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COMMUNIST BLOCK PROJECTED MUNITIONS

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FUZES IN VIETNAM

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Infornktion Preparedby Canbined Material Exploitation Center,RVN, in Conjunction with ‘7AF MobileEQD Team i! :,
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Reproduction CourtesyHq PACAF (DMWPE) 23 September 1968

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This manualis designedas an aid in identifying CommunistBloc! :rojected munitionfuzes employedagainstFree World Forces in Viet Na.rn. is a technicalcatalogwith a missionof supplinggeneral It technical data, to those personnel who requiresuch information. It, is believedthat this will assistExplosiveOrdnanceDisposalteams, Intelligence activities, Wound Ballistics Teams,Ordnancepersonnel~ munitiondesignagenciesand Field Commanders the successful in acccmpl.ishment their assigned, of mission. SCOPE (a) This”publication outlinesthe technicalcharacteristics, currentstatus,briefhistoryof use and detailedfunctioning of Communist Bloc Projected MunitionFuzes encountered Viet Nam. in Tile manual coversonly standardproduction fuzes and does not include im~rovised fuzes producedin VC clandestine munitionshops. This manualdoes not coveremplacednor air droppedfuzes,nor does it may includethese items includehand grenadefuzes. Later additions to orovidea completefuze catalog.

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(b) The fuzes are arrangedby tacticalclnssand are sub-divided by by functioning groups. These groupsare furthersub-divided the fuses are arranged countryof origin. Withineach subdivision alphabeticallyy designation b and model numberof the countryof oriCin. Fuzes with numerical designations are listedin ascending order,

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(c) The technicalinformation contained hereinis generalin natureand, in most instances, has been derivedfrom the actual e;;amination fuzes. In some instances, of parts removedfrom shell cratershave been inter-changed o reconstruct t fuzes. Some errors in dimensions, weightsand completeness these” of fuzes must be admitted. Information those fuzes that have not actuallybeen on examined have been extracted from documentsconsidered accurate. It is lmown that fuzes otherthan those reportedhereinexist,but no specimens have been recovered for examination and reliabledata is not available.
GIINERA.L Communist Bloc fuzesdesignedand producedsince 1950 show a marked improvement abilityto withstandadversee:nvironrnent, in over earlierfuzes. The Bloc armamentindustryhas lavishedgreat effort and expenseto insurethat fuzes are completely moistureproc)f and robustenoughto maintainalignment while penetrating hard mediums is duringdelayfunctionin&. This munitionphilosophy highly commendable and shouldserveas a guide for futurefuze development by the munitionindustries Free World Forces. of

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Generallyspeaking, Communist Bloc fuzes are exact co]iesof theirSovietcounterparts.However,corisiderable evidenceexists to show that the ChineseCommunists are capableof producingefficient ‘and effective indigenous fuz~s. This trend is expectedto continue, but Sovietmunitiondes~n philosophies will continueto be followed closely. The ChiComsappearto be hdherentsto the dual reaction ;rinciple for reliablefuze functioning their indigenous in fuzes. T!~is Principle includesdirectfiringpin actionupon impact,as well as vrimer.detonator inertialmovement. This principle has been ;mved soundby its displayof extremereliability well as as offeringgraze sensitivity. ADDITIONS AND CCRRECTIOIJS Aqiflitions Correcting t,~ end this ~ublicptt,ion invitedand are encouraged. All such commentsshou14be addressed to: U. S. Director, Combined Materiellkploitntion Center,AFO 96307

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CHAPTER1 SOVIZ1’ U’?ES F FQR AIRCRt@l’ ANT1-/JRCRJ~GUNS AND

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All fuzes of this classification re improvedmodifications a of earlierknown fuzes. They are all mechanical, point detonatinE$ impacttypes that are designedto functionreliablyon light naterialtargets. The aircraftgun fuzes appearto have been based upon Uorld War II Germantypes of provenreliability. In some ‘instanc~ exact copiesof internalelementshave been noted. In other cas% Germanmechanical principles have been assimilated with ~ovietmunitionphilosophy desiCnprectices, resultin~in a composite, but lxi~hlyeffectivc desi~n. The SovietAnti-Aircraft ~ fuzes all employpyrotechnic type l-recisely same principles the nre employed self-chwtructeatures. f in fuzosusqd in weaponsfrom 23mm through57mm colibers. The purpose of the ~lf-destructfeatureis to destroyprojectiles that miss targets,at an altitudewhere the fragmenting projectile will not purposeis to provide endan~erfriendlygroundunits. A secondary air burstsas a pychologiczd factorin preventing accuratebornbin<;. All of the Sovietfuzes in the aircraftand anti-aircraft classificationre lxme safe,in that they are providedwith, a mech~ica3 featuresdesignedto preventthe fuze from armingwhile in the tube of the weaion. Some of the earlierfuzes are not detonatorsafe, ~ Annmicanstandards, that the explosivetrain in is not interrupted positively to precludean in-boredetonation. Howev&, a major trend is indicated towardboth bore and detonator safe fuzes. This is evidenced the Introduction the lMGand B by of’ seriesfuzoswith their out-of-llne detonatorrotors. The e,xtreneffortin designing e moistureand environment ~roof ~ fuzes is seen in Aircraftand Anti-Aircraft uzes. It appearsthat F the Sovietshave great confidence the moistureproofnessof their in ammunition, due to the small amountof attention being given to containers environment proof }wckingcontainers. Sovietshi~,ping are littlemore than a means of protecting the ammunition from the normalhazardsof ship~’ing handling. snd Sovietfuzes are markedplainlyon the ogive. Each fuze is die stampedwith the fuzo nomenclature.mere space is availablethe lot number,year of me.nufacture, plantnumberare included. and Anti-Aircraft uzes are normally‘Ibluedll paintedblack with an f or additional coatingof varnishor epoxy to inhibitexternalcorrosion. If the fuze is cadmiumplated,the exteriorepoxy or varnish coatingis still applied. Some fuies have been seen with colLored lacqueron the nose. The significance the color has not been of determined. It has been noted that not all fuzes of a specific designation, productiby the same plant,have the color marking.

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Normallyair-craft and anti-aircraft uzes do not requireany f ].reparation firingor linking. The largercalibers}such as for 57mm,possessfuzes with removableshippingcaps to increaseimpact sensitivity, ut it has not been determined b what the presenceof a car signifies, other than as a shippingsafetydevice.

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SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODELA-2o

~. Genem~. The A-20 is similiarin construction nd functioning a to the A-23, althoughthe two fuzes differnoticeabl.y length@ in shRpe. The A-20, W comparison, shortand quat. when assembled a proje(z. is to tile, it has a visiblelengthof about 0.56 inch (the correspondingimend sion of the A-23 is about 0.95 inch). Both the A-20 and the A-23 are boresafe. The A-20 is used in 20-mmaircraftammunition. The A-20 employsa gainetype detonator-booster.” gaine is commonin Sovietf’ues and The was derivd tiom l?rench chneider S designswhich were the parent#of Rus13ian artilleryprojectiles and fuzeso

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——--—-ti—— Ioadedweight----------------Body material------—

---------— ---------------—----------= teel s

~ Beforefiring,the coiledcopperarming spring (4) $. Functio. preventsthe firingpin (3) from reachingthe gaine. The coiledspring presentsa solidblock to the firingpin and is the only safetydevicein the fuze. After the projectile has left the bore of the weapon,centri‘e fugal force causesthe arming springto unwind,makingthe hole in its ‘ ‘ centerlarge enoughfor the firingpin to Pss through. On impactwith the target,the nose disk (1) is crushedand the striker(2) drivesthe firingpin throughthe firingpin guide (5) and safetydisk (6) into the detonatorassembly(7),which activatesthe main chargeof the projectile. Q. Weatwnsand Dro.iectiles withwhichuse~. Weapons 20-mm: ShVAK aircraftgun’ Projectiles HEX-T—=---,-.—c OZ’T n

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a. Q?MXJL Tho A-23J alfio~h s~kr b the A-20 in construction and functioning, hs an elongatedshapewhich contrasts markedly with the A-20’s stubbyappearance. The A-23 consistsof the following components: steelnose disk, a steelfie body, an aluminumstriker a and firingpin, a coiledcopperarmingspring,a-brassspacer,a co~.wr safetydi-&~ a-detonator, ~ an aluminium detonatorretainer. ‘W.a A-23, like the A=O, is bcre-fe. The well known MIG-15and IL28 Are two types of aircraftthat mount the 23+smNR and NS guns in which the A-23 fuze is used. ~. Character@ticq. instantaneous 25.4 gm. (0.056lb.) — steel

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“--------------------------..---—--——Body xraterial

Beforefiring,the copperarming spring (4) pres“ ,WM@&J& vents the firingpin (3) from reachingthe detonator assembly(7). After the ~jecti.le has left the bore of the weapon?centi-ifugal force causesthe armhg s@ng to unwind$makingthe hole in its centerlarge enoughto allow the firingpin to pass through. On impactwith the target,the nose disk (1) is crushedand the striker(2) drivesthe fir= *Pin throwh the fP~ -de (5) @ =fety disk (6) into the detonatorassemM,y(7),which activatesthe main chargeof the projectile.
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~. Genqmsd. The A-37 is a sensitive, boresafeme with a selfdestruction feature,snd is designedfor use with 37-mm aircraftguns. It is similiarto the M&8 fuse and almostIdenticalto the 142-37,he t MGZ-37,end the B-37, (allof which are wed with the 37-mmAA guu M1939),differingsignificantly rcmthe latteronly in havinga shortf er self-destmctionpowdertrain. Apparently becauseof its short selfdestruction time causingundesirably early detonation, destroying the projectileat some point shortof the effectivecombatmnge of the ammunition, the A-37 has been succeeded a modified version,the A-37U, by with a longer self-de tructicm s powdertrain. The A-37, ualessactivated soonerby hpact, will destroyitselfafber a flightof about 3 seconds; a flight of 10 -12 secondsprecedesself-destruction the A-37U. of -. b Chazmcteristlct3e instantaneous 179 gm. (0.39lb.) —---steel

Action ——---.-—-— Ioadedweight---—---———————=——————————— Body material.—-—--—---——-.-.—----

On firing,the movealileetbackigniterpellet s i~ ~he r&d.stsnce the setlmk spring (13)and strikesthe of ftied setbackfiring pin (14). The resuitingflash ignitesboth the selfdestruction puder tiim (7) and a black powderpellet (15)which holds the centrifugal rotor lockingpln (16) in ptice. As the black ~wder pelletburns,centri~ force causesa secondrotor lockingpin (11) to compressits retainingspringend move outwardfrom a recessin the rotor (3);after the black pctierpelletis consumed, the first centri. fugal lockingpin (16)also moves out of its recessIn the rotor,which is then free to rotate in the U-shapedtroughof the rotormount (6). (Sincethe lockingpin (16) ““re&ined the powderpelletimmobilizes by the rotor until the other lockingpin (11 clearsits straight-walled ) recessin the rotor,any possibility the rotor jamlng the latter in of (U) is precluded. The rotor recessfor the pellet-retaining pin (16 7 has slopedwalls, so that the movementof the rotor tends to cam this pin out of the recess,ratherthan ‘tojam it). Centrifugal force causesthe freed rotor whose oenterof gmvlty is locatedoff the ads of rotation, toturn 90 degreesaroundthe pivot pins (10),thus alinlngthe primer charge (4) with the impactfiring@n (2) and the detonatorassembly(5). Upon impactwith the target,the nose cap Is crushedand the impact striker (1) drivesthe impactfiringpin into the ~er charge. The flash tiom the primer chargepassesto the detonatorassemlily, which activates the booster (9),and the boosterin turn activatesthe projectile~s charge. If impactdoee not occur first,the burningpowder train in the
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The A-37U,a laterversionof the A-37, is essentially identicalto the A-37 exceptfor hawtuga longer sel.f-destzwctiom powdertrain. Where the A-37 destroysitselfafter a flightof 2.5 - 3 secotisS the A-37U Pefits a flightof 10 - 12 secondsbeforeselfdestncti~. It iS believedtkt the the to self~estruati.on the A-37U was lengthened ozder to preof in vent detonations ftom ocouringat pointsshort of the effective ammunition comlmtrange. If rods f’uzed with the A-37Uere fired horizontal.lyat altitudesabove 2500 feet, the increased time to self+iiestruction does not endangergroundpersomel. This fuze is used with the same weapon and ammunition the A-37. as

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SOVIXT PUINT DETUJATING IMPACTFUZE -30

Vergionof the FL3fJ fuze has been Genen&$. (My a d= examined. From its internaland externalconfiguration t’appearsto i be a slightly enlargedversionof the l&25 fuze. The self-destructl elenentmay or may not be pref3ent.The steelflue body has a sin~lel pin qxmner hole near the bottomof the ogive. Threadsare right thrcr~h~ handedwith 34TPI. The fuze is securedwith two stab cr&nps the projectile. The dummy fuse examinedpossesseda steelnose disk and an aluminiumstriker. The remainderof the components were dand screwedinto the body of the fuze with left hand threads. A recess for a lead sealingring is presentat the bottomof the f’uze body to seal the boosterto the body.
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Functioning. information functioning available. No on is use&
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SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACT FUZE B-37

of the SovietJ!%J.37. g. ~e~. The SovietB-37 is a modifiedcopy The fuzes and their ftanctioning essentially are identical. The &37 has a rotor lock and a slot (1) cut into the rotor housingto receivethe pin. When the rotor rotates,the lock pti is forcedinto the slot (2) by centrifugalforce. The detonatorof the B-37 is retainedin the rotor.~a threadedkeep ring (2) ratherthan ~ a press fit as in the case of the I/Ci-37.he keep ring is slottedfor a commhnscrewdriver, The B-37 has T a conical.epression(3) In the booster. A metal foil liner also has the d same shapeand coversthe shapedexplosive the booster. The B-37 also in has a portionof the fize body and the boostercup relievedand a lead crush ring (4) pressedinto the cavity. The lead ring rendersthe lower part of the fuze waterproof. The nose cup also has a vinyl ring (!5) in the crimpinggrooveat the nose of the fuze. When the nose cap is crimped into place,the tinyl ring (5) is compressed, renderingthe nose of the fuze waterproof, ~. Character~stiQ. ---—Instsntaneous

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Upon firtig,inertiacausesthe axming sleeve (1+) “mled,ng the ermin eleeveretainingballs (3) and furthercompressing tho _ spriag(7 . After the projectile leaves 7 the bore, the arming“qring overconmsinertiaand moves the ax’ndng sleeve forward,freeingtti tw firingpin checklolls (5); the two check balls then are thrownout of tbir housingsin the firingpin guide (2) centri~al force, so that they no longerpreventthe firingpin (6 7 frcnn meting rearwmi. fie fitig pin is maintainedin the fomafi position by creepaction. On impact,The striker (1) is forcedrearward, drivingthe firingpin throughthe safetydisk (8) into the detonator assembly(9), and the resultingdetonation activatesthe emlosivs charge . of the projectile. A. &4PQk?.,ti ~~e ctileswith which fir@ Weapons 20-mm 2hVAKaircraft@n :
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. Upon firing,the armingsleeve (4) sets back, s“ ~ compressing the aming sleevespring (5) and creatingan outletfor the tfi~e arxbg sle.veretaining balls (9). After the projectile has left the gun and centrifugal force has thrownthe retainingballs out of’ thefi”housinga,he arming springovercomesthe dinihishing t force of iner$~aadd moves the armhg sleews forwarduntil it frees the two firingpin check balls (10 ). The checkballs pass into the flue body cavitythrbughopeningsin the strikerguide (3), and only the safetydisk (7) remainsbetweenthe firingpin (6) and the detonator assembly. @n impact,the foil cap (1) is crushedinward,the striker(2) drivesthe ftiin in throughthe safetydisk into the detonatorln$tiat~ pellet 77 , and the resulting 8 detonation activates the projectile~ explosivecharge-.

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to Q. Genere& The K-20M is identical the K-20 h external dimensions, body material, functioning, and (exceptfor sizesand the naterialsof certainparts)internalConstruction. It differsfrom the K-20 in outer appearance only ~ havinga smooth,ungroovedbody contour,and by mountinga foil disk h the top of the nose cavity insteadof hdng a foil cap crimpedover tbe nose. Any difference in loadedweightsof the two fuses is believedto be negligible. b -* es Internal ~ffe renc from the K-20. (1) The K-20Mhas a steel striker(1) wltha shorterlength and smallerhead dismeter;the dismeterof the nose cavity, corresponding o the strikerhead, is likewise t smaller. The K-20 striker,besidesbeing larger,is ~de of wood or aluminum. (2) The firingpin (2) in the K-20M is longerthan the K-20. (3) The ml Iewth of the detonatorassemblyretatier(3) is threaded,in the K-2GM;in the K-20, there is an unthreadedshoulderat the top of this retainer. (4) & lele~ti&fthe detonatorassembly (4) Is greaterfor

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SOVIET POINTDETONATINGIMPACTFUZES MODEL K.20M

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Iaadedweight--—-—-—----—-—---Body material—----.

—-.—--—-

Upon firing,the setbackigniterpellet (13) s“ Function* overt’.mes resis~ance the safetyspring (u) and impingson the the of i setlxickirin~pti (15). The resultingflash simultaneouslygnites f the self-destruction powdertrain (11) M the powdertrain ring (10) and the black powderpe~et (7) which hclds the rotor lockingpin (8) in place. (Thefhsh presumably reachespwder pellet (7) t~ough a channelnot visiblein the drawing) When the black powderpellet has burnedaway, centrifugal force moves the rotor lockingpin out of the groovein the rotor (3),which is then free to ro~te in the trough force causesthe freed of the U-shapedrotormount-(4). Centrifugal rctor, whose centerof gravityis locatedoff the axis of rotation,to turn 90° m~und the pivot pins (6),thus aMning the prtier charge (5) with the impactfiringpin (2) and the detinatora=.mb4 (9). Upn impactwith the target,the nose cap is crushedand the striker(1) drives the impactfiringpin into the primer charge. The flash from the primer chargepassesto the detonatorassembly, which activatesthe booster (12),there~ detonating the projectile. Should the projectile fail to hit the target,the burningself+iestruction powdertrain ring (10)will ignitethe detonator, and the fuze will functionfrom 8 to 11 to secondsaft6r the round is fired. This lengthof time is sufficient permitthe projectile tmvel beyondthe maximum range at which it is to normallyused.

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1-18

SOVIET’CI?:I?T ! DETONATING IMPACTFUZE NG-25

fuze is boresafeand is supersensitive A* General. The liG-25 in the armed condition. It containsa set-backactuatedselfdestruction featurethat destroysthe projectile between5 and 8 seconds afterfiring,providedthe targethas not been hit beforehand. The fuze has a thin a,luminium foil membrane(1) over the firing~in cavityin the nose. Beneaththe membraneis a floatingfiringj>in extension(2). The floatingfiringpin &tension passesthroughand is retainedby a solid bulkhead,into the main fuze cavity. In this cavity, the firingpin (5) rests on a coiledcentrifugal. sprin~tape (4). The tape prevents the firingpin from reachingthe primer. Surrounding the tape is a setbackdetent (3) that rests on a ring with four internal prongs (6). This safetyring (6) rests on top of an internalsupport (7). An”aluminumcylinder(1 containing O) the self-destruct initiator (16),the self-destruct yrotechnic p delay element(22),the body primer (9) and a relay flash pellet (11) is threaded(lefthand) into the steel fuze bady. The self-destruct initiator(16) consistsof a fixed firing pin (1?) in the bottomof a cavityin the cylinder, setbackspring (17), a and a weightedprimer (16). The booster (13) screwsinto the bottomof the fuze body. Its twin flash holes (12) are directlybeneaththe relay flash pellet. . . h. titerlstlcq . Action ------------------------------------

K

&

#h .
—---------- Instantaneous 3s grams .

---------------------Loaded weight -----------”

------------------Body material-----------------------steel Upon setback,the setbackdetent (3) moves downward,forcingits way throughthe four internalprongsin the safetyring (6). Sirmltaneouslythe weightedself-destruct flash pellet (16) moves downward compressing its spring (1.7) and impalesitselfon the fixed firingpin (19Y. The resultingflash Fassesthrougha lateralhole (1 from the S) self-destruct initiatorcavityinto the pyrotechnic delay cavity (20), ignitingthe self-destruct element (22). Centrifugal force then causes the coiledt~i?e (4) to expand,releasin the firingpin (5). The firing i in (5) and the firingpin extension(2 move foward into their cavity f by creep action. Upon impact,the firingpin extension(2) is driven rearwardforcingthe firingpin downwardinto the body primer (9). The resultingflash ignitesthe relay pellet (11)which causesflame to flash throuGhthe two flash holes in the boostercap, detonating the booster (13). If the fuze fails to impactwith the target,the cwrotechnic selfdestructelement (22)will burn into a flash-peilet (~1) which flashes into the two flash holes (12) in the boostercap causinga detonation. 1-19 .

.

* “

, e,

SLVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTF’UZE MG-25 _ ~. Weawns a@ mo~ectiles with which use~. Weapons 23-nun Anti-Aircraft Gun ZU-23 Projectiles 23-mm Frag HEI.T -.—---Ol?ZT
I

. i
I

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“20

-21

1,

1-20

SOVl13TFQINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MXIEL MC-37

~. Gene-. The WI-37,a laterversionof the World War 11 143-8, is a boresafefuze with a setbck-actuatedself-destruction feature the round is fired. that will detonatethe fuze 10 -1.2 secondsaffter It is almostidenticaltc the lG8 in etiernalappearance, and its only major internaldifferences appear to be a redesigned rotor and an Lmprovedarmingsafetyarmngement involvingthe use of two rotor locking pins insteadof ono. Tho *37 also bears a closeresemblance the to A-37 and A-37UaircFaftties in externalappearance, internalconstnction, and dimensions, but availableevidenceindicatesthat the 1&37 is restrictedto antiaircmf’tgunire and is not interchangeableith airf w craft fuzes.

Action—---———— Loadedweight -Body material-

.---.-—— --——— ——

instantaneous 172 gm. (0.38lb.) steel

~. ~. On firing,the setbackigniterpellet (12)overcomes the resisianoe the safetyspr~ (13)and strikesthe s~tkck of flash ignitesboth the self-destructfiringPfi (14). The rguulti.ng ion powder tndn (7) and a Iikck powder pellet (15)l.:~ch holds a rotor 10Cki.11~ pill (16) ill ~00. As the black potierpeiletbums, centrifugal force causesa socowlrotor lockingpin (U) to compressits retaining spring~d nve out Of s recess In the rotor (~); after the black powder pellet bums away, tb loeklngpin (16)also moves out of its recess in the rotor,which is then free to rotateIn the U-shapedtroughof the rotor mount (6). (Sincethe lockingpin (16)retained~ the powder pellet innnobilizea rotor until the other lockingpin (11) clears the its straight-willedoco~ in the xwtor, any possibility the rotor r of g the latter@n to pxmcluded. The rotor recessfor the pelletj~ retainedpin (16)has slopedwalls, BO the movementof the rotor tends to cam this pin out of the recess,ratherthan to jam it). Centrifugal force causesthe freed rotor,whose centerof gravityis locatedoff the ads of rotation,to turn 900 around the pivot pins (10),thus ali.ning the primer charge (4) with the impactfiringpin (2) and the detonator assembly(5). Upon impactwith the target,the nose cap is cmshed and the impact striker (1) drives the impactfiring pin into the primer charge. The flash from the primer chargepassesto the detonator assembly,which activatesthe booster (9),and the boosterin turn activatesthe projectile’s explosivecharge. If impactdoes not occur first,the burning self-destruction powdertrain in the powdertrain ring (8) will ignite the detonator,and the fuze will explde from 10- X2 secondsafter the round is fired.
q

1-21

S(’WJXTPOINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE 141DEL 143-37 d. k&U2QUS~ Ueapw 37-mrllantiaircraft : ~ M1939 D~~
q

Projectiles 37-nun F%ag T -——0%167

9 A-A

E-4Llu!l

M

1.

Lo4%A

0?Tm

1-22

SOVIET POINT DETOHATXNG IMPAOTFUZE MODEL IG-5’7

.

.

~. Gene~. The ?42-57 a bore safe,out of line detonatorfuze. is It employsa setback-actuated self-destruction featurethat will cause the projectile detonate19 secondsafter leato the bore, providiw A metal shippingcap (1) with pull wil?e no prior targetImpactoccurs. protectsthe firingpin membraneduring shipping. The firl.ng in iS P composedof a metal ftiingpin (4) attachedto a wooden shaft (3). It locks the rotor (5) durbg setback. The rotor housingcontsAnsthe selfdestructi.nitating mechad8m. This consistsof a weighted moveable, detonator,spring,and fixed firingpfi. This assemblyis parallelto the fuze axb. The main fuze detonator(7) sits in the centerof the pyrotechnic selfdestna.ct isc. The fuze featuresa delay armhg, cond sumable,black powderdetentthat is initatedby the self-destruct lash f force. The floating pelletupon setlxwk. The fuze arms by centrifugal type firingpin used in the M2-57makes it supersensitive.

*

*

,.

Action----—-———
.. ~

------------—---—--—---------.—-—

Instantaneous

Iaadedweight-——-—-—--—-—

335 gr~s (0.738lbs.) ---- Steel

Body material—--———-—--—--------—------—

of can be found Ftlnctloniqg A detaileddescription functioning ~. in the entrymder tie soviet1%37 fuze. Q. WeaDQns~atiles Weapons 57-mm SovietAA -U : %&l with which used. Projectiles 57-mmHE-~~ -------- OR-281

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1-23

61#

2’
3-

.85
4 5 6

327

.

I

.

8

K)YPI

.

1.57

SOV~T

POINT Dli?l!OIjATll?G IMPACTFUZE MODEL MGZ-57 m. .>

Th f identical with the l“lGa“ Q!21AUQ” lf12-57 uze is essentially 57, with certainmodifications. It has a threadedmetal shippingcap with four equi-dia~t holes near its upper rti. The thin aluminum crush cap is crimpd into a groove cut into the fuze body. A vinyl sealing ring occupiesthe grooveand mkes the upper pert of the fuze water proof. The ftiing,pti all metal versusmetal and wood in the ;~G-57. is There is also a sprhg.tier the firingpti head in lieu of a“”wax filler detonatorin the zwtor is held in positionby a threadin the l~G-57.The ed ring. In the l@T57,the detonatorIs prescedand stab crimpedin the rctor. The fuze bqdy is recessedat the boostercavityto accepta vinyl water proofingring,+ a steellock ring. The lock ring enploysthe boosterthreadsto compressthe vinyl ring. The copperfoil seal over the boosteris conicalcon~ve. This same shape is formedinto the PETN booson has ter explosive. The’booster the }vK--57 a flat surface. The rctor has centrifugal lockc,,gins to lock the rotor in the ~.rmed p position.

Action-----—-———————— . .’,

.“

—.-—------—---— ---314

----—-

nondelay

Loadedweight --n~---...-.---.----—— ,, Bdy materl@.---.—--————

gm. (0.691lb.) *

--—------------- steel

~. @ction* .“.Whenfired, setbackcausesthe cue functioning as occurs in the +7 fuse, Centrifugal forcemoves the springretaining the rotor look @n,out of the rotor. When the delay armingblack powderpellet is consuhkdthe detent is moved into the evacuatedcavity. The rotor then rotatesto the armed position. Simultaneously,he rotor t lock pin moves inti’a dot cut into the rotor cavityin the rotor nousing, 10cIcQ the rotw in the armed ~sition. Functioning then continues in a manneridentihaltm that of the IC-57 fuze.
&

(lemons~es Wea*nt3

with which Us*. Projectiles *

Identioalto that of the SovietMG-57 fuze.
.

1-25

4.

b

k

#

L

! ~

Mf3-57
P

36-66r350+

IL cm

OTPI

3.27

t

I

1.57

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*

CHIN+S1COll!rlUNIST FOR ttIRCR@I” M1’TI-[IRCRAFT FUZ+iS AND GUNS

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GEiEH.AL ‘w ChiComAircraftand Anti-Aircraft uzesappearto be exact copiesof f materials, workmanship, their!.ovietounterparts.In most instances, c ~~ ~.re identical. ChiComfuzes are designated the Chinese and normallyrepresents a charactercuffixfor “Type”. The prefix character Chinesecharacter which is sirilarto the soundof the Russianlette:r f o and the Arabicnumker for the model desi~~tion. These Chinesecharacters the fuze type are die ctanpedinto the fuze metal in the same manneras employedon Sovietfuzes.
cc)~l~on~nt~

*

l-la

CHIC(H4POI1:T lX3TUliATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 37 w ~. Gene-. The ChiComType 37 is identicalto the Soviet B-37 PcintDetonating ImpactFuze. -. b CharacteristiQo ..-.—— Instantaneous

Action .—.--— .-—----.-----—.----———— . —------——-—Loadedweight -----------------

172 grains (0.38lbs) steel

---. Bcdy material——---------———..-----—. ---------. -—-.”—-—
.

Functioning. The function@ of this fuze Ss identicalto the ~. ImpactFuzes. workingsof the SovietB-37 and ~-37 Petit Detonating a. 37-mm Anti-Aircraft un Type ? G
4

i 50”

3 .25”

1~ 30”

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1[

~

1.17”IA D

1.05 DIA 17 1?1

1

.

CHAPTER3 SOVI71’ POINT DETONATING FUZ!M

.-

9

.

,,,,.

SOVINTPGINT DEI’ONATING FUZES

.

*

%

.

Early Sovietfuze designswere based on principles seen in French SchneiderFuzes. The Schneider Companybuilt and operatedcannonand projectile manufacturing plantsin TzaristRussiaand, quite naturally, the exerteda gretit influenceIn earlyRussianartillery thinking. !:fi+~~ Sovietgainedcontrolof Russia,after the RussianRevolutionin 191.7, the FrenchSchneiderplantsfell under their control. Even thoughthese heavy industrial facilities were completely Sovietized they continu@d to exartFrenchinfluence Sovietartillery on munitiondesigns. This condition continued untilWorld War II when Germanmunitionphilosophies severely modifiedthe originalFrenchInfluence. Today,basic fuze principles originating all the major munition in producingcountries the world may be seen in SovietFuzes. It is of quite evidentthat the Sovietespionage apparatuscollectedthe data and Sowi.et rdnanceengineers o incorporated the most desirablefeatures into currentdesigns. Becauseof this, currentSovietdesignsshow a markedimprovement safety,reliability in and workmanship. ‘The most notableimprovement seen in environment is proofing. Soviet fuzes, q waterproof. It WEM learnedt with someminor exceptions, re completely much to tie consternation f Free World Forces,that the Viet Cong and o NorthVietnamese Amy storedSoviet fuzes,rocketsand some othm’ azm!unitionitemsunderwater, a normalprocedure. With all those factor~ as m~rriedtogether, Sovietpoint detonating fizes exhibitcmpletely indigenouscharacteristicsnd, in a reversepattern,influence a westernfuze designphilosophies. The Sovietclassifyfuzesin two major categories. LiterallytmnsI.ated, hey are “lngiferous” nd “disruptive”.Igniferous” t a fuzes (T:rubki) containlow explosives and serveas initiators producefunctioning to of expellin~ charges,detonators and detonator-booster combin8tion8. “D:16ruptive”fuzes (Vzryvaleti) containa stab sensitive detonator, or detonator-booster assemblyand are intendedto initiatedirect functioning only in hiqh explosive-fragmentation high explosive-armoriercing or p ammunition. The two major Sovietfuze classificationsre furthersubdivided a into classesthi.t are directlycomparable their Americancounterparts. to These are point detonating fuzes,and base detonating fuzes. The type of functioning actionis a basis for a furtherdivisioninto impact, combination time and impact,time and proximityfuzea. Fuses of the impacttype are armed by set-back, centrifugal forcesor a combinaticm of both, and function directactionupon impactwith a target. Some by incorporate selective instantaneous r delay features. o The degreeof safetyin handlingand firingformsthe basis of an fuzesare umafe in additional Sovietfuze classification.IiUnsecured!’ handlingor ffr~ng. In this class,the primerand detonatorare not shieldedor sepmated from booster. ‘SemisecureR fuieu are safe for transport, but are not detonatorsafe. In this clast5 the primer Is isolated from the detonator, but the detonatorhas free accesrn o the t

‘*

.

