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Environmental Science - An Exposure

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What is the “Environment”?

• 􀂉 How is Ecology -the discipline, defined? • 􀂉 What is an Ecosystem and what are its main components ? • 􀂉 Food Web and Food Chains • 􀂉 The Water Cycle • 􀂉 What is “pollution” and what is its impact on the

ecosystem?
• 􀂉 What is Air Pollution and what are its implications for our lives

• 􀂉 Water Pollution and its implications for our lives
• 􀂉 Bioaccumulation and biomagnification

This is the principle called HOLOCOENOSIS.Definition of Environment • 􀂉 The environment is the sum of all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of an organism. . • 􀂉 The nature of the action of the environment pertains to those factors which exist as a vast complex and therefore do not act separately and independently but as a whole.

in the oceans and in fresh waters . • 􀂉 Concerned especially with the biology of groups of organisms and with functional processes on the lands.Ecology • Ecology is derived from the Greek oikoes (house) and logos (knowledge). It is a study of the relation of organisms to their environment or in more simple terms environmental biology.

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• 􀂉 All communities or natural assemblages of organisms which live together and interact with one another are closely related to their environments • 􀂉 It is appropriate to therefore conceive of a community and environment as forming a single.Ecosystem and its components • A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment is an Ecosystem. complex whole -The Ecosystem .

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moves through the community and is dissipated back into the environment. material is cycled while energy is taken up from the environment. •􀂉 In the ecosystem. . As a result of this interrelatedness any small change in one part of the environment/ community manifests itself in the entire ecosystem.Ecosystem and its components The Ecosystem involves an interaction between the abiotic and biotic components •􀂉 Environment and community are always intimately interrelated.

Food Chain. Food Web and Trophic levels .

The Water Cycle .

. stationary sources (industries.. water.)􀂉 • The various components of the ecosystem i. . water pollution from domestic sewage sources etc. cooking stoves). fertilizers etc. and anthropogenic sources which may be mobile sources (vehicles). line sources (air pollution by traffic) or area sources (water pollution due to water run-off from agricultural fields which may contain pesticides...). air..Pollution • Alteration in the conditions of the environment by the introduction of natural and anthropogenic contaminants. 􀂉 • Pollution can thus be caused by natural sources such as volcanic eruptions. Any change in one component will have an impact on the balance of the entire ecosystem. 􀂉 • The categorization of pollution sources may also be made on the basis of whether they are point sources (air or water pollution by industrial sources. forest fires etc.e. soil and the living organisms associated with each component are interrelated.

health of living organisms affected.Pollution • 􀂉 From the water cycle we can see that because of the cyclic nature of materials. • 􀂉 Sulphur dioxide from industrial sources pollution of the air forms sulphuric acid with moisture in the air acid rain affects the lakes. the entire ecosystem can get affected. rivers. . materials corrode ecosystem stability affected. oceans etc. if there is a change in any one step of the cycle.

Air Pollution .

Air Pollution .

Water Pollution .

Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification .

Soil Pollution .