOT
 CLOSELY
 RELATED
IN
TIME
AND
SPACE
 During
 our
 childhood.
 FASTER
IS
SLOWER
 So
 far.
short
 term
 solutions
 can
 be
 worse
 than
 the
 problem
itself
if
not
chosen
carefully.
 the
 source
 of
 the
 problem
 is
 never
 too
 far
 away
 from
 the
 problem
 itself.
 they
 can’t
 exist
 together.
even
its
 survival
 might
 be
 at
 risk
 because
 of
 raising
 costs.work‐related
 stress.
in
a
 complex
 open
 system.
 However.
 have
 integrity.
 For
 instance.
 real
 reasons
 of
 organizational
 problems
 may
 be
 far
 away
 from
 the
 problem
 itself
 –
 in
 terms
 of
 both
 time
and
space.
 YOU
 CAN
 HAVE
 YOUR
 CAKE
 AND
 EAT
 IT
 TOO
‐‐‐BUT
NOT
ALL
AT
ONCE
 The
 story
 behind
 this
 law
 is
 old:
 The
 slow
 turtle
 wins
 the
 race
 against
 the
 fast
 (but
 careless)
rabbit.
At
such
a
scenario.
However.
 But
 as
 the
 first
 step.
 There
 are
 no
 simple
 rules
 to
 find
 high
 leverage
 changes.BUT
 THE
 AREAS
 OF
 HIGHEST
 LEVERAGE
 ARE
 OFTEN
 THE
 LEAST
 OBVIOUS
 From
 the
 systems
 point
 of
 view.
 
 However.
without
considering
the
 consequences
 of
 growth.
 one
 can
 start
 learning
 to
 see
 underlying
 structures
rather
than
events.
 a
 very
 small
 (but
 insignificant)
 change
 can
 cause
 a
 very
 big
 improvement.
 However.
 However.
 sometimes.
 In
 organizations
 lacking
 the
 approach
of
“Learning
Organizations”.
 simply
 sitting
 down
 with
 teachers
 one‐on‐ one
 at
 the
 outset
 and
 easing
 their
 concerns
 about
the
impact
these
reforms
will
have
on
 their
lives
can
go
a
long
way
toward
paving
 the
 way
 for
 a
 smooth
 transition
 to
 new.
 DIVIDING
 AN
 ELEPHANT
 IN
 HALF
 DOES
 NOT
PRODUCE
TWO
SMALL
ELEPHANTS
 Open
 systems
 have
 integrity.
 Organizations.
 As
 some
 children
 grow
 up
 and
 become
 managers.
 like
 living
 organisms.
If
there
is
a
problem
in
the
 production.
when
school
officials
make
the
 decision
 to
 introduce
 educational
 reforms.
 they
 check
 the
 production
 line.
 it
 has
 been
 stated
 that
 most
 obvious
 solutions
don’t
always
bring
the
best
results..
IKEA
stated
that
this
 happened
 because
 they
 were
 able
 to
 decrease
 the
 price
 because
 of
 the
 high
 volume
 of
 sales
 and
 new
 production
 methods.
 many
 production
 managers
 will
 tell
that
the
concepts
of
“low
cost”
and
“high
 quality”
 are
 oxymoron’s
 –
 which
 means.
 If
 salespeople
 can’t
 meet
 their
 targets.
 It
 is
 not
 possible
 to
 take
 a
 part
 of
 a
 system
 and
 expect
it
to
function
well
isolated.


 A
 much
 more
 common
 story
 is
 shared
 among
 many
 people
 who
 just
 gave
 up
 coming
 up
 with
 good
 ideas.
 The
 biggest
 barrier
 in
 building
 a
 learning
 culture
 is
 fear
 in
 the
 organization.
 she
 started
 to
 make
 a
 small
 contact
 with
 them.
 SAFETY
FOR
THINKING
 The
third
step
is
to
ensure
that
ideas
can
be
 expressed
 freely
 in
 the
 organization.
 There
 are
 three
 requirements
 to
 build
 a
 thinking‐safe
environment:
 • To
agree
upon
a
structure
supported
 by
 the
 organization.
 about
 how
 the
 organization
 is
 going
 to
 behave
 in
 terms
of
new
ideas
 PROMOTING
THE
POSITIVE
 .
 If
 people
 are
 generally
 afraid
 of
 anything
 (the
 boss.
 Whenever
 she
 needed
 to
 return
 change.
 we
 will
 see
 the
 steps
 required
to
transform
an
organization
into
a
 learning
organization.
 We
 all
 heard
of
innovative
thinkers
who
were
fired
 by
their
employers.
they
need
to
switch
 to
 the
 “glass
 half
 full”
 point
 of
 view
 from
 “glass
half
empty”.
 interactions
 among
 the
 employees
 also
 became
more
warm
and
caring.
 it
 is
 impossible
 to
 transform
 it
 into
 a
 learning
 organization.
 Without
denying
reality.
 resistance
against
change
can
be
minimized.