&

‘i’-

*

.

fize~are bore and detonatorsafe. Newly adopted booster. llsafe~~ Sovietfuze6 show a markedincreasein out-of-line detonatordesigns indict.ting positivetrend towardeliminatin~ a all but “safe”fuzes. Sovietartilleryfuzesare of conventional designand functionon acceptedmechanical and explosive principles. Point detonatingfuzes are construct~d from a wide range of materials. Tho major proportion of Sovietfuzeshave components steeland are exc;eedin.gly of robust in design. J1 point detonating fuzesincorporating selective instantaneousand delay featuresare of steeland are desippedto remainintact and in line even thoughthe fuze may have impac:tedgainsta solid a target. Fu7es employedin point initiating-baseetonating d modes are normailymade of aluminum. This materielhas proven sufficiently rigid to maintainhiqh explosive-antiank projectiles a prcper t at stand-off for maximumpenetration. Fuzeswhich functioninstantaneously are beinp constructed plastic. Urea formaldehyde ith a cellulose of w filleris the most commonplasticencountered. Since these fuzes are not reruiredto withstandimpbctstresses, molded plasticoffersan a economical medium from which to mass producefuze bodies. Point deton&ting fuzes are generally eouippedwith a ramovable nose cap. For instantaneous uze action,the ca is removedbefore f firing. If a slightdelay is desired(non-delay the fuze Is fired 7 with the cap in place. Soviet fuze demonology definesa delay fuze as one wt:os~ functioning delay is 0.01 sedondor greater. The United Statesdefinition 0.02 secondor greater. is The Soviet have apparently abandonedblack powderdelay pellets as beinginconsistent ith their envirorunent-~roof w munitiondesign phLosophy. Blackpowderis notoriously hydroscopic. For this reason, non-hygroecopic, non-g.seous compounds ~re currentlybeing pressedinto deihypellets. Sovietfuze markingsare die-stamped into fuze bodies on or near the greatestdiameter. The markingsnormallyconsistof a s:~ngle ine of l cyrilliclettersand wabic numbers. The line of markingsiIs separated, by dashes,into groupswhich identi~ the manufacturing plant, fuze designation, lot numberand year of manufacture. Sometimes, thesemarkings are foundat randomlocctionsand may be stenciled ratherthan die-stamped. Certainfuzeshave differentcolorednose caps or colorodbands aroundthe membranecaps. Thesemarkingsapparently are employedto identifyfuzeswhich are identicalh appearance, but which have differentfunctioning action. Where the color codingis known, it is explained the text. in The Sotietappear to have adoptedthe principleof dual fuze actionin theirpoint detonating fuzes. Basically, this fuzo design, philosophy utilizesthe principleof forcinga firingpin rearward upon impact,while stiultaneously,he primer-detonator t moves forward by inertia. To increasethe sensitivity inertialactuatecirimer.of p detonator carriers,graze-sensitiveam weightsare employedto cam c

‘v

the carriw forwardon impactat flat angles. This principleis commendable and appearsto have resultedin great fuze reliability.

i--i+

S(JVIXTPOINT DXTONATINC IXPAOTFUZE MODELAD ‘w Q. Genera~. The AD fuze is a copy of an old Frenchfune. It :is used with 76+mn and 152-Imn igh-explosiverojectil.esf Frenchdesign, h p o type and has two and is made of old Frenchparts. It is a double-action settings: instantaneous nd nondelay. If the fuze cap is removed,the a actionis instantaneous;ith cap on, a nondelayactionis obtained. w ‘1 ~. _teristi-Q. . —---.--, instantaneous nd nondelay Action .---—..... . . --—------4a d -.. ---. -.---.-— ---------------- gin,, Loadedweight --. --. 150 (0.33lb,) -— ..-.-aw------..---m brass Body material—--- --------------- --------Upon firing,the stirmp (4) sets back, 0VeZ?I?5Ld@ the prlnercarrier 6 , and compressing the stimp safetyspring (1I ). “ -09”) The stirrupclips (5j engagethe step on the inner circumf remceof the e stirrup, therebylocldngthe primer carrierto the stirrup. Simultaneously,the priiier carriersets } ack, firmlypressingthe lead gas check ring (7) againstthe base plug, and the stud on the base of the primer carrierentersthe hole in the base plug, effectively sealingoff the detonator(8) &on the pfimer (12);this preventsthe fuze from detonating in the weapcn,shouldprematureignitionof the primer occur. After the projectile leavesthe bore, the stirrupsafetyspring (11.) ecompressd es and moves the stirrup, with the attachedprimer carrier,forwardinto positiondirectlybeneaththe firtig in (3). Upon impact,at the i,nsh,ntaneoussetting(fuzecap (1) removed, the striker{10)and firing~i.n 7 are drivenrearward,overcoming the firingpin spring (2). The fking pb strikesthe primer,successively initiating the primer,detonator, and booster (9),thus explcding the shell. At the nondelaysetting (fuzecap (1) left h place),the fize cap (1) preventsthe movementof strikerand firingpin; instead,the primer carriergets forwardat impact, forcingthe primeragainstthe firtigpin, and in this way tiit,iat-

w

q

Weapons *
76-rm :

Projectiles

divisional guns liL902/30,FD933,76-lmrl HE .---—---,---F-354J? M1936 (F-22),M1938/39, M1939, (USV) and ,194.2 ~ (ZIS-3); regimentalgun (howitzer) N1927; tank gun K1927/32 ..--—---152-mn HE . F-533F

152-mm: howitzer1+0.909/30

u
3-1

,.

— —

SOVIET POINT D3TONATING IMPACT!U2E MODEL AD F

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rrI
3.61”
L

.

10

I

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2

*

II

1,

6

I

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,-

*

~,. —. *

3-2

SOVIET FCI1!T DLTOiJATING I1tPACT?UZE IiODEL I AD-2

a ~. GeneraJ. This fuze is similarin construction, ction,and settin~s to the lbdelAD, and differsfron the AD fuze only in the shape of ~fuze the nose. The AD-2 fuze is a copy of the Frenchpoint detonating ]kr]: 2L+/31. tine Of 1899/16designand is interch~ge~.bleflth ~ the ~~

lb
*

with which use~. Veanonswd ~ro.iectiles :Jeapons Projectiles

ii
II

*

76-lTl :

divisional pync 1~J9’)2/30, 10.936 76-mm HE ---------------F.3541T (F-z) ID939 (UST’)and 1~1942 , (zIs-3 re@r.ental \; gun (howitzer) !2927;tan’: gun 10927/32 152-mmHE F-533F

152-mm: howitzer1:1909/30

‘w

3-3

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL AD-N

-..

a A. Geners& The AD-N is shjlar in construction, ction,and settings to the AD snd AD-2 fuzes and differssignificantlyrom them only in f that it is assembled not-fromremadeor salvaged parts,but from newq with the AD and AD-2 fuzes. manufactured components, It is interchangeable b -* !Ieamns Weapons
q

Projectiles
—-—----.—-—

76-mm HE 76-mm: divisional guns 1vSL902/30,1*n936 (F-22) 1vl1939(USV) M1942 , and (ZIS-3~; regimental gun (how) M1927;tank gun M1927/32 152-mm: howitzerXL909/30 152-mmHE

———--------

F-533F

.

.. 4
3-4

SOVIET POINT DATONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL BM

Q. GenerQ. The BM fuze was designedfor use with HEAT ammunition. Its main components are a holy, an armingmechanism, direct-action a percussionmechanism, and a detonatoras~embly. The striker(2) is made P: a lightalloy and has a head of large sectional area, therebyinsuring high sensitivity impact. Althoughthe fuze is apparently on safe to handle and fire, its Govietsafetyclassifications W.msecured”. i b -* Qkrrqteristics. -------------,-------------------------Action ------------Instantaneous ;> kac~edweight --”--------------.----—-.-.-----------.--.----—--------“-—------.--,------,Body material--”” ----------------:;teel Upon Q. Flmctioni.nL.n. firing,the arming sleeve(4) sets back and compresses the arndng sleevespring (!5), hereuponthe arming sleeverew tainingballs (XL)fall away. Tlhen the projectile leavesthe bore of the gun,, the arming sleevespringdecompresses, therebymoving the arming sleeveforwarduntil the firingpin retainingballs (6) are releasedfrom their housingsin the firingpin guide (3);the releaseof the firingpin ret&l~hg ballsfrees the striker(2) and firingpin (7) for rearward movement, Impactdrivesthe strikerand firin in rearward,so that the firingpin piercesthe brass foil safetydisk ?7 and penetrates 8 the detonatorassembly(10),which explodes, activ~.ting projectile. the

Weapons
76-mm :

Projectiles 76-mmAT J35;EK;;Z;; BP-354J!;

divisional i’l19j6 (F-22 l%13%t0132;33’ Y (WJ), and 111942 (ZIS-3); regimental guns (howitzers) 1927 M and M1943;tank gun M1927/32

3-5

-—

SOVIET POINT !jETONATING INPACTFUZE HODEL BM
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.66”

I 1I ,,

,18
— —

— .?0” DIA

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r’

%-QJ
‘f$’D~A

53%9---

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b

I

3-6 s

fill? i
!

I

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IIPACTFUZE DKZ-B *

*

e

Q[

*

*

pointdetonating fuze has been encounQ“ cisuw?&* The GovietDI{E-Z teredonly on the 122-mmfin-spinstabilized rocketDKZ-66. All fuzes recovered~ve hen sanitized. The only markingexhibited the fuze is on the lot number. The DKZ-B is uniauein that the tize body is of comuositecons~h’uction. It has an outerurea ~ormaldeheycle plasticsh%th (16)bnded to the inner steelbody (15). The DKZ-B is lonEerand heavierthan standardSovietfuzes. However,it displaysthe usual Sovietefforttowardwaterprc)ofness.ll A openingsare sealedwith a synthetic rubber compound(2) that rendersthe fuze completely waterproof, The selectionspindal(27)is sealedby a pacldngglandend nut (34). The DKZ-B is constructed four major subassemblies:A nose cap (1) of and membranecrimpedto the aluminumwindshield(21);the aluminumwindshieldcontaining the urea formaldehyde plasticarmingmechanismhousing (23 the plasticbonded steelbody (15) containing ); the selectionspinM. (27)and threedelay elements(17). The steel~osker cu (28) cont~ining the relay detonator(19)pressedinto the boostercharge f) . T?;J ~f the 2CI sett~g and are reduadent. delay elements(17)are for shortdela !tB~f The third and longerdelay element(29 is for long delay. Y The o~ive (21)is unpainted, but has a thin coat of varnish. Mxcept are black and pofor the plastic (16)the fuze body and boostercup I(X) ssessa protective varnishcoating. The plastic (16)has been seen painted both blue and black,with blue predomhating. The lot number is die stamped near the base of the ogive. The armingmechani.m(23)is setbackoperatedand employsa Zig-Zag slot govenorfcr armingdelay- The armingmechanism(23)releasesthe cockedarmingprimer (8) that initiates pyrotechnic a delay armingpellet (13)that unlocksthe detonatorrotor (25). The singlepurposeof t,he armingmeclmnism(23)is to releasethe primer (8). The P@technic delay armingmechanism(14)consistsof a pressed,non-gaseous powder (13) blockinga detent (u), which in turn locks the detonator rotor (25) in the safe pcsition. l~%en the pyrotechnic element(13) is consumed,cam actionfrom the springloadeddetonator rotor (25)forcesthe detent (L!F) into the evacuated cayity,unlockingthe rotor (25). An accellerati.on weight (30),is setbackupon launchagainstits spring (31) and also unlocks the rotor (25). Without.mstained accellerati.on lockingthe weight (30 down until after the delay armingdetent (u) is withdrawn,the fuze ) will not arm. The selection .@ndal (27) controlsthe ti~t~taneou~ lICI1, shortdef~ction~g of the fuze. Gninstantmeous, a lay “B” and long delay Y;!! straightthroughflash channel(32)” ermitsflame from the detonator(26) p in the rotor (25)to flash directlyinto the-relaydetonator(u). On shortdelay,the spindal(27)presentsa solidblock in the flash channel the short delay pelletsare ignitedby flame that is reflected (32) so tkt upwardand outwardby the bloc::edlash channel(32). On long delay,‘he f spindal(27)has a shortlongitudinal channel(33)that Ieaits flmne Lo the

w
3-7

,:,,,!

4!i5 .lon.~ dek;’ pellet (2~), Functioning eithernne cr both ~;f of the short “delaypellets (17)or the ain[;leon~ delay pellet (29)produceflare l from their respective flaoh pellets (18)which flzshcsdirectlyinto U-m hiiat scnci.tive relay detonator(19)in the booster (28). b -* CharacteriotiQ.
*

---------------Action ------------------------Instantaneous delay or -—---TmadcdwciCht ------------------------ 9W ~ramG (2.CIbc)

Eody rjateriai—----------------------—-_Lteel,alunfi”mfi pl;stic and Q. 1 ctioning. iilen % the DKZ-66rocketis fired,setbec]:au~e~ c the setbacksleeve (22)to move rearwardwhile being retarded‘cy the ZigZag slot Sovenorand the sleeveopring (4). Uhen the setbacksleevereaches the bottom of its travel,two levers (5) are caromednward,releasingthe i lock ball, (6)which releasesthe springloadedarmingpriner (8). The armin~ primer (8) propelledby its suring (7) impingeson the fired fir”hg pin (10). Ile primer (g) flashes-and flame travelsthrou~hthe th~ee flash holes in the firingpin housing (10). Thic ignitesth~: fltish nel.1.et (11)wh):;e flame ignitesthe relay pellet (12). The relay pelletiUnites the delay arming~cli.et (13). dirnil.tanecusly, Getbac]c sustained and acce~crationcauce the weight (30)to xnove the rear and rerainthere .-artially to unlockinctkc detonatorrotor (25). !~len delay armin~;m.l?.et (13)burns ~ut, the loc~:ingetent (lL~) s caromed d i into the pellet cavityby the rotati.n~ otor (25)poweredby the rotcr spring (35). ‘The r i’uze now armed. is Upon impact,the nose cap membrane(1) is crushedso that the firingpin ~1.unf~er is forceddo~.mward (3) drivingthe firingpin (9) do’,,mward a~ainst ;tn mring into the detonator(26). If the spindalis set for instantaneoufi action, jthe ~traightthroughflash channel(32)pem~ts fla~.e fron the d.ctonator26) tc flash directlyinto the relaydetonator(19)funct( ionin~the warhead. If the ~pindalis set for shortdelay, the f7Lash channal. blockedand the delay ~,clletsre ignited. When they burn through, is a the flash pel.~.ets flash into the detonatorprcducing warheadfunctioning. Ii’ tile cpindalifl set cn long delay,the flash ckmnel (33)transtitsfl.ane frn the detonatorto the lcm~ delay pellet (29). T!len the nelletburns out, the burn out flau.e conpletes f’uze functioning. d -* ;/caponsnd ~ro.iectiles a with which used. ‘:!eapons 122-mrilroe;-et : launcher‘;ype ? Projectiles 122-mmHE-PEl~r~g --------91QJJ;
.

*

.

3-8

.

,“$

SOVIET POINT IXH!ONATING IMPACTIWZE DKZ-B

b
.—

.72 OIIA

!

‘tw

7.6

/

I

0

I
\

1,

I

.

~“

2.SOIA

!,!

*

I

I

1
Q

I
—1.17 OIA

b
3-9

SOVIET YOII?T ETO!JATING D I]v~A~

FUZZ DKZ-E

@ m ““

T=

—2
*

‘-

.,

-

24

F

7

e

. s=
10

II

38 27 32 6

12 13 14 18

16 1?

\

19 go

,

I

3-1o

I

SOVIET POINTDIT. NATING IM?ACTFUZE lJODEL DEZ-B m, ;

30

3:

35 33

31

*

27

I

32

33

27

16 Is 29 36

SLVIET POINT Initialing BASE DETONATING IMPACTFU2E MODEL GK-1
,,, ,,,
!

The SovietModel GK-1 fuze is a setbackarmed,nondelay, Q* ii?m$!ti* impactfuze. It was designedto be employedas a point initiating, base detonating fuze for uco with high explosiveantitank(HEAT)projectiles and as a straight impactfuze for use with high explosivefragmentation fuze, as are all of’ the projectiles.The GK-1 is an extremelysensitive GK series. The nose of the GK-1 is protected with a shippingcap which a is removedprior to firing. Delayedarming is achievedby the use c~f zig-zagslot cut in the setbacksleeve (5). Becauseof the in-lineexplois sive train the GK-1 is not detonatorsafe. Graze sensitivity achie-{ed throughthe use of a cam weightpositioned the httom of the fuzc. Any in laterialimpactcausesthe weight (12)to cam the primer carrier (’/) up into the firingpin (3). The GK-1 is considered obsoletehaving been replacedby the GK-2 and GK-2Mf’uzes. -. b Char~cteristics. ----------------------— -----Instantaneous

Action-.-.—-—--.—

Loadedweight—----.---—--—— Body material—--.-.-----------.”

----------- 1.55 @WIM3 (0.34lbs.) -------------------Aluminum

~, I?mctining Upcn firing,setbackcausesthe sleeve (5) to move to the rear, re~eas~g the sleeveretainingball (9),which falls into the fuze body cavity. As setbackdimbisties, the sleevespring (4) forces the sleeve (5) to move forwardto the head of the firingpin (3). This releases the four firingpin retainingballs (6) allowingthem to fall into the tie cavity. The fuze is now armed with the firingpin (3) separated frcm the prtier (7) only by the expandedfiringpin spring (Xl). Upon impact,the foil cap (1) and the firingpin plunger (2) are drivendownwwd aga~mst the head of the firingpin (3),which in turn causesthe firingpin to piercethe stab sensitive primer (7). This initiatesthe detonator(8) which causesthe projectile detonate. On grazeimpacts,the graz~e eight to w (12)moves laterallyc=mhg the pfimr carrier(7) onto the firfigpin (3) producingihnctioning.

d. kanons and m?o~ectiles with which use~. Weapons 82-mm ~;ovietT Bocket Iauncher““ : A Model SPG-82 Projectiles
r --.-......--—.G-82 82-mm HEAT :
.

u’
3-13

. -..

SOVIET P1;INT IM’CMTING

D1;:TONATING I1iPACTUZE lKjDI.L F GK-i

—— —
I

— —

/cl

3.05
,

L.-f<
1.02

1.5? IA O 1.41IA O
10 TPI

2.SMM PT 1.28 OIA

~-. —

3-U

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL GK-2

41#
w-.2 functioning Genera~. The GK.2 is similarin construction The only noticeable difference betweenthe GK-2 to the SovietGK-1. element,rotides p and GK-1 is the Zig-Zagdelay amningassembly. ThiIs The basic design for the a greatersafe armingdistancefor the GK-2. GK-2 appearedin the SovietW50 mortarfuse and is almost identical with the currentSovietM-6 mortar fuze. Duo to the in-lineexplosive train,the GK-2 is not considered detonatorsafe. The GK-2 may be fired with or withoutthe shippingcover in place. If the fuze is firedwith the sldppingcovera slightdelay is inherent in functioning. The GK-2 employsa graze sensitive featureto insurefunctioning at The graze sensitive plungeror hamner residef~n i low an~lesof impact. an enlargedcavity. Its concavesurfacerests againstthe conicalsurfaces of the primerdetonatorassembly. Any impact,other t~ one directlyon the nose of the fuze, causesthe graze hammerto move latemd.~, therebyforctigthe primer-detonator forwardthroughcam action.
~.

~:

Characteristics. .-.-------.-----—--—-.—..— --- instantaneous
,:,.

Action—----—

w

0139 Lb. . Aluminium Body material---.—---------—------.-..-—-----..,——.---,.~. Functioning Upon firing,set back forcesthe Zig-Zagsleeve (15) to the rear, releas~g the sleeveretainingball (I-4.) which falls tito the As set back decreasesthe sleevesprin (4) which was fuze body cavity. compressed the sleeve,expands, moving the sleeve (15 forwardbeby f neath the head of the firingpin assembly(13)and releasingthe four firbody cavity ti pin lockingballs (6),allowingthem to drop into the iwe. from the (5~. The fuze is now armed. The firtigpin is held seperated primerdetonator(’3) the firingpin spring (17). .Jpon by impact,the plunger (2) is driven agatistthe head of the firingpin assembly (X3) which piercesthe primerdetonator(9) causingit to detonateandjin tum ~ detonatethe booster. If the fuze impactsat a flat angle so that the plunger (2) is not depressed, the raze sensitive plungermoves laterally, overoon$ng the retaining disc f11) and forcingthe primer-detonator assembly(9) forward onto the firing..pin achievingdetonation. “ (9) “

Loadedweight .-———--——--.-—--—--.-———

-------------

w

q

u

3-15

..

\

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODELGK-2 $. ~~a~ns and mo.i ectileswith which used.
.. . J

Weapons :!2-mm Recoiless Rifle 207-mmRecoilessRifle

,: . . 82-mm m --—-———--Q-881A 82-mm HEAT ------— --- BK-881 OF-883A lo7-mmHE -———-—— 107-mm~AT —-..-=------ ~-883

Projectiles

*

2.94

q

hw

.

SOVI13TPOINT INITIATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL GK-2M m The SovietGK-2M is a later versionof the GK-1 and have been incorporated into CX-2 Sovietfuzes, ‘No majormodifications the GK-2M to improvefuze reliability graze impact. The firingpin, on plungerand nose assemblies have been redesigned. It has a cone shaped plungerand cone shapedcavityin the nose. The secondcmge con~~;;s of tl~e additionof an adader for the primer-detonator assembly. .— . . adapterelernhated the inner body cavityto receivethe firing- in lockp were difficultto machineand have ing balls after setback. The cavities been eliminated the GK-2M. In all other respectsthe GK-2M is identiin cal with the earlierGK-2.
s,~ -*

*

.

~. characteristics. Action---------——---—--— ——---.-.-.-.-..--—. instantaneous Oz.

—-”— kaded weight-------M---------—--

---------—---7.12
—--Alulninium

Body mterial ---------——— -----—.-—---—--.—-—-

m

Q. Functioning. Upon firing,setbackcausesthe Zig-Zagsleeve (5) to move to the rear releasin the sleeveretaining balJ. (3) which falls into the fuze b+y cavity (6 . As setbackforcesdecrease,the sleeve 7 sprtizg 4)which was compressed the sleeveduring setb~k, recoils, ( by moving the sleeve (5) forward,releasingthe four firingpin lockingballs (8),allowingthem to drop into the body cavity (6). The fuze is now armed, with the firingpin (2) Wing held away from the stab sensitive detonator (10)‘by the smti-creep spring. Upon impact,the cone shapedplunger (1) :1s drivenagainstlhe firingpin assembly(2) which causesthe firing t pin to piercethe pri.merdetonator, detonating the booster. On low angles of impact,the graze impactfeaturecausesthe boosterimpactweight to move leterally overcc~ming the retainerwasher (3.2), arominghe primerc t detonatorassembly(3.0) orwardinto the firingpin (9) causingit to f function. If the conenose strikesat an angle and is crushedout of line with the plunger (2),the cone shapedcavityin the nose causesthe plunger to cam downwlard againstthe firingpin head, causingit ti function.

.

!L

k%Pn s

and rnoj6K&$@ with which-.

82-rim Recoilms Rifle B-10 . Y

82+nm HEAT

Bk-881M

3-17

~ –i

:.-?a

!

SOVIET POINT INITIATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL GK-2M

A

I WRCNCH F&s .01
SW? 4.,799
II

1/

I

3.264 11

“9

10

II

— * ..,

. .

3-18
-.

i! ~: SOVIET POINTDetonatinglNPACTFWE \/&$@ The GVIVf fuze differsfrom the GVllZ and the GVMZ-1 43* Q?WQ* fuze inasmuchas it has no delay elementand, consequently,o fuze n f settingdevice. It is sm instantaneous uze with one permanentsetting. In other respectsit is s~!e:ilar the GVM2 and GVIVIZ-1. GVMfUZIBis to The not beingmanufactured the presenttime. at
o

MODEL GVM

b ,, ~; ,, ~, ,, ,,

with which us@. b -* Weaponsand rro~ectiles lJeapons Projectiles
120-mm Frag-HE —

s

120-mm:

re@mental mortarsM1938

Smoke -.—

OF-343 , OF-843A D-843A

..—

w

.,.

. —.——.

.

1

SOVIET POINTDFJONATINGIMPACTFUZE MODEL GVMZ

b g+.
Gene@.

(1)

(2)

The GV!iZ fuze is v doymturc from Li?c UXW1 Joviet.fuze desi,~ in that it is termeda “therm-pneumatic” fuze which opcral;es the “air colT.Lm nri.ncipal activating on “ of’ the initiatin~ pelletrather than the convential percussion striker. The air, trappedin u m:nprersion cup, is compressed to a densitysufficient Pencrateenough., to heat tcj i~witeam ~n~l;.ititi(~n pelletof black powder,lead azide, boresafety inct.~.qxxmtedits is in etc. No mechanical design,but its principleof operation makes it boresaf’e ~Cjil~l~~.j~~(~t iow -velocities). ,~]x;rati~.g undc .i(~lv!.tu I ‘Jhe ~afetycap (1) must be removedprior to firingthe fuze. The settin~sfor the GVIVE are as follows:

u
!1011 -----= --------—-~ ------“., ..

”.-

. .

.

.

.

.

instantaneous“” ‘

!13!1 -------------------— QiJi racteristics. Action
--------------------------------

de].ny (~:.0~ 0.(39 sec.)

j:.ls”tmtancous delay an(j

---_-_-—---_---= /!3~’ Inaded;.teight---------------,gm.(0.91,6b. ) l * ----------e-e.,a-.,-m_ steel~ti -Body material ----------------------,.., parts’ s“ Functionin~. On firing,no movementof the ccmponcnt teXesplaceuntil the projectile strikesthe gro~.d. Upon impactwhen the fuze is set for instantaneous ction,the nose bushingand diaphragm d (8) are driveninward,and in turn,drivetho compressionpl~ (2) rearward, compressing the air jn the compression cup (9)’ a pointwhere a to sufficient he~t is fleneratcd it~itethe black powderinitiating to pellet (3). The flame jet travelsdown the flash channel(5),thro~~h the transverse hole,, the settin~s~lcctor(/,.), set~ of:e in exl the

v

w’
3-21

SOVIET PCIXT IX313 ‘;;ATINGIPACT 11 FUZE MODELGV14Z detonatorpellet (6),which detonatesthe booster(7). When set for delay action,the flame jet travelsthrougha longit~inallydrilled hole-inthe setth~ selector(4),down the delay channel(20)to the delay pellet (11),and sets off the detonatorpellet (6)$which in turn detonatesthe lmoster(7). d* &Qo~ !Je apons ~ti- o“ ~d Projectiles
—. .

lo7-mm :kuntd.n-packe~i’.:ental lo7-lmn Fra@3E -— gF.g~J;~F43&!! : r :F-8LlT rlortar 12938 Smoke -------—----— D-84J.
120-mm:

*

Regimental mortarsM1938 and M1943

120-mm

HE .-----— ------- F-843 FrJ@E — OF-843;Of-843A OF- 843A ‘~moke —-——

9

]

296” 3

‘y
—1.4”
DIA to TPI 10

—, -..

0
reM3

0

–3 —4

3.84” m

–6

II

3-22

r’

SOVIET POINTDEJ.’OI?ATING IMPACTl?UZE MODEL G}’14Z-1

11

$

w
to This fuze is similarin construction nd functioning the GVZM fuze, a but has a simplified percussion mechanismwith a Wo;den strikerand acoppermembrane. The cloggingof powderbetweenthe delay elementand the detonating cap is renderedimpossible. Like the GWtZ, the Gvm.1 fuze also has two settings: instantaneous (deviceset on “O1!’) dday and anld fired (deviceset on “3” ). It is used in the same projectiles from the same weaponsas the GVMZ.
),,,,

,,,,.

,,,,

8

4

u

b
3-23/J.2q
“!,

..

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MXIEL GV&7

The GVMZ-7is a point detonating fuze used in the, ~. -. 107+m and 120-Imnortarsand 122-mmand 152+nmhowitzers, This fuze m is safe to transport and is boresafe. The tie is preparedfor firing by removingthe shippingcap, pullingthe safetycap retaintigwire out of the cloth tab, and removingthe safetycap (5). The fuze has settings for eitherdelay or instantaneous action,as indicatedbelow:
-

!10!1 -——---—---...

—--

--..-—-—

instantaneous delay

11- —-—-—-—--—-------——--11 ;) J. ~acteristics. Action--—---——----———-----—--

delay and instantaneous ? steel

baded weight------—-—---—-----—-———..———— &dy material—-—-—-—--———.———— Functioning. —--

(1) on fhfig, sethck causesfiringpin (8) to be driven into safetypowderpellet (10). The flame from the safety powderpelletpassesthroughthe groovesin the firtigpin and ignitesthe black powderpellet (3). After the black powderpellethas burned,it allowsa centrifugal segment(2) to move outward,which then allows the interrupter (7) to move outwardthrougheitherone or both flash channels, dependingon the setting. (2) ~ ~pmtwiththe target,the piskm (1) is driven rearwardcompressing the air which ignitesthe primer (6). The flash from the primerthen passesdirect~”to *he detonator (u) via the instantaneousksh c~el f (9)>or ~ the delay pellet (13),de riding the setting. Sett~ 113!? on allowsthe interrupter Y to move only far enoughto uncover (7 the delay flash channel(12),forcingthe flash from the primer to ignitethe delay pellet (13)which acti+atesthe detonator (u), and in turn th~ booster (4). Setttig‘lO!l allows the interrupter move over far enoughto uncoverboth flash to channelsso that the flash from the rimerwith pass dtiectly to the detonator(~) and booster (4 , resulting ~st~~nin Y eous action.

.

