WILDLIFE OF INDIA

The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse origins.
[1]

The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in
[2]

numerous national parks and wildlife sanctuaries across the country.

Since India is home to a number of rare

and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species.
[3]

According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the
[4]

world's biodiversity.

India, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.
[5]

Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit
[6][7]

extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic.

India's forest cover

ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, andNortheast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern India; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.
[8]

Important Indian trees include the medicinal neem, widely used

in rural Indian herbal remedies. The pipal figtree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment. Many Indian species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which India originally belonged. Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.
[9]

Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through
[8]

two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.

As a result, among Indian species, only

12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.
[5]

Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the
[10]

Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.

These include

the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, India now hosts 15 biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention. The varied and rich wildlife of India has had a profound impact on the region's popular culture. The common name for wilderness in India is Jungle, which was adopted by the British colonialists to the English language. The word has been also made famous in The Jungle Book by Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the subject of numerous other tales and fables such as the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales.

Project Tiger has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history. a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. common Domestic Asian Water buffalo. there are 39 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering an area more than of 37. The passing of the Forest Rights Act by the Indian government in 2008 has been the final nail in the coffin and has pushed the Indian tiger on the verge of extinction. Bengal Tiger. Today. Bengal Fox. Nilgai.Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. "The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. the golden langur typifies the precarious survival of much of India's megafauna. Gaur and several species of deer and antelope. [12] At the turn of the 20th century. and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach. Leopard. [13] Most of India's  ." [11] Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs.000. Other well known large Indian mammals include ungulates such as the rare Wild Asian Water buffalo. In 1970. though less known. one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted 'tiger reserves' which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. Launched on April 1. Some members of the dog family such as the Indian Wolf. Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats. lakes.]] The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of direct poverty of the people.WILDLIFE OF INDIA FAUNA India is home to several well known large mammals including the Asian Elephant. It strives to maintain a viable tiger population in their natural environment. rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park. 1973. yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 2008 revealed the existence of only 1411 tigers. Sloth Bear and Indian Rhinoceros.761 km². Asiatic Lion. serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in the India. often engrained culturally and religiously often being associated with deities. However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that. At the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969. Project Elephant. rivers. started in 1992 and works for elephant protection in India. Golden Jackal and the [[ow the world's rarest monkey.

WILDLIFE OF INDIA Asiatic Lion  Brahminy Kite  Brown Fish-owl  Red Panda  Indian Cobra .

WILDLIFE OF INDIA  Indian Elephant  Indian Gazelle  Indian Peafowl  Indian Rhinoceros .

WILDLIFE OF INDIA  Indian Wild Dog  Lion-tailed Macaque  Pariah Kite  Ring-necked Parakeet .

The food we eat. animals. we largely depend on this wildlife for every elementary requirement in our life. fungi and microorganisms that exist on our planet earth. you are mistaken. Wildlife. the clothes we wear. the medicines we . Knowingly or unknowingly.WILDLIFE OF INDIA  Royal Bengal Tiger   Shikra Importance Of Wildlife If you were of the opinion that cultivated plants and domesticated animals is what wildlife consists of. comprises of the innumerous varieties of wild plants. in fact. rather than just cultivated plants and domesticated animals.

fungi and microscopic animals benefit us in some way or the other. and fisheries depend on crops or stocks can ensure that such living resources are enough to withstand the ever-increasing list of threats. Benefits to Science. maintains and enhances human life further. Hence. predation. Apart from a bird feeder in the backyard. a variety of building materials used for construction. Besides. soil generation. there are several biological processes wherein wildlife plays a key role. This. germination.000 species of plants. in medicine. clothing and source of income. and pest control. fisheries and other endeavors that support human life. A study by the American Association for the Advancement of Science indicates that as many as 40. plants. seed dispersal. To know the various benefits that this wildlife provides us. To add on. read on further. Benefits Of Wildlife Benefits To People Wildlife and nature have largely been associated with humans for numerous emotional and social reasons. canoeing or wildlife photographing to relieve our parched nerves. and microorganisms. animals. in turn.WILDLIFE OF INDIA consume. such as hiking. A simple stroll around the park amidst some birds provides a fresh breath of life and charges our batteries. Since prehistoric times. places where agriculture. habitat maintenance. Benefits To Natural Processes Wildlife plays an essential role in the ecological and biological processes that are yet again significant to life. these ecological processes are vital for agriculture. . Today. development of new drugs and treatments are largely dependent on wildlife and wildlife habitat. all are extracted from the wildlife existing around us. numerous chemicals used for manufacturing our necessities. waste breakdown. Interestingly. Agriculture. & Medicine Studies indicate that woodpeckers are capable of destroying 90% of codling moth larvae residing under the bark of trees. This shows the significance of wildlife and wildlife habitat for preserving genetic diversity. forestry. most pharmaceutical products are a result of discovering or developing wildlife species and not discoveries through the traditional chemistry principles. Further. animals have been highly useful to us in providing food. most medicinal remedies contain at least one ingredient derived from a wild plant or animal. The normal functioning of the biosphere depends on endless interactions amongst animals. nutrient cycling. such as pollinization. we can also take up other active pastimes. hunting. forests.