Some
 can
be
understood
by
looking
only
at
major
 functions.
 Another
barrier
is
the
fact
that
some
people
 hate
change.
 a
 positive
 climate
 proves
 itself
 to
 be
 a
 worthy
step
towards
it.
 STEPS
 TO
 A
 ORGANIZATION
 LEARNING
 In
 this
 section.
only
to
begin
successful
 business
 of
 their
 own.
Elimination
of
fear
in
 the
 organization
 should
 be
 the
 first
 step
 towards
a
learning
culture.

The
key
is
the
“principle
of
the
system
 boundary”—which
 says
 the
 “interactions
 that
 must
 be
 examined
 are
 those
 most
 important
to
the
issue
at
hand.
 ASSESSING
LEARNING
CULTURE
 If
 the
 culture
 of
 the
 organization
 doesn’t
 support
 learning.
 they
 started
 to
 do
 the
 same
 thing
 and
 this
 restaurant
 was
 transformed
 after
 a
 while.
it
will
 be
 very
 hard
 for
 them
 to
 assess
 the
 qualifications
needed.
 being
fired.
 The
 price
 of
 this
 story
 is
 immeasurable.
 this
 is
 difficult
 in
 practice.
If
people
are
ensured
that
they
 will
 be
 given
 the
 tools
 and
 education
 required
 and
 the
 uncertainty
 is
 minimized.generated
 the
 issue.
 However.
loss
of
their
position.
 seeing
 “whole
 elephants”
 doesn’t
 mean
 that
 every
 organizational
issue
can
be
understood
only
 by
looking
at
the
entire
organization.
 
 Of
 course.
 Therefore.
she
held
her
customers
hand
briefly
 in
her
left
hand
while
giving
the
change
with
 her
 right
 hand.
 which
 is
 consistent
 of
 lost
 creativity
and
stunned
careers.
regardless
of
 parochial
organizational
boundaries.”

 However.
etc).
 Most
 organizational
 designs
 keep
 people
 from
 seeing
important
interactions.
 After
 other
 clerks
 noticed
 what
 she
 was
 doing.
 The
 atmosphere
 was
 improved.



 The
 next
 step
 is
 to
 change
 behaviors
 of
 people
 so
 they
 learn
 to
 think
 positively.
 gentle
 and
 quick
 human
 contact.
 and
 as
 a
 result
 of
 that.
 the
 effect
was
great:
People
started
to
line
up
in
 front
 of
 her
 even
 when
 other
 clerks
 are
 more
 available.
 A
 female
 employee
 wanted
 to
 make
 a
 small
 positive
 change
 in
 her
 customer’s
 lives.

 One
 interesting
 example
 to
 this
 step
 comes
 from
 a
 McDonald’s
 restaurants.
 Since
interaction
among
employees
is
one
of
 the
prerequisites
of
a
learning
organization.
 making
 learning
 part
 of
 the
 culture
should
be
the
first
(and
perhaps
the
 most
 fundamental)
 step
 towards
 a
 learning
 organization.
 Therefore.
 while
 others
 require
 looking
 at
 critical
 systemic
 forces
 within
 a
 functional
 area.
 It
 was
 a
 very
 small.