*

#$
3-25

SOVIET PLIIJT DETt NATJ2?G IIvpAC!I’ HODEL GV1a-y FUZE ~. Weauonsand ~ro.lectiles with which use~. Weapons l(?7-mm:ountain-pack m regimental mortar111938 120-mm:regimental mortarsML938 and M1943 “ 122-mm:howitzerM1938 (11-30)
.

?ro jectiles lo7-mm-——- —---—120-mm——--—-----—122-mm-— —------

152-mm:howitzer111938 (M-1O) and IZL943 (D-1)

152-mm—-—-—--—-

t4t=J
/

11—
9

4“’’Lt~~-L137aMA I

n

~

“Din 1.41 10 T?l

-5-26

1. ,?,

SOVIET POllJT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL KT-1 (,,” ‘“

w
f ~. Genera~. The KT-1 is a pointdetonating,setback-armed ume used with Frag and Frag-HEprojectiles 45-mm,57-mm,and 76-mm caliber of a sizes. The Sovietsrefer to this fuze as “semisecure” nd boresafe. The fuze is capableof nondelayand delay actiondependimgo~ the use of the fuze cap and the compressed black ~wder delay pel:et (10)which is sometimes insertedin this fuze for Specialdemolition purposes. Fuzes containing the delay pelletare pafitedblack;modelswithoutthe delay pelletare paintedli~ht gray. The fuze actionis re@lated as indicated below: Fuze CQJQ Black,w/delayelementand cap w/delayelement,w/o cap w/o delay elementand cap w/o delay element,w/cap Lightgray, w/o delay elementand cap w/o delay element,wicap b Blacknose only,w/delayelementand cap w/delayelement,w/o cap b -. Characteristics.

*

*

A&Q
IOng talay Shortdelay Instantaneous Shortdelay Instantaneous Short delay Long delay Shortdelay

Action---.---.---..---—------------------------delay and nondelbay Ioadedweight --—-_-----.--—-----—--------_’---- gm. (.81411).) 370 Body materisl--.------------------------------_---,.------".,--steel * BICtiOn c i ning. men the h!-1 fuze iS set for instantaneous m~v;d) the fuze functions follows: Setbackcausest,he , as stirrup(7) to compressthe spring (6),override, and lock itselfta the primercarrier(8). The primercarrieris also settackan?. compresses sealingwasher (9) over the vent h the body, shielding “;he detonatc,r (11)fromthe primer (5) shouldprematureignitionoe~:.xr.he striker T (1) and firingpin (3) are also set back, but the f!rinaDin does not reach the primer. Afier the projectile leavesthe bore; ~he spring (6) raisesthe primer carrier(8) and stirrup(7) to a positiondirectly
. .

*

b ,,,,

3-2’7

3:ViET R I!;T DET’” l!ATING 114PACTUZN !13DEL F KT-1

under the fhing pin (3). At the same the, the spring (2) returnsthe firin~pin (3) and the striker(1) to their orginalpositions. .’n impact,the striker(1) is drivenrearward, forcingthe firingpin (3) into tke prixr (5) which successively sets off the primer)the detonator the fuze is sei fcr delayedaction (nose (1.1),he booster(12). llhen t cap in place),the acticnis identical that of instantaneous ction to a exceptthat on impactthe cap’ preventsthe striker(1) and the firing tine, inertiadrives pin (3) fro:’, beingdrivenrea~ard. At the fiare safetyshutter the pri~er carrier(3) f.rward,forcingopen the segnented ()+) and drivzlmg ?~e t prirer (5) againstthe firingpin tc activatethe explosivetrain. h’ea~ons d —.— ---—.— .’ —. -.—-and poiectiles with which used. i~eapons 45-lxl : 45-nT: antit,ank guns 11932,M1937,and 129L2;tan!: guns 1932 and !1934 57-Ann antitank~s : 111941 nd ICL9L3 a Projectiles L.5-mm Frag -------—----0-240 57-inn rag --—--- 0-270;0-2’71 F 76-mm I%g-HE -- OF-34SOF-350; OF-350A

i! ..

:1927/32, 111938/39 76-mm: tank g’UnS (L-1?),111939 (F-32),M19L0 (F-34),and !.11941 (ZIS-5); divisionalguns 12902/3(, M1933$ :1936 (F-22; M1939 (UJY),and 119& (zIS-3j; regimental guns (howitzers) MI.?27 and lIL943; mountainguns (howitzers) M1909 and M193$

a!

~.. -.

.—

3-28

.

i

SOVIET POINT DE3’ONAT~G IIIPACTUZE MODEL KT-1 F

.

rNTllK
I
I

1.919

.— #i!iI
—2 8

c
1
4.00”

b
b ,+

L

4
,s ‘o ,,,,
!! ,,, .,,

LOO”OIA 42”OIA 10 TP1

L

b b

‘7

;,,,

3-3

SOVIET PLlNT i)ETONATZ{G I12ACTFUZE 143DEL KT-2

g+. Gene@. This fuze is identical constmctionand funct. in ioning to the KT-1 and KTM-1 fuzes. It differsfrom the latteronly in havinga smallerdiameterof the base threads,being designedto screw into a boostercup (adapter) which screwsinto the well of the projectile. The KT-2 fuze is interchangeable with the KTM-2fuze. Weaponsand uro.iectiles with which use~. Weapons divisional cum 111902/30, 11933,M1936(F-22) M1939 , (USV) end h1942 (21S-3 , ) tank S M1938/39(L-11~, IQ.939 YF-32),KL940(F-34), and M1941 (21S-5).
q

1.
. g *

*:

Projectiles e 76-mm Smoke —----— D-350

i~ ~

F L 122-mm Smoke—-----—-- D-462 g E E i

howitzersM1938(1t-3G), }lL909/37, M1910/30 and

SOVIET POINTDETONATINGI!2ACTFUZE MODEL KT-3

end funct4%” 9WQ3A” This fuze is identioalin construction ioningto the KT-1 and KTM-1 fuzes and is used with old 76-mm highdif:fexplosive projectiles havinga well for the 3GT fuze. The 1ST-3 ers f%cm the KT-1 and KTl&l fuzes only in the smallersize of its base threads. The KT-3 fuze is interchangeableith the FT;,i-3 w fuze.

h.

lJ~~

with which used. pens and m o.iectiles Weapns Projectiles 76-mm HN ------=---F-354
“.

76-mm: divisional guns M1902/30, l~936(F-22), M1939(USV), and M1942(ZIS-3); tank S M1927/32,M1938/39(1-11 , Y M1939 (F-32),1~1940 (F-34), and M1941(ZIS-5); egimental r gun(howitzer) vl1927; I mountain gun(howitzer) fL909 l

.

.

SOVIET lllINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE
I

MJDEL

KTM-1

w
~. GenerQ. The KTM-1 is a point detonating, setback-armed ilze f The dovietsrefer used with 45-mm,57-mm,76-mmjand 85-Imn projectiles.. to this fuze as ‘fsemisecure” boresafe. It is capabtaofnondels,y and and delay actiondependingon the fuze coloringand t!ie use of the f’uze cap. Use of the KTIL1 is reportedto Give greaterflra~entation eff’ect than use of the KT-1 fuze;use of the black-hdied KTM-1 fuze resultw in camouflets, duds, or sometimes slightcratering a effectif used for rangesover 2+ miles and strikingsoft ground. The fuze actionis regulatedas indicated below:
h
q

*

&&w
Body and cap paintedgreen,w/cap V/o cap Tinplated body with red nose, w/cap V/o cap Body and cap paintedblack,w/cap w/o cap ‘Unplated body with red cap, w/cap w/o cap
,.,,

L

Short delay Irlstantan(?ous ,... ,, bx(~,del.ay Shortdelay Short delay Instantaneous long del.qy Short delay

u

~.

Characteristics.

Action---— --.--—---------.----.------.----”---noti%$~yand delay .badedweight —--—---— Body materiel--—--— .--— ------------------ 37o gm. (.814 lb.) !, —-—-----—--.-—----—---—- —---steel

9

6

FunctionQg On firing,the armingsleeve (1~)is set back, ~. compresses the armin~ sleevespring (9),overrides the stirrup(8),and locks itselfto the primerholderassembly(11). The lower end of the primerholderassemblyholds the aluminumsealingcushion(1,4) ver the o vent in the fuze body, shielding the detonator(12)fYom the primer (7), shouldaccidental ignitionoccur. The striker(3) and the firingpln (5) are also set back, hit the firingpin cannotreach the primer (7) leavesthe here, the arming sleeve at this time~ ~ter the projectile spring(9) raisesthe arming sleevk(10)and primerholderassembly(11) to a positiondirectlyunder the safetydisk (6). Dtiingthe flightof the projectile, the firingpin spring (4) returnsthe strike:r 3) and ( the firingpin (5) to their ori~inalpositions. On impact,when the fuse is set for instantaneousction (capin place),the striker(3) a

,

b

3-33

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE NXIDEL KTM-1
.

drivesrearwardand forcesthe firingpti (5) througha hole h the safetydisk and into the primer. The primer is thus ignitedand in turn sets off the detonator(12)and the, booster (13). Whcm the fuze is set for delay action (cap in place),the actionis identical with that for nondelayactionexceptthat, on impact,the cap (2) prevents the striker(3) from beingdrivenrearward. The primerholderassembly (11)moves forwardand, overcoming the resistance the safety of disk (6),drivesthe primer (7) againstthe firingpin to initiate the explosivetrain of the fuze. ~j hnsand~rojectiles Weapms 45-mln tank @llS M1932,M1934, : & M1938;antitankgUIM MI.932 M1937,and m942 57-mm antitenkguns M19&L,M1943 : (21S-2) and M1949 , 76-mm: divisional S M1902/30 ML936 (F-22 , M1939 (~v~ , r & M19&? (21S-3); regimental ~ (hotitzer) M1927;momtain gun (howitzer) M1938; tank guns }a938/39(Lll) & M1.939 (F-32) 85+mn: antiaircraft gun M1939;Tank ws IIL943 (D-5T85) d M19u (ZIS-S53) SP gun M1944 (D5; S85) with whj.chus~. Projectiles &AiIn Frag —. o-~o; o-240A O-2b$OM
0-271; O-27’lU

i i–

‘ 4_

*

L h r f

.—

57-mmFrag --——

76-mmFrag -—--- 0-350;O-350A Frag HE—— OF-343;OF-350; OF-350A Fhg-Gas ---—---- oKh-350 HE —-— -——----- F-354

85-mm Frag —-------—

O-365K

‘*
3-34

,, ,, f y,
:!

SOVnT .“1 a. ,,,,:

FQINTDETONATING IMPACTFU2E }40DEL KT14-1

lb il!
ill J

;

.,,, 1 f,

2,,07”

1

k [

)+ .— .

Illllmmgllllllllll

3$ ~fl KTM-I —..—

I

1.56” DIA.

,,,,,, !

1.40” UA, 10TPI 14

3-35/ 93&

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE KTM-1-U

p fuze is an im~. Genera~. The SovietKTM-1-TJoint detonating proved,modifiedversionof the earlierKTM-1and is employedin the same applications.Idke the KTM-1,the KTM-1-Uis not detonatorsafe, but is bore safe. Aming is entirely& setback. The KTM-LU displaysa slight modification the woodenfiringpin lungerassemblyand in the position in and configuration of and configuration f the detonator(10 . Dimensions o Y KTM-l-Uremainthe sameas the KTM-1. ~. ~mcteristics. $. Action---—-——-—------——--—--——Ioadedweight-----—----—--— $ Instantaneousnd non-delay a ——-------370 @XUllS 81 lbs,) (O. Steel

Body material-—-—-----—-—-- ——----------z----.---..-— “

Functio* Upon firing,setbackcausesthe Arming sleeve (4) to mo% rearwardcom~ressing the arming spring (6),permitting the stirrup prongs (7) to lock into the groovecut into the sleeve (4). This locks the armingsleeve (4) to the primercarrier(8). The fuze is not armed until this takes place. As accelerationdiminishes, the amming spring (6) ~ves the marriedaming sleeve (4) and primercarrier(8) forward until’the nose of the carrieris stop ed by the safetyr(3). Fcm instantaneous ct,$o~~he nose cap (1 is removedso that upon impact,the a t 7 directactingfiringp~ (2) is driveninto the primer (5). Flame from the primerpassesthroughthe flash hole (9) in the bottomof the fuz,e, body and t%nctions the detonator(10)and the booster(11). For non-delay actionthe nose cap (1) is left in place. The directacting firfig,pti is not moved upon impact;instead,inertiacausesthe marriedarming sleeve (6) and primer carrier(8) to move forwardshearing the four lugs on tho safetyring (3).The primerimpalesitselfon the s“bationary firing “fJ~ initiating the explosivetnin function@. The slightdelay produwedby inertiafunctioning sufficient permitprcijectile is to penetration before detonation. &
}h?Ci?)OnS

and Drojectiles with which use~. Projectile[3

-?’
u a

Weapons ..Same SovietKTM-1 as

3-37

SOVIET POINTDEIJ.;NATING IMPACTFUZE KTM-1-u

.

4
i

.

H
.

n
In
3HA KTM+

4

,__JN
. .7

b’

.

/0
. .

.4!4
3-38

! SOVIET POINTDETONATINGIMPACTFUZE ‘MODEL KTM-2

This fuze is”identical. construction in and design to th~°KTWl ze end is used with 7&mn divisio@ guns anc~ 122-mm hotitzersmokeprojectiles.The KTM-2 &KI KT-2 fizes are tilterchan~~eable. They differfrom the KTM-1 and KT-1 ties in the threadsize, the threaddiameterbeing somewhatsmallerin the KTJL2a@ KT-2.

-i?”

with which US*. 12. Weamns and rmofiectiles Weapons 76-mm: divisional #;n\;;:2~%%%%3 122-mm:howitzerM1938 (k30) Projectiles 7’-msmoke -------- D””350 122-mmSmoke ----.-—--G-462

Tr!!!!i! I]--:,,*
I
ro .S4” OIA 10t?l
R *

u
3-39

SOVIET FUINTDETONATING IMPACTFU2E MODEL KTM-3

a ~. Generd$. This fuze is identicalin construction nd functioningto the KTM-1 fuze and is interchan~eable with Yhe KT-3 flue. The KTM-3 fuze differsfrom the KTM-1 in threqdsize, the formerhaving used . a somewhatsmallertlu%ad size. The KTM-3~d KT-3 fizes,are with old 76-mm high-explosiverojectiles p havinga well for the 3GT’ fuze. with which used. b -* Weaponsand Pro.lectiles Weapons 7&nm : re~irental mm (howitzer) MI%7; tank-~-M1927/32; mountaingun (howitzer) m909 Projectiles 76-mm HE -----——--— F-354 Frag-KE—------- OF-350

? *

w

q

(

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL KTMZ-1

‘G’ This fuze is almost identical, construction in end functioning the to KTM-1 fuze,althoughit differsfrom the KTM-1 by havinga delay pelletpressedinto the powderplug. It possessestthe same (delay by action,whethercappedor uncapped. The KTMZ-lmay be identified the color of its head plug and settingcap, which are paintedeither black or red. * SOVIET EuR?T DETONATING II!PACTUZE MODEL KTMZ-2 F 4 This fuze is identical construction in and functioning the KTM-2 to and KT-2 fuzes,exceptfor the fact that it has a delay pellet pressedinto the powderplug. It possessesthe same delay action whetherit is cappedor uncapped. IMPACTFUZE MODEL KTZ-2 SOVIET POINT DETONATING
q

,

,,,

w

The I?I’~-2 differsfrom the KT-2 tie by havinga delay pellet,which is pressedinto the powderplug. The two fuzes are outhezwise identical in construction and functioning.

.,,,!

,,

,

SOVIET POINT JE’’ONAT IMPACTFUZE M-l ING . k nondelayfuze of a- !k?EmL* The M-1 is a point detonating, convential design. It is known to be used with 50-mm,82-mm,and 120-mmSovietmortars,and possiblymay be used with 107-mmand obsolete;however,it is 160-mmmortars. This fuze is considered possiblethat the fuze is stillbeing used. The Sovietsrefer to the fuze as h.msecured!’uring storageand transportthe fuze is protected D bya metal cap (1)which may be removedprior to firing, If a red stripeis visibleon the side of the projectingstrikerhead, the filze is armed and must not be fired. b -“ Characteristi~ -----------—---. ---------- nondel.ay Action --..----------Iaadedweight ------—--------------—----,-----—.. grn.(.55 Ibs) 250 —----------Body material--------—----—---~) .
.,, ,,. k

,),

),,

*

*

Upon discharge, the arndng sleeve (10) sets back s“ ~~. and its bevelededge cams the safetypin (11)outm.zxind the upper check a ball (3) drops into the recessedportionofawell on top of the arming Sieve. (10),thus freeingthe SbOVO fOr fO~I’d When the ; projectile leavesthe boie, the arming sleevespring(4) decompresses and forc,,eq,,the slepve,~pward permitting , , the lower checkIxd.ls (5) to drop inside,,a we~ ~ the sleeve. This frees the striker(6) for rearward movenqqt. During the flightof the projectile, tensionof the safety spr~g (7) preventsthe strikerand firhg pin (X2)Rrom mowing rearwati~ detonating the projectile. Upon impact,the striker(;2) is drivenrearwa~, and the firingpin (12) sets off the detonator(8) which in t~ qct~tes the booster (9) and the explosivechargeof the Projectile.
Lfiove~lente

-

and m-o3ectileswith which US*
~

Weapons companymortarsM1938,M3.940 and M1941 battalion mortarsM1937 (82-BM-37) M194J. , (82-BM-4i) , and M1943 (82-BU3) 120-mm:regimental mortarsM1938 and Ia943

Projectiles 50-mm Frag —O-1322; +2A; O 04$22Sh

~
I

[

0.-832; d~32D o 82+mn FYag —-— Smoke —-—------- D4+32 ~. ~ 120-rmn l%ag-HE---------OF-843 Incendiary-=----Z-1343A
l! ~

b
3-43

SOVIET FtJ DETONATING E’ACT II~T I; FUZE M-1

r)
1,7s9

-—

I

—2

+

o
1

M-1 I
,67” OIA 40” OIA
10 ??1

I

I

I

3-M+ :.

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL M-2

q

nondelayactionfuze Q. Genera+. The M-2 is a point detonating, consisting a phstic bodyon a wire armature,a direct-action-type of percussion mechanism, and a detonator. Althoughthe Sovietsrefer to this fuze as %msecuredf’, t is sufficiently i safe in spiteof its simthe firingpin (2) is seperated plicityof stmcture. Untildischarge, from the detonatorpelletby the safety block (5)t w~ch is a steel discThe safetyblock is held in positionby the safetysleeve (4). One end of the seibackspring (3) hoids the s~ety blockwhile the other end of the springsupportsthe stirzmp(1). teristics. b -m ChaI!!C Action—---—— --—-.---.---—-—----.---------—--—---- Instantaneous Loadedweight-—-————----——-—-— -------? grams ( ? lbs) ---—- Plr.stic

*

Body materiel—-——---—-—-—-—.—-----—.-..--—

u

Functioning.On firing,the stirrup (1) sets back, overcomes the r~~istance the setbackspring (3)tW of en@&s the HP of the safetysleeve. When-theshell leavesthe morter tube, creep force carriesthe stimmp forwardand the safetyblock (5) is then free to move away from under the firingpin, therebyprovidingan uninterrupted path to the detonatorassembly(6). Upon impact,the firtigpin is driven into and acttitesthe detonator(6),w~ch in t- actuatesthe hoster (7). $. Weamns and mo.iectiles with which used. Weapons t12-mm battalion : mortars1vl1937 (82-m37), ~941 (82-B~@ , and M1943 (82-BM43 ) Projectiles 82-mm Frag --—=-=O-832; O-832D Smoke —.-.!--— D-832

,,.

s

q

b

3-45

SL’VIETkOI1?T DEI’WATING IMPACTFUZE I,iODIiL IQ

.

$
r:

&

I —2

* rY —3

DIA

L

J

4
3-46

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL.N-3

The M-3 is a point detonating, nondelayfuze vLich is similarin design and functioning the M-2 fuze, and is used with the same projectiles to as the I~i-2 fuze. The body of the M-3 fuze is constmcted of’steel, ratherthan the plasticmaterialused in the ~~*2; allin ot~ler resP~Jcts the two modelsa~pearto be identical.

SOVIETPOINT DETONATING IMPACI’UZE MODEL M-4 F

The M-4 is the fourthmodel of the ‘W seriesof Sotiet a. Q@. mortw shells,but can mortarfuzes. It is usuallyused for explosive be used wit,h smoke and incendiaryshells.It is kr~own be used with to 120mm Nor.ars,Thre is no 321mn Mortarsand can be used with 10%m ancl visiblemeans to deterdne whethertha fuze is armed or ‘unarmed. b. Q.r’c&e~2stiiS ----..------— --------------------------- nondelay Action -----------------------------Ioadedweight 300gm. (.~>6 lb.) ,--.---------steelor ~lastic Body material--w--w -------------On c. —-. Function’inq. firing,the stirrup(4) set back, forcesits flangedlower end down into the hollowed-out safetyblock retainer(9), end compresses the spring (3). This action retainsthe’safety block (5) betweenthe fi~ingpin (8) and the detonator(6) until the projectile has left the mortar tube. Mter the projectile has left the tube, the spring (3) decompresses and forcesthe stirrup(L) upwai-d.Duringthis upwardmovementof the stirrup,its flangedlower end carriesthe safety block retainer(9) with it. As the safetyblock retainernoves upward, the caromed uzzfacen its outer circumference ngagesa verticaltongue, s o e extending upwardfrom the safetyblock (5) and cams the block outward, away from its positionover the detonator(6),thus allowingthe firin pin (8) free accessto the detonator. On impact,the foil membrme (1 7 is rupturedand the firingph is driven rearward,forcingits pointed lower end into the detonator, successively actu~.ingthe detonatorand the booster (7) which,in turn, detonatethe shell. Q. &a,ponsandyro.iectiles with @j~used. -— Ihjectiles
82mltl:

ba’<talion mc)rtars :2937 lCL941etc

82mm Yrag ----------a-g32j o-832D Smoke-.----.-------.--=D-832 O 120mm Frag+l%--------F-843;0Fg43A Incendiary —------------Z-843A ~mol:e------------------—-D-843A a

3-49

SOV13T POINTI)ETOIIATING IMPACTNJZE MODEL M-4

2.7S” ?

u 10TPI

I.[J

‘1

tit

3-50

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE M-5

M-5 is a pointdetonating, eotback-armed, ~e &Q!lZ%&. Th,e fired from 82-mm nonclel.ay actionfuze. It is used in projectiles mortars. The fuze is considered boresaf ; however,the Soviets e functions nearly the referto it as “unsecured”.The M-5 fuzesaw as the %2 snd M=3 fuzesand is considered almostidentical. to the M-4 h construction @ ftmctioning. k. @acteristi@. Action-------————--..---.---.-------— ----- nondelay Loadedweight ...------—--—-------------------77.11. gmo (.17lb) .—-------. -— Ik@y material.- ....----.-----1

plastic

The firingpfi (5) is seperated from the detonator G> asse&y%)bt&yna &all safetydisk (9). This disk is held in place by a safteycup (6). The safetyspring (4) holds the cup and disk in place. Whan the mortar is fired,setbackcausesthe stirrup(3) to move rearward and engagethe prongs of the safetycup (6). As the shell decelerates duringflight,creepforceallowsthe safetyunit to move fowardand the saf’elty *O fall away from under the firingpin, therebyproviding disk the pin with free accessto the detonatorassembly(7). On impact,the foil disk (l.) i~i%ptured and the firin in strikesthe detonator assembQ, actuatingit and the booster?7 in turn. 8 :, : ,,1, :,, .,,,,,. ,: and ?)I’oj ectQth@ich US* $* ,,:!,’ ;~, ,, .“ ; 1! ‘:,l,;’ ~wh8 Projectiles ,,,, :, 82-mm: Mttalion mortarsM1937 82+m~ag —— o-832; o-832D -, D-832 Smoke —----,— (82-~37), M3.941 (82-EW4,1) , and 1f1943-(82-B~3) ,4 ,L

3-51 \

--

I1,IPACT I’UZE M-5

I

L38”

I

\

M-6 2.69” 1

67 9

2 3 -4 s 6
7

Q3
0.

.—

3-52

I

1

SOVIET POIXTDET(~IIATLNG IMPACTFUZE MODEL M-6

1, 1 ~: :’ }
!!
l,, 1“

g. General. ‘%e M6 fuze has becomethe standard&knm Mortarfize almostto the total exclusion all. of other fuzes. The M6 is a superquick fuzc3 used tiLth low velocityprojectiles. It is bore ~d detonatorsafe possessing laterialmovingdetonatorslider. The we consistsof a a brown plasticbody made from compression molded,thermosatting,rea formu aldehydewith a cottonfiller,armingassembly,slider,detonator,lead chargeand booster. A steell sleevewith a Zig-Zagslot,a.spring,three steelballs and a slidercomprisethe armingascembly. The slider,with itts out-of-line detcmator,is maintained the safe condition the firin~pin, which in by ‘extends ntcj hole in the slider,preventing i a it’s movement. A COil spring is cmnpressed betweenthe sliderand inner fuze wall and providespower to move the sliderat arming. The prchective steel cap (1) which is securedby a pull wire is removed prior to firing. This exposesthe thin crush cap (12)which is entirelywatfer proof, The firingpin ($) preventsthe slider (9) from p movingand thus holds the detonatorout-of-line. The fir?.ag in (8) is lockedin positionby two steelballc (7) which are houe,ed n the arming i The coiledarmin~ spring (6) is held com:messed under the sleeve (2). mnin: sleeve (2),while the arming sleeveiS held W the sleeveretai~g ball (3)wedged betweenthe firingpin head and arming sleeve.
_.

1 ~ t 1 j ~ [ ) II n . ~, ~ j: j ~, P
1,

; ‘~
1

b

Characteristics.

-----.-—.---.— ------Instantaneous Action ----------.....---.------—?~adedweight—-—-..-.-—-—---— —---——127.1 ~sJN (0.28lbs.) Plastic

~ ~ 1 I
I

Eady material--—--..----------.-----.---------.— ------———

Functioning, Upon firing,setbackforcesthe arming sleeve (2) This releasesthe arming sleeveretainingb@l (3) which falls downlti~~d rearward, body cavity (4), The arming sleeve (2) continues into the fuzle delayedby the Zig-Zagslot in the arming sleeveand guidedby a pin on the :d.ide!s holder (5) until it reachesthe end of itls travel. As setback ceases,the armingspring (6)expandsmoving the arming sleeve (2) forward,releasingthe two firingpin retainingW1.ls (7),which fall into the body cavity. This permitsthe firingpin (8) to rise, powered by the armin~~ spring(6),moving the point of the firingpin (8) out of itls hole in the slider(9). The slider (9),poweredby the slideriJprti (10) moves l~t~rial~ aligntigthe detonator(11)with the firing pin (8 . j, f The fuze is now armed. Upon impact,the firingpin (8) is drivendownward by a combination compressed of air and debris crushingthe cormermembrane. The point :f the firing-pin piercesthe detonator(11~initia%g the lead charge(13) and the broster (u)
q q

3-53

-. I!eammsand rro.iectiles ——. d with ... which use~.
!/e apons

l%ojectiles 82-inn HE-hag --- O-832;O.C~~

; M 82-nlm:lqortar fi937, 19&, & 10.943

1.s4 /

1/
3.25 1

\

.95

] I

II

M6-2!

i 24-60

II
1

1

I

1 i

QillQ
3-54

SOV~T

POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE ‘MODEL M12

~. Geners& The M12 fuze is a setbackarmed,@nt detonating fuze with optional.uperquick s and fractionalseconddelay f%uctioning upon impact. The fuze consistsof threeassemblies; the titriker assembly, the delay assembly,and the boosterassembly. The strikerassemblyis identical with that used in the M6 fuze, exceptthe M12 possesses primerinsteadof a detonator, a and is int@the fuze is an M6 with selective superquick or changeable~ Basically are mountedin a rugged steelbody whioh delay action. The assemblies b completely waterproof. Thereare two delay elementsmountedin TMel.lel.Both providethe samedelay period, Superquick actionis se~ected by rotatingthe interrupter within its? packinggland,until the indiM catorarrow pointsto ‘lO1l. the delay settingthe arrow pointsto the 1f3ff position.

$?.

r ~ Cha acteristics Superquiclior 536.3 ~ams (1.18

----.-—--.----.---—,---Action -------------.Loaded weight Body material—-— —--------—----——--------—

-—----—-—-—----”—-------..--.---—,

The aming functioning identical is wiih that of @ the M6 tie. I)@on f&mt, the firingpin initiates-the rimerwhich prop optionthe flash passes throughthe duces a flash. On the superquick axial hole in the body of the delay housing (13)ignitingthe flash detonator (15)and detonating the booster. Simultaneouslyoth delay elemeb nts are ignitedbut serveno purposesincethe fuze detonatespqtor to their functioning the attachedflash pellets.If the interrupter(1.4) is set for delay action,the primerflash is blockedin the axial hole and the black powderin the upper chamberof both delays (12)is ignited. After the dews burn through,the flash ohargqin the bottcw of each delay is ignited,. which then flashesinto the detonator(:5) producing fuze detonation.
Q.

Weamns and rmo~ectiles with whioh us~. Weapons Projectiles M943 . .... 120-mm”Frag =— F-843, OF-843, OF-843A

120-mmlbrtarsM1938@

3-55

*

.

‘“ ,.
. ...

b

t

f

o

1.16

t

4.76

d=
.80 1.40 MAtJ DIA TPI ;25

10

II

12 13

14

L!! <L_ T ~:

1.25 DIA I.10 AJ 91A M 2? TPI

.75

+t-

.01

3-56

k

I I

S WIET POI!JT etonating D IMPACTFU2Tl l:EDEL lk50

‘up
Sk*

Qw2zQJk”The JL50 is a point detonating setback-armed,

nondelayactionfuze used only with fragmentation pr~jectiles. The M-50 is an extremelysensitive f’uze which the So~lctsconsider “unsecured!!.lrior use, the nose of the fuz~ is coveredwith a I to lead foil cap. This cap must be removedbefoiwfiring. The firingpin pin (3) is immobilized two check balls (6)which are lod~edbetween by the bottomof the strikerhead (1) and the top of the stirrtq? (2),and two checkballs (8) lod~edat the lower end of the firingpin (3). This preventsany movementof the firingpti until firingtakes place. It is not recommenced that the fuze be removedfrom duds; however,if removalmust be accomplished, loosenthe grub screwthat securesthe fuze to the projectile and unscrewthe fuze from the projectile. If the strikerhead is protnlding, and a red line can be seen acro~s its dismeter,it is recommenced that the fuze be blastedin place,,

h.

Characte ris%icso
..-----—--—---------—-

Action -------.--

nondelay

--—— ------ !.3.2 (.25 1.1)s) Ioadedweight --.--———.- -----[~. Body ~terial ---——-—------——----~--—--steel

On firing,the stirrup(2) sets back and allows the ) to fall away, thus releasing ,t~e,firing pin (3) for fow~zxlovement. After the projectile m leavesthe mortar tube, the anticree~ spring (7) forcesthe stirrupforwsrd,allowingthe lower check bal~~ {8) to fall away, ~eeing the firingpin for rearwardmovement{, At ‘this point~ the strikerhead (1) protrudesapproximately cme-half its lengthabo~ the top of the body of the fuze, showinga red line acro$sits diameter. On im et, the firingpin is drivenrearward, i.nitiat,~g detonator(4 and booster (5),@nct?Cming the ~fuze. the Y ,,
~.

