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Solution is a homogenous mixture or uniform physical combination with out chemical changes of two or more substances Solute: Substance which is smaller in amount in a solution i.e. minor component. Solvent: Substance which is larger in amount in a solution i.e. major component / dominated component. Types of Solution: SOLUTE (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Solid Solid Solid + + + + + + + + + + SOLVENT Gas Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Solid SOLUTION Air Aerated water H2 in Pd Vapors in air Alcohol in water Hg in Na or Ag Carbon in air (black smoke) Glucose in water Alloys
Concentration expressions of solution:
I). i. ii. iii. iv. Percentage composition = Solute x 100 Solution
weight – weight percentage or (w/w %) weight – volume percentage or (w/v %) volume – weight percentage or (v/w %) volume – volume percentage or (v/v %)
II). Molarity (M)
No. of Moles of solute Volume of solution in liter Amount of solute in gm 1 gm mol. Wt. of solute Sum of Atomic mass of all atoms present in molecule
No. of moles of solute = 1 gm mol. Wt. of solute = Units: Molar or moles /liter
Molality (m) = NO. Mole Fraction (x) Mole ratio of a component with whole solution. IV). no unit VI). e.III).loss or gain No. of solute Molecular w. of solute = Units: Normal or gm equivalent per liter V). wt.t x 1000 NO. A solution composed of solute ‘A’ & solvent ‘B’.t Amount of solute in mg Volume of solution in liter ∴ ∴ Molarity = NO. Normality (N) = NO. of moles = . of gm equivalent of solute Volume of solution in liter/dm3 = Amount of solute in gm 1 gm eq.t of solute Acidity / Basicity / e. Mole fraction of solute XA = nA nA nA + nB nB + nB Mole fraction of solvent XB = XA + XB = 1 . of moles Volume of solution in liter Amount in g Molecular w. wt. of moles of solute Mass of solvent in kg Units : Molal or moles/kg Molarity changes with temperature but molality does not change. ppm = Or ppm = ppm = Amount of solute in µg Volume of solution in ml Molarity x Molecular w.g. Parts per Million : (ppm) It is number of parts of solute which are present in a million parts of solution. of gm equivalent of solute 1 gm eq.
∴ ∴ ppm ppm ppm Normality NO. of g eq. x 1000 = NO. of g eq. Amount in g x 1000 NO. = = = NO. of moles Volume in liter Amount in g Volume in liter Amount in mg Volume in liter x Amount in g x 1000 NO. of g eq. wt. Volume of solution in liter = Amount in g Equivalent wt. of moles x 1000 ppm = ppm = Normality x Equivalent wt. wt. x Volume in liter Amount in g x 1000 Volume in liter Amount in mg Volume in liter . wt.ppm ppm = = NO. wt. of g eq.
w/w %.“ NUMERICAL” It 24. iii.83 ppm = 1.5 24.5 g (solute) Amount of water = 250 g = 0. vii. Molarity = 0.5 g x 100 = 8. Write down names of solute & solvent and calculate Molarity. Mole fraction of H2SO4 X H2SO4 = v.5 g x 1000 0.88 moles 18 i.83 M or Molar 0.25 kg (solvent) Volume of solution = 300ml =0.5 = 0.66 x 98 x 1000 x 49 x 1000 = = = 81666 ppm 81666 ppm 81666 ppm = = 0.25 kg Normality NO. wt. Molality. of H2SO4 = 98 g 1 gm Eq.5 equivalent = 1.5 + 250 g 24. w/w % w/v % ppm ppm = 24. ii. vi. of mole of water = 250 = 13.t of H2SO4 = 24.88 x 100 = 8.25 moles = 0.92 w/w % 24.5 = 0.017 0.16 w/v % 300 ml . of mole of H2SO4 = 24.5 g of H2SO4 has been dissolved in 250 g of water resulted 300 ml of solution.66 N or Normal 0. of Eq w. Normality.25 = 0.3 liter 1 gm Mol wt. of H2SO4 = 98 g = 49 g 2 Solution: NO.3 liter Molality = 0.25 moles 98 NO.25 moles = 1 m or Molal 0.3 liter iv.3 liter ppm = 0.5 equivalent 49 Normality = 0. Data: Amount of H2SO4 = 24. w/v % and concentration of solution in ppm.25 + 13. Mole fraction of solute.