 People
 are
 not
 only
 encouraged
 to
 think.
 .
 PUTTING
 LEARNING
 POWER
 TO
 WORK
 This
 step
 involves
 insurance
 of
 continuous
 learning
 in
 the
 organization
 not
 only
 in
 formal
 ways.
 Most
 “teachers”
 will
 be
 unaware
 of
 those
 gaps.
 Successful
 ideas
 are
 then
 implemented
 into
 real
 products
 of
 the
 company.
 the
 total
 cost
 of
 ownership
 would
decrease
dramatically.
 However.
 If
 we
 want
 to
 learn
 something
 well.
 a
 new
 implementation
 of
 a
 software
 is
 tested
 for
 months.
 It
 wouldn’t
 be
 fair
 to
 say
 that
 bureaucracy
 should
 be
 eliminated
 totally.
 Learning
 should
 not
 only
 occur
 in
 classrooms
 and
 formal
 trainings.000’s
 of
 $’s
 per
 month.
 “We
 need
 to
 know
 why
 we
 need
 to
 know”.
 If
 the
 company
 takes
 a
 little
 risk
 and
 relies
 on
 the
 capacity
 of
 the
 software
 company
 to
 software
 problems
 as
 they
 arose.

 The
 ethical
 barrier.
should
also
be
encouraged.
and
how
they
can
use
the
new
 information
to
change
things.

 In
 some
 cases.
 people
 will
 find
 a
 space
 to
 improve
 processes
 of
 the
 organization.
 for
 example.
 They
 should
be
informed
why
they
should
 learn.
 which
 makes
 it
 impossible
 for
 us
 to
 understand.
 Without
 intelligent
 risks.
 risk
 of
 data
 loss
 can
 be
 minimized
 by
 taking
 daily
 backups.

 Although
 this
 sounds
 easy.

 • • HELPING
 PEOPLE
 RESOURCES
 BECOMING
 The
 fifth
 step
 involves
 a
 change
 in
 the
 visions
 of
 employees.• • To
 make
 sure
 that
 people
 will
 nurture
 and
 support
 each
 other
 success
 To
make
people
wear
their
problem‐ solving
hats
all
the
time
 A
 good
 example
 of
 the
 thinking‐safe
 companies
 is
 Google.
 not
 job
 descriptions.

 Just
like
new
ideas
are
supported
in
a
frame
 of
 reasonable
 risks.
 such
 processes
 will
 cause
 the
 company
 10.
 other
 and
 themselves
 as
 resources.
 people
 should
 also
 be
 supported
to
each
other
because
no
idea
can
 be
 implemented
 successfully
 with
 the
 efforts
of
one
single
person.
reasonable
 and
 moderate
 risks
 is
 becoming
 a
 prerequisite
 of
 survival.
 However.
 They
 should
 see
 each
 Upon
elimination
of
these
barriers.
 This
 barrier
 arises
 when
 “students”
 can’t
 see
 the
 relevance
 between
 the
 new
 information.
 Risk
 taking
 is
 not
 beating
your
head
against
the
wall.
 it
 shouldn’t
 be
 blocking
 possible
 communication
 and
 coordination
 among
 people.
 Teaching
 and
learning
real
time.
learning
 will
show
its
true
power.

 To
 make
 this
 risk
 “reasonable”.
The
barrier
against
this
type
of
 view
 are
 the
 excessive
 bureaucratic
 structures.
taking
meaningful.
survival
is
impossible.
 where
 employees
 are
 free
to
work
on
projects
of
their
own
in
20%
 of
 their
 times.
when
and
where
the
 work
occurs.
 REWARDING
RISK‐TAKING
 In
 today’s
 partially
 unpredictable
 business
 environment.
This
arises
when
 a
 crucial
 piece
 is
 missing
 from
 the
 presentation
 of
 something
 we
 need
 to
 learn.
 there
 are
 three
 barriers
 which
 will
 stop
 people
 from
 sustained
learning:
 • The
logical
barrier.
 but
 also
 in
 informal
 ways.
 Otherwise.
 it
 must
 pass
 our
personal
ethical
standards.
 Building
 a
 culture
 where
 risk‐taking
 is
 supported
 and
 mistakes
 are
 tolerated.
 This
 process
 includes
 validations
 as
 well.
 but
 they
 are
 also
 encouraged
to
implement
their
new
ideas
in
 pilot
 environments.
 most
 of
 them
 will
 just
 stick
 to
 the
 safe
 side
 and
do
nothing
else.