~~ons’ and wo.iectiles with which used. Weapons Projectiles 50-m..ri ----— ------- O-f122; Prag
ca~~; L&~2Sh

5(3-mm companymortarsM1938, : It1940,nd l!1941 a .

3-57

..

SYJIET POIN~DETONATINGII,!PACT FUZE NIODEL M-50

6 1.14 7

I

e
t

36”

#

,-. 44
3-58

E%

SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MG-N

detonatorfuze. ~. General. The NG-N is a bore safe,out-of-line It employsa setbackinitiated, pyrotechnic, armingdelay featureseen in the MG-57 fuze. The MG-N is a representative f the currentSovietef~”ort o to producebore safe,detonatorsafe fuzes to replacethe earlier “-AlSeCUred” and “semisecure” uzes. It is expectedthat the MG-N will replacethe f KTM seriesfuzes in all applications.The MG-N has a singlepiece steel lmdy that has been waterproofed at’itstwo openingsb;:sealingcompound. The shippingcap protectsthe firtigpin membrane(;!).When the cap is removedthe fuze functionsinstantaneously; when the cap is left on? a slightfunctioning delay is obtained. The firingpin (3) is a hollow aluminum,two piece assembly. It assistsin lockingthe rotor (4) in the safe positionduring set-back. The rotor rotateson pins in the rotor by detents. One is of housing. It is held out-of-line two centrifugal the directarming type (18)and the other is of the delay aming tne (19) employing consumable a black powderpelletto block the detent. Rotor aming is delayeduntil the pelletis consumedand the detent is moved into the evacuatedcavity. The rotor delay aming detent (19) is initiatedby the set-back primerassemblythat consistsof a weightedmoveableprimer (13),setbackspring(15),andafixed firingpin (16). Thfs assemblyis parrallelto the fuze axis. This as;emblyis employedonly to ignitethe delay aming pellet (20). The fuze Iwdy detonator(7) rests in the center of the lowerpart of the rotor housing (5) and is initiated“by the rotor detonator(6). Thebooster (11)is separatedfrom the rotor housing (5) bya paper disc and a plasticdisc (8). These body discs are employedas spacefillersto renderthe internalcomponents rigid. The lbooster up c (11)containsthe koosterexplosive(12)which is pressedto fomn a rounded, h convexhead. The purposeof this configuration as not been determined, ~. Characteristics.

Action ——------—-..---.-----— ------------------------Instantaneous Ioadedweight —-.-----—--— --------------------- Was 347 (0.76 l:b~. )

------.----—---------------_--..----. Body material-----—---Steel When fired the setbackcausesthe weighteddelay armingprimer 1.4 and weight (13~in the rotor housing (5) to move :rearward againstits spring (15) and impaleitselfu on the firingpin (116). The resultingflame flashesthrougha groove (21 in the side of the rotor ! housinginitiating the black powd6rdelay armingpellet (20)holdingthe rotor lockingdetent (19)in position. The rotor (4) remainslocked,,As the powder (20)burns,the rotor lockingdetentmoves into the evacuatd area by centrifugal force and cam actionof the rotor (U). Simultaneously, the oppositerotor locldngdetent (18)moves outwa~ againstits spring ty centri~al force. This unlocksthe rotor (4). The rctor is now turned

‘“ T“

3-59

[. f
! .

~:

S)VIET l’CIiJT DITGI~ATING IllPACTUZJ3 MG-N F m; by centrifugal forceuntil the detonator(6) is alignedunder the firing “pin (3). Upon impact,the firingpin is driveninto the stab sensitive rotor detonator(6),which initiatesthe “mdy detonator(7) and booster. -. d Ueamns and ~ro~ctiles with which used. ——..—— — ‘ileawns 7f>~ : Gun 111942(ZIS-3) Projectiles 76-mm ~-l?rag 76-mm HE-hag 0-3 A 5f, OF-350& bF-350A ? s

! ~

+ f .

}= i ! I I

:

76-mm Tank Gun D-56T :

i!

1 [ ! I [ j“ , ; ~ i . c

~ [ [ i ~ * ~ { , t i I i I 1 f E= ~ ~ L -r w t i ~ k L ~ z i !
4 I *

,

~ += ~
~

3-60 h

\

~“’”

’56
DIA 1.40 0 -rP1 25MM PT ’21

-

DIA

L

0.72
.

.

.-

-1

-2

.3

4 5 -6

4

,

3-62

SOVIET POINTDi’TONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL MP

G The MP (~fyy ~lastmassovyy: iterally,lfkbrtar, l Plas%ct) fuze & orginally developedfor use with 50-mmHE mortar projectiles, but can be used with 82-mmprojectiles.The body of this fuze is made ~f plastic, which accountsfor itfs light weight. The entirefuze, including the metal cap, is black. It iS boresafe through a setld+actuatd mechanical block safety. The Soviet safetyclassificationf the ‘U@” fuze is “unsecured”.It is belleved o that the fuze is no longerused with 82-mm projectiles, havingbeen replacedwith the MP-82mortar fuze. Thj.s fuze has been found tierted and used as a closingplug in 122-mmHE and HEAT projectiles.

F

,!,,

~.

Characteristics. — nondelay 80 gm. (.176lb.) plastic

Action---— -----.—-----—.--.-——.--—

lkadedweight----—----------—---——-----—%dy material——-----—--—--- —-——---—-— Q.

Priorto firing,the smallmetal bcxresafety ) locatedin the base of the bushing (1,) held h is positionby the a-g spring (10) so as to preventthe firingpin (3) bm contacttig the primerpellet (7). Upon firing,the arming ,,weight is ~olently set back againstthe armingspring (:10), (5) free’~,~n6 ‘end the armhg springfrom its recessin the ‘bushing o of (4). The t~nsionQf the arming springthen causesthe armingspringto move in ap ob~qti directioncarrying with it the boresafety cylinder(6)I, therebyclearing the path of the firingpin. Upon impact,the nose cap (1) is crushqdrearward, drivingthe firingpin (3) into the primer pellet (7) in the bushingcup (Ii)and settingoff the detonator(8), which in t= @xplodesthe booster(9). The boosterthen detonatesthe explosive fillerof the projectile.

!3.

ns and Pro.iectiles Weapons ~ojectiles &ag _-—_-— fiag” —.-----04322
O-822A

50-mm: companymortarsM1938,M1939, M.940,and 1941 82-mm battalion : mortarsN1937 (82-BM37) M1941 (82-BN@), , and M1943 (82-BM43)

—------- 04332

3-63

SOVIET PGINT Detonating

,.,

.T
2 4“
1. 10

—1

MIl \
J 1.58 OIA.
D 1.40”IA 10 TPI

II

— I

3-64

1

“!,

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL MY-82

w

This fuze is similarin construction the I@ fuze$ from which it to differsonly @ the increased resistance its membrane. The MP-82 of is interchangeable with the MP morbr fuze and is used in 82-mmmortar shells. This fuze may be used h the same shellsand fired from the same weaponsas the MT fuze. This fuze is considered Wnsearedtf by the Sovietsafetyclassification.

1

k, i, ,

345/3-&b

{

SOVIET POINTD120NATING IMPACTFUZE MODELRG-6

(u

‘i

The R&6 has been replaced~ the later RGM and RGM-2 fuzes becauseits striker,actions less sensitive i than that of the other two fuzes and it is unsafeto fire when set for delay action. It is not to be used at temperatures below freezti(gj or in firingguns and howitzers with a full charge. The Sovietsconsider the fuze to be in the ltsafell category, presumablybecausethe explosive train is interrupted Ibetween the detonator and the boosteruntil the projectile leavestlhe bore of the weapon. In the case of premature primerignition at the delay setting,however,the powderdelay elementwould burn Utltil the explosive trainwas a~ed, so that Ithe proj(~ctile would burst dangerously closeto the weapn. The R&6 differsin constmotion from the RGMand RGM-2 at severalpofits. It has an elongated nose cap with a roundec~ top, hto which the head.ofits strikerextends;the other fuses have a relatively short,flat-topped cap, s striker which does not extendbeyondthe nose of the fr.ae proper,and membranous metal cover cup designedto preventair pressure from acrivattig the flue when it is firedwithoutthe nose cap. Anothermajor difference that the RG-6 has no safetydevice is to preventpremature activation the delay setting;the RGM at and RGM-2kve been providedwith a safetyplhngert,o eldrninati this drawback.

(2)

&

h (3) The differentsettingsof the RG-6 give a fragmentation,ighexplosive, ricochet, delayedhigh-explos:~ve or effect.

WLwE
IIolt w/o” cap

A&M
—-—-—--—---instantaneous (Fra,g) nondelay(~) -,_-__---.--—----

noII w/cap —---—

113 w/o or w/cap —tt m:

delay (delayed or ricochet) HE

The fuze CaP ~Y be eitherremovalor left in pI~CO when the f’uze settingis “3!1, sinceits influenue at this settingis insignificant;

b

347

SOVET

POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL RG-6

Characberist~. b -* ——. Action—-----—-— .-——---—instantaneous,ondelay,and delay n 430 gm. (0.946lb.) steel ,. L. ~unctionhg.
(2) sets b~k~ compresses ~~ng filee~e (1) n firing,~lle the arming sleevespring(3),and lockswith the retaining ‘ball sleeve (4). SMt=le~usU the ine~~ sleeve (17) overco~~g the opposition ~ of the prongs of the inertiapin safetyclamp (18)$sets backl compresses the inertianleevespring(19),and lockswith the inetiia.fi (20). p The sprin~s(3) and (19)remaincompressed until the shellIeaws the bore of the gun, when they overcomethe force of inertia. Then the arming sleeve ~pringmoves the arming sleeveand the ret.aidng ball sleeve forws@, releasinCthe threeretaining balls (l-l),nd centqi~al force a cau~esthe balls to esca~ from theirhousingsin the s-ldller1) so ( that they no longerprevent””the movementof the strikeror the primer holder (5). At the same time, the inertiasleevespyingnovas the @ertia clecveforward,drawingthe attached’inertia oub of its socket pin in the relay char:ehouskg (16)and thereby~locking the rotor body (u). The ~otor body turn; under the influenceof the spiralsprin ‘(8) and brinCsthe detonator(15)tito a~ement ~th the re~Y ~arge 79) leadincto the bcster (10),and comesto rest on a cheekpin. (2) If tine fuze is set to tistantanaousction (“O”),with a fuze cap removed,the striker(1) is drivenraarwardon impactwith the target,overcoming the anticreepspring(12),and the firingpti strikes cap on? the prithe primer (6). At the same setting,but with the fuuze r.er holderand primertiove forward,and the primerstril=sthe firing pin. In eithercase,the flash passesdirectlythroughan openingin the settiilgelector(13),and into the detonatorin the rotor body. s The dctonntion wava fYom the detonatortravelsthroughthe relay charge and activatesthe bocster.

Iaadcdw..ight —----------——----——-—--Body material—----——-—— .——.———--—-—--—--—

.

I

m .

(3) If the fuze is set for delayedaction (”3” the setting ), selectorblocksthe directchannelfrom the primerto the detonator, and the flach must pass to the detonatorbyway of the powderdelay pellet (7). (The fuze cap has the same effecton the JpcTnii~\t the delay settingas nt the instantaneous setttig: withoutfuz~’c=.p~ firing the pin moves rearw.rdto strikethe primer*with fuze cap, the. primer novcs forwardto strikethe firingpin. ~

*

.

3-68

IMPACTFUZE MODEL RG-6 SOVIET POINTDETONATING
t

ns ectileswith which used. Sb lJeaw and mo.i Weapons Projectiles

122-mm howitzersM1910/30 : 122-mnl E -- F-460 H ;F.460A;F460K; 10~909/37, M1938(M-30); and F-460N;F-460U corps s M1931and Frag HE-- OF-462;OF-462A ~931 r37 (A-19) OF.462L;OF-462N 152-rmn howitzersM1909/30,M193$ 152-mmHE-F-533;F-533K;F-533L; : (M-1O) and IU943 (D-1); , F-533M;T-533N; tank howitzerM1938/40; F-533U gun-howitzer M1937(Mb20); Frag HE— OF-530;OF-530A gun Jw910/34; gun SP Frag —-..--—-- O-530A M1937/43(~20s)

i---+

ato60”

I 4.41”

.

L-L

[

—S-J

I

349/3’7°

‘$

!,. , b

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE NIIDEL RGM

*

9“

~. Genera$. The RGM and RGM-2 fuzes have replacedthe R&6, which they closelyresemblein designand functioning, largelybecausethey are more sensitive than the RG-6 when set at tistantaneousction end are a of boresafeat all three settings. The chiefdisadvantage the ROM lies in the relatively high resistivity its safetydevices,which may preof vent the fuze from arndngwhen setbackis insufficient a condition ( sometinwoccqringin howitzerfire with low charges). It is presumably for this reasonthat the Soviets,according documentary to etidence, have not issuedthe RGMwith howitzershellssince1949. The am”g diff:~culties were corrected the RGM-2. The body of the RGMmay be either h smooth-surfaced depicted,or identical that shownin the illustraas to tion of the RGM-2, so that the two fusesmay be dfsting@shed externally only by the stsmpedmodel designation. The RGM is designedtn provide fragmentation,igh-explosive,icochet,or delayedhigh-explosiveffect, h r e depending the speedof actiondetermined the f’uze on by setthg and the below. presenceor absenceof the fuze cap, as indicated &#&&U’ tlolf /o w
@p ————--——
‘---hSt8n*X}OUS (fia$)

“o” w/cap ——-—-

—----.-~...--

nondelay(HE)

w

“z” w/o or w/cap ———-—--=!

delay (delayed or ricochet) HE

The ~ze caP maY @ eitherremovedor left Ml placewhen the fuze settingis ?f31~ , sinceits influenceat this settingis insignificant.

Action -- —---------

—-—

instantaneous~ondelay,and delay n 460 gm. (loO12lb.) steal,

Ioadedweight-—--—-—-—--—-—-————————

Ebdy material---———----------—-----—------.—--.-.,---* g.

Function*.

*

(1) on, firing the arming sleeve (2) sets kack, compresses the arming sleevespring(3\,and lockswith the retainingball sleeve (5). Simultaneously, inertiasleeve (16),overcoming the the opposition the of’ prongsof the inertiapin sdety clamp (17),sets back, compresses the inertiasleevespring(18),and lockswith the inertiapin (19). The)

b

3-71

I i, ,
II

SUVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE NODELRGM springs(3) end (18)remain compressed until the shellleavesthe bore of the gun, when they overcomethe force of inertia. Then the arming sleevespringmoves the armingsleeveand the retaining ball deeve forward,releashg the three retaining balls (6),and cen~;ifugal force causesthe balls to escapehorn their housingsin the qwciker(4) so that they no IonGerpreventthe movsrnent the strikeror the primer of holder (8). At the sane time, the inertiasleevespringmoves the inertiasleeveforward,drawingthe attachedinertiapin out of its socketin the relay chargehousing (12)and therebyunlocking”” rotor the of bcd (Ii). The rotor body turns under the influence the spiralspring (107,bringsthe detonator(21) into positionoppositethe relay charge (23)leadingto the booster(13),and comesto rest on a checkpin. (2) If the fuze is set to instantaneousction (“~”),with fuze a cap removed,the striker(4) is drivenrearward~n impactwith the target, and the firingpin (14) strikesthe primer (9). At the same sett~g, but with fuse cap on, the primerholderand primermove fomard, shearingthe claws of the primerholderretainer(7),and the primer strikesthe firing pin, In either case the flash passesdirectlythroughan openin~in the settinEselector(15\,and into the detonator(21)ti the rotor body. The detonation wave from the detonatortravelsthrcwghthe relay charge (23)and activatesthe booster. (3) If the fuze is set on delayedaction (“3”),the setting selectorblocksthe direct channelfrom primerto detonator, and the flash must pass to the detonatorbyway of the powderdelay pellet (22)., (Thefuze cap has the same effecton the operation the delay setting at withoutfuze cap, the firingpin moves as at the instantaneous setting: rearwardto strikethe primer;the primermoves forwardto strikethe firingpti when the cap is used.) A safetyplunger (20)preventsmuzzle burstsat this setting, shouldthe fuze primerignitewhile the she~ is in the bore of the weapon. Premature actionof the primerforcesthe safetyplungerto shearits retaining pin, move rearward, and immobilize the rotor body, therebypreventing the rotor body fmn mo~lngthe detonator into alinenent with the relay chargeand booster. !.ccordingly, the flash travelsfrom the powderdelay pelletto the detc:utorbut, unable to pass from the detonatorto the relay chargeand booster,cannotactivate the projectile. $. Wea~onsand nro.-jectiles which used. with lJeapons (13s-3); 100-mm field (AT) gun MI-944 : SP gun PD941;. (D-loS) Projectiles lot-mmHE -----------—F-@

3-72

,-

IMPACTFUZE MODEL RGM SOVIET POINTDETONATING Weapons(Cent) lo7-nml :: ;fi~
122-Imn :

m

Projectiles (Cent) lo7-mmHE ---— F-@2L;F-422M hag HE --—--OF-4X)

rM.&)

S h~910/30and

1
9

howitzers M1910/3C M1909/37, 122-mnlE —.. , H F-L60;F-460K; and M1738 (M-30);corps S F-460N; F-460U F!1931 and lD931/37(A-19 Frag HE--OF-462;OF-462.A Y; tsnk un ~943(D-25);SPguns OF-462L;OF-462M M1944D-25S)and M931/44(A-19S) oF.471;oF-471,N f

152-mm howitzersH1909/3G,M1938(M-10), : 152-mmHE ----—- F-533;F-533K; and M1943 (D-1);-S ~910/34 Y-533 F-533M; L; snd M1935;gun-howitzer M1937 F-533N;F-533U; (14L20) SP gun M1937/43 NL=20S) ; ( F-540Sh;F-5@ Frag HE 0F-530;OF-530A; OF-540

,..,

.20 1.5?OIA

1.42IA D
IOTPI
.

II

21

*

I

I

3-731347 +

,.

SOVIET FOINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODELRGM2 b ~’-Y A* Q2u!mL” The RGM-2 (~titovskogo,Qolovnoy,~embrl-~ Obrazets: literall, “Bdultovskiy (designerts ame), Pointcietonatimg, n Membrane, I’bdel 7 differsstructural~ nom the RGM only in the per211 cus sion safetymechanismand in the rotor body lockingdetice. This objectionable igidity(andthe consequent r high resistance setback) to of these parts in the RGM, which led to armingfailuresin low-velocity fire, has been corrected the RGM-2 principally using :iprfigslnti by : steadof rigid parts. According a Sovietpublication, to the RGM-2 is used im fragmentation,ragmentation igh-explosive,Y.d f h S high-explosive shellsfor guns and howitzers 122-mmcaliberand a“oove.The fuze is of boresafe, and falls under the Sovietclassification Ifsafett becausethe explosive train fron the detonatorto the boosteris interrupted until the fuze arms, Like the ROM, the RGM-2 providesfragmentation, ighh explosive, ricochet, delayedhigh-explosiveffect. The effectis or e deterndned the fuze settingand by the use or ~aCIfm-- of the fuxe by cap, as shownbelow. ~ ’10”w/o cap “011w/cap “3f’w/o or w/cap

4

*

Adiku

q

instantaneous (Frag) nondd.ay(HE) delay (delayed or HE ricochet)

NOTE: The fuze cap may be eitherremovedor left b place when the fuze settingis-t131f, sinceits influence this settingis at insignificant. ~. wacteristics. Action -.-.__-----—--— Loadedweight---—— a -------- instit~eous$ nondehy, and delay —~ 470 gm. (l.o34lb.) steel

-—--------—..——

Body material—-—--——-=—-——--.---------—,.---._.., Q@ioninq. of th~*RGM, .,

The functioning the ROM-2 is identicalto that of

*

Q

,, ,,

3-75

IMPACTFUZE IIIDJ3L lffiM-2 SOVIET FUINTDETONATING

Q*
Weapons
122-mm :

Pro jectiles
122-mm

howitzerl~938(l,L30); corps guns }0.931 and 17i1931/37(A-19); tank K2$7’’%-::&X4TQ17”

Frag-HE-—

OF-462; OF-471N

., OF-530; GF-530A; OF-540

ls2-mm:

howitzersM1938(N-10) snd PiL943 152-mmFra~-HE—-— (D-l);tank howitzermM1938f40; r~z::{’%wi~?:;e?:~::)

~q

2.37”
3

PrM-2

0 ! ,4.16 “

.0+

1—

[56”

DIA

—1.37”DiA
10 TPI

1’ I

I

3-76

I

!
i~~ SOVIET POI.iiT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MXIELRGM-3

The RG14-3 fuze is knownto exist,but no information to its design as and functioning available. It is believedIikelyahowever,that the is RGl&3 is sir~larin construction and functioning the MM-2 fuze. to

*

,,.

w

3+7/ 3.7 a

,,,

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL UGT

w
The $2’ SQQu#JB” UGT fuze @iversal %yy Qolovnoy,~etrilovyy: Pointdetonating, Tetryltlis a nondela.yuze of ) f literally, llhiversal, earlySovietdesignwhich has been replacedby the Model UGT=-2 f’uze.HE projectiles old designare,currently of using the UGT; however,new model “ projectiles now use the UGT-2. The UGT is termed universal{? becausoof its versatility use in rojectiles varyingcaliber. Prior to firof of ing, the primercarrier(5 is held in the rearmostportionc]f the fuze 7 by the anticreepspring (1) so that the primeris isolatedfrom the cletonator (6). The fuze is considered “safe”by Sovietstandards prior to firing. In the armed positionthis fuze is extremelysensitive and a very lightblow on its nose may detonateit, It is recommended that anydwl projectiles armedwith this fuze be blastedin place. ~. Character istics. -------=------- nondelay 530 gm. (0.726lb.) —-steel

:In ,,, il. ,!.
!,

!
!

l, ,,

;y ,~

:, ,:

~.. ,,~

4

,,,

h

. ,.: .,, T !, $

-.----.--—-------Action ------------

Iaadedweight--------—------------..-.--.——

Body material---------—--.-------------—-------,

w

Functiotig. On firing,setbackforcesthe stirrup(3) rearward over%e primercarrierclampingspring (4) which springsoutwardbehind the shoulders the hner,,,,,~,? of the stirmp (3) and thus locks the on stirrupto the primercarrierfr . On impact,the stirrupwith the carr. 5 ier lockedto it, end the primer (7) which is firmlyaffixedto the end of the carrier,drive forwardand bring the primerinto positim in the centerof the detonator(6). On strikingthe firingpin (2),the pfimer is activated, and in turn activatesthe detonator(6),exploding the projectilefiller. Wea mns and Drofiec tiles with which lXle& Weapons 107-MM:corps guns M1910/30$M1940 (MO), and m941 152-mm:~ M1910/34;gun-howitzer m937 (-20) 203-: howitzerM1931(B-4) Projectiles lo7-mm HE “--------— 152-mm HE ——-----203-mmim --.--..--— 305-mm
—.B--—--,— .“-

,,,

:,,,
,!,

; j, :,: !, ~j ~
,r

F-422L F-5,42t3

!JJ ,,, ,,

. *

N
F.(Q1 ,

,..,,.
pi ;,j,, p~..

305-mm: howitzerM1940 (BR-18)

? ~:

hi!

U

3-79

SOVIET FOINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL lIIT

m’ =

‘“L *
4

r

Q\
I

DIA ‘ -1.59” OIA - 1.4?”

l

‘“

IOTPI

6

*

*

—. a

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPAOTFUZE MODEL UG~.2

~. Genera. The UGT-2fuze (Universal. %yyj Golovnoy, ‘Tetrilovyy, S Dwmya Ustanovkami: literally,“Universal, Pointdetonating, Tetz@, With two settingsI) I was designedfor use with high-explosivend fraga mentationhigh-explosiverojectilesof 76-mm,107-mm,122-mm,and p 152- calihr. The fuze io capableof nondelayactionwith fuze cap removed,and delay action (appro~tely 0.01 second with t:he ) flue cap attached, The fuze cap my be removed~ means of a tool insertedin a slot in the cap. This fuze is boresafeand armed ~ setbackaction;it differsfrom the UGT chieflyin havinga fuze cap which may ‘be removed to vary the action,a firingpin attachedto a heavy strikerhead, and an arming springthat forcesthe primercarrier-forward arming,tihereon ~ positio~g the pr~r just under the firingpin. k. Qxca@4r-e — --------- ..—------ —-Action -----------— -... Loadedweight —------------—-— -------— nondelayor delay 330 gm. (0.726:Lb. ) steel

Body material------------------= —------------,---.-—..-—,

Functioning.The functioning the UGT-2 is essentially of tile same ~1 that of the ~T fuze. mns @ A* Wea 76-mm : mo.iectiles thwhioh USQ. wi 76-mm HE —----—-----q

divisional ~S M1902/30, M1933,M1936 (F-22). M1938739, M1939 (Usi) & , M1942 (21S-3 ) corpsguns la910/30and KI.941. tank gun M1943 (D-25); COZ’PS gUnS ~931 and M1931/37(A-19); gUXI Sp M1944 (A-19S); howitzers M1910/30 and M1909/37 gun M1910/34, M1910/30 ; gun-howitzer M1937 (-20); howitzers M1909/30and M1910/37

F-35@J

lo7-mm :

lo7-mm

HE ----------—- F+20U Frag-HE-—---- OF-4@U Smoke — D-422;D-422U F-460K;F-460N; F-460U

1.2zlnm:

122-mmHE —-

152-mm:

152-mmHE- F-533 ;F-533K;F-533L F-533M;F-533N; F-533U;F-5@lhU; F-542U

pl

SOVIET POINT DIItOIIATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL UGT-2

w’
J ,

OIA

;~L4t”

m 10 TPI

1

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL UGT-3

This fuze is the thitimodel of the UGT seriesand is d.milarh design and functioning the UGT-2 fuze. The UGT.3differsfrom the UGT-2 only to in the shapeof the nose.

4

+

w

.

4

u

SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPAOTFUZE MQEL V-25

superquick dela~~ or S, Genera&. The SovietV-25 is a selective pointdetonating fize employedin the l&mm rocket. The V-2!5 employs graze sensitive weightsend detonatorcarrierproducing impac:t nertiai non-delayfunctioning when impacting flat angles. The ent,ire uze is at f made of cadmiumplated steel,exceptfor the selectorassemblywhich is b~ss . The steel body is heavy and robustand is capableof attacldng reinforced structures.An indication its penetration of Capabilities is the l-secondlong delay feature. The fuze is well constricted making extensive use of platingof set-back and centrifugal detentsas well as plasticsealingrings at all fuze body openingsrendering the fuze body completely waterproof. The V-25 is considered tore safe and provideshandlingand shipping safety. The fuse nose is protectedby a shippingcap (1) that may or ma not be removedfor firbg. The strikerhead and firingnin assembly(1.1 7 are maintained the up~r part of the fuze by the st~~er spring‘(2!). in The strikeris held away from the detonator(16)by two,centrifugaletents d (14). The detents (,~)are maintained under the firingpin (11)by the detent springs(13 ). The detentsand springsme loadedthroughthe closing cap (12)which is sealedby a plasticring. The centrifugal detents (24)are furtherheld in the lock@ positionby two set-baak detents (3) and springs(4). The graze sensitive weights (17)cm the detonaboroa~ier (6) upwardinto the firingpin (1.1)pon flat impact. The delay ass. u emblies(1?)consistof non-gaseous powderpressedinto threadedhousings The selector(18)is a cylindrical piece that SCT9W, ~p $he,,,$’kq9,,,,lxxlY. of brass k“’w~ch two holeshave been drilled. The supeq~c:~ hole provides a straightflash channelfrom the upper detonator(16)to tlm lower detonator(7);the secondhole is the shoq%delay channel(21). It is drilledat a 45 degreeangle and when the selectoris turnedto IIMII, it acceptsthe flashfkwm the upper detonator and transmits to the short it delay pelletwhich burnsfor 0.5 seuonds. With the selectornet on the centralflash hole is complekly blocked. This permitsthe lqng ~elay pellets (20)to be ignitedand producetheir l-seconddelay. It shaildbe noted that the long delay pelletsare igniteddiaring upe~uick and short s delay action?but are not permitted completetheirfunctionprior to to detonation the fuze. of A$X4@
1101! —-----—------—

!!,

,,,.

. .

II, 1 f

----------------superquick —--—
---— ------

IIII “’ —---— 6 --—
llMfl —-------..--—

..---”longdehy

(l.O second)

shortdelay (C~.5 secod)

345

...

SOVIET POINT DETONATING I~~ACTFU~ ~. Characteristics.

I@~L V-25

Action--------—-—----—-----—--- —---—-—— Loadedweight-—-----—---------—--- —.-.—-

supenquiok deky or 605 grams (1.30lbs. ) steel

F“

--—--—---—----------—-—-— Body meterial--— -—---------. .

When the rocketis fired,setbackoausesthe two setbackdetents 14 to move downwatiagainsttheir spfigs, unlocking ‘“ -’ “ their centrifugal weights (~) which move outwardagainsttheir springs detents (14)move out(13 by centrifugal ) force. As the centrifugal the positiveblock is removedhorn the firq pin (n). The stfikeris preventedfrom firingthe detonatorby the strikerspr@ (2) when se~ back ceases,the centrifugal detentblockingcup (15)risesunder the influenceof its springto preventthe centrifugal detentsfrom returning to their originalpositions and blockingthe striker. The tie is now armed snd will functionupon impactor grazingaction. Upon impact,the the strikerassembly(Xl)is drivenreamard. Simultaneously, graze weights (17) slidelaterallycammhg the detonatorcarrier(6) forward. ‘Thefiringpin piercesthe detonatoi~ ’initiatinghe eqlosive train. t “‘‘Ifthe fuze strikesa targetat a low angle,the strikerassembly(~) ., may not be drivenrearward. The grazevaights (17)move laterallycammthe @ the detonatorcarrier(6) upward. The detonatorcarrierovercomes resistance the carrierspr~ (5) ~d ~pales itse~ on the de~~~r~ of initiating the explosivetrain.
q

4

Q. Weaponsand Projectiles wi+~ which used.
Uo-mm :

Sovietrocketlauncher Model ?

140-mmHEX?rag—--—--

M140F

*

3-86

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODELV-25
— .

