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, tennis, and handball to create the game of volleyball. GAME CHARACTERISTICS Volleyball is a sport played by two teams on a playing court divided by a net. There are different versions available for specific circumstances in order to offer the versatility of the game to everyone. The object of the game is to send the ball over the net in order to ground it on the opponent’s court, and to prevent the same effort by the opponent. The team has three hits for returning the ball (in addition to the block contact). The ball is put in play with a service: hit by the server over the net to the opponents. The rally continues until the ball is grounded on the playing court, goes “out” or a team fails to return it properly. In Volleyball, the team winning a rally scores a point (rally point system). When the receiving team wins a rally, it gains a point and the right to serve, and its players rotate one position clockwise. BASIC RULES A player is not allowed to hit the ball twice in a row, except when attempting a block. The best two out of three games wins the match. Each game is played to 25 with a twopoint advantage. In all games there is not point cap (a team must win by two points). At the beginning of the match there is a coin toss to decide which team serves. Whoever does not serve the first game will serve the second, and whoever doesn’t serve the second game will serve the third.
There are six players on the court for each team—three in the front row and three in the back. 432 561 Rotation—when the receiving team has earned the right to serve, its players must rotate one position clockwise. The players will commit a FAULT if they are not in their correct positions when the ball is served, they are however able to move after the server has contacted the ball. The rally begins with the referee’s whistle and ends with the referee’s whistle. If the referee blows the whistle during a rally due to a fault, the ball is out of play from the time the fault was committed. BALL “IN”—The ball is “in” when it touches the floor of the playing court, including the boundary lines. BALL “OUT”—The ball is “out” when: The part of the ball which contacts the floor is completely outside the boundary lines. It contacts an object outside the court, the ceiling, or a person out of play It contacts an antenna, rope, post any apparatus setting up the net HOW TO SCORE A POINT Successfully grounding the ball on the opponent’s playing court. When the opposing team commits a fault. When the opposing team receives a penalty. A RALLY The sequence of playing action from the moment of the service hit by the server until the ball is out of play. FAULTS Making a playing action contrary to the rules. Illegal Rotations Illegal substitutions Positional Faults—Players out of position at the moment of service
Four hits—A team contacts the ball four times before returning it. Assisted hit—A player takes support from a teammate or any structure/object in order to reach the ball Catch—A player does not hit the ball, and the ball is caught and thrown. Double contact—A player contacts the ball twice in succession, or the ball contacts various parts of the body successively Illegal hit—A player, in non-playing are, plays a ball. Double Fault When two or more faults are committed by opponents simultaneously (rally replayed) CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HIT The ball may touch any part of the body. The ball must be hit, not caught or thrown. A ball hit simultaneously between two teammates counts as one hit (USAV). BALL TOUCHING THE NET The ball may touch the net while crossing it. A ball driven into the net may be recovered within the limits of the three-team hits. REACHING BEYOND THE NET In blocking, a blocker may touch the ball beyond the net, provided that he/she does not interfere with the opponents’ play before or during the latter’s attack hit. A player is permitted to pass his/her hand beyond the net after an attack hit, provided that the contact has been made within his/her own playing space. UNDER THE NET A player may go under the net provided this does not interfere with the opponent’s play. A player may touch the opponent’s court with (a) hand (s), foot or feet provided some part of the hand (s)/foot/feet remains either in contact with or directly above the center line.
It is a fault to touch any part of the net except for insignificant contact by a player’s hair or contact not involved in the action of playing the ball. When the ball is driven into the net and causes it to touch an opponent, no fault is called. PLAYER’S FAULTS AT THE NET The following result in the loss of rally: A player touches the ball or an opponent in the opponent’s space before or during the attack. A player goes into the opponent’s space under the net and interferes with the play. A player goes into the opponent’s court. A player touches the net while in the action of playing the ball SERVING The server must serve the ball within 8 seconds of the referee’s whistle. Only one toss or release of the ball is allowed for the serve. The players of the serving team must not screen the opponents from seeing the serve or the path of the serve. When serving, the server must start the serve from behind the endline and cannot exceed to width of the court boundary lines. BLOCKING Blocking is the action that deflects the ball coming from the opponent by a player (s) being close to the net and reaching higher than the net. Only front row players are allowed to block. Block attempt: the act of blocking w/o touching the ball Completed block: whenever the ball is touched by a blocker Collective block: executed by more than one player in closely together A block contact is not counted as a team hit. After a block, a team is entitled to three hits. Any player may hit the ball after a block, even that who blocked it. It is not legal to block a serve If a team blocks the ball and it lands “out” it is either a point for the other team or the other team’s serve.