 who
 means
 the
 organization.
 in
 which
 genuine
efforts
can
be
observed.
 MAPPING
THE
VISION
 In
 the
 section
 “Building
 A
 Shared
 Vision”.
 the
 next
 step
 in
 building
 a
 learning
 organization
 is
 to
 make
 the
 required
 implementations.
 should
 observe
 actual
 changes
 towards
 the
 vision.
the
whole
system
will
be
affected.
 This
 illusion
 will
 slow
 things
 down
 and
 make
 everything
 complicated.
 Systems
 theory
 is
 supposed
 to
 help
 us
 see
 how
 different
 elements
 work
 together
 to
 .
 If
 you
 change
 one
 element.
 it
 is
 important
 to
 make
 sure
 that
 “systems
 thinking”
 is
 more
 than
 a
 simple
entry
in
the
corporate
policy.
 the
 common
 vision
 should
 belong
 to
 everyone.
What
they
mean
 by
 “system”
 is
 usually
 an
 illusion
 built
 by
 bureaucratic
 imagination.
 This
 reinforcement
 will
 motivate
 them
 to
 do
 more.
 but
 most
 of
 them
 will
 lack
the
real
meaning
of
it.
 The
 important
 point
 is.
and
 that
they
are
sustained
throughout
the
time.

 Instead
 of
 telling
 what
 everyone
 should
 be
 doing
 in
 the
 ideal
 case.
 and
 everyone
 should
 be
 able
 to
 find
 common
 points
 between
 the
 common
 vision
 and
 their
 personal
visions.
 GETTING
THE
SHOW
ON
THE
ROAD
 This
last
step
is
actually
not
a
“real”
step.
 inevitably
an
“open
system”.
 As
 a
 step
 towards
 learning
 organizations.
People
 should
be
thinking
and
acting
like
a
system.
But
a
vision
without
 actual
implementation
is
useless.
 A
 very
 long
 term
 oriented
 vision
 reinforcement
 beyond
 the
 patience
 of
 employees
will
not
help
anyone.
 a
 shared
 vision
 and
 a
 shared
 set
 of
 goals
 will
 build
 a
 collective
 intelligence.

 CONNECTING
SYSTEMS
 In
 an
 organizational
 environment.
 Employees.
 many
 people
 will
 use
 the
 term
 “system”
 in
 different
 meanings.
It
 implies
that
we
should
make
sure
that
all
of
 the
previous
steps
are
brought
together.
 the
 leader(s)
 of
 the
 organizations
 have
 to
 make
 sure
 that
 these
 ideal
 cases
 are
 actually
 implemented
 as
 much
as
possible.
 BRINGING
VISION
TO
LIFE
 Having
a
vision
is
nice.
The
path
to
 the
vision
should
be
built
so
that
employees
 should
be
able
to
get
feedback
continuously.
Therefore.
 The
 common
 vision
 appears
 as
 the
 seventh
 step
 toward
 a
 learning
 organization.
 the
 importance
 of
 a
 common
 vision
 was
 already
 underlined.

 Meaning
 and
 importance
 of
 systems
 theory
 has
 already
 be
 underlined
 in
 the
 previous
 chapters.
 When
 set
 clearly.
 make
 something
 happen.


 the
 leader
 is
 not
expected
to
teach
everything
by
himself
 (it
 is
 very
 hard.
 The
 leader
 of
 a
 learning
 organization
 will
 hold
 multiple
 roles
 at
 the
 same
 time.
 LEADER
AS
DESIGNER
 Many
 people
 would
 tend
 to
 define
 a
 leader
 as
 “the
 captain”
 of
 the
 ship.
 Learning
 should
become
one
of
the
common
practices
 in
the
organization.
 not
 the
 leaders.
 A
 typical
 case
 of
 “Leader
 as
 Designer”
 principle
occurs
at
ERP
implementations.
 if
 not
 impossible.
 and
 that
 the
 inspirer
 can
 achieve
 great
 things
 if
 he/she
 has
 the
 vision
 and
 passion
 by
 injecting
 enthusiasm
and
energy
to
the
followers.
 style
 of
 leadership
 plays
 a
 very
 significant
 role
 in
 the
 creation
 of
 a
 learning
 organization.
 leader
 after.
 they
 will
 become
 much
 more
 productive.
and
serve
afterwards.
 A
 project.

 Stewardship
 of
 leaders
 involves
 the
 desire
 of
serving
other
people
and
becoming
useful
 to
 them.
 the
 leader
 in
 an
 organization
 should
 consider
 becoming
 the
 designer
 of
 the
 organization.
 It
 is
 an
 easy
 guess
 that
 learning
 organizations
 require
 transformational
leaders.
 they
 would
 have
 a
 hard
 time
 trying
 to
 manage
their
business
system
which
wasn’t
 designed
by
them.