g.P.g. Additive property: When a property of a molecule is equal to sum of that property of constituent atoms. 3. Upward force = Downward force 2πr × 2 πr × γ γ γ γ = mg = v×d×g = π r2 × h × d × g 2π r r×h×d×g 2 = . 2. Symbol = γ Units: In CGS system In SI system dyne/cm N/m Methods for determination of Surface tension 1. e. Constitutive property: When a property of a molecule depends on the arrangement of atoms and bond structure in molecule. molecular mass. Optical activity. Capillary – rise Method: γ acting along the inner circumference of the tube exactly supports the weight of liquid column. which depends upon internal structure. Additive & constitutive property: An additive property which also depend upon the intermolecular structure e.g. M. Surface tension. B. These properties do not involve chemical changes. e.P. Viscosity and vapour pressure “SURFACE TENSION” It is the measure of force per unit length acting at a tangent to the meniscus surface. 1.“Physical Properties” Properties of a substance depend on the intermolecular forces.
Drop – number method: Volume of one drop of liquid = v n Mass of one drop of liquid = m = v × d n γ γw γ γw γ γw γ = m mw = (v/n) d (v/nw)dw = nw d n dw = nw d × n dw γw .0 dynes/cm B. Drop formation method: Drop supported by the upward force of surface tension acting at outer circumference of the tube Upward force = Downward force 2π r × γ = mg A. Drop weight method: For sample liquid For water Divide equations 2πr× 2πr× 2πr× γ = mg γw = mwg = mg mwg = m mw = m × mw γ 2 π r × γw γ γw γ γw ∴ γw = 72.2.
“VISCOSITY” It is internal frictional resistance force to flow F α A dV dx F = η × A dV dx F × dx A dV Force of resistance per unit area. which will cause unit velocity difference b/w two adjacent layers of a liquid at a unit distance from each other. Reciprocal of viscosity is called fluidity (Φ) Φ = 1 η = η Units : η = F A × dx dV length2 length × time-1 Kgm-1S-1 SI System η = mass × length x time -2 × length η = mass x length-1 x time-1 gCm-1S-1 = poise CGS System .
Measurement of viscosity by Oswald’s method η η α d×t = k×d×t η w = k × dw × tw η = k×d×t ηw k × dw × tw η = d×t η w dw × tw η = d × t × ηw dw × tw ∴ ηw = 0.0101 poise .
pressure cooker Glycerin B. Vapour pressure 1 Intermolecular force At 60 0C Ethanol = 350 torr.P is 290 0C at 760 torr but it decompose B. water= 150 torr Vapour pressure α Temperature At 80 0C Ethanol = 730 torr. Rate of vaporization = Rate of condensation “The pressure exerted by the vapours in equilibrium with its liquid at a specified temperature called vapour pressure at that temperature”.g. It is the measure of tendency of the tendency of a substance to evaporate.P is 210 0C at 50 torr. Boiling point α Atmospheric pressure e. high altitude areas. water = 410 torr Boiling point is the temperature at which vapour pressure of liquid becomes equal to atmospheric pressure or surrounding pressure So. α .“VAPOUR PRESSURE” Liquid Vaporization Condensation Gaseous At equilibrium.
g. and hence the concentration of H+ ion almost remain same and therefore the pH of the solution remains unaltered. Henderson Equation for acid buffer: CH3COOH Ka CH3COO + H+ - Ka = [H+][CH3COO-] [CH3COOH] [H+] = Ka × [CH3COOH] [CH3COO-] [H+] = Ka × [Acid] [Salt] – log [H+] = – log Ka – log [Acid] [Salt] pH = pKa – log [Acid] [Salt] . (HCOOH + HCOONa). CH3COOH will ionize to compensate deficiency of H+ ions and hence pH of the solution remains constant.ions added will react with H+ to form H2O. CH3COOH is a weak acid. Case II : Addition of small amount of acid (H+) The H+ ion added will combine with CH3COO. (CH3COOH + CH3COONa). which is very feebly ionized.to form CH3COOH.“BUFFER SOLUTION” “A solution which has tendency to reserve its pH” Mixture of weak acid and its salts e. ( C2H5COOH + CH5COONa) Mechanism: 1) Acid buffer: Addition of OH H2O ___________________________________________________________ Acidic Buffer CH3COOH partially dissociated CH COO3 + H+ - + Na+ CH3COO ___________________________________________________________ Addition of H+ CH3COOH CH3COONa completely dissociated - Case I : Addition of small amount of base (OH-) The OH.