forest fires Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. even if bred. lightning. birds and reptiles. antifreeze. . A slight drop or rise in average rainfall will translate into large seasonal changes.  Accidental deaths: Car hits. Predators.WILDLIFE OF INDIA Wildlife conservation Wildlife conservation is the preservation. In India there are 571 sanctuaries and reserve parks that are protected by the Indian Government. insects. for example). Periyar in Kerala is doing a great job to preserve the wild Elephants and Dachigam National Park is progressing rapidly to save Kashmiri Stag.    Natural phenomena: Floods. Wildlife represents all the non-cultivated and non-domesticated animals living in their natural habitats. solvents. reptiles. are considered wild animals. Carnivores and Herbivores. Along with this.  Climate change: Because many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements. Over-exploitation of resources: Exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing.29 million sq. mainly meant for the protection of the extinct species of animals and birds. Similarly. petroleum by-products. Major threats to wildlife Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:  Habitat loss: Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Wildlife Conservation in India occupies a total area of about 3. the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the natural wild areas which existed in the past. volcanoes. such as PCBs.  Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. In addition many chemical pollutants are toxic to wildlife. mercury. insects and birds. However the pressure of growing population in different parts of the world has led to the increasing need of using land for human habitations and agriculture. This has led to the reduced habitat of many wild animals. etc. The Wildlife Conservation in India has become the most popular holiday destinations because of its diverseness. mammals. The Kaziranga Sanctuary in Assam is a major example of good effort to save the endangered Rhinoceros. they will be harmed by any change in the moisture level. window collisions (birds). Moreover. climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. Hibernating mammals. amphibians and insects are harmed and disturbed.   Various Projects:Gir National Park in Gujarat is the only existent habitation for the nearly extinct Asiatic Lions in India. that contains floral and faunal species. km. collisions with ships (whales). earthquakes. protection. so it should not be surprising that other plants and wildlife are deliberately harmed at the same time. hatched or born in captivity. All living non-domesticated animals.  Pesticides and toxic chemicals: Pesticides are deliberately spread to make the environment toxic to certain plants. mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. reptiles. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so. especially in relation to endangered and vulnerable species. or restoration of wildlife and their environment. and rodents. Our world has many unique and rare animals.all are equally important to maintain the vital   .

Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named Bird Sanctuary.029. A total of 166 national parks have been authorized.18 km².   Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. • Which is. set aside for the conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the relationship between man and the environment. Biosphere Reserves:The term ‘Biosphere Reserve' should denote an area: • Which is.WILDLIFE OF INDIA ecological processes as nutrient and water cycling. All national park lands encompass a combined 38. India has over 500 animal sanctuaries. and are of special significance in the conservation of the tiger. to serve as sites for long term scientific research as well as education all over the world. Among these. In 1972. Keoladeo National Park before attained National Park status. referred to as Wildlife Sanctuaries (IUCN Category IV Protected Area). usually due to some flagship faunal species. the 28 Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger. are named National Wildlife Sanctuary. eg.16% of India's total surface area. List of National Parks:• Dibru-Saikhowa National Park-Assam • Desert National Park-Rajasthan • Dachigam National Park-Jammu and Kashmir • Corbett National Park-Uttarakhand                          . there are 96 national parks. As of April 2007. India only had five national parks. 1. By 1970. Plans are underway to establish the remaining scheduled parks. Further federal legislation strengthening protections for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. Some of the important wildlife sanctuaries in India are:• Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh • Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh • Gir National Park & Sanctuary in Gujarat • Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh • Kaziranga National Park in Assam • Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala • Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan • Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal • Dachigam National Park in Jammu & Kashmir • Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam National Parks of India:India's first national park (an IUCN category II protected area) was established in 1935 as Hailey National Park. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation. now known as Jim Corbett National Park. like national chambal (gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary for conserving the Gharial (1978).

Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use.Madhya Pradesh & Chhattishgarh • Agasthyamalai. nominated by National Governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located.Assam • Great Nicobar.WILDLIFE OF INDIA                            • Chandoli National Park-Maharashtra • Campbell Bay National Park-Andaman and Nicobar • Anshi National Park-Karnataka • Balphakram National Park-Meghalaya • Bandhavgarh National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Bandipur National Park-Karnataka • Bannerghatta National Park-Karnataka • Vansda National Park-Gujarat • Betla National Park-Jharkhand • Bhitarkanika National Park-Orissa • Blackbuck National Park. water and biodiversity (CES.Kerala • Dehang-Debang.Andaman and Nicobar • Gulf of Mannar .Tamil Nadu • Dudhwa National Park-Uttar Pradesh • Intanki National Park-Nagaland • Guindy National Park-Tamil Nadu • Govind Pashu Vihar-Uttarakhand • Kaziranga National Park-Assam • Khangchendzonga National Park-Sikkim • Kishtwar National Park-Jammu and Kashmir • Van Vihar National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Kanha National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Mollem National Park-Goa • Mount Harriet National Park-Andaman and Nicobar The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under the 'Man & Biosphere' (MAB) programme by UNESCO in 1971. Velavadar-Gujarat • Buxa Tiger Reserve-West Bengal • Fossil National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Great Himalayan National Park-Himachal Pradesh • Indira Gandhi National Park (Annamalai National Park). 2005.Tamil Nadu • Khangchenjunga – Sikkim • Manas..Arunachal Pradesh • Dibru-Saikhowa.. Biosphere Reserves serve in some ways as 'living laboratories' for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land. 1979). List of Biosphere Reserves • Achanakmar-Amarkanta. They are internationally recognized. UNESCO.Assam • Nanda Devi-Uttaranchal            . IUCN.

and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves. national and global issues of conservation and development (UNESCO. based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region. 108 government agencies. monitoring. IUCN's mission is to influence. which are complementary and mutually reinforcing: • A conservation function . Biosphere Reserve Objectives:Each Biosphere Reserve is intended to fulfill three basic functions. species and genetic variation.Founded in 1948. 766 Non-governmental organizations and 81 international organizations and about 10. its headquarters is located in the Lake Geneva area in Gland.WILDLIFE OF INDIA         • Nilgiri -Tamil Nadu. • A development function . Kerala. education and information exchange related to local. and Karnataka • Nokrek-Meghalaya • Pachmarhi -Madhya Pradesh • Simlipal-Orissa • Sunderbans-West Bengal IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ecosystems. • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve • Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve • Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve • Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Conservation of wildlife in India:-                   .to provide support for research. which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary). Four of the fifteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. and their ways of life. The IUCN brings together 83 states. • A logistic function . 2005). The Indian government has established 15 Biosphere Reserves of India.000 experts and scientists from countries around the world. along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.to foster economic and human development which is socioculturally and ecologically sustainable. Switzerland.to contribute to the conservation of landscapes. but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions. (categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas).