 .
 It
 is
 different
 from
 the
 classical
 approach
 where
 people
 tend
 to
 become
 leaders
first.
 on
 the
 other
 hand.
 Classical
 understanding
 of
 leadership
 will
 not
 be
 enough.
 and
 things
 will
 work
 out
 fine.
 designing
 and
 tailoring
 the
 digital
 infrastructure
 of
 business.
 LEADERSHIP
 IN
 LEARNING
 ORGANIZATIONS
 Among
 all
 other
 factors.
The
leader
 is
 expected
 to
 encourage
 and
 reward
 learning
 in
 the
 organization.
 After
 all.
right?
 Before
 considering
 becoming
 a
 captain.
 where
 managers
 don’t
 touch
 anything
 in
 the
 designing
 phrase.
 The
 “something”
 is
 ideally
the
organizational
mission
/
vision.
 it
 is
 the
 employees
 who
 do
 all
 the
 work.
 to
 find
 a
 leader
who
knows
it
all
anyway).
you
will
 see
 managers
 and
 the
 IT
 staff
 working
 together
 in
 the
 same
 room.
 what
 good
result
can
the
order
“steer
30
degrees
 west”
 bring
 if
 it
 takes
 6
 hours
 to
 turn
 the
 wheel?
 This
 would
 be
 the
 fault
 of
 the
 designer
of
the
ship.
 But
 what
 about
 the
 leadership
 style?
 Contemporary
 studies
 make
 a
 distinction
 between
 two
 leadership
 styles:
 transactional
 and
 transformational
 leadership.
 TRANSFORMATIONAL
LEADERSHIP
 We
have
inspected
the
different
“roles”
of
a
 leader
 in
 a
 learning
 organization.
 It
 is
 fruitless
 to
 be
 the
 leader
 in
 an
 organization
that
is
poorly
designed.
 would
be
fruitless
because
after
the
go‐live.
 which
 we
 will
 cover
 in
 this
 section.
 This
leadership
style
also
involves
serving
a
 larger
purpose
than
the
leader
himself
since
 all
 genuine
 commitment
 is
 to
 something
 larger
 than
 oneself.
 Concept
 of
 transformational
 leadership
 has
 the
 assumption
 that
 people
 will
 follow
 a
 person
 who
 inspires
 them.
 However.
 LEADER
AS
STEWARD
 The
 servant
 leader
 is
 servant
 first.
 Another
 role
 of
 the
 leader
 in
 a
 learning
 organization
 is
 to
 build
 a
 learning
 climate
 and
 sustaining
 it.
 create
 a
 space
 for
 learning
and
invite
people
into
it.
In
 a
good
ERP
implementation
project.
Great
teachers.
 This
 means.

 LEADER
AS
TEACHER
 Standard
 teachers
 focus
 on
 what
 they
 are
 teaching
and
how
they
do
it.
 This
 approach
 is
 based
 upon
 the
 idea
 that
 if
 the
 leader
 focuses
 on
 satisfying
 the
 real
 needs
 of
 employees.


 creating
 a
 positive
 climate
 will
 be
 easier
 in
 such
cultures.
 LEVEL
OF
POWER
DISTANCE
 The
 first
 step
 in
 creating
 a
 learning
 organization
 is
 to
 assess
 a
 learning
 culture.
 Considering
 these
 facts.
 cultures
 with
 low
 power
 distance
 will
have
their
advantage.
 MASCULANITY
VS
FEMININITY
 Positivity
 is
 an
 important
 point
 in
 learning
 organizations.
 Communication
 is
 another
 key
 concept
 in
 learning
organizations.
 Empirical
 study
 has
 shown
 that
 people
 from
 individualistic
 cultures
 understand
 microeconomics
 better.
 In
 cultures
 with
 low
 power
 distance.
 In
 terms
 of
 change.
 therefore.
 We
 have
 seen
 that
 the
 most
 significant
 barrier
against
this
requirement
is
fear.
 which
 is
 provided
 better
 in
 cultures
 with
 high
 femininity.
 we
 will
 discuss
 the
 relationship
 between
 culture
 and
 learning
 organizations.
 people
 can
 try
 to
 soften
 the
 barriers
 by
 creating
 common
 social
 environments.
which
are
key
points
of
learning
 organizations.