g.pH = pKa + log [Salt] [Acid] pH α [Salt] [Acid] If [salt] = [Acid] then log [salt] [Acid] = log 1 = 0 So 2) pH = pka Basic buffer : Mixture of weak base and its salt e.ions added will react with NH4+ to form NH4OH. Ammonium hydroxide is a weak base.ions almost remains same and therefore the pH of the solution remains unaltered. which is very feebly ionized.to form H2O molecule.ions and hence pH of the solution remains constant. . NH4OH will ionize to compensate deficiency of OH. Case II : Addition of small amount of base (OH-) The OH. Henderson equation for Basic Buffer NH4OH Kb - Kb = [NH4+] [OH ] [NH4OH] - NH4+ + OH - [OH ] = - Kb × [NH4OH] [NH4+] Kb × [Base] [Salt] [OH ] = . and hence the concentration of OH. (NH4OH + NH4Cl) Mechanism: Addition of H+ H2O ___________________________________________________________ NH4OH partially dissociated NH4+ + OH Basic Buffer - NH4+ + Cl ___________________________________________________________ Addition of OH NH4Cl completely dissociated - NH4OH Case I : Addition of small amount of acid (H+) The H+ ion added will combine with OH.
How many grams of NH4Cl have to be added to 0. Solution : pH = 9 pOH = 14 – pH = 14 – 9 = 5 pOH = pKb + log [Salt] [Base] 5 = 4.75 = log [NH4Cl] – log [NH3] 0.t × Volume (liter) .448 [NH4Cl] = Antilog (– 0.–log [OH-] = –log Kb –log [Base] [Salt] pOH = pKb – log [Base] [Salt] pOH = pKb + log [Salt] [Base] pOH α [Salt] [Base] If So [Salt] = [Base] then log [Salt] = log 1 = 0 [Base] pOH = PKb “ NUMERICAL” A chemist desire to prepared 300 ml of a buffer solution at pH = 9.75 . pkb value of ammonia is 4.698 log [NH4Cl] = – 0.356 M Amount = Molarity × Mol w.25 – 0.20 M NH3 to make such a buffer.25 = log [NH4Cl] – log 0.448) [NH4Cl] = 0.75 + log [NH4Cl] [NH3] 5 – 4.20 log [NH4Cl] = 0.
175 M NO.8 g 1.88 g 82 g/mole Molarity of CH3COONa = 0. Acetic Acid Amount of CH3COOH = 1.15 M pH = .88 g of CH3COONa and 1.175 – log 0.8 × 10-5) + log 0.82 pH = 4.69 + 0.74 – 0.035 mole 0.88 g = 0.8 g 60 g/mole = 0. of mole of CH3COOH = Molarity of CH3COOH = 0.log(1.8 x 10 -5 Solution: Volume of solution = 200 ml = 0. Sodium Acetate Amount of CH3COONa = 2.03 mole 0.035 mole NO.74 + log 0.Amount of [NH4Cl] = 0.2 liter A. of mole of CH3COONa = 2.5 × 300 1000 Amount of [NH4Cl] = 5.87 .71 g “ NUMERICAL” Find out the pH of a 200 ml buffer solution containing 2.15 pH = 4.03 mole = 0.2 liter pH = pka + log [Salt] [Acid] pH = pka + log [CH3COONa] [CH3COOH] = 0.8 g of CH3COOH While ka for acetic acid is 1.356 × 53.15 pH = 4.175 0.2 liter B.