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SOVIET POINTDETONATQJG IMPACTFu~

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SOVIET POINTDJICONATING IMPAC?IUZE MODEL V-229 F

~. Gene-. The V-229 is an instantaneous,ose-percussion-type n fuze of convential. design,used only on HE,AT projectiles fired from, 1224nmhowitzers. The ftuze body is plastic. Three cheekbdl.ls, positionedabove the stirrupto preventforwardmovementof the firingpin, and three steelrollers,positioned the lower end of the strikerto at preventrearwardmovement, make this fuze mechanically boresafe. The tie is extremelysensitive when azmmd and oaution-sho~dbe exercised in handlingit. To removeit from the dud or an unfiredprojectile} loosenthe grub screwwhich securesit to the projectile nose, and unscrewthe fuze (lel%hand thread). A visual e~tion will not revealwhetherthe fuze is armed or unarmed. ~. Characteristics. --.—-..-.--- —----— —---—— —-— instantsm30w ? plastia

Action-----—--—

Loadedweight—————————

-------.--.. —..------—”--

Body material———-—---—---—-—-—

lhnctionin~.On firing,the stirmp (4) sets back and compresses’ th$arming spr~ (5) and, at the same time, frees the checkhll13 (3) from the recessand snows them to drop down into the fuze body. This ,i$~~~:,~t$e @irrpp fOr f~zxl movement althoughit is momentarily , hdd “’’”’*ear’ward force of inertia. After the projectile by the has left the gun tube the arming spring(5) decompresses and forcesthe stirrupfomard @i~ ‘itcontictst e under surfaceof the stfikerhead (2). This frees the safetyrollerst and permitsthem to drop down into the) ,,6), fuze bod , freeingthe strikerfor reaxna@ movement. On impact,the fclil cap (1 T is ruptured,the strikeris drivendownward,forcingthe firing~“ (7) into the detonatorassembly(8),and exploding the projectile.

Weapons

Projectiles BP-4.60A

122-mm: howitzers M1910/30, ML909/37, 122-mmHE$AT -— —--and M1938 (M-30)

3-s9

SOVU3T POINTDETONATING IMPACTI?UZE MODELV-229

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8829
1.40” OIA 10 TP[

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SOVI?STPOINTJXI!ONATING IMPAOTFUZE V-429

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The SovietV-429 is the latestproductin the A. Gnr e SovietRG-6 and RGM serie,suzes. T,hp f evolution of ,V-429 containsa +“ firingpin armingmechanismidentical principal, that seen in the in to SovietM-5o mortarfuze and in the SovietV-229 fuze. The selector spindleis the same as that employedon the RGM. The coiled,flat spring powered,ou~f-line detonatorsystemis the same as that e~ployedon & SovietD-1 and ROM seriesfuzes. The se$tackoperatedrotor unlocking systemis identical with the one used on the laterversionof the RGM-2. The SovietV-429 is armed only by setback. The SovietV-429 closelyresemblesthe RGM seriesfuzes in that it is machinedfrom steel,the upper body is cadmiumplatedwhile the lower bodyiS blued. The entirefuze is sprayedwith varnishfor (corrosion protection. All openingsin the fuze are sealedby v5nyle sealingrings. The selectoris made waterproof througha compoundpackinggland. Externally,The SovietV-w differsfrom the RGM in havinga slightlylonger boostercontaining 12.0 grams of tetryland wax as well as a boosterlook ring. The safetyplunger (9) preventsmuzzleburstsshoukithe primer (8) premature. When the primerfires,the gassesdrive the plunger (9) downward shearing the pb (10). The shankof the plungerpreventsthe lug on the rotor springmechanism(n) from turningthe rotor (20) to align the detonator with the boosterlead (16). In this case the fuze will be a when the primeris fired to dud. “Thesafetyplunger (9) also functions lock the rotor (20);,,’ armed position. This preventstho rotor (20) the from bouncingout of line upon impact so that delay functioning will, be normal. ~. Characteristics. ——--——---—---— ----— Instantaneous and delay 434 tYSms (oo95lb) Steel

Action—-——

Loadedweight-—.--—-----.—.——— ‘—---——

-----

Body material—----—-—-----—,-.-—, -------------—----—---

*

d

Functioning. Prior to firimg,a selection made c~f is the desiredS&e functioning. The nose cap (1) may be removedfor supequick functioning left in place for non-delayftmctioning.The selectoris or turnedto the ~)C’~ positionfor superquick to the 11311,posit,ion or for a delay setting. upon setback, the setbacksleeve (5) moves down, compressing itf~ spring(4),and releasingthe lockingball (3). The setbackcollar (13) moves downwardagainstits spring (15)and the lock pin (14)release~] its pressureon the ball (12). Setbackand centrifugal, force causesthe ball (12)to move tito the collar (13) cavity. As acceleration diminish~,

3-91

SOVIET POIitC DETONATING IMPACTFUZE V-w the setbacksleeve(5) moves foxward,powerd by its spring (4) into ‘the spaceoccupiedby the lockingball. This uncoversthe firingpin lockingtills (6),which are removedfrom their oavities centrifugal ~ force. The lock pin (14)is also forcedupward~ its springwithdrawingits shank&om the lack pin hole in the boosterlead disc. This unlocksthe out+f-line rotor (20). The rotor (20)is then rotated by the clock type spring (11)aligningthe detonator with the..booster ”limits the travelof the rotor to assure lead (16) The stop pin (21) . it stops In line with the detonator and boosterlead. Upon impact,the firingpin (2) is driveninto the primer (8) if the shippingcap is removed. If the cap remainsin positionthe rimer covermoves forwardimpailing the primer (8) on the firingpin (7 . Y When the primerfiresthe flashpaasesthroughthe flash channeland ignitesthe delay element(17)and drivesthe safetyplunger(9) downward shearingits pti (10). The safetyplungerlocksthe rotor in the armed position. If the selector(18)is set for sups uick ftmctioning, the primerflash initiates the detonatorin the rotor 20) which in turn 7 functionsthe boosterlead and booster. If the selector(18)is set on delay the fhsh channelIs blockedand the delay Initiates detonator functioning.
~.

Weawns and Drofiectiles h with whit USO&
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Projectiles 122Mm:HE-Frag.OF-472 HE-Frag.OF-b62 13wm: HE-l%ag,OF-4.82M ls2mm:HE-Frag.OF-S~O

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL 3GT

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Tetrilovy, 3-y Obrazets: A. Genera& The 3GT fuze (Golovnoy, literally, ‘fPoint detonating, Tetryl,3rd Modeltl)s used on, I old highexplosive projectiles.It has been replacedon latermodel projectiles ~ the UGT seriesof fuzes (UGT,UGT.2,and UGT-3 ). The 3GT fuze tsl paintits nose plug (1) proed bla~. When the fuze is p~perly seated,onl.y trudesfrom the projectile(approximately one-halfinch). The fuze is consideredsemisecure Soviet standards ti becausethe nrimeris isolatedf%om the detonator until the projectile leavesthe bore &f the gun.

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t Charac eriiticqe —--—— --—=-=--------nondelay

Action—-—----—--—— Ioadedweight-—-—-—--———

—---.--.-,.---,

720 gr=S (1.58lbs) steel

B&&material -O--—-—.—-.-—-.—..zzie.

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c ining On firing,the stirmp (3) sets back, overrides ( ct& (4j,and is lockedto the strllcer5). On impact,the striker(5),firingpin (6),primercarrier(8), the primer (9) set forward,compressing the anticreepspring (2). When the spring is ftilly compressed, the sleeve,striker,and firingpin stop while the primercontinues forward,forcingthe pellet againstthe firia in and ignitingthe primerwhich successively otuatesthe delxnytcr77 and a 7 ,,,,, ,. ,,,, ,, explodesthe projectile. rxms andmrcflectQeswith whioh used. !% Wea Weapons Fkojectiles

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL3GT

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING IMPAOTFUZE l@DEL 4GT

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fuze which ~. GenerQ. The 4GT IS a singleaction,shortdelay-type has been replacedby the UGT-series fuzes in currentuse, Informatim h relativeto this fuze is very limited. The fuze is used in atld-typeighe losiveprojectiles the 152-MMand 203-Mmcalibsr. The safetypin of (~ Ust be removed~f ore the pnjectile is fired. The pmer charge (9) is sealedoff from the primer (5) by a lead washer and a shaft (8).

Action——----Loadedweight———

—----

—-——.——---—-—----—-.-—---.-.---—- .,

shortdelay 7 ‘1

Body material. -—-—-—--------—-—-e~-—--

On firing,the upper firing”pia”3) sets kck ~ ( ~~itid ~ the clip (2).,Duringflt ht, the primerholder 7 (6) ishel.dti positionby the sntlcreepSPring (4 . M impact,the primerholdermoves forwardbecauseof inertia~and imP@es the Prim’er 15) onthe Pc@tof theupperfirxpti (2). “Thef~ih*Ornthe-pr~lrner (5) Psses tkughtheflashc-el (7) @ igdtes thepwder charge (9). The ases producedby the burningof the powderchargeforcesthe firing the detonata pin f10) into the detonatorassembly(lI. The actionof’ ). causesthe booster(~) tc,,,,,~,=lcde,actuatingthe main chargeof the thus projectile. Q. WeaDonsandmm3eWeapons 152-MM: guns ML910/30and ~910/34;. gun-howitzer M1937 (ML&20) 203-nEu: howitzer “M1931(B-4) with which use& Projectiles 152-unnE — H 203-mmHE F=542G;F-5@hG; F-5@h

——.-.!-.

3-9?

WXLLETPuINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL4GT

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CHAPTJ3R fJ

CHINESECGMMUNIST PCINT DEl?ONATINC FUZdS

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CHINESECOMMUNIST POINT DETONATING FUZFU3

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The greaterpopulation ChiCom fuzes,regardless class,have of of been directcopiesof standardSovietdesigns. However,a trend toward indigenous fuze designshas been noted. This is manifestin artillery caliberspecullarto the ChiComs. !fhere conmoncaliberand projectile desi~ exist betweenthe ChiComsand Soviet,the Soviet fuzo copy io normallyemployed. In all casesworkmanship has been excellent, indicating careful, adherenceto nualitycontrolprocedureand employment machine of including tools to westernstandards. Soviet fuze designphilosophy, environmental prooflng~has been carefullyincorporated into ChiCom fuze designsand workmanship. This reflectsmasteryof intricate machinetools,plating,plasticsand aseemblyline procedure. Those fuzesthat are directcopiesof Soviet fuzea,are in practically everycase exact copies,down to identicaltool marks. In these cases it is quite evidentthat Sovietdrawingsand Soviet built machinetools and dies have been employedto producethe fuze. The only departurefrom Sovietordnancedrawingsare in the fuze markings. ChineseCommunistfuze designations firstappearto have no at “meaning. The Arabicnumberis simplya type designation. The key lles in the Chinesecharacterthat precedesthe Arabicnumber. Thee~e characters are sometimes abbreviations more complexChinesecharacof ters.’fi other cases the characters representa phoneticthat resembles the Soviet spokenword. For example,mortar fuzes that are copies oIf the SovietM serieshave a Chineeecharacterthat translates into “MUIf (”~ in &gUsh” ) which is as close as the Chinesephoneticcan come to the RussianCyrillicsounds. A secondexampleis the Chinesecharacter appearingon their copy of the SovietV-429 fuze. The character represents “FU” phonetically which approximates the “V” sound. There are some designation markingson copiesof Soviet fuzes, appearingboth in Chinesecharacters and Englishtype letters,that have not be deciphered. This may represent new type designation a system,but only one fuze possessing this type ‘desi~ation has been examined. The Viet Namconflict causedlarge quantities Soviet md ChiCom of I$SatitizedN ordnanceto be produced. The ChiComsproducedweaponsand anmnition with no designations, ot numbers,or manufacturing l dates at all, or exertedgreat effortto grind this information off the fuzes. Where this was done on metallicfuzes,the markingswere restoredby etchingand appe,arn this report. i A directcomparison currentChiCom fuzeswith those of Koream of war vintageshow remarkable advancesin designand quality. CurrentlLy~ ChiComfuzesappearon a directpar with all other countries,, The greaterportionof ChiCom fuzesare directcopiesof Soviet ffuzes,ut b this does not detractfrom ChiCors orkmanship quality. w or

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~. Genera. The Chi Com fuze for the 57-mm HEAT projectileis a centrifugallymed, point delxmating a fuze with a superquick action. Externally, the ChiComfuse resemblesthe U.S. 57-mmHEAT fuze. Infernally, the fuzes are vastlydifferent. X?unctionfig the ChiCor. uze of f is almostidentical with the ChiComtype 57 and early Type 53 fuzes. It has brass centrifugal detentsthat are mated togetherand they 10cIc each other in position. They are retainedin the unarmedpositionby a brass, leaf type, centrifugal spring. A wooden firingpti plungertransmitsthe force of impactto a brass firingpin. The firingpin plungertransmits the tipactto a brass firingpin. The fitig pin is maintained formrd in its cavity,away from the primer,by a spring. The 57-mm RR tie is machinedfrom a solidblock of aluminm and is assembledentirelyfrom q thraded components xcept for the noee diaphramdisc. There is no prepa=tion for firingrequired.

Action .-.—---- .—-—---—---.-— Loadedweight----- —-—----— Eody material—-----+.-----— u

-----—-—----—-

Instantaneous 175 grams (0.38Ibs)

---------------------------Aluminum

Upon firing,sethck seatsthe firingpin (2) !2” FmctionQg firmlyon the centr~al detents (4) and restrains any outws.tiotation. r After settmckdecreases, centrifugal forcescause the detents (4) to rotate about their pins againstthe tensionof the centrifugal spring (3),which encirclesthe detents (4). When the noses of the detents (4) reach their outermosttravel,they tend to engagethe rear of the detent in front of it. As spin decreases, the centrifugal springattemptsto force the detents tiwardand becomelockedin the open position. The firingpin is maintained the upper end of its cavi w the firingpin spring. lpon In impact,the wooden fixd.ngin plunger (1 forcesthe firingpin (2? dLownp 7 wrd into the prtier (6). The primerflashesinto the detonator(7), desi~j sendsa “spit-back’! o}f jet which, becauseof its shapedcharge incandescent pmticles into the base detonatorof the HEAT projectile. & ~awns end Dro.iectiles with which USed. 57-Iron —.——.HlkAT

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CHICOM POINT INITIATING

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CHICOM POINTDETO~JATING IYiACTFuzE TYPE I (ROC~T)

The ChiCornype 1 (Rocket) T fuze is a modifiedversion Q. “’~~. of the SovietV-25 rocketfuze and is employedinterchangeablyith ‘the w supexquick or V-25 on the Soviet140-mmrocketMll@F. It is a selectable 1 is delay impactfuze that arms entirelyby centrifugal force. The T t very robust. Each openingis sealedwith a plasticring so that T e fuze and ceris completely waterproof. The fuze is cadmiumplatedinternally tain moveableparts such as detent~,are chromeplated.All setbackdetmts seen in the SovietV-25 have been eliminated the’ in ChiComType 1 and an additional centrifugal. elementhas been added. This additioxulco~tonent increasesthe lengthof the Type 1 over that of the SovietV-25. Ths Type 1 has only one delay settingof 0.025 seconds. The Soviet V-25 has two’ selectable delaysof 0.025 and 0.1 seconds. In all other ways the safety deviceadded to the Type 1 fuzes are identical. The centrifugal consistsof a flat, circularhousingmachinedfrom steel. All parts are chromeplatedagainstcorrosion and to reducefriction. The housingYQS a centralflash channelthat alignswith the upper detonatorand the flash channelin the fhze body. Two lateralgroovesact as a trackfor a Wfl :M shaped,slidingdetent. This detent is rectangular shapewith a notch .ineach leg as a recessfor a springloadeddetent to lock. The detents are locatedin cavitiesdrilledthroughthe housing. A thin cup is pressed over the machtiedhousingto secureall components within the hous@.
~.

Char acteristics.
,,

--Action ---.— ----------------------- Selectiveinstantanecmls delay or --—----.--—---—-Ioadedweight -—---— ----Body material—----------— —--—---------.-— 694 -S (1.53lbs)

-m-~---.-— ------- teel S

Functioning Upon firing,setbackcausesthe firtigpin (2) to g. seat firmlyupon the’centrifugaletents (4) locldngthem ti place. The d detent lockingcup (6) is also setbackcompressing its spring. As ac:cellerationceaseaand centri al forcesincrease,the centrifugal detents (4) under the ffitigpin ? move outwardagatisttheir springs(5). The (2 detentblockingcup sp~>ingorcesthe detent blockingcup (6) upward until f it rests againstthe shoulderof the firingpin. In this positioni! blocksany returnof the detents (4). Simultaneously,entri,ftqgal c force causesthe slidingdetentto move outwardalong its track opemingthE? flash chennel. The fuze is now armed. ,Withthe selectorset on superquick, the flash channelis open from the upp6r detonator(8) to the lowmr detonator (14)ti the boostercup. Upon impact,the firingpin is driven into the upper detonator(8) or upon impactat flat sn~les.the aaze weirhts (10) move laterally and cam the det~natorcarrier19) fipwani-so that ~he d&o= nator (8) is impaledon the firingpb (2). The detonatorflashesdowu into the lower detonator(L!+)hich initiatesthe booster, w

4-5

—— .—— .- -

1
CHICOMPOINT RESONATING lMPAOTFUZE TYPE 1 (ROCKET) . @* z If the selector(13)is set on delay,the delay elements(20)are ignitedupon functioning the upper detonator(8). However,the selector of blocks the flash channelon the delay settingso that the flash from the upper detonatorcannotreach the lowerdetonator(~). When the delays (20) b throughafter approximately O.025 seconds,they flash into the lower detonator(IA) causingthe boosterto detonate. ~. ,_ns and mo-iectiles with which” use& Weapons D’7-mm rocketlauncherType ? : F&ojectiles 107-mnHE-Frag------Type H-12 & ,

1

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CHIC(34POINT DETONATING ~ACT FUZE TYPE 1 (ROCKET)

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CHICOM POINT Detonating IMPJ,CTUZii F TYPE 1 (ROCKE?l

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CHICOM POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 1 (RXCOILIZXS RIFLE)

G
a. General. The ChiComType 1 recoilless riflefuze is another The relationship betweenthe Type TS-2 exact cow of the SovietGK-2. The Type TS-2 examinedwas manufactured earlier‘than is not understood. the Type 1. Both were producedby plant 34 and appearto be identical. The boostercup is sealedwith nylon pipe sealantand the entirefume appearsto be excellent. appearswaterproof. Workmanship ~. Charac teristics. Instantaneous

-.—----.----—— ---------Action ..-—-— -----------Loadedweight--------------——---—-- —----.-—

176 gram (0. :Lbi) 38 Aluminum

Body material—--- —-------—--------. --------— -----—--

For a description the functioning the Type 1, of of s“ -o-e refer to the ScvietGK-2, Q. Weawns and mo.i h ectileswith WhiC use~. Weapons rifle Type 52 75-mm: recoilless Projectiles I XAT 75-mm RR Fin-Stabilized

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The ChiComType 1 is a settackand centrifugal :o;rce Q. *@.&. anmd fuze, with pyrotechnic delay armingand a graze sensitive feature. Its most notablefeatureis its cockeddetonator. Overallcolor is ‘black and the markingsare stampedinto the upper fuze body. The Type 1 IIS v@y robust,but the designdoes not displaythe currenttrend towardextreme waterproofnessoted h other ChiCom/Soviet n fuzes. The Type 1 is imiig~eoua to CommunistChinaand is not a copy of any lulown fuze. The TYPE 1 ha~ an upper and lower fuze body that are threadedtogether. The upper body is then roll crimpedwith the lower body. The cap at the nose of the fuze is normallyremovedfor instantaneous action or left on for. nondel.ay, graze sensitive action. A thin metal membranecoversthe firingpin openingin the fuze and is securelycrimpedto an annulargroove. The firingpin bead (1) is a separateflangedmetal disc that fits over the firingpin shsnk (2). The firingpin is of two piece construction.The firingpin is not restrained an anti-creepspring. The fhing pin is by lockedin the unarmedposikionby two centrifugal detents. One detent (7) Is a directarming type that is springloadedinwardby the detent spring (6). The detentend springare retainedin the cavityby the detentplug (5). The oppositedetent is of the delay armingtype. Its housing (18) containsa solid,consumable, black powderpellet (19) that is ignited~ the setbackprimer (29). As the pellet is consumed,centrifugal force causesthe detsntto retractinto the evacuatedcavity,unlockingthe firing pin (20). A detent lockingsleeve (8) is forcedforwardby its ~3pring to lock the two cen~~al detentsin the armed position. In the unarmed positionthe lockingsleeve (8) is held downwardby the two extendeddetents. The graze sensitive firingas~,embly 21)is held lockedin the ~+d ( positionby the two centrifugal detents. Iihen the two detent,sove c)ut m and are lockedby the lockingsleeve (8), the firtigassemblyis then held in positionby the anti-creep spring (17). The graze firingassemblyhas ihree lockingball. recessesthat house the three lockingballs (10) that lock the primercarrier(22)in the cockedposition. An annulargroove,CWII into the innarwal.1. the lower fuze body, is located “ustabove the lock@ of ball recesses. When the graze firingassembly(21 moves forward,by impact ! inertia,the lockingballs (10)are forcedinto the grooveand releatiehe t oockedprimercarrier(22). The primer carrier(22) is sprin.loadedupward by the compressed primer carrierspring (11). The spring (11 propel~s the 7 primer-rrier forwardon graze impactsso that the primer (9) is impaled upon the firingpin (20). The primercarrierspring (11)is retainedin the primercarrierby the threadplug (12)that is perforated by a single flash channel...Theraze firingmechenism(21)is preventedfrom rotattig g by a lockingball (23)positioned a recessthat is cut into both t,he In ftaze body and the graze firingmechanismhousing. The entireassemblyiS dosed , by a threadedplug (13). This plug possessestwo smnner holes and a central flash channelleadingto the ~etonator(15). ~he detonatorrestH cm a shapeddetonatorholder (u), which in turn is separated from the booster explosive(16)by cardboard discs (~). The boosteris sealedto the f%%e

4-11

CHIOOM POINTDETuNATINGIMPACTFUZE TYP13 (ARTILE~) 1 body by an apoxy sealingcompound. A verticalcavityin the up er fuze body housesthe setbackprimer (29)and firingpin assembly(27 . The primeris fixed in the bottomof 7 from the primer the cavity. The firin pin is moveableand is separated by the setbackspring?28). The firing pin has two verticalgrooves cut into its surfacethat act as flash channels. The firingpin (27), and primer (29),are retainedin the cavityby a slottedPIw..(25). ~horizontal flash channel(30)”connectshe primer cavitywith the co:munt able black powderpellet (19)in the delay armingdetentassemb~. The flash channel (30)permitsflamesfrom the primer (29)” be t~ns~tted to to the delay aming pellet (19). Dud Type 1 and me 3 fuzes are considered hazardousdue to the armed, cockedprimerassembly. ho ~kracteristics. Action —.-.-—-—--.--------—--.----— -—-------------Instantaneous

Iaadedweight ------.-----.------—--—.--—--—- 405 grsm (0.87lbs.) Body material-—-------.------——---—-.---------—— ------- Steel

Q“ .aP@ds@Jze Prior to firing,the fuze cap may be removedfor instantaneous actionor left on for nondelay action. Upon firing,the detent lockingcollar (8) moves down compressing its spr-fig,emo%g r frictional resistance from the centrifugal detents. Simultaneously,he t set-backfirin pin (27)moves downwardagafistthe sprfig (28)$firfig the prtier (29 . The resultingflame passesthroughthe flash channels 7 (26) ti the firingpin (27) ~d passest~o~h the c~el (30) i@ting force causesthe detent (7) the delay armingpellet (19). Centrifugal to move outwardagainstits sprfig (6),partlyunlockingthe firingpin (20). As the pellet (19) is consumed,centrifugal force causesthe delay aming detent to move into the evacuatedcavity. This producesdelay arming of the firingpin (20)and the graze firfigassembv (21). AS acceleration diminishes, the locldngcollarsprtigforcesthe COllar (8) forward,preventing the centrifugal detentsfrom etiending upn spin decay. The fuze is now armed. In flight,the anti-creep springpreventsthe graze firingassembly(21)from movin forwardprematurely, firingthe fuze. Upon impact,the firingpin (20 is drivendownwardinto the primer (9) 7 which flashesthroughthe channeltito the detonator(15)initiat+~g the booster (16). On graze impacts,inertiacausesthe graze firingmechanism (21)to move fob until the lockingballs (10)are forcedout of their primercarrierspring (11) recessesinto the annulargroove. The compressed propellsthe primer carrier (22)forward,impaltigthe primer (9) on the sharppointedfiringpin (20),fitiating functioning. Dud Type land Type 3 fuzes are rare due to the combinedimpactand graze actionflanctioning.

4-3,2

PcIIYT (#!k$ ,,,,,,

IIIF’ACT FUZE TYPE 1 (ARTILT.ERY)

A

hw Weapons~d~rojectil es wit M&MW2& Weapons ho jectiles 75-mm RR HE-FYag-—------Type ?

recoile rifle type 52 m 75-nllll: ““r— ‘~

I
14$4

—..— ‘Wv!7g r ‘1
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— DIA 1.30

T.L/a4+A9

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4-13

CHICOM POINTDETONATING IMI?ACTUZE TYPE 1 (ARTILLEHY) F

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17—

21—
nn

23—

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CHICOM POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 1 (AKTILJXm)

w
~. Gener~. The ChiComType 1 (Artillery) fi~e is ~ e~ct c~IPY P~ted of the SotietKTM-1. The upper portionof the fuze body is c@~ while the lowerfuze body is blued. The entirefuzo is sprayedwith varis nish as a corrosion resistant. The Type 1 (Artillery) entirelywaterproof. This is in keepingwith currentChiComand Sotietfuze design philosophy.
e

~.

Characteristics. Instantaneous

— Action ~—.—-..-..-.----. -.--.--. ----... .-...-.—
*

---—. -.--. ---------—--—— Ioadedweight -----.

365 gl?~S (0.80Ibs.)

--.. .,.-----,-----Steel Body mterial.---------.. ----. --------.-----of S* ,hLti@X@g. For detailedfunctioning the ChiComType 1 (Artillery) see the entry for the SovietKTM-1.

!3. Muz2??s~

with which used. ~ro~ectiles Projectil19s 57-mm HE-Frag------——Type 271 Type 354 76-mm HE-Frag-----,--85-mm HE-Frag------- Type 367 10C-mmHE-F~g ------- Type u

Weapons

,,,, b

57-m : AT Gun Type 55 76-mm: Field Gun ~., 54 85-mm: Field Gun Type 7 100-mm:FieldGun Type ?

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CHICOM POINT DETONATING IwAcT FUn

TYPE 1 (ARTILLERY)

.
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CHICOM POINTDETONATINGIMPACTFUZE TYPE TS-2

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Q. Genma~. The ChiComType TS-2 is an exact copy of the Soviet GK-2 fuze. The only major departurefrom normal ChiCompracticesis the f’uze designation. The TS-2 is the first ChiComfuze encountered, with an alphabetical desi~ation and may signalthe arrivalof a new the TS-2 is employed nomenclature system. Like its Soviet counterpart, on fin stabilized recoilessrifle ammunition,
* .
II,

b -* *

Character~stics. Instantaneous

— Action —-—---------------------------------------—

Loadedweight —---.--.-.----.--—-..-..-----,———-=. gm. (0.39lb.) 180 Body material------------------------------.-----—..-....— alumipum to

th% the SovietGK-2 fuze. of
i.

The operationof the ChiComType TS-2 is identical Functioning.

Ilea wns and pro.iectiles — —— with which used, Weapons Projectiles HEAT ..75-mm Fin Stabilized
?

75-mm’:Recoiless Rifle Type 52 w

L

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3.99

2.94 I

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CHICOM POINT DETOIJATING IP@AH FUX

T~

3 (s~cIAL)

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is ~. Genera~. The ChiComType 3 (Special) identicalin e~x’Y detailwith the Type 1, exceptfor colorand markings. Parts are imberchangeable betweenfuzes and it is apparentthe same drawingswere used on for both fuzes. The reasonfor the differentnomenclature identical fuzes i33 unknown. The fuzes have been employedinterchangeably.Th(g ChiComType 3 (Special) fuze has a black lower fuze body. The upper fuze kndy is cadmiumplatedand presentsa slightlyyellowappearmce. The ChiOomType 1 fuze is black ovemll. ~. . Characteristics. —.

m

---------—-----Action ..........----------------------

Irlstantan*30us

--------.-—”. 405 grams (0.87:lb.) kaded weight ---------------------Steel Body material---------------.-.-----------.-----.-..-----m---Information the functioning the Type 3 on of Unc ing (Specf~l) ‘ca,nt~nfo~ in the entry under the ChicomType 1 fuze. with ——.-.-— which used. Q* ~paponsand uro.iectiles Weapcns Projectilef3 i!! ‘75-mmHE-Frag—-—--M--—-I P28
l!

+&

?5-mm :

ChiCom Recoilless Rifle, !&pe 52

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CHICOM POINT DETONAT~G IMPAtiFUZE TYPE 3 (sFECIAL)

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CHICOM POINT N170NATING 1~1’ACTUZE TYPE 5 F

The ChiComType 5 point d~-. tonatin~impact fuze is an ~. &qQ~Q. s zed”, exact copy of the Soviet1:-5 fuze. Some fuzes have been ‘tanati i.e., factorymarkingsand fuze nomenclature have been machinedoff the about this fuze can be founcl the entry in fuze body. Furtherinformation for the SovietM-5 fuze.

w

~. — ..—..-...— Characteristics. — i Action --.---------.--.-.----.------G---------------------Instantaneous

*

--------------------- grams (0.16I.bs.) Loadedweight --------.-..----r 77 ----”.----------Plastic Body material----------------------------------Function=. Detailedfimctioning for this fize can be found in S* -----the entry for the Soviet;~15 fuze,

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mortars

FLT.T

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— OIA.76 4-21

CHICOM POINT DETONATINGlMPAOTFUZE TYPE 6

Q. Genera~o The ChiComType 6 fuze is en exact copy of the Soviet M-6 mortar f’uze, stig the same body and internalcomponents. detailed u A description the OhiComme 6 is needlessdue to the sindlarities of between it and the SovietM-6.

~.

Characteristics. ———---. -.. ----. ---— ---------—----

Action---——

Superquick

&aded weight --—-—---—------—---------———
Body material—————-----— --—-.—

127.1 gma (0.2ilb) ---—---plastic

I&@&@.q . The operationof the ChiOomType 6 is identical of the Soviet14-6 mortar fuze. Weat)onsnd noj ectileswith WhiCh U@. a Weapons Chiconl ype 53 T Projectiles
82-mm HE —---

TYw53; M-30

botiemoaom

aoooomaaoo

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4-22

CHICON POINT DITUNATING INPAGTFUZli TYPE 7 (ARTILIJ3BX)

ChiComType 7 (Artillery) fuze is an identical g. ,~cral. !Ike copy of the SovietGVM2-7fuze. It is employedin the same 120-mm mortarapplications. The ‘lMe 7 (Artille~)-appears be obsolescent to and is betig replacedby theChiComType 12 fuzes in all 120-mmmortar a]pplications. ee the entry under the SovietGVMZ-7 for more detailed S information.
.