 In
 cultures
 with
 high
 levels
 of
 power
 distance.
 change
 will
 be
 implemented
 cumulatively
 and
 horizontally.
 CULTURE
 AND
 ORGANIZATIONS
 LEARNING
 In
 this
 chapter.Such
 leaders
 successfully
 develop
 and
 sell
 their
 visions.
 they
 will
get
used
to
think
and
act
that
way.
We
have
already
discussed
the
 importance
 of
 a
 shared
 vision.
 while
collectivist
people
tend
to
believe
that
 they
can’t
change
anything
and
everything
is
 predetermined.
 members
 of
 individualistic
 cultures
 tend
 to
 believe
 that
 they
 can
 take
 initiative
 and
 change
 things.
 UNCERTAINTY
AVOIDANCE
 In
cultures
with
high
uncertainty
avoidance.
 he/she
probably
can’t
do
it.
 In
 cultures
 with
 high
 power
 distance.
we
can
assume
that
collectivist
 people
are
used
to
live
and
act
in
a
“system”
 of
 other
 people.
 When
 change
 is
 involved.
a
climate
 of
 fear
 may
 arise.
 Another
 key
 point
 is
 “change”.
 This
 will
 surely
 have
 a
 negative
effect
on
organizational
learning.
 a
 visionary
leadership
style
will
be
the
best
fit
 to
a
learning
organization.
 Therefore.
 Dimensions
 of
 Geert
 Hofstede’s
 cultural
 studies
 will
 be
 our
 starting
point.
High
power
distance
 will
 affect
 vertical
 communication
 in
 a
 negative
way.
 If
 they
 observe
 systems‐ thinking
 based
 decisions
 long
 enough.
 and
 make
 sure
 that
 everyone
 shares
them.
 individualistic
 people
 will
 have
 their
 advantage
 because
 if
 someone
 doesn’t
 believe
 that
 he/she
 can
 do
 something.
 people
will
tend
to
escape
from
change
and
 risk
taking.
 On
 the
 other
 hand.
 especially
 when
 leaders
 with
 high
 levels
of
authority
are
in
question.
 .
 Based
 upon
 this
 information.
 In
 cultures
 with
 high
 power
 distance.
 Therefore.
 Therefore.
 we
 can
 say
 that
 a
 moderate‐to‐low
 level
 of
 power
 distance
 is
 needed
 to
 build
 a
 healthy
 learning
 organization.
 while
 people
 from
 collectivist
 cultures
 understand
 macroeconomics
 better.
 An
 organization
 with
 individualistic
 members
 should
 try
 to
 improve
 their
 members
 systems
 thinking
 with
 open
 discussions
 and
 transparent
 decision
 making
 processes.
 change
 will
 be
 implemented
 by
 the
 top
 management
 vertically.
 cultures
 with
 low
 uncertainty
 avoidance
 will
 have
 a
 big
 advantage
in
this
scope.
 they
 are
 more
 used
 to
 think
 about
 cause‐effect
 relations
 system
wide.
 INDIVIDUALISM
VS
COLLECTIVISM
 Systems
thinking
requires
people
to
see
and
 evaluate
 everything
 as
 a
 whole.


 ABSTRACT
 This
 article
 reports
 on
 factors
 influencing
 learning.
The
UK‐based
project
focused
on
 computer‐based
 learning.
 “The
 parable
 of
 the
 boiling
 frog”
 and
 “Shifting
 the
 burden”.
 They
 worked
 on
 their
 selected
 material
 in
 their
 own
 time.
 For
 refreshment.
 targeted
at
senior
HRD
professionals.
The
journal
researched
E‐Learning
 findings
 because
 of
 the
 increasing
 popularity
of
E‐Learning
systems
lately.
 such
 as
 organization
 of
 work
 and
 changing
 functional
roles
 UK
 The
UK
study
involved
159
employees
from
 the
 North
 Wales
 area.
 It
 is
 easy
 to
 guess
 that
 cultures
 with
 long
 term
 orientation
will
build
learning
organizations
 much
 easier
 than
 cultures
 with
 short
 term
 orientation.
 HRD
professionals
and
employees.
the
findings
of
the
first
 stage
 were
 tested
 with
 a
 questionnaire
 survey
 of
 140
 organizations
 across
 Europe.
 you
 can
 re‐read
 the
 sections
 “Assessing
 learning
 culture”
 and
 “Rewarding
risk
taking”.
 There
 was
 a
 wide
 spread
 of
 age
 and
 experience
 among
 participants.For
 refreshment.
 Participants
were
free
to
select
the
material
 they
 liked.
 and
 is
 written
 by
 Sally
 Sambrook.
 The
 research
 has
 been
 conducted
 in
 two
 different
 companies
 (European
 and
 UK‐based).
 • Psychological
 issues
 related
 to
 learning
 SCOPE
OF
ORIENTATION
 A
learning
organization
will
favor
long
term
 orientation
 instead
 of
 short‐term
 solutions
 which
 cure
 symptoms
 only.
 This
 tool
 comprised
 91
 statements
 in
 five
 categories:
 • • • • • General
issues
 Access
issues
 Design
issues
 Issues
 related
 to
 the
 quality
 of
 learning
experience
 Learning
outcomes
 .