the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted 'tiger reserves' which are representative of various bio-geographical regions falling within India. except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. one estimate of the tiger population in India placed the figure at 40. India only had five designated national parks. The framework was then set up to formulate a project for tiger conservation with an ecological approach. Today. and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures. 1973. a national ban on tiger hunting was imposed and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act came into force. India. serious concern was voiced about the threat to several species of wildlife and the shrinkage of wilderness in the India.761 km². Among other reforms. The wildlife institute of India (WII) is a government institution run by the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education which trains wildlife managers and wildlife researchers. which is close to the southern forests of Dehradun.WILDLIFE OF INDIA  The need for conservation of wildlife in India is often questioned because of the apparently incorrect priority in the face of dire poverty of the people. birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto." Large and charismatic mammals are important for wildlife tourism in India and several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. In 1970. yet an Indian tiger census conducted in 1972 revealed the existence of only 1827 tigers. At the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly meeting in Delhi in 1969. Trained personnel from WII have contributed in studying and protecting wildlife in India. Various pressures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. It extends to the whole of India. hunting or otherwise harvesting these species was largely outlawed. It is located in Chandrabani. Prior to 1972. Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to conserve the tiger and its habitats.000. At the turn of the 20th century. It strives to maintain a viable tiger population in their natural environment.Project Elephant. started in 1992 and works for elephant protection in India. It has six schedules           . there are 27 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India covering an area of 37. However Article 48 of the Constitution of India specifies that "the state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. has become one of the most successful conservation ventures in modern history. The institute is based in Dehradun. lakes. though less known. The Act provides for the protection of Wild animals. The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education also runs the Forest Research Institute and the Indian Institute of Forest Management Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 :In 1972 by the Government of India. Project Tiger which was launched on April 1. WII has also popularized wildlife studies and careers. Most of India's rhinos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park. rivers.

there are many endangered species of wildlife today than ever before. 7 Ways to Conserve Wild Life Wild Life is integral to the ecosystem. Reintroduction Several endangered species were allowed to reproduce and flourish in places and habitats that suited them. For example. its preservation and regular checking of these habitats through census and statistical data help a great deal in working out a plan of action in managing a habitat and the species therein. The European Bison that was breeding in the National Parks of Poland to managed to survive under care and a protected environment. They help in conserving the wild life in their wild state. zoological parks and botanical gardens and sanctuaries work as protected areas for wild life. they were introduced to protected areas such as parks and reserves and also to their original habitats after they were found fit to fight for survival. Habitat creation National Parks. . safe and secure. with absolute protection being provided under Schedule I and part II of schedule II with the highest penalties prescribed for offences under these schedules and Species listed in the Sch. People can be encouraged and educated to participate in the preservation processes in a number of ways. breeding in National Park of Alberta helped Mountain Gorilla survive. so that they feel at home. thanks to practices like poaching. devising ways of protecting it. They help in maintain the prey-predator relationship and hence maintain the balance in the food web. Habitat Management Habitat Management refers to taking care of the habitat of the wildlife. Breeding in Captivity Breeding in captivity has helped many wild life species in their effort to survive. Study of different kind of habitats. they are also good places to take a tour of. These places were similar to their original habitats. with the enforcement authorities having the power to compound offences (as in they impose fines on the offenders). IV are also protected but the penalties are much lower. However. Later. Here are some ways that can help in conservation of wildlife and their habitat too. Besides being the protected habitats of various species. destruction of habitats because of deforestation and other such practices. Awareness and Mass Education Awareness about wild life is essential for protecting and appreciating them. The national parks and other such protected areas help in the breeding process of many wild lives. Biosphere Reserves.WILDLIFE OF INDIA which give varying degrees of protection.

there is a Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972. Some of them are the Chipko Movement. prior permission from competent authorities is essential before tampering with wild life and poaching is punishable under law. read. As per this act. discussions and documentaries. Arranging tours for people and children to seminars and lectures and to areas with wild life such as the local zoo Making children participate through nature clubs in educational institutions and at community level. The Silent Valley Movement and the Narmada Bachao Andolan to name a few. We need more laws like this and strict execution of them to save our wild life. Bringing publicity to this issue through media. There have been many such movements in the history that have supported wild life and helped prevent their destruction.WILDLIFE OF INDIA      Some of the ways of increasing awareness levels on wild life are: Celebrating different days dedicated to different species of wildlife. We should be aware. talks. People Participation and Movement People backed movements have a deep impact on policies and bringing about the necessary changes. Appiko Movement. talk and participate in wild life protection measures as much as we can as we live in inter-dependence with them in various ecosystems and wild life is also a heritage that deserves to be protected like other heritages of the world . Protection by Law Strict laws and their effective execution are essential to protect wild life. In India. film shows. Publishing and promoting books and journals on wild life and Supporting the establishment of natural history museums.

WILDLIFE OF INDIA .

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