Char~tQT&st ics b -“ . .—-* Action --..-----------------..-, -------------------Instantaneous delay or ---------------.—-------- 46C .gI’EUlX3 Ioadedweight ---.!---(1.01lbs.) ------w---------------------, - --------*-- Steel Body material--------G ~. Functioning, See the entry under the :;ovietVNZ-7for detailed .— functioning this fuze. of dC ~:Zs_and Dro.iectiles with which USQ. .—.— -

‘ieapons
li!o-mm :

ChiComType 53 ~or~r

120-mmHE-hag -------——Type ?

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,t.44”

—. (f7
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1.41 MA 10 Tm &$ MM

PT

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ImpactFuze TY’P 7 Genera& The ChiComPoint Detonating (Mortar) consistsof a brass body, firingpin as~emb~y, pfi~r assembly~ and a detonatorassembly. It is a setbackarmed,bore safe fuze. The firingpin assemblyconsistsof a firingp~ (4)~WI a~g sleeve (~z)) an arming sleeveretainingball (1), tw fir@ pin loc~g ~@ls (5~) The Type 7 fuze is an -g sleevespring (3) and a firingpin @de. The head of the firconsidered improvedversionof the uotietM-50. an pin is raisedabove the head of the fuze body producingsupezquick functioning ratherthan non-delayas h the case of the M-504 The TYIW 7 has a clear cellulosecover Elued over the nose of the fuze, partially obsolete, waterproofing this end of the tie. The Typ 7 is considered havingbeen replacedalmost completely the ChiComwe 1OCJ-3 by fuze,,
g,

. *

h. Characteris~. Action —.—-——.-------.---—------..--— —-—---------Inst~tii~e~s

Loadedweight -..--.-.-------—-----—--—-—.-—- 156 grams (0.34lbs.) ~, Body material-----o----—-—— —.--—-------—-—--.-----.-—... Brasu
“r.

W

Once the fuze is assembledto the round no furthe~ S* FQud&&kg. preparation necessarybeforefirbg. Upon firinglse~keckcausestfie is mdqg sleeve (2) to move rearwardcompressing its sprtig (3). This rleasesthe armingsleeveretainingball (1) which falls down into tha fize body. When setbackdiminishes, the arming sleevespring (3) forces the arming sleeve (2) fomard into the place formerlyoccupiedby the arm sleeveretainingbsll. This uncoversthe two firingpin lockingMIs ? 5) which escapefrom their caitiesinto the fuze body, completely unlocking the firingpin (4). Upon impact,the firingpin is driveninto the primer (7) which in turn initiatesthe gaine (8). $. Wearmnsand mo.iectiles~th which use~, “Weapotis Projectiles 6&=mm HE-Frag—-->— Type 7

m

@-mm;: ChiComType 31 and Type 63

m

4-25

CHICOM POINT D13CONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 7 (MORTAR)

. ~

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129

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4-26

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CHICON POINT DETO;ATIIJG IMPACTFUZE TYPE $ ,’1

,

,, ,,

during A. —-- — General. The ChiComType 8 fuze was first encountered the KoreanlJ,sr. has lar~elybeen superseded more,modern It by fuzes, but is stillperiodically encountered.The Type 8 fuze is constzwct,ed of brass and is easilyidentified its configuration.It is straight W “ point detonating, setbackarmed and is cuently employd’~n,l,y the “ in cast iron 60-mmmortar ~hell. ,. ., ~ . . ,,, ,, ,!,, ------------------------Action -----------------------Instmt~.,eoua ,,,, ~i,,,,,, ,,, ,:,!, ” ,, !,. i!! ,,!, ,,, ,: ,,,, -.--.----_----------—-Loadedweight -------------ii7,,,grams (0.36lbi) ,? ~~, ~ ,! -—-----------.---“-<-------,---- yass P Body material------------------Q. lhmc~i~ninq. When the round is fired, setbackcausest.le setback slce76) to move to the rear, strikingthe beveledset-backlocklng ring (10)with sufficient force to adhere, y tensionand remain securb ed In the rearwardposition. The primer carrierlockingball (7) falls out of its recessin the primer carrier(8). The primer c~rier is now free to creep forward, As the angle of fall of the round increases~ the primercarrier(8) moves forwardto the front of the primer carrier housing (5) until it comes to the primer carrierstop coUar.( 4). At this point the two primer safetyballs (~) are out into the recess in the end of the primercarrierhousing (5) the tip of the striker. Upon im et, the two primersafetyballs (u in the primer carrierhousing 7 (5~securelylock the primer carrier(8) in the forwardpositionso that the firingpin (1) can producea full blow on the primer (9),, hich in w turn functionsthe detonator(13). At short ranCes,or low angleso:f fire, the primercarrier(8) is carriedforwardupon impactby inertia to impaleitselfon the firingpin (1) and therebyfunctionthe detcma,tor. Q. ~aRons and Dro.lectiles which used. -.—— with —. !jeapons 60-mm ChiComType 31 & Type 63 : Projectilf3s 60-m.w lEE-~rag’----..-— T~?e !

,,

L-27

.

—.—— .

.

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———l——. -

CHICOM POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 9 (b fuze is setback Q. General. The ChiComType 9 point detonating armed and functions non-delay. It has been employedin the 60-mm,82-mm, and 120-mmmortars,but is currentlyconsidered obsoletein the ChMhm invento~. The Type 9 is identified the markingsstampedon the by ogive;however,in most cases there are no markingsat all. The ~e 9 is identical titernally the Type 10 fuze which has been employedon to the ChiCom120-mmmortar projectile, The Type 9 has a brass body, threaded at the nose to receivea fized firingpin nose plug. Internally$ a cylindrical arming sleeve (3) refits top of the aming clip (5). The on arming clip is a ‘V! shapedbrass clip with the ends of its legs curvin outward The armingclip (5) fits over the end of the primerholder (7 . . 7 The atig sleeve (3) is preventedfrom movingdownward,removingits solid mass from betweenthe primerand the firingpin, by the outwardbent legs of the armingclip (5). The primer (6) is securedin the primerholder @ a threadedplug. The detonator.bosteris composedof a coppertube containing the initiating chargein an invertedclip and the base charge. The boosteris closedby a coppercup perforated by a singlehole. The boosteris assembledto the tie kody by an externally threadedbrass plug with spannerwrench slots. h. Characteristic. Action ----------------------------------------------------non-d:ulay ;:, 1!,, ---------------=----------- 172 g~S Ioadedweight --------(0.38l’bs.) E?ody material-——-------------------------..-,---,”.”..—.brass

.

e

#

*

Functioning,The safetywire (4) is removedprior to the fuze being~~crewed into the projectile. The fuze cannotbe assembledto the round until the safetywire (4) is removed. Thus, thereare no dud :rounds becauseof the safetywire being left in the me. Upon fir~, setback causesthe arming sleeve (3) to move rearwardslippingover the arming clip (5). I$bvement over the armingclip (5) causesthe legs to bend inward slightly, permitting the arming sleeve (3) to move completely over the primer holder (7). With the arming sleeve (3) fully to the rear, the solid block it presentedbetweenthe primer (6) and the firingpin (1) is removed. The arming sleeveis held to the rear by the springaction of the le s of the arming clip (5). The primerholder (7) and the arming sleeve (3Y are lockedtogetherand held away from the firingpin by the anticreep spring (2). Upon impact,the primercarrier (7) moves forwardwd the primer (6) is impaledupon the sharppointedfirtigpin (1). The primer (6) flashinginitiatesthe detonator-boster(9):

ttd
4-29

CHICOM POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE TY~ 9
i

a
-. —

da !!S@Ens ~

with which use~. D ro.iectiles Projectiles TYW 63 60-mm HE-Frag 82-mm HE-Frag 120-mmHE-Frag Type? me ? me?

Weapons 60-mm: mortarType 31 ~ 82-mm mortarType 53 : 12G-mm:mortarw 53

-

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2.08

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CHICOM POINT DETONATING I,MPACI! FUZE TYPE 12 L“ g. General. The ChiComType 12 fuze is an exact copy of the Soviet M-12 mortar fuze. The Type 12 fuze is employedhterchangeablywith ite Russiancounterpart 120-mmMortarammunition. For a description in and functioning the ChiComType 12, sec the SovietM==12 of mortar fuze. ~. Characteri~tics. * ---.,-—---- instantaneous Action --.----.-.------.-----.------<and delay -----.-— Loadedweight -----------------------* Bodymterial ------------..-----.------------.---.m-------,-----steel The operationof the ChiComType 1.2 identical is Q* ,m~?@~o to that of the SovietM-12 mortarfuze. d* ~a~s’and mojectiles @th which used, projectiles 12Chm Frag-HE----.----—-? 536.3gm. (1.18Ibs.)
P ,,,

lleapons 120-mm : ChiComType 53 Ihrtar

w

4.76 I
1.30

.p . .60

1.40
L

+4 L

“m

.2s

— DIA.L25 —27 TPI — DIA. 1,10

CHICOM POINTDETOIJATING IMPACTTUZE TYPE 51
,: .,

Q. GenerQ. The drawingof this fuze has been made with information takenfrom two impactedfuzes that were removedfrom shell cratersafter the fuzes were distortedand outdetonation hfid takenplace. Internally of-line. Some errorsmay thereforebe expectedin the internalconfigin uration. The ChiComType 51 fuze was first encountered Korea. It has been changedslightlyin configuration,ut basicallythe fuze is identicd b detentsnested with its earliercounterparts.It employsfive centrii%gal togetherunder the firingpin that preventthe firingpin from movingdowndetentsare preventedfrom moving outward ward in the armed position. ‘i’he by a coiledbrasc ~pring. The detentsare arrsngedso that they are in-2erlockedand must rotatein a specificorder to ,open the firingpti ca-;’ity. The removable shippingcap may be removedfor instantaneous fuze fiction or left on for non-delayaction, Impactedfuzes have been recomred with caps paintedred as well as unpainted. The color code is wihown. The Twe 51 fuze is normallymade in CommunistChinaat a plant ~designated as F~ctoryNumber 524 and kter as TactoryNz@er 54. -. b Characteristics.

------------------.--..-m-----m.--.------..e---mIwtantaneous “Action 3 Ioadedweight .------------.-----—-------—-...-. 8o grams (0.83lbs) ,,, Steel ,,,,,,Bodymaterial — -.--— -----.---------.----------..---.---,-—.42” ~~ctioning. Upon firing, setbackcausesthe firingpti (3) to move down~rd compressing its spring (4) and locks the centrifugal detents diminishes, the firingpin spring (4) moves in position. As acceleration forwardpe~tting, centrifugal force to act upon the detents. The first detenthas its weightedend moved out~~d againstthe coiled spring (5), When the first detent hk~ which has,, been expandedby centrifugal,force. ,,,rotated of the path of the seconddetent,the s6cori~e~mt rotates’” out d until all detents out of the path of the thti, This action continues have rotatedfrom beneaththe firingpin. The fuze is now amned. Upon tipact,the woodenplug drives the firingpin (3)down into the primer (8). When the nose cap (1) is left on, the wooden nose plug (2) and firingpin cannotmove a sufficient distsnceto strikethe primer (8). In this instance,the primer carriermoves forwa@ impalingthe primer (8) on the sharppointedfiringpin (3) producinga detonation. A. ka~oni ad~zo~ctiles !Jeapons lo5-mm: ChiComhowitzerType ?
! i

w

with which used. Projectiles 105-mmHE-Frag----------Type ‘(

u

4-33

.

CHICOM POINTDLWONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 51

.

1.62

10

60

i

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4-35/l#3b

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CHICOM POINTI)EI’ONATING IMPACTFUZE TYFE 53

Impact,uze Type 53 is a F ~. Genera~. The ChiComPoint Detonating copy of the ChiComType 51 fuze. Internally the fuzesare identical and functionin the same manner. The only difference noted ‘betweenhe t Type 53 and the Type 51 is that the Type 53 has a largerdiameterbooster, a thickerdetonator, and a slightlylongerdetonatorcavity, The Type 53 i8 the fatherof the improvedType 53 Mod 1 and lbd 2 fuzes being u~ed in the 75-mm recoilless rifles. ~. Characteristics. ------------...”-.,-*- Instantamous Action ..-.----—-------.------— Loadedweight ---------—--------------------.——380 grams (0.83Ibs) -------------S%eel Body meterial-—-----——-------.-----=----------&. Functioning. I!tmctioning identicalto that of the ChiCorn is Type 51 fuze.

~. lJea~onsnd mrofiectiles a with which used. Weapons lo5-mm: ChiComhowitzer,1’ype ? ~jectiles ‘lo5-mJ?l Hi.mqg ---------Ty-pe ;’

.

4-37

CHICOM POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE T3TE 53

*

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CHICOM POINT DETONATING IIFACTFUZE TYPE 53
,,

DIA. .82 —

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Q

2.60
\

1.62

,,,, .

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1

DIA. 1.52

10 TPl 2.S MM PT

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.

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4-39lf+40

1,
,

CHIC(IMPOINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE T’YPE Mod 1 53

Q. General. The ChiComType 53 Mod 1 fuze is practically identical to the earlierType 51 and Type 53 ChiComfuzes. The Type 53 hbd 1 uses the mall booster-een on thes Type 51. Construction and mat,erfalseem s to be identical with the Type 53. The Type 53 Mod 1 is a centrifugal force armed, superquick actionfuze that-possesses graze sensiti~e a capability. The fuze is not detonatorsafe nor ?mro safe. It conisits of an upper and lower fuze body machinedfrom tar stock. A grooveis cut into the fuze body surfaceat the junctionof the upper and lower sections. This grooveapparently has no purpose, The upper and lower bodiesare securedby a singlestslce,atherthan with a pin as in tho r Type 51 and Type 53 fuzes. Internally the fuze is identical. with the Type 51 and Type 53 fuzes. It containsa firingpin assembly,w~.ih a woodenplungerand a steelfiringpin spring. Thereare five brass centrifugalsegmentsenclosedby a brass, coiled,leaf springthat form the armingelements. The prinerassemblycansistsof a brass primer holder, two chip boar $spacers, primerand a retainingslug. The centrifugal a detentsrotateon pins seatedin the lower fize body. The nose cap is paintedred and the fuze body appearsto be made from stainlesssteel.

~. ~cteristics. c Action ——...-------—-— -----—----------.—.—.---hwtantaneous

Imcledweight -—-------------------------------393,,,%s (0.86Mm.) Body mterial —------ ------—--------—-—--..--.—-— Steel

&“ Functionjn When the round is loadedinto the weapon is loaded, the firin pin ) is seatedon the coil spring (5)which holds the firingpin (4 above the centrifugal segments(7), The centrifugal seg7 ments are preventedfrom movingoutwardby the centrifugal spring (6). Upon firing,setbackcausesthe firingpin to move rearwardcompressing the spring (5) until it is seatedon the centriiiqgal. segments,holding them in position. As acceleration ceasesand centrifugal force increases, the springforcesthe firingpin forward. The centri-1 s[>gmentsro: tate about their pins simultaneouslys the centrifugal a spring (6) expands. This leavesan unobstmcted passagefor the firingp~n (4) to reach the primer (9). Creepactionmoves the firingpin forwardinto the nose of the fuze againstthe woodenplunger. The c~il spring (5) prevents the primerholderfrom movingforwardonto the firingpin. lJpon tipact, the firingpin is drivenrearwa?xd the wooden phnger. Impactat Ji’kt ~ angles cause the primerholderto move forwardpermitting the priwr (9) to hit the firingpin. This initiates the bocs~er (,21) hich detonates w
the projectile.

1+-/.$l

$.

&am?sAmroflectiles Weapons

with which used. Projectiles lC 5-nunHE-l%ag-—-— ----- we

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1(-J : 5.~

howitzerType ?

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. ,:

CHICOM, PCINT DRTCJNATXNG IMP.C’J’ FW1, TYPd 53 MOD 2

I

fu~~ in 9“ !2SE?Q: The ChiComtype 53 mod 2 fuze is the lat~~st the type 53 familythat has been ideri:.ified. fuzesrecoveredof this All type to date have been “sanitized”.Markingswere restoredby etching. Externally the type 53 mod 2 appearsi@entica~to the t~e ~ ~d tYP~ 3 ~fle twt 52o Specisl. All are employedon the 75mm ReCOille8s cockeddetonatorfuzes,the type 1 and type 3, have slightlylongernose caps and a snmner wrenchhole betw?e;:he shoulderand threads. The t type 53 does not possessthe hole. Ad ncse caps of the type 1 and type 3 are also,black, while the type 53 nose CaP iS catinum pl~’tedo The t~e 53 mod 2 is practica~ly identical internal~y~th the consistsof the additionof a earliertvpe 53 fuzes. The modification set-backpin and springthat blocks c~twardmovementof the key centrienoughfor the fugal detent. %e set-back pin must remaindown lotig Thie is providedby sustained accelerakey detentto movs outwards. tion.
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Characteristic 8:

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,, .-..---.---..-~~q...------.”...--.. Instantaneous ,, ,::, i,..’ ,,. , >,, -----------e. grams (0.88lb) Loadedweight —--——---—----------——,,: 399 ,., ,,,, ,,! ,,! Body material-.-——-------------.------.--—-..—...-.---..-.—Steel ,! ,. pin ing: Upon firing,set-backcausesthe set-’back ,K,,QOAyprd remainin thiq positionthroughoutsustained and acceleration.When centrifugal forceovmcomes the frictionproducedby set-back, the key detent (7) permitsthe remaining detentsto pivot outward in seouence. ‘?hen all b?tse pivotedfrom beneaththe firin~pin (5) the fuze is armed. Creep actioncausesthe lockoutsleeve (9) to move forwardand preventsthecentrifugal springfrom forcingthe detents(7) to returnto their ori~inalDositions upon spin delay. With the detents (7) Iockd out W the sleeve (9) the firingPin (5) iS semrated from the detonator(n) by the anticreepspring(6). upon impact the firingpin (5) is drivendownwardby the impact plunger(3) piercingthe detonator(11). The detonator(11) flashes throughflashchmnel initiating the lead cup (15) and boosters(16). If the pro~ectile impactsat a flat angle,or the nose cap (1) was l~ft in position,the detonator housing(10) siidesforwardin its cavity impalingthe detonator(11) on the primer,initiating fuze ac!tion. This twin movementof the firin~pin and detonatoris characteristic of the new Soviet/ChiCom fup,e seriesand resultsisA ~~ceilentfuze confidence. Action—-——-— Q. Weamonsand rmo.lectiies with which used:

75mm: ChiComType 52 RR

75mm RR HJ

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cHICO14PJINTDXTOIJATII?G IIIPACTUZE TYPE 88 F

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The ChiComType $8 point detonating fuse is an exact Q. &qe~. copy of the tlorld Jar JapaneseType 88 fuze. Prior to and during the ‘ II Korean‘i;ar, f’uze the was producedfor severalapplications.In Viet Nam it has been observedonly on the ChiComcopy of the Japanese 70-mm howitzerprojectile. Acconlincto markirqy,the fuze was producedin Nr~th Mast Chinn (~kmchuria) factory724. This factory,plus factory~24 iry were noted for their fuze production dining the KoreanWar. The ‘Type fuze is bore safe,but is not detonatorsafe. It is 88 made of brass ancl enploj~she t:~icalJapanese“gaine’t t explosivetrain. The upper fuze body (S!) threadsinto the lower fuze body (10)by left hand threads. The gair.c as riCht hand threads. All threadedsections h are securedby stab cri:ups.Tho fuze is [;iven coatingof varnishto T renderthe fuze corrosi~n resistant. No effortwas made towatiwaterproofing. ‘The firingpin plunEer (1) is machinedfrom aluminum ThIS firin~pin (11)is steel.

Act ion -.----.-------.-..-.-----_-----------------m-----eInstantaneous . -------------------:oadedweight -—-----....---.-W 170 gramf] (0.37lbs)
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---—-----------------.“.-.”.-.-.*----Body nctcrial—----------Braqsl !,, .,,. , 1 ‘~ ~. ~qtioning. The safetyfork (9) must be removedprior to firing. Upon firing,setbackcaucesthe setbacksleeve (2) to move rearwardcorn. pressingthe four lees of the stirru (4). W%en the internal.ircumftinc ~lLee~ (2 7 is presentedto the legs of the tial groovein the setb::ci stirrup(4:,these legs snap into the groovelocking’he set-.badcleeve t s (2) to the stirrup(L,).This frees the four safetysegments(3) which are moved from under the firtigpin (11)by centrifugal force. The fuze is now armed. Upon impact,the plungeris drivendownwardwhich permitsthe firingpin (11)to pi~.rce he primer (5) initititing detonator(6)$ t the which functions the projectile.
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Q. ~eaponsand nro~cctiles with .— —.— which u.. ‘Fleapons *. 7(?-mm ChiComcopy of Japanese : Type 92 howitzer Projectiles 70-mm HE-I’rag— Ch~ComType ? .

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CHICOMPOINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE $8

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DETONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 100
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Com Type 100 point cletonab~ng fuze represents Q* General. The Chi early tync ChiCor,~ fuzec that appearedduringthe KoreanUar and is the It::, an’)].ication been as,nmedby other more modern ha:: now ob:;olete~ ‘I,le currentChiComType 100 has not been examinedinternally due fuzes. to the lack of a rcrvicec.ble s.anpleor exploitation.However,its funcf tionin~ame:,rsto be si:uil.ar the :~oviet ;-50.A more detaileddisto 1 at cripti& ;.rill mp~pliecl a kter date. be -. Characteristics. b
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Action--------------------------------------------------Loadedwei~ht -----------Eodj~ material-----date?* &
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--------------------------,-----------------------------------------------------.--—,-----

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The ChiCom100-3 is the latestin i~e’evolution khe of A. GenerQ.. old KoreanWar “Universal” seriesfuzes. The early fuzes,could,vith slightexception, employedon the @-mm, 8kmn, 82-mm, and 12c-mm morbe tar projectiles. Currently the 100-3 fuze is employedonly on the 60-mm Mortar. Severalvariantsof the 100-3 exist;however,the variations are in body materialsand the method ~ which the shippingcap is attachedto the body. Bodieshave been seen made of aluminum~tl’ ’thes-teel shipping cap threadedto the tidy. Other bodieshave been of phenolicpl.astiic with the shipping cap attachedby a semi-circular lip en~ag.tiglotsin c s the cap that are alignedwith similarslotsin the body. The shipping waterproof. !I’h~ cap is removedprior to firing. The 1OC-3is entirely openingin the nose of the body is sealedwith a foil disc which in turn is sealedwith a ring crimparoundthe nose. The boosteropeningis sealed with eithera lead washeT, nd glue or plasticwasher,, glue. The only a and safetydeticein the 100-3 is the shearwire and the fact that the primer is held stationary the lockingplate and lockingplate spring. The by lockingplate is also held rigid by a bulkheadin the,innerfuze cavity. ~. Ctiracteristics.

,, , ,

CHICOM POINTDETONATING ImACT FUZE 100-3

Action.—.--.-----—.-.---.---—--.-—-.----,-------.-=.- Non-delay —

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Loadedweight -—--—-- -----------------------129.5 grams (0.2811os.) Body material-----------------------------,. Aluminumor plastic

The shippingcap (1) is removedprior to firing. 2 and the primerhousing (4) are held bncm’cable the by The ~~s~+” shearpin 3). These,in turn, block the firingpin (6) and firingpti disc (5) in position. The primer (9) is held in its positionat the bottomof the primerhousing (4) ~ a lockingpkte (8)which rides in slotscut throughthe primerhousing(4). The plate is held statimary ty its lugs ridingin the recessescut into the inner fuze ca,vity ulkb head The lockingplate spxhg (7) assistsin maintaining . th~e locking plate (8) and pdtier (9) in the lower end of the primerhousing (4) if the shearpin (3) is shearedby set-back. Upon impact,the shearpin (3) is shearedand the primerhoustig(4) is moved rearwardW th~e clos~lgcup into the inner fuze cavity. The firingpin (6) and firingpin disc (,5) are also forcedrearwafiby the closingcup (2). The primer (9) moves forwardby tiertia,slidingthe lockingplate (8) ahead of it,. The locking plate (8) moves in the slotscut in the primerhousing (4.), compressing the lockingplate spring(7). The primerand firingpin (6) make) contact,initiating the primer (9),which functions ‘the detonatorand! booster(11).

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CHICO}!POINT DETONATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 429

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~. Gener~. The ChiComType 429 is sn exact cow of the Soviwt V-429 fize. Design,materialsand worlansnship appearto be identical betweenthe two ties. Furtherdetailscan be found in the section coveringthe SovietV-429 fuze. k.
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Character~stics% instantaneous 8Cdelay

--—-—.--—. Action —--- —------...----— ---— Imded weight—---— ------- -------—

--—------~ 434 gins. (0095lbs)‘

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——-------------. ---------.,------Body material--. --------—-steel
g. _QQg@ionillg The operationof the ChiComType 429 fuze is identical. that of” to the SovietV-429 fuze.

d* Weapons Same as SovietV-429 ~— Fro jectile/3

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SOVIdTBk5ti DXWNF.TING IMP}iCTUZ3, DBR F

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fuze DBR is new in tho Sotiet &“ !i!w?s” The base detonating and has been seen only in large caliberarmor piercing proinventory jectiles. It featuresa delay pelletto providemacimumpenetration of projectile prior to detonation. Its companionfuze, the DBR-2,does not possessa delay pellet. Basic functioning the DBR and DBR-2 of fuzesare nearlyidentical. The DBR $.sfired, irectlyby impactinertiaand has a graze serlsid tive weight (if+) the bottomthat is retainedin positionb? a thin in same type arrangement empioyedin the GK-2 is metal clip (15). Th,is seriesfuze. ‘he armingmechanismis contained withina cylindrical. housing(24). This housin~containsthe primercarrier(13) and pfi~~ar (21). ‘This assemblvis also the inertialassemblythat causes fuze .functioninppon im~act. The primercarrier(1.3)j thereby~securely u preventedfrom lockingthe carrieragainstall movement. The detents,are moving outwarduntil set back ceaseoby a set-back cellar (n) which moves rearwardcoveringthe detent stems (2L). Upon impact,an i.nrpact the detents(22) from moving incollar (23) movee forwardrestraining ward under the influenceof their sprinps. The detents(22) are retained in their cavitiesby the detent springsand a hollowcap. m anti-creep spring(9) maintainsseparation the primercmrier of (13) and the f~ed firingpin (7) when the fuze is armed, The primer end of the anti-creep spring(9) containsa de-sensitizer CUP (10). The cup hqs a centralhole for the firingpin to pass through,but the hole is smallerh diameterthan the firingpin. It rec.tires more th~m a nomnal amount,,of fo~qq tor the firingpin to ?nlargethe hole so that it can reach the. primer (21). The firingpin (7) rests on top of the delay pelle+ (6). The firing pin has three holes throuphits body and proovesin its side to pmnit flame from the primer (21) to reach the delay” pellet (6). fio delay pelletis pressedblack powderand possessesthree deep depressions in its upper surfaceto increaseits ignitionarea. The delay pellet (6) b and fixed firingpin (7) are securedin the delay pellet hous.in~y a threadedslug (8). The entireassemblythreadsinto an adapter (20) that screwsinto the fuze body. The booster (1) containsthe detonator (3) and detonatorcushion(2). These components are retei.nedn the i boostercup by the threadedplugs (4) and (5). The tracerelement(17) is containedin an aluminumcup that is “ sealedat its open end by a celluloiddisc (18). Two gas excapeport~ (16) are drilledthrou~hthe tracerhousingto permit hot air to escape so that the tracerwill not be biown from the tracerhousing. The fuze i.~, entirely water prcof. The booster (1) is sealedto the fuze body by a vinyl ring and”* lead crush ring (19). In addition the fuze is securedto the fuze adapterbya lead crush ring (,25).The presenceof the ring (25) rq,dres considerable force to remove the filze from the adapter. The D$4? fize is bore safe$but is not detonatorsafe by U.S. standards. Armingis by centrifugal force only. Firingis accomplish~?dby straight Impact throughthe inertia “movement f the primercarries(13) or upon o graze Impactsby the lateralmovementof the grazeweight (14) forcing its way throughthe lI:gs the cli (15). This actionems the prlm~!r of carrier(13) onto the firinepin (7 !. 5-1

.-. ,=

-. Charact~ristics. b . --------. . -.--. ------ --. .-. -... -------” Impactinertia fiction ---------430 Loadedweight ----------------------------------- grank (0.94 lb) -----------------.--------------------st~~l .Body material-----------6 ~. Functioning.‘%en ths round is fired,set-backcaugr?a he.a?tback collar (11) to move downwardcompressing its sprinz02) and covaring the detents(22) so they cannotretractuntil after set-backdiminhhw. when set-b:~ck ceases the spring(12) forcesthe coller~11) forwarduncoveringthe detents(22). Cmtrifugal force,actingon the three d=tents (22) causs then to bq withdrawnfrom thrn annualar, grow. in the primer This compresses the detentsprings. With the detantswithcarrier(13). drawn from the primercarri~r(22) thf? fuze is now amed. Th9 carrier is preventedfrommovinc forwardonly by the anti-creep spring(12). Upon impactthe impactcollar (23)moves forwardagainstthe spring (12) restraining the detents(22) from prematurely moving inwardlocking inertiacausgstha primer the primercarrier(13). Simultaneously, carrier(13) to move forwardcompressing the anti-creep spring(9) end seatingthe desensitizer c~ips (10) and mimer (21). The primerthen flashasthroughthe groovesand holes in the firinqDin houiing(7). The frame ipnitesthe delay 211A (6) which,in turn, flashssinto the the booster(1) and proflame sensitive detonator(3 Y. This initiates jectile. is If the projectile impactsat fl~it an~lesthe rrazeweight (if+) forced. aterally inertia. The grazeweig}t (3.4) l by bends down one or more of the legs of the clip (15) caringthe weight. !!ith the wsi~ht (14) free it continussto move laterallysotiatits conicalcam surfacecontacts th~ cam on th”? primercarrier(13) forcingthe carrierforwardonto the t firingpin(7). Actiorl hen continussas describ~d. and usad with. d -“ ‘:leauons uro.lectiles 122mm: Sovietgun D-74 122mm SovietNC BC Hi-7-BR=472

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SOVIET DAM DETOIJATING IMPACTI’UZE DBR-2
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fuze represents the necond 4$” Gener~, The DBk2 base detonating fuze in t=fiR series. These fuzes are a new seriesof simple,reliable, well built,bore safe fuzes introduced into the .~ovietrsenalsince 1950. a The only major fault the fuze possesses, AmericanStandardfi) that bi is Armin[q s by centrifugal i force only. it is not detonatorsafe. The XI%% has a tracerelement (18)that threadsinto the fuze body (28) ~d becomes an integral part of the fuze. The tracer ccxmosition (18)is pressedinto an alumhun cup (17). The cup, in turn,, pressed is is @ld into the tracerhousing (29). The t~cer composition \T~t[]rpTOOfe(~ protectedby a celluloid disc (30)positioned the mouth Of the tr::ce~ at housing (29). The tracerelementis steppedto increaseits i~itior sure (15) face The fuze body and tracerh>using (29)have pre.surescapep~rl~~ drilledinto the tracercavity. hmsin{?wnThe armin~elementof the fuze consictcof a cylindrical. tainingthe moveablepriner carrier(27)and three centrifu%ll detents (12) that lock the primer carrieruntil setbackceasesand centrifu~al force overcomes the detent springs(13). The detents (12)are springloaded downwardand fit into an annular~oove cut into the primer c:arrier ‘(2?), thereby securelylockingthe carrieragain~tall movment. Tile detentflre a preventedfrom movingoutwarduntil after setbackceasesby a sctbaclcollar c which moves downwardcoverin~the detmt stems (12). Upon impact,an Lnpact collar (14)moves forwardrestraining the detentsfrom moving inwardunder detentsare retainedin their the influence their springs(13). ‘J’he of housingby the, detent spring (13)and the “DO-iJut’t shapedcap (11). An anti-creep cpring ; (23)maintainsseparation the prilr.er of $al~rier (27)~d the fixed firingpin ($)when the fuze is armed. ‘The smalldiameter of the springsurrounds the firingpin (8). The firingpin-relay-detonator-kooster assemblyis combinedinto one ascemblyand is threadedinto the fuze body. The firingpin assenbly (8) consistsof a hollow,threadedplug that is threadedinto the open end of the boosterhousing (2). The fir~g pin housing (9) possescesa VertiCle and horizontal, combination flagh channeland gas expansionc:hannel l(?). These chsnnels relay flame from the primerto the flashpellet (6). The flash pelletconsistsof a wheel and hub shapedassembly. The wheel iq wheel. has a single perforated with ty-passflash holes. The centerof “the taperinghole filledwith a flash composition (6). The flash pellet assembly (6) is maintained correctpositionwith the flash channelin the in retainingcup (21)by a singlecoil lock spring. The detonatoris coveredby a convexplate (5) that has a sfigleflash hole jn the center, This insuresthat only the flame from the flash ye’.let (6) reachesthe detonator(3). The detonator(3) rests insidean alluillum collar collar (20)that seatson shoulders insidethe boostorcup (2). T~.~ rests on a lead and felt ring. The open end of the ~etonatoria clooedby a cap, perforated a singlehole. by The boostercup is sealedin the fuze body (28)by a lead Cafl:hg ring (4) that is pressedinto an annulardovetailgroovecut into tho base of the fuze body. The fuze body is senledto the projectile body by a
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SOVIET 13ASll DIHOIJATING IN2ACTFUZE DBIL2
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of lead crushwasher (26). The combination these lead rings effectively seal and waterproof the fuze.