 At
the
second
stage.
 you
 can
 re‐read
 the
 sections
 “Fixation
 on
 events”.
 and
 they
 were
 asked
 to
 complete
 the
 Learner
 Evaluation
 Tool
in
the
Likert‐style.
Researchers
conducted
 semi‐structured
 interviews
 with
 managers.
 we
 are
 going
 to
 inspect
 a
 journal
 about
 learning
 organizations.
 SAMPLE
 ARTICLE
 ON
 LEARNING
ORGANIZATIONS
 In
 this
 section.
 The
 British
 project
 examined
 the
 following
 points:
 • • Pedagogical
 issues
 related
 to
 the
 quality
of
the
electronic
material
 Investigating
 concepts
 of
 E‐ Learning.

 This
 article
 aims
 of
 shifting
 the
 focus
 of
 training
to
the
focus
of
learning.
 while
 the
 European
 project
 focused
 on
 the
 role
 of
 human
 resources
 department
 on
 lifelong
 learning.
 The
 European
 project
 examined
 the
 following
points:
 • Sociological
 aspects.
 The
 article
 in
 question
 is
 “Factors
 Influencing
 Learning
 in
 Work”.
 such
 as
 instructional
 design.
 Five
 different
 E‐Learning
 materials
 were
 selected.
 accessibility.
 learner‐ centeredness
 METHODOLOGY
 EU
 The
 European
 project
 employed
 qualitative
 methods
 to
 explore
 questions
 in
 28
 case
 studies
with
four
organizations
from
each
of
 the
seven
countries.
 offering
 a
 range
 of
 subjects
 and
 required
 level
 of
 IT
 skills.


 The
 variables
 affecting
 learning
 organizations
are
the
following:
 • in
 UK
 The
 UK
 project
 identified
 individual
 factors
 as
IT
skills.
confidence.
fear
and
motivation.
organizational
culture.
 no
mistakes
such
as
spelling
errors
 Graphics:
 Number
 and
 quality
 of
 images
 Interest:
 Whether
 the
 material
 generates
interest
or
boredom
 Information:
 The
 amount
 and
 quality
 of
 information
 (too
 little
 or
 overload)
 Knowledge:
 The
 extent
 to
 which
 new
knowledge
is
gained
 Understanding:
 Whether
 the
 material
 is
 easy
 of
 difficult
 to
 understand
 Level:
 Whether
 the
 material
 is
 too
 basic
or
too
deep
 Type
 of
 learning:
 Whether
 deep
 learning
or
rote
learning
 Language:
 Whether
 the
 language
 was
too
difficult
to
follow
 Text:
 The
 amount
 of
 text
 and
 the
 balance
with
graphics
 • • Motivation
Theme
 o Level
of
motivation
 o Role
clarity
 o Level
 of
 self‐confidence
 (responsibility)
 o Rewards
 o Enthusiasm
in
learning
itself
 o Confidence
to
learn
 HRD
Theme
 o Role
clarity
 o Perception
 level
 of
 HRD
 (support
 function
 vs.
 functional
 and
 individual.They
 were
 also
 asked
 to
 write
 their
 comments.
 strategic
partner)
 Culture
Theme
 o Strength
of
learning
culture
 o Managerial
support
 • • • • • • .
 The
 comments
 were
 analyzed
 using
content
analysis.
 available
 resources
 and
 skills
 &
 attitudes
 &
 motivations
of
managers
and
learners.
 Here
 are
 the
 most
 significant
 factors
 defined:
 • • • • • Userfriendlyness:
 The
 extent
 to
 which
the
material
is
easy
to
use
 Presentation:
 Clear
 and
 accurate.
 • Pragmatics
Theme
 o Amount
of
time
 o Amount
 of
 resources
 &
 investment
 VARIABLES
 EU
 The
 variables
 in
 this
 article
 varied
 in
 three
 different
 levels:
 organizational.
 Our
 article
 is
 focused
 on
 these
 comments.
 These
 included
 the
 organization
of
work.