----—-------— --------------— ------- Impactinertia Action--------—- ----lmadedweicht ------------------------------- 372 ~ams ‘(0.81 lbs) ----.----—--------— Steel Ebdy material-----------------------------l.hmctioni~. Uhen the round is fired,setbackcausesthe setS* —..baclc collarto move downward,compressing the s ring (25)and covering the detent cups (11)preventing the detents (12 Nom retractti until 7 the springf25) after acceleration ceases. AS setbackdiminishes, forcesthe setbackcollar (10)forwarduncoverhg the detent stems (12). Centrifugal force actingon the threedetents (12)causethem to move ~utthe the detentswitMrawn fi~i~ wa~, compressing t~er springs(13). !iith annul,arroove in the primer carrier,the carrieris preventedfrc.,1 g mcvingfcrwardonly by the anticreepspring (23). The fuze is nw o.rmed.Upon impact,the impactcollarmoves forwardputtingfrictionalrestraint on the detent. This is done to preventthem from movinginwardprematurely. :~imultaneously, inertiacausesthe primer carrier(27) to move forward againstthe anti-creep spring (23)permitting the primer (2L)to impale itselfon the fixed firingpin (8). When the rimer (24)flashes,flane and hot gassespass into the flash channels(7 , ignitingthe flash pellet 7 (6). The flash pellet sends itc flame throughthe flash channelin the convexplate (5) into the heat sensitive detonator(3). This causesthe detonator(3) to initiatethe boosterand projectile mati ch:~rge, If the projectile strikesat a flat an le so that frictionrestrains the forwardmovementof the primercarrier?)7 the split,graze sensitive 2 “csmweights (15)move laterallycomingthe primercarrierinto the firing pin, producingfunctioning. Q. @a~ons and> ro.iectiles ___ with w~t. —.—. Ueapms 100-mm field g’m 12.9Q; tank : N1944 (D1O-T); gun KS-19 AA SP assault gun 1J194.4 Projectiles
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100-mmAPCBC-T------- BR-Q2D

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SCWIET BAS.”: DETONATING IIv~ACTUZE MODEL DK-2 F

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fuze DK-2 is ~~le the many of g. Genera~. The Sovietbase detonating in the Sovietfamilyof fuzes that employthe Zig-Zagdel~y srmingfeature ori~inated the Frenchand employedin the 2NiRGA rifie Crenade. by The DK-2 is set back armed,impactfired and coniainsa graze sensithe fuze as nontive feature. The in-lineexplosivetrain classifies bore safe. The DK-2 is a small, hollow cylinderwith n separatebacster (1) crimpedto the fize body. The detonator(2) is retainedin the end of the fuze by a threaded, hollow,plus. The fuze end cap (8) is threadedinto the fize body. The firingpti (9) is weighted,containing lead core. a It has a transverse plunger(5) with a lar[-e lug at one end and a smaller one on the other end. The plungeris sprtigloadedtowardthe small f lug. The firingpin assembly(10)residesinsidea sleeve (1.1) langed slot to accommodate small. the at the rear. The tube has a longitudinal end of the plungerafter setbackand a singleopposedhole fcm the lnrfier plunCerend. The Zig-Zagsleeve (4) containstwo opposedZig-Zagslots. One narrowone for the smallplungerend and a wider one for the large betweenthe inner sleeve (11) set-backspring (6) is compressed end. ‘:he the largerend of the and the Zig-Zagsleeve. In the unarmedcondition, transverse plunger(5) is in its clot. The small. plungerendl depressis ed insidethe firingpin assembly(10)by the Zig-Zagsleeve (l+).The large,plunger nd protrudesinto the SPA1lhole in the flangedsieve e lock~g the firtigpin to the fixed sleevea~ainskall mOVf31WIt, unt~kl setbac,k. ~1 1 Q. -.cteristics. Action ---.-.---—---.—---—--.-------—--.—--.—..—------- non+olay ,, .----.-----Ioadedweight’ ------------------Body material--—-.--.---—-----------—--—-----. Zig-Zagarming Functioning. Upon firing,setbackcausesthe’ g. sleeve (4 to compressthe setbackspring(6) as it moves recmward. The end of the transverse plunger (5) rides throughthe -large Zig-Zagslot to the $orwa~ end of the sleeve. This allowsthe smallend of the plunger to move to the right,forcedby the plungerspring (10),and into the smell slot. The setbackspring (6) then forcesthe sleevefomard. The Zig-Zagslot causesthe sleeveto move fo~ni by a reciprocating action. This. actiw,,producesufficient s afig delay until the grenadehas traveled a safedistancefron the launcher. Upon impact,the strikerassembly spring (3) and the sharp (9)moves fo~ard ~vercomning the anti-creep pointedfiringpfi piercesthe primerdetonator. This initiatesthe detonatorand booster. If the round impactsat a low angle,the steel

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h,~r:mer ~lacedbCIOW (7) the striker as::cmbly9) r,oves ( lei,er~l~~ its i.1 cavitycm&n~ the firingpin assemblyinto the prixerdtitonator. .,. & -with which used. a* ~cam”nsGnd mo.lcctiles ,.-.
1. .Ieapons

WG-2 Anti-TankGreil~.de Launcher,

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fuze is employedon 5“ Q2Q!WQ: The SovietDK-4 base detonating the DG-2 grenadeprojectile. It is set-backarmed,impactfired and incorporates self-destruct eature, Tho DK-4 is consideredan improved a f versionof the .DK-2. The purposeof the self-destruct eatureis nc~t f understood, but a bonus dividendis an air burst capabiiit.v. The UK-4 fuze is made of alumunium, exceptfor the springs,setback sleeve,detents,firingpin and closingcap. The closingcap (1$) threadsonto the fuze bod ratherthan threadinginternally, in the as DK-2 The bogstercap (2 crimpsinto two circumfex’ential groovescut T deton:~tor iS held ti tk~e (3) into th? fuze body. The stab sensitive bottomof the fu’ body by a threadedkeen ring (5). A copperde=nsie tizer disc (6) coversthe detonator(3). I, felt shock@ (2) is Positionedin the bottomof the detonatorcavity. Two waxpaperdiets (f+) separate the RPX wax booa)terharge from th~ fuze body. c The armin~&rid firin~mechanismof the DK-4 is housedim a flenged aluminumcylinder(9). The armSngsleeve(10) and set-b&ckspring(16) fit externally the housing(9). The hcusin (9) conteinsa 1o11 itUon contc,ins flash pe.let the (21 !! , safetyspring(22 md dal channel thct 7 th~ ftied firin?pin (23). ~ lateralflashchann~land gas escapeport ‘(1 S). (13) conrlects flask ch~r,eland the self-destruct. the delay dment Th~ s;t-beckslsevelockingdetent (12) is springloadedoutw~rdto lock the set-backsleeveto the rear upon set-back. A large extsrnd cut [27) lebds. from the fl~.sh ell~tch&nr,el24) aroundthe side of the housing p ( (9) to the pmotechnic am.ti~delay peilet (25). This pellet, (25) is contained withina thre~dedhousing(26). The pellet (25) preventsthe act-backsleevedelay pin (n) from moving inward, powered by its s@ng$
q

. .

!,

until a suitable armin~ delay has occured, the pin (11) move8 into the space originally occupied by the p~otecbnic pellet (25). Thie asseflnbiy

prev?mtsfuze wmin~ unless suitableset-backand sustained acceleration has been appliedto the fuzes. If acceleration ceasesprior to arming delay. pellet (25) burn out, the set-backsleeve(10)wil~ move forward and be capturedby the delaypin (11) and preventthe housing(9) fr~~m moving forwardupon impactor self-destruct elletfunctioning. This p pin (11)acts as a positivesshipping, handlingand firingsafety. ‘I’he pin (ii) in the extended positionrests againstthe internalshoulder in the fu~ body positively e blockingall movementby the housing (9) . until the tirming elaypellet (25) has been consumedand the pin (11) has d moved into the evacu~.ted space. The pin (U.) is notchednear the end. zig zag~oove (28) cut into the sgt-baak” The notch rides in a partial sleeve(10). This is a furtherarmingdelay feature. b -. Characteristics: Action —--- ---.---------..---------— Loededweight -------------------------------

-----------Instantaneous 76 grams (0.16 l’bs)

-.--.*—------,.Body material---------— -----------------Alumixlum 5-XI.

., —,,..

..—

~. Functioni : Upon firing,set-backcauseethe weightedprimer (21) to m-d againstits spring(22). If set-backis of sufficientmagnitudethe primer (21) is impaledupon the fixed firingpin (23). The resulting flash travels throughthe flashchmel (13) and ‘ignitesthe self-destruct gniter(4) st=tiw the self-destruct elay i d element(15) burning. Fiame also passesinto the large cut (24) and ignitesthe pyrotechnic armingdelaypellet (25). Simultaneously, the set-baaksleeve(10)moves rearward,compressing its spring(16). ‘men the mouth Of the sleeve(lo) clearsthe lock pin (~), the pin iS forcedoutwardby its springlockingthe sleeve(10) to tbe rear. ~~t this tinw the pyrotscfinic delay peLet (25) burnsout permitting the pin (11) to be forcedinto the evacuatedcavityby its spring. The fu”e is now armed. The housinr(9) actin as an inertiawel~ht is restrained only by the anti-creep spring(11 . 7 U on impact,thq housing(9) moves forwgrd wmitting the firing pin (8 top!leroehe stab-sensitiveetonator(3 *ich ifitiatesthe t d 7 7 boosterand main charge. In the event the grenademisses the target the self-destruct element(15) burns throughignitingthe propelling charge (19). Forces from the charge (19) expandagainstthe cap (18) forcingthe housing(9) forwardin the same manneras inertiaforces will.’ . normallyproducefunctioning. used ~th: Q. tleawnsand Urolectiles Soviet RPG-2 Gren&.deauncher L PG-2 H~;AT Grenade

.

3

5-U

SOVIETBASE D!H’CN1>TING IMPACTFUZE DK-4

-1

-QIA

.95

P

4

.63

0.62

L
5-U

-DIA. 1.13

_LLL

.

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.,,

SOV13TBliSE D3TCNATJlJG JMPiiCTUZE DK-4 F

2

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L.

22$==T’ ‘m
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SOVIET BA::E DZ!WNATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL DP

1 ,,

’11

, II ‘i ;11 i
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The DP fum is reportedly quite similarto the MD-5 fuze in functioning; however,in construction differsfrom the latterl.y it having largerexternaldimensions, increased weight of booster,and. antian creep springwhich,duringthe flightof the projectile, holds the primercarrierand primerand preventsthem from strikingthe firing pin. The delay pelletis of pressedblack powder,and delays fimctim‘ing of the fuze until the projectile has penetrated the target. No illustration this fuze is available, of and there is no furtherinfc’rmtion on it at this time.

.,..,

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v

5-15 /5”1~

I
j(
i SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFU2E ;~lO~EL DR-5

w I ~!
I II
II It ,

The DR-5, becauseof manufacturing difficulties occasioned its complexdesign,is no lonCerin production. No by preparation the fuze is requiredbeforeloading. of ~. Characteristics.
,,
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G*QQQQ@*

II
i
:~

Action --------------------------------------------shortdehy -—-------—---------------- ? Iaadedweight --——-- --------.-

i

*“

— Eody material----—------— ----------- -—-.-----.-.-.-—, ? Functiontig. Upon dischare, the tracer (9) is ignitedby the burningpropellant. The stirrup(6 sets back, overcoming the resistaY nce of clawsi.n the strikersafetyclamp (8)0 The latterthen engag~:e the striker(7). Simultaneouslyhe bolt (13) sets back intc> recess t a in the body of the fuze, lockingthe centrifu~al shutter(1) until the shellhas left the bore. It is necessaryfor the bolt (13) to immobilize the shutl,er becausethe -nlyother shutteriockingdevic:es,wo t centrifu@ segnents(not shcwn),move free of the shuttervhile the shellis still trave~ng throughthe bore of t::e cun. ;i~.tin shell the leavesthe bore, the centrifugal shutteris releasedan~ comes into the armed position,ti which the detonator(12)lies opp~~itethe relay ( charge (11). The sta’iker 7) is preventedfrom movingduring the fli~ht of the shellby the anti-creep spring (5). Upon impact,the striker and the stirrup(6) move foward,drivingthe firing pin (15) into the primer (1,).The flash from the passes to the pow.~er ,elay d e~ement (Q) by traveling along the lateralSroovesof the set Torward valve (3)0 cm impact,inertiaforces the set forwardvalve againstthe pwder delay elenent;the eases Ceneratedby the combustion :,he of deky composition, cwcver,pass through~rooveson the front and sides h of the set forward.lve and escapefrom the powderclelay w elementcasing (2), therebyprovidingan even pressureand a normalrate of delay composition combustion. Vhen the fcrce of inertiaexertedon the set, forwardvalvedecreasesuntil its intensityis lees than that of the . pressure~f the Casseson the valve, the latteris forcedrearwardby the Cas pressureand closesthe exit from the delay elementcasing. The gas pressurein the casingis thereforesharplyincreasedand the’ delay elementburns more rapidly. Its flame passesto the detonator (12)whose flash reachesthe booster(10) by way of the relay charge (11). The force of inertiadecreases when the shellhas piercedthe armor,and this tisuresthe automaticregulation the delay for the of perforation any given thicknessof armor within the limitsof the of armor-piercing apacityof the given shell. c
pri~Ler

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5-17

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SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE M3DELD -5 R with which used. a. Weawns snd ~rojectiles Weapons 107+U’!! : E;: s m91c;/30 & ) rI’M) Projectiles 107-mnAP-T —---—BR-~0 BR-471& BR-471B e & * * r
r

*

E!2-mmAT-T 122-nnn:corps guns M1931& N1931/37 (A-19);tsd gun 1Q943(D-25); SP gun M1944 (D-258)

9

u

‘2 a

n

4 5 6 78

9

.—

*

5-U

$:VXET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL KTD
.: ,,

‘I’he (Kollektiv KTD Trubochnikov, Dcnn,yy:iterally, l 5* Q2Qs!wa” l~Grt~up fuze desim~rfi~ of Ease detonating”) fuze is the safetytype and is used with a concrete-pierctig projectile both 122-mmend in up to 280-mIM alibersizes. The fuze consistsof a strikingmechanc ism,, safetymechanism, settingselector, a and a detonating device, all as~emblled a sturdysteelbody which is providedwith a leftin haid threadfor attachment the projectile. Settingsfor the t%ze to are as follows: Setting w

1~~11 .-_.-.-_----—--—--.-----—---none (for transportation) 113 !11-- ----”--------..-—-..-----.-----------——delay 110!1 ,.-_---,-.---..-.—---—---------.----.—-—nondelay ~. Q@racteristics. —--—-. ----—--------—- delay and nondelay Action --------------------—..------------— Loacled weight ---— ----------------------------------— Body material... .........-------------g.

? steel

I?lmctionixg. Upon firing,the a.tingrod (10)is set back by the force of. inertia,compressing the a-g rod spr~g (u)> =d comes Into a ~sition where the arnxhgrod recessis oppositethe striker checkball (11). The strikercheck ball drops into the recessin the (6) prevents afing rod and freesthe striker(8). The titicreeptipring the strikerfrom movingforwardagainstthe primer (5). Jfier the prodecompresses, j~ctdle leaves the bore of the weapon, the arming rod s@ng forcing the arming rod into the extreme forward posit~on? so that the

recessin the rod is oppositethe shuttercheck ball (4). Under centrifugal force,the shuttercheckball drops tito the recess in the rod and force moves the shutter ‘f%es the centrifugal shutter(2). Centrifugal ti the guidewayof the shutterhousing (3) until it stopson the wall of the fuze body therebyaliningthe detonator(located the shutter, in but not shown with the relay charge (9). Upon fipact,~ertia drives ~ the strikerforwardand the firingpin (7) strikesthe primer, If the , the fuze is set for nondelayaction (!’O1’) flash from the primerpasses alonga groovein the set~ingseleetof(13)~d.ignit~s the detonator, The detonatoractivatesthe relay charge,which initiatesthe booster (1), and the boosterdetonatesthe projectile. When the fuze is set for delay action (’1$11), groovein the settingselectorin turned 180° away from the the primer (5) and the directpassagefrom primerto detonatoris closed. througha powder As a result,the flame from the primer is transmitted de~y element (located the shutterhousing,besidethe primer;not in

5-19

.f

“.-

1

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SOVIET BASE .DETOIJATING I;IIPACT FUZE MODEL KTD shownin the drawing)to the detonator. The detonation wave then travels throughthe.re~aychsrgeto the booster just as in nondelayaction, ~ Q. Weaponsand P ro.iectiles —— with wk“ch US@& Weapons 122-mm : :.iL9311% 1.2931[37 ;Ei’g) PA gun ~2943 (D-25) SP gun 1Q944 (D-25S) l%ojectiles 122-mn CP —-— -------G-471

9 *

152-mm guns !’n910/34 :’0935; : and (IZI-20); gun-howitzer Pl1937 howitzersM1909/30and KL938 (MIO);tank howitzerM1938 203-mIn: howitzerIC1931 (B-4)
280-nun:

152-~ cP --—

C-530;G-540; G-545

20hxn

CP

G-620 G-675

mortar (howitzer) M1939 (M-17)

280-IMJI CP .--------—-

fiiit

IiEmll
__2m’’DlA TPI

540

SOVIET J3NE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE l,~DELKTD-2

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A*

-“
~rukmchnikov, Qonnyy,2-y Obrazets: (1) The KTD-2 (~ollektiv literally,‘! Group of fuze designers, Base detonating, 2nd Modelfl)s an improvedmodel of the-KTDfuze. Howeve:r, i the hTD has not been replacedaltogether, becausethe KTD-2 cannotbe used for low-velocity fire. I?or this reason the KTD-2 fuze is emnloyedfor priming122-mmand 152-mmCP gun shells. The KTD-2 is almostidenticalin construction the KTD, exceptas described’ to below:

(a) The steelarndngrod of the KTD has bem replacedin
I

I
I I

tile KTD-2by a lighter,aluminumarm~lgrod, in order to improvethe armingqualitiesat high muzzle and angularvelocities; becauseof ti.~e rod% lighter weight,there is less frictionarisingfrom the effect of centrifugal force,and the armingrod spring can easilymove the armingrod forward. (b) Increasedsensitivity has been obtainedby Civing more weightto the striker(4); this was achievecly b presstiga lead core (5) into its center.,
*

s “’p’’ !:(c) ,lTheealingoff of ases from the primer (3) by the ;:!!ll’”,” :+,1” , !! 1$?, settingselector(7 has been improvedtg~ the fact 7 that the fomard part of the selectorhas a circular section,the groovein the surface0$ the selectc)~ being replacedby an internalchannel(6). (2) The KTD-2fuze is not employedfor fire at low velocities becauseof its poor armingqualities under such conditions. Becauseof the lightness the armingrod,,setback of f:}rce at relatively low pressuresis not s~rficient overc:ome to the resistance the armingrod spring. of (3) ha the KTD and KTD-2 fuzes are completely safe, should” spontaneous actionof the primer (3) occur,at both ncm~ de~y and delayedactionsettings. If the fuze is set, to , delayed action (“3’1), prematureactionis impossiblesince ‘the primertsexplosion would causea bulge in the thin, floor ,. ,$f the centrifugal ,: , .d shutterhousing (2) that would jam the centri~al shutter(1) in the safe pc)sition.

I

*,

*

‘Q

5-21

.+

!-. -.

SOVIET BASE DLTCKATING IMPACTFUZE lPUXL MD-2

b -*

(harac teristics.

—--- --------------—--—- --------------ondelayand delay Action .-n ? Ioadedweight ------------------------------------------------>----------------------------------------Ikdy material-----steel to s. QQ@ionillg. The KT%2 is identicalin functionin~ the KTD.

i!

Q* MQAE?2??d ~rofi’=tiw .-dthwhich us~.
Weapons Pro jectiles

122-mm corpsguns Mi931 and M1931/37 122-mmCP —---------- G-471 : (A-19);tank 1Q943 (D-25); SP gun ltL9u.D-258) r 152-mm: guns M1910/34and Jn935;gunhowitzer,1937 (MI-20) N 152-mmCF ---— G-530;G-545

DIA
TPI

I

1-

01A

( ,
k

SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE l@DELKTUF ! A KTMF fuze is known to exist,but information it is suite limited. on Reportedly modification a Frenchbase detonating a of fu~e, it is use~ with the Ybrskoylf(’fNavalIt) semi-armoriercinghigh-e losiveprojectile in the 152-mmhowitzerslf1938 (M-10 and M1943 (D-1 . Its overall 7 7 length is 4.60 inches,its maximumdiameter2.70 inches,and its major threaddiameter2.15 inches.

q

SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACT’ FUZE ;:ODEL MD-I., MD-2, ND-3 & MD-4 * Thses are earliermodelsin the seriesof Ml (~~lokdibernyyj Qonnyy: fuzes. Althoughthere is littleavailasmall caliber, base detonating) ble information them, they are thoughtto be esfientially on very similar, and are presumably obsolete. The MD-2 is illustrated below.

u

‘“s7” J4
* , *

a––

.90” DIA

‘i

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J_,,,411.,,,,

..-

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SOVIET BMi DETONATING Ii@ACTFU~

liODEL ;,TL5

(Q * *
A. GenerQ. The }’!D-5 (@okalibernyy, Qonnyy,~-y Obrazets: small caliber,base detonating, 5th Model)is the fifth model of the IID seriesof Sovietfuzes used with armor-piercing igh-explosive h projectiles. Previousmodelsof this seriesare numbered!3-1 throughMD-4, and known later models are the !iD-6, MD-7, I,D--g, and MD-1o The MD-5 is of conventional . design,and incorporates primer, a a delay pellet,and a detonatorin the explosivetrain. It is equipped with a removabletracer. An ~linitiator, ‘t which is insertedseparately in the projectile, used to initiatethe main char~e. This irlitis iator is kept separate from the fuze and wojectile, and-is insertedin the fize well just prior to use. The Soviet safetyclassification )f c the ID-5 is “unsecured.” l?. Q@~cteristics. ------------------------- shortdelay -=-Action ---------------------Imded weight -----------------------------------gm. ([!.2L2b.) 11o l WJ --------..----..-----..--------,-----material----------------— stce 1

:)

w
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s“ ~mctioning. Upon firing,the tracermixture {8) is ignited by t,he propellant gases. Flane from the traceris preventedfrom en,tering the fuze body and causingprematuredetonation by”the solid end of the fuze body. At the same time, the stirrup (5) sets back over the primercarrier(7) and clampsitselfto the carrier. This actionbrin~s the primer (6) flushwith the forwardend of the stirrupin a position to impingeupon the firing@n (4) at impact. Upon i~.pact,he stirrup t and primercarrierset forward,drivingthe primera[;ainsthe firfig t pin. The primerj.gnitesnd emits a jet of flame throughholes drilled a in the firingpin holder,thencethrougha hole in the base plug (2) to the black powderdelay pellet (3), The pel?et,burns sufficiently lonp to permitthe projectile penetratethe armor,and then ectivatesthe to detonator(l),”which turn detonatesthe explosivefiller(of in the projectile. CAUTION:In the armed state,this fuze is extreme~ysensitive and a light blow upon the nose of the projectile may detonateit.

*

+

C(IJ
5-25

-.

SOVIET BASS DETONATING IMPACTFUZE 10UDEL XII-5
.,. ,

wit~which used. sl~ MEK??sd ~ro.iect-iles Weapons 45.mm antitankguns 1*1932, ’1937? : ~ and l1942;tank guns 11932, and 11934 57-mm antitankCUXIS : 11911.1 ~~943 and (ZIS-2)
76-mm :

lhv jectiles 45-m AP-’I’ ---- 13R-240;-240 E ~. . 57-~~AP-T -----------BR-271 BR-350;BR-350A ; B&361

76-mm AP-T — divisional l,19C)2/30, ~a933, M1936 (F-22) ML939-(uSJ’),~ K1942 (ZIS-3\; tan:: s :33938/ Y 39 (L-II)and ~:J939F-32); regimental guns (howitzers) i.CL927 nnd M1943

14
2—

7—

I.70”

0 “----++

5-26

,,.

SOVIET BAW DE!:’uNATING IMPACTFUZE lIJDEL MO-6

*

.#

This is the sixth:~odel the 10 seriesof Sovietfuzes used with of armor-piercingigh-explosiverojectiles. Previousmodels of this h p seriesare numberedMD-1 throughMD-5, and known latermodell.s are MD-7, MD-8,and I.D-10.i%e MD-6 differsfrom the ND-5 only in thread size. Accordingly, cannotbe used in the same projectiles the it as MD-5 ‘The , designsof the two fuzes are otherwiseidentical,, The MO-6 is interchangeable with the MD-8 and ?!D-10 fuzes. The main drawbackof the }fD-6 the constantdelay. This time cannc)t e is b variedaccordingto the thic!mess and hsrdnessof the tarcetarmor plate. The resultis that the fuze action is not alwayseffective againstdifferentarmor plate thicknesses. The automat~cretatiing featureof the fuze modelsDR-5, MD-7, and HD-8 has p“wtly corrected this fault.

v
DIA JOG”TPl 18

2,60” 1,26” 01A

1.35”

,!,,

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SOVIET BASE DITONAT131G I1lPACTUZE MD-7 F

‘w
The MD-7 ~~lokalibern , QonnyyP~-y Obrazets: ~. ~ed. smallcaliber,base detonating, 7th model is similarto the l“m-5 in. Y internalstructure, but differsfrom it by havingan anticreepspring, a tin foil safetydisk, and en automatically re@Lated delay. The anticreepspringand the tin foil safetydisk on the primer insurea high degreeof safetyfrom prematureburstsof the shell. hile in the w tube of the weapon,and the Sovietsclassi~ the MD-7 as llsafett. Thereare furtherdifferences the shapeof the tracernut. T~s in fuze is used with a$nor-piercing racerprojectiles. t
,,
,! ,, ,,,

*

II

Action--———

.-.y.----.-..—.-------.—------”-------

delay ?

Loadedweight --——-----------------—-------------.—-—-

-------—---..---,--- ? Body material-------------------------— Functioning Upon firing,the burningpropellant . i,~itesthe ~. tracer (10), nd,set@ck causesstirrup(7) to move rearwari,overriding a the primerctirier(9),which is then held in the rearwiidposition only b the anticreepspring (6). Upon impactwith e,&rget, the primer (8 and primercarriermove fomard againstthe firingp:in(5). Y The flash frm .tlw primerpassesthrougha hole drilledin the firing pin holderand ignitesthe delay composition (3). The set forward valve (4) moves forward,becauseof inertia,and remainsin the forward positionuntil the ~rojectile has penetrated the armor,at which tine the eases producedby the delay pelletforce the valve rearward,thus sealingoff the gases. ?h.is causesa rapid ihcreasein presurewhit’h in turn cause,q he,,delay t elementto burn almostinstantaneously. When the delay elenenthas burnedthrough,it actuatesthe detonator (2),which detonatesthe booster (1), - “ Q. Weamns an mofiectiles “ d with which used. Weapons 57-mm:
? antitank gun I“IL941. d a ~943 (zIS-2)

U

,, .,..,

Projectiles 57-mmAP-T —---B&X/C: BR-2!’71 BR-5,@

152-mm:gun M1910/34; gun-howitzer 152-mmAP-T ----------.— M1937 (M&Xl)

ti’

5-29

SOVIET BASE DET NATING IltF’ACT FUZE MD-7

,,,

8. mm

dill
.90”DIA 18 TPI

SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE ID-8 +“ SovietIII-8, base detonating impact fuze is the ~. Genera~. ‘l’he eighthmodel in the MD seriesemployedwith armor-piercing dgh explosive h is with projectiles. The ltD-8 interchanfleable the MD-6 and MD-10 fuzesj and is used in 76-mm,85-mm,100-mn,and 122-mmAP projectiles. The l&8 is of conventional esign,employing primer,delay pellet,detonator d a and koostertype explosivetrain. It i~ equipedwith removable tzacer assemblyand can be encmntered with or withoutthe tracer, The MD-8 has been designedwith a delay pelletto permitgreatertargetpenetration prior to projectile detonation. -. Characteristics. b . Action —-.-— ------------------—-—-—- -----..-.-- ....-------delay ..--..-----.--.--.-..------,------ ? Ioadedweight --------------Body material-----—----—---—.-------------..-”-— ------ steel

*

6 ., ,,

*

u

~. Functioning Upon firing,setbackforcesthe .@it safetysleeve (7) off the shoulder”of the primercarrier(6) and down onto the lead the cushionring (8). The moveableprimer carrieris then separatedfrclm firingpin (4) only by the anti-creep spring (5). Upon impactwith th~ target,inertiacausesthe prtiercarrierto move forwardimpalingftie primeronto the firing, in (4). lUame from the primer~sses thrcugha p flash channelat the base of the firtigpin ignitingthe delay F~~elt (3). Upon burnout,the delay pelletflashesinto the detonator(2) w~ch inttiatesthe boosterand main charge.
~.