 MODEL
&
FINDINGS
 EU
 
 
 
 
 
 Training
 Learning
 HRD
&
 Resources
 Managerial
 support

 
 
 
 
 
 
 UK
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Knowledge
 Understand.
 Level
 Type
of
 learning
 Training
 Learning
 User‐ friendly
 Presentatio n
 Graphics
&
 Text
 Strength
of
 learning
 culture
 Motivation
 Information
 .


 Therefore.
 A
HOLISTIC
MODEL
 Organiza)onal
 Individual
 Func)onal
 
 ICT
Learning
Materials
 • Userfriendly
 • Graphics
 • etc
 Learning
Materials
 • Presenta)on
 • Structure
 • etc
 Learning
 • Type
of
learning
 • Outcomes
 • etc
 
 FINDINGS
 COMMON
 The
remarkable
thing
about
both
researches
 is
 that
 the
 moderating
 variables
 are
 subjective
 rather
 than
 objective.
 managers
 must
 be
 careful
 about
 analyzing
 the
 level
 of
 the
 participants
of
the
training
first.
one
participant
may
find
the
same
 training
too
 shallow.
 while
 another
one
 can
 find
 it
 too
 deep.
 EU
 .
 For
 instance.

org

 http://www.P.
 J.
New
Jersey:
Pearson
Education
Inc.
 Because.
Saunders.
 we
 have
 seen
 the
 leadership
 styles
 and
 cultural
 dimensions
 influencing
a
learning
organization.
209‐219.
 New
 York:
Doubleday..
 At
 the
 last
 part.
 Robbins.
 S.
 REFERENCES
 Chawla.
 After
 general
 definitions
 of
 organizational
 learning..
 Journal
 of
 European
 Industrial
 Training.
P.
New
York:
Productivity
Press.M.
This
process
will
 require
sustained
transformation
and
change
in
the
organization.
 it
 is
 a
 path
 towards
 an
 ideal
 model
 which
 can
 probably
 never
 be
 fully
 reached.
 As
a
conclusion.wikipedia.
 Senge.
 the
 idea
 of
 learning
 organization
 was
 discussed.
 P.
 • Learning
 • o Knowledge
 o Understanding
level
 o Type
Of
Learning
 Learning
Materials
 o Presentation
 o Interest
 o Information
 o Language
 Computer
based
learning
materials
 o User‐friendly
 o Text
 o Graphics
 CONCLUSION
 In
 this
 paper.org

 .
 (2006)
 The
 Fifth
 Discipline:
 The
 Art
 &
 Practice
 of
 the
 Learning
 Organization.
 Kline.
 S.
which
can
only
be
made
by
a
 transformational
leader
and
its
open
minded
employees
who
keep
communicating
in
every
way
 possible.
 (2002)
 Factors
 Influencing
 Learning
 in
 Work.
 the
 disciplines
 of
 learning
 organizations
 and
 learning
 disabilities
 were
 inspected.
Utah:
Great
River
Books.
 Sambrook.changingminds.
 (1995)
 Learning
 Organizations:
 Developing
 Cultures
 for
 Tomorrow’s
 Workplace.
 • UK
 Findings
 from
 the
 UK
 research
 could
 easily
 be
 constructed
 into
 three
 categories:
 Learning.
(2005)
Organizational
Behavior.
(1998)
Ten
Steps
to
a
Learning
Organization.
 Renesch.
you
probably
started
to
stop
learning.
we
can
say
 that
 becoming
a
 learning
 organization
 is
 not
 a
 goal
 in
itself.
pp.
 http://www.
 learning
 materials
 and
 computer‐ based
learning
materials.
functional
and
individual.
 if
 you
 think
 that
your
company
has
reached
this
goal.
24(2/3/4).
Laws
of
learning
organizations
and
steps
towards
a
learning
organization
were
also
 discussed.
S.Findings
 from
 the
 EU
 research
 could
 be
 constructed
 into
 three
 categories:

 Organizational.
B.

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