;,,

!Jeat3 and ~ro.lectiles ons with which used. Weapons Projectiles

Varioustypes of ammnition to fit 76-mm,.S5-mrfi, 10,-m, and 122-mm guns, too numerousto list here.

a

?

5-31

.

r“--I

‘-–n

wr’
1

I TL-””+1
1.90”
I

I

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m
.

)!i!!!4 ——
‘-— 1.O’1DIA 17 TPI \ / — 1.29” DIA

.

“a

SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL MD-10

The L QQMa?aL” MD-10 is the tenthmodel of the MD seriesof Sovietfuzesused with armor-pierctigigh-explosiverojectiles. h p Freviousknownmodelsof this seriesare numberedMD-1 throughMD-8. The MD-10 is of conventional esign and incorporates primer,a d a It is equipedwith a removabletracer. The) delay,and a detonator. simplicity this fuze, in contrast of with more complicated selfregulating delaysemployedin earliermodelsof the series,tends tm indicatethat the self-regulating delay,althoughgood in theory,has proventipracticaloThe MD-10 has two safetyfeatures:the stirrUp ,—. .. 16) whichrests on the shoulder the primercarrier I, preventing of .ch also tends it from moving forward;md the ~ticreep spr~g (5)3 .s f’uzeis to hold the primercarrierin the rearwardposition, interchangeable with the MD-6 and M&8. t l!. Charac erist~. Action-—----- —-----.—-.--.-----..-.—-—”— --- short delay ? steel

Iaadedweight —-.—.--—-—-.----—-..-----.---—-..--1. Body material—-------—— ----- — ---- q-------”..--(—

moniw. Upn firing,the tracermixture (8) is ignited by th~”propellantases. Flame from the traceris preventedfrom g enteringthe fuze body and causingprematuredetonation the solid by end of the fuze body. At the same time, the stirrup(6) sets back over the primer carrier(7) and chunpcitselfto tl.e primer carrier, The fuze is then qmed and the primercarrieris preventedi%orn carrying the primer (10)forwardonly by the resistance the anlticreep of Upon impact,inertiacausesthe primercamier to overOpring (5). oome the anticreep spring end move forward, driving the primer into from the prber passesthough the flash the firingpin’(4). ‘The-flash channel(9) in the flrlngpin and ignitesthe delay element (3). Tho delay elementburns throughand actuatesthe detonator(2),which titiatesthe booster(l).

..

.

.

5-33

,i,

,, .. ... . ,-

SUVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE N?3DEL MD-10 w Q~ ~, ns an Weapons used. Projectiles BR-350B 5’; 1

guns M1902/30,M1933 76-mm A2-T —---— 76-mm: divisional M1936(F-22) m939(usv), and M1942(ZIS-3~; tsnk S M1938/39(~11) ti lf1939&32). 85-IMYIantiaircraft : gun M1939;tank &~~&~5&$%S85) 122-mm corpsguns M1931 & M1931/37 : (A-i9);tmk~M1943 (&25); SP guns ML943(D-25S) M19U & -,. .-. (A-19S ) 122-mmAP-T ——— 85-Inm AP-T

13R-365K;BR-365

BR-L71B

n
2 b 3

2.?7”

l.~:”;g

9

4

3’”ZI
I

s

s &

5 —6

I TF-9-’*27’’A’A
lo-

l-l
5-34?

k—-8

SOVIET BASl DET03AT1NG IMPACTFUZE MODEL MD-76

An MD-76 fuze is reportedto exist,and is said to be a conventional base detonating type designedfor use with 76-inn crnor-piercing on at projectiles.No furtherinformation this fuze is availe,ble this time,

SOVIET BA ;EDETONATING IMPAOTFU2E ]~Z
i,,

u
~. Genera~. The SovietMR-Z base detonating impactftaze a setis back armed,boresafefize that may incorporate delay pellet. The fuze a has a steelbody and employslargepitch,modified-buttress type threads. It is employedon large caliberconcrete-piercing armor-piercing and projectile,
*

~. Characteristics. Action—--— ---—------------------—----- ----.,-.-----”..”---. delay ? grams (? lbs)

s

--.----—--—---kaded wei~ht --------------------

Body material-.---—-------—----.--.,----—..-----4-----------Steel
Q. Functioning. The fuze diagramdepictsthe fuze in the armd condition. prior to being fired,the armdng sleeve (4) is in the forwati position, resting againstthe primer housing (2). This effectively masks the firingpin, preventing contactwith the primer. Upon bdng fired, setback causesthe arming sleeve (1+) move to the rear, tamingthe legs of to the stirrup(5) inward so that they can expendinto the internalgroove cut into the armingsleeve (4),lockingthe sleeveto the moveablefjxing pti (6)0 The firtigpin is held away from the primerby the anti-creep is sprtig (3). When the projectile fired,a lock pin (not shown)moves to the rear permitting the rotor to turn by centri~al force. When the flash channelis openedbetweenthe primerand the detonator, spring a locksthe rotor in position. Upon impact,inertiacausesthe firti Din with the addedweight of the a-g sleeve (4),to move forward,pi~r~ing the s~b sensitive primerand initiating the explosivetrain.

w

with which used. Q* l!eawnsand uro.iectiles Weapons 130-mm : Field gun 12946 hojectiles 130-mmJwc —- BR-4@, BR-zj,82B 130-mm CP -----— ------ G.4fj2

m

*

5-97

—-1

2 —3 4“ —. ..— 6 6

A

5-%

. ‘a

1.
,,, .

INITIATING, BASE DETONATING, IMPAGTFUZE VP-7 SOVIE’I’ PIEZ(WLECTRIC,P(’lPT

b

twin crystal~and a base detonating tingaan impactnose elementcontaining all mncha.nical electrical. and armingand firingeom elementcontaining element(8 , nents. The fuze employsn ~rntechnic delay,self-de$truct r througha pgrotechniq$ielay23)that ie ( Delayedarmingis accomplished initiatedby oet-back,‘The fuze is kth %r%.safm &d detonat6rsafe. me electrical detonator(29) is contained a verticalslidingdetonater in carrier. An electrical shortingcontact(27)is mountedin the 811der beneaththe detonator, This contactprovidesa’deadshort acroesthe detonatorbridgewire untilthe slideris in the armed position. The VP-7 fuze housingis milled from an aluminumcylinder. The vertical, slot containsthe slide. One leg of the housingcontainsthe setback primer (17) which initiates the self-destruct lement (8) and the e d armingdelay element(23). The self-destruct elay (8) and detonator(7) are contained the same leg. A flash channel(20) connectsthe flash in pelletcavitywith the self-destruct cavity. Anotherflash channel(21) connects with an externalmilledgroove (22) so that the delsy arzdng d pelletcan be ignited. Ignitionof the self-destruct elay train is aceo8pl.ishedy flame rassingthroughthe four holes (9) in the wslf-destruct b housing. The delay armingpellet (32) blocksthe retraction the lockof ing pln (26),which holds the detonatorslidesin the safe psition. hen the pellet (32)is consumedthe pin (26)is forcedinto the (evacuated cavityby the tamingsurfaceon the slider. The slideis furtherheld lockedby a set-backpin (24)that holds lockingball (~) in a groovein the slide. The ball (12) Preventsthe pin (24) from rovingtoo far forward. The slide.iaow~:downw?rd by two springsthat rest in the twin p cavities(13). The cover (28)compresses the springs. A blast channel (6) leads fzmm the self-destruct etonator(7) to the electricdetonator d (29) in the s~de. When the self-destru~delay(8J burns out the detonator (7) iS initiated. The debmnating wave passesthroughthe channd (6) the and sympatheticallyetonatesthe electricdetonator, d which ~LrdthhB (3) should explosivetrain. A steel block (5) protectsthe boosterleacl the electricdetonatorpremature with the slide in the unarmedpositi.m. !fhe#&8mo-electric nose elementemploysthe warheadbody as one electricallead and ah inner cone as the other. Contactis made with the e~ectri,c detonatorby the in (1) and the integralstud on the closing cap (10). The contact(29 completesthe circuitwhen the slide is a~, 7
b,

.

~! I (?eneral. The Solfi~t P-7 fuze is a piezo-electric’uze V f incOrpora‘“ . .

*

k

InI’! ‘,,, l,,

*

Characteristics. -----——-—---—--piezo-electric instantaneous

Action—-----*

Loadedweight .---------------—-- Hot applicable. internal., non-rmovable Body material-----------------..—--—-—— Aluminumand plastic

5-39

r

SOVIETPIEZ&ELECTRIC,POINT INITIATING, BASE DETONATING, IMPACTFUZE VP-7*
c. Functionin~e Upon firing set-backcausesthe weightedflash primer (17) to move rearwardcompressing its spring (18) and impalesitselfon the fixed firingpin (19). The resultingflametravelsup the flash channel (20),ignitesthe self-destruct elay element(8) throughthe holes (9) in d the delay housingand continues up the flash channel(21)where the on flame ap~ads in the groove (22) and ignitesthe armingdelay pellet (23) that beginsto burn. Simultaneouslyhe set-backpin (24)=ves rearwardagainstits spring t i (U) depositing the ball (1.2) n the fuze cavity (15). The slightrotation of the rocketplus the cam surfaceon the slidercausesthe slide lock ball (11)to move inward,unlockingone side of the slider. As the armingdelay pellet (23)is co.nsumsd slidermoves downwardunder action the of the twin compressed springs. carominghe lock pin (26) into the t evacuatedpelbt cavity (23). When complete unlockedthe slidemoves downward,altghingthe electricdetonator(29 with the boosterlead (3) ‘3 and furtheraligningthe self-destruct last oavity (6) with the hole in b the slide leadingto the detonator(29). With the downwardmovementof the sliderthe shortingpin (27) is disconnechd from the stud on the closingcap and the electricdetonatorcontact(29) moves wit-h the stud. The fuse is now mechanically ad electrically armed. ~.-l Upon impactwith a tarsetthe twin piezo-electric rystalsin the nose c elementare stressed. This generates pulse of currentthat travels a throughthe inner and outer cones of the ogive,&uwgh the pin (1), ” throughthe fuze housing,onto the bridgewire of the electricdetonator. which functionsthe explosivetrain. ‘RN detonatoris initiated, If the rocketdoes not impactwith a target. The selfdestruct ded 1~ (8) burns into the self-destruct etonator(7) which flashesthrough the channel (6) to detonatethe electricdetonator, initiating the rocket explosivetrain in the normalmanner.

used with. d. Weapons and projectiles Weapons Sovl.et Anti-Tank RocketLauncherRPG-7 RumanianAnti-Tank Rocket Lmncher RPG-7 Projectiles An&$-TankrocketFG-7

5-M

.c’

‘o

SOVIET PIE2&EI.JWTRIC OINT INITIATING, P BASE DETONATING, IMPACTFUZE VP-7

SO14ET

RUMANIAN

da!
25

2>

30

*

UEZO ELECTRIC /WSE ELEMENP

,,.., u

SOVIIZTBASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE ITXIEL 5DM

on Q. Genera. Information the 5DM is based entirelyon documentary sources, and is extremelylimited. k. s I&M .-. -.-... —-----”.weight -—-— --- —-—.- ----------... -------- .. — ..---.. --— Eody material-------------------—.--v

Characteristic~o .-..---.-— delay ? ?

—------— Action---— -.------—.--.-—..--

Apparently, upon fitig, setbackcausesthe o shear~he safetypin (10),move rearward,and override the strikerclip (9),an actionwhich securesthe stirrupto creep spring (7) preve~tsforthe striker(12 ). Then only the anti Upon impactwith the tarp~~,,inertia ward movementof the striker. causesthe strikerto overcomethe anticreepspringawl drivle the firingpti (n) fomard into the primer (6). The primer emits a jet of flame througha flash channel,ignitingthe delay element(5]. When the delay burns through,it ignitesthe powder charge (1+) which forcesthe firingpin (3) into the detonator(2). The detonator acti~tes the booster (l),which detonatesthe main charge.
$.

—.

u

Q. WeaDonsand mo~ectiles with which used. Information on this subject not available.

5-43

SOVIET 13ASll DETONATING IIMPACTUZE 1 F !ODEL 5?)M

n
DIA TPI I

.

[

11‘9

12-

5-44

,.

SOVIET BASE DE1’ONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL 5171-2

fuze becauseof the GenereQo The 5DT-2is an inefficient ~. overcomplexityf its detonating o deviceand the poor gas obturation We is not boresefe. Settingsfor the of its Clo shlg cap MS 5m-2 are as follows:
q

“’i2fmiag
n

A!Z!&al
—-.--.———

1~1

none (fortransportatiti)
de&y UJcel.Uxmd

II3 n ———-———
+

nMn ——.

of premnturs burstsin the bore; this settingmust not be u8ied

&fore loadingthe weapon,the fuze must in all tiutancesbe sti for delay action!

hti.on

———

——--—

delay —,— ? ?“

Loadedweight w Body matd.al -—-——–-

———..—. .---.——

*

~tio* on firing,the stirmp (I-2) sets back, overcomes the r%istance of th~ stirrupretainingspdng (14),pushes the 10C~~ ball. (8) tito the socketof the settingselector(10),and locks itsdf’ to the stirPupretainingspring. On impactwith the tar t, inertia h causesthe striker(9) to overcome the anticreepspring r7) d rdive the impactfiringpin (13) forwardinto the primer (6). The flash from the primer sees throughthe powderdelay pellet (n) to the powdermagszine(5r. Under the pressureof the gassesproduced @ the burningof the powdermagazine,the detonatorflrldgX (4) breaksthroughthe brass disk (3) and piercesthe detonator(2). The) resultinge~lo sion then detonatesthe lmoster (1).

‘u

5-45

SOVIET BASE DETONATINGIIIPACTUZE NODEL 5DT-2 F d -. Weaponsand ~ro.iectiles. which used. .— with Weapons 203-mm: howitzerM1931 (B-1+) Proj cctiles 203-~ ~ —--------- F-62(3

(howitzer) ML939 (Bpr5) 2eo-mmm --------——-- ? 280-mm Fbrts.r : ., -------------. 305-mmHE” 305-mm: howitzerlCL915

OIA TPI

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?

I&l
T-

DI A

12 18 14

9

Rw--1

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5-46

SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL 7DT

on ~. GenerQ. Information the 7DT is limitedand unverified. The fuze appearsto be a conventional base detonating type and is reportedly used in mediumand large-caliber aval and coastalartin llery in both high-explosive nd armor-piercing rojectiles. a p -. Charac teristics. b * ----------.-.--—.---------------------nondelay Action ---.-.----— ? ---------------------------Loadedweight ----.----—-.--.--— * ? ------------------------------Body material-----------— -----Apparently, upon firing,setbac!iorce causes f ~ve rearwardand engagethe detmator carrier(5). Duringflightthe detonatorcarrieris preventedfrom moving forward by the anticreepspring (l). On impactwith the targetinertiacauses the stirrupand the attacheddetonatorcarrierto move forwarduntil the detonator(6),which is securedto the detonatorcarrier$strikes the fixed firingpin (2). At this point, the detonatoris approxbately in the centerof the booster (4). The explosionof the d~~tonator initiates the booster,which activatesthe mati chargeof the projectile. w Q. Weaponsand Pro.iectiles ia with which used. Informaticm not availableas to the specific naval and coastalartillery weaponsor a-nmunition associated with this fuze.

.

n

—.
——.. —._._

I t 8

-—.-

4

r“- s
—0

ti

5-47 /+4$

i?

SOVIET BASE DETONATING IMPACTFUZE MODEL 10 DT

,, b
g. General, The 10 DT is unusualin that it has an automdic —— mechanism which enablesit to functionas eithera nondelayor delay actionfuze withoutsettingpreviousto firing. This featursenables the fuze to detonatea projectile almostimtantaneouslyupon encountering a thin-skinmxl target,or after a delay upon encountering thiclka skinnedtarget,thus allowingthe time necessaryto embed tha projectile in the targetbeforedetonation. The 10 DT, which is fired cmly in large caliberweapons,differsslightlyfor each type weapon in which it i~3 used. This difference necessitated the difference terminal is by in velocity, which dictatesthe tensilestrengthof the shutterwire (12) that controlsthe actionof the fuze (c below).

),, ,

q

k

,g&?wc-c&.

.—---------------------------—-.. nondelayand delay Action .--— ----? .---------.--------, Ioadedweight ----------.---—---.-—-----? -.--.----— --..---.--.-., ,Mdy material----— ----------------On firing,the stir~p (8) sets back, cuttingthe shearpin (1.4 The stirrupsafetyclamp (10)is crushed,and the stirrup . remainsto the rear, fixedwith the striker(n) as one piece. The striker, thoughits forwardmovementis no longerpreventedby the stirrup,is held to the rear by the anticreepspring (7) until impact. On impactwith a thick-skinned target,the stirrupand strikermove forward,carryingthe impactfiringpin (9) into the primer (6). At the same time the metal shutter(13) cuts the shearwire (12),and sets forwafito plug the cliruct flash channelthat leads to the black powderpellet (4). The flash from the primer (6) ignitesthe delay pellet (5)which burns throughand ignites the black powderpellet.Gases from the burningblack powderpellet drive the detonatorfiringpin (3) into the detonator,. The detonatoractuates the booster (1),which in turn explodesthe projectile. On impactwith a thin-skinned target,the force of inertiais not sufficient for the metal shutter(13) to cut the shearwire (12)and plug the directflash chwnnel to the black powderpellet (4). Therefore, the primer flash :i.s transmitted directlyto the black powderpellet,bypassingthe delay pellet (5), so that the actionof the fuze is accelerated.

‘“ ‘-”

‘w

~. Meaponsand uro~e@iles with which use~. The 10 DT is used with armor-piercingnd concrete-piercing a projectiles weaponsof 152-mmor in larger, The specificusing weapon and projecti16,has ot been identified. n

ti

5-49

SUVIET 13AS_, DETO;MTIIIG Il~liACT FUZZ I:OD. .L10 DT

M

I

2

DIA TPl

3 4

7

14

0 9 10 II

I

I

1

I

I

1

J

*

5-50

b

CHAPTZR6

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CHINESECOY?IUNIST 3ASI PVTONATT7?R PTTZTW ChineseCommunist base detonatin~fi~zesre all exact copiesof’ a their f’uzes Sovietcounterparts. In many instancesit appearsthat the ChiCoT~ were made on the sane qachinest,hat producedthe Sovietfuzes. The only di~ferences notedwas in the markingof t}le fuzes. For this reason all. generalremarksmarle Sovietbase detonating on fI]zes re equallyapTlicaa ble to the ChiComfuzes, Since the ChiCcmr~l.~nitions industry‘las dicplaycd the ability to ?m”o-

’11 *,, ., ,

b

y! “L ~.

~: . ~, -, m. , ~. , ~:

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6-i, L

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CHICOM BASE DIlllOiJATING IMPACTFUZE TYPE 2 (~TIL~~Ry) ,, u ~. —Genera. The ChiCombase detonatingfuze, Type 2, is an exact were copy of the SovietDBR-2 Base DetonatingImpactFuse. Differences noted only in the paint and markings. For a more completedescription of the ChiComType 2 see the SovietDBR-2 b -* 4 Characteristics. bpact inertie (0.81lbs.)

,. ., ~: ; “’ , ,, ~, “! .

!11

Action ...------------—-—.—--—-—---—---—-..,-----

Ioadedweight —---.— ...--.--.-.------— ------ 372 pas &

Body material-—-------.---—”.-”---,-—, ----------~ ----—---steel \ so

Jikas..zs

s-

the so~~t DBR-2 for ~cti@.w

fiflOIXIEI*~PL

Q. Weawns and mofiectiles tithw~chuse~o 85-mm ChiComField Gun Type ? 85-mm AYBC-T---—-- 367 Series
-D

w

q

w

tJ

6-1

-.

CHICOI’4BASE

r

2

IM-2X-.Z.+5I
n

u

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c)

6-2

,,,

CHICOM BASE

IMPACTI’U2E TYPh 2 (GREMDE LAUNCHER)

~, ~~neral. The ChiComlxise detonating impactf’uze Type 2 (Grenade Launcher) an identicalcopy of the SovietDK-2 fuze emplo~~edn tlhe is i SovietPG-2 grenade. For a discussionof this hze see the entry under the SovietDK-2 fuze.

*

h

Qwa@@ALw

Action --.------——------- .—-. ------—-,-.-----.-.--- Instantan(30us . -------------.””.--”- 198 Ioadedweight -----.-——---. gr~S (O. ?.IJs 23 .)

b — Body mterial --------.—---- --------.----.--—..--m- AhlllXiIli~ of of Q. _Qpctioninq.For a detaileddiscussion the functioning this fuze, see the entrymade under the SovietDK-2 :fize. Q. ~eaDons and m“tiles Weapons
40/80-mm :

with which used. . -.-— Projectiles 40/80-mmHEAT —------- Type 50

,ChiCom Type 56 AT Grenade Iauncher —

b

DIA .95

I

1.91 2.
9

I

*

G-28 .9.
8,.

1

,,,, i

IDIA 1.13

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b

h“

b

-.. ,
,.. ”P.

-,~-3 .

7
4..

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This miscellaneous ommunfstBloc base detonatin~ C fupe chapteris necessary due to the increas!.nq numberof ba$e detonatingfuwes r-adited to ccuntries~n the bloc other then the major s~lpFliers; SoviPt%ssia
and Communist Cklina. “’uzeshave been recoverd which are native to Poland . and ?’crthVietnam. In addition, fvzes produced in Forth Korea and %ma~ia that are CO~j.eS of their qoviet counte~pa&s have been recoveredand

,~

k

examined. Since the %rnanianVT-7, piezo-el.ectricj poiht hitiatinr-basecletonat.in~ fi~ze an exactCOry o.f is the sovi~tVP-7 and marki.ncsprwarin ~othj.c a lettersand Arabicnumerals,which ave readilyidentifiable English,it in was not felt necessary to nake a separateIist,jnp f’ o the fu71Dunder ‘Tuwania.
The .fuzeis adequately covered under its Soviet collnterpart.

iui+

>

7-+ L

NORTH KOREANBfiS9 DETONi,TING I?4PACTUZFi3, YP2 2 (GRENADdL1.UNC~) F T ‘G impact fuze type 2 ~. General. The North Koreanbase detonating an (Grenade Muncher) is practically identicalcopy of the SovietDK-2 and the ChiComtype 2 employedin ths PC-2 grenade. The only major difference in the body material. The North Korean fuz9 employs is
cadmium slated steel in lieu of aluminum, as in the case of its soviet
4

and close adheranceto tOleY~CeO and ChiComcounterparts.Workmanship waterproof. For a leave littleto be desired. The fuze is erAtirely discussion the fuze employedin the PG-2, boostedgrenade,see the of entryunder the Soviet DK-2. b -. Characteristics.

* -----.-.-.,.-----.---—---.-.----* Instantaneous Action------------Loadedweight —--— -------------------------105 grams (0.23 lb) Steel

...-—. Body material—-..------—..-— ---------------------

~. Functioning.For a detaileddiscussion the functioning of of this fuze, see the entry for the Soviet DK-2 fuze. & WeaDonsand ~ro~ectiles with which used. WeaDona 40/80mm: North KoreanCopy of RPG-2 ~ectllea ‘!, : .,,, ) 1+0/8ChmEAT Grenade, H

w

u
7-1
-.,,

~ NORTHKORMN &SI DTI’(lw\TING IMPACTFUZ!lS,PL3 2 (GRmADl LhuNcHzR)

T
260
)
8

DIA .95

!!m$

HW-2 76 . * d
DIA 1.13

7

m

J

l!!!!)
7-2
,... .. ..

. . b

NORTH VIJfNJltSi W$E D3TONI,T1NG IHP,,CTUZ3 B-50 F fuze is employedin the B-SO ~. General. The B-50 base detonating worthy of note. The fuze presentsnO new features boostedgren.de. However,it is bore safe,non-detonator safe and appearsreliable. It is an impact inertia fuze that employs a jump-out pin as its lone safety
device,

t

h

The fuze housing(2) is made of steeland is an intrapalpart of the warheadto stabilizer boom adapter. The boostercup (1) and lock plug (3) are m:de of aluminum. The cup (1) fits insidethe plug ‘(3).‘fke plu~ bus two wrench flats for assemblyand disassembly.The internal fuze housing(11) is made of ahminum and directlyhouses ths stainless steel,inertiafiring in (5). The primer-detonator8) Is secursd‘by ( an aluminumadapter(9 . The firincpin (5) is separ~tedfrom the priY mer-detonator (8) by an anti-creep ~prin~(10). Prior to firingthe firingpin is retain~din a lockedconditionby the brass jump-outpin (6) and spring(7). The fin assmbly of the B-50 grenaderetainsthe jump-outpinwithiri the fuze hcusinguntil firing. -. b Chr.,cteristics. --..-.--— --Non-delay(Impactinertia) ---- —.——— N/h

Action —-----——----—

Loadedweight -- .—----- .--.--...-— ——

w

.-.---...-----—-.---— Steel and aluminum 1, :1’ ~. Functioning.Upon firinpthe %50 gren~deinertiac~uses the fln assemblyto shear a pin and move to the rear of the wooden boom. This uncoversthe jump-outpin (6) which is expelledfrom the fuze housinp(2), b~ the .jUmp-out spring(’7).This frees the firingpin (,5) pin whicl? in h;ld away from the primerdetonator(8) only by the anti-creep spring (10). The fuze is now armed. “lhen th% grenadetip.ctsthe inertiaflrin ]~in (5) moves forwardUnd pressesthe stab-sensitivedmer-detonator?) . y $ This initiates the booster(1) and the shapedchargewarheadof the 13-50 grenade. -. I!eanons nd projectiles d a used with.

Body M&terial --.--—

q

Weapons 50/Nunln : NVA/VCgren:de1~.uncher lb50.,

Projectiles 50/10@m HJAT grsnade .---Type-50 B

7-3

9/0

-. k

//
Iuml

6

7-k

1$1

,,..

POLISHBASE DETONATTNO T?~PACTU7E DC-1 F impact inertia fuze a, General. The PolishDC-1 base detonating, upon direct impactwith a target, It is an extremely safe,very reliablefu~e incorporatin~ graze-sensitive a weight. In the unfiredcondition, all internalcornponentg interlocked, are effectively producing handlingand bore safpty. lhe fuze is not detonatcmsafe. Followingthe practiceof the French STRIMrifle grenadefuze, the DC-1 arms only upon the positiveapplication high pressurepropellinggases of on the rear diaphram(12) and set-back.
function~elay

‘w

.,

1

*

The fuge is a completely sealed,waterproof assembly, made $rom a i~ machinedsteelcylinderwith closingdiscs at each end. ‘he fuze bocly roll crimpedat each end to hold the discs in place. ‘he discs are f’urther sealedwith shellac. The lower disc is embossedin three Iines with fuze identificationnformation. The upper fuze digc containsthe mlimeri spsnner wrench groovesare cut into the flashelement. ,Twohemd.s~erical externalshoulderof the fuze body. ‘: The machinedsteelbody (lR)is the rigid elementof the fuze and containsall armingand firingcomponents. me lower disc (12) acts as the armingdiaphram. Internally, restingon the dianhramand supported by the cam block (10) is a smallpiston (11) that is forcedupwardby the diaphram. The piston (11)passesthrouuhthe cam block (10) and forces a secondpiston (8) forward. The””twoistonsare than disengaged perp to mit the graze sensitive weight (?) to move laterally. The secondpiston (8) passesthroughthe wei~ht (~) and has itg enlargedhead positioned firmlyagainsta slightly bent wire (7). This tire rests in a noove cut throughthe firingpin plunger (~). Each end of the wire (7) r,ests under Tron movingdownward. Inside the the set-back wei~ht (6) set-back wei.ght (6) is a coi~,spring steel,clock @pe spring (~). This-spring held coiledby the set-bqdk is weight (6) and is positionm? over the firingpin plunger(~) presenting solidblock a ainst any a forwardmuvementof the firing pin’(13)towardthe primer ?1),, An anticreep spring(lb) separates the firingpin (13)and primer (1) when t;.he fuze is armed. One end of the springrests in a grooveat into the face of the firingpinpl~ger (~). The other en~which is slightlylargerin diameter,fits over a guidebeneaththe primer. The cam bloclc (10) and ‘ graze sensjti.ve weight (9) are cut on an angle so that at near flat angles of impact,the weight (9) will move laterallyand be caromedorward,:forcf ~ng the firingpin assemblyinto the primer. ,.
prevq~tin: it

-.

,,,.

u

,,,,

*
&

b. Characteristics. ----------------------------aAction ------------------------Non-delay --------------57 Warns (0.12 Ibs) Ioadedweight -----------------------------------------w----------------..--Body material --------Steel ,.,,

Q

7-5

!l%ere re no ?%zs sar~tv~evice.so he rmovwl a t mio~”tome. the high press,lrer~~~l,.in~gpses p eorce”the”&@rm (12) inwardthe lower piston (11) moves forw~r!ar~a~.nst uprer ar~ing the piston (8). The upper pistonbends the wire (7) invardcausingthe wire ..wi~!qt (6) at this time ends to be ~]lleilnward,unblorkth.s i set-h~.et: the two pistons are disen~ared, per~ittin~ ‘ree, lateral~ovementof the graze sensitive weipht (7). Sgt-bac~:ausesthe vei~ht (6) to wow downc ward, releasingthe coiled safetysprinp(Jl), @ich uncoilsand ex~ands into the fuze cavity. The positiveblockhas Pow been re-mvedfrom the firingpin (13) and the fuze is arned. Upon impact,the firingpin asse-hly(5) co~T-resses anti-creep the springs(~) and the sharrpointer:irin~: f Tin (17) piercesthe stab-sensitive primer (1) initiating the gre~ate=’~rlo~i-:~ +~ain. IT the Yrenade impactsat a flat angle or attemptsrj.cochet.h’ vraze sensitive -—-. t wei~ht .. (9) will move laterally, through-nertiaand’ caned forwardby the can i be block (10),movingthe firinRpin asseqbl~~s) int.: ( the primer (l). d. !Jearonsnd Fro.iectiles a used with. polishRifle Grenade,TAT PC]!-60 Polish RMle Menad., ?ragmentaticm, -11’-60 7

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SOVIET TIME

AND COMBINATICM FUZES

SOVIET TIME AND COMBINATION FU2ES

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‘he Sovietsposse8sand distribute the Conmnist Bloc a coxqilete to range of time fuzes and combination and impactfuzes. These fuzes /*re both the mechanical time and powdertime train types. Tactically the major population this fuze class is employedin an of antiaircraft role. Howdver,it appearsthat an incre,asin~ proportion are m being employedas air burst on anti-personneliosions. Current=, both powdertime trainsfuzes and mechanical time fuzeshave been seen only in mxiiumcaliberprojectiles, such as the 85aun and l(XMS. ~.~ su$$e~ta that the antiaircraft guns are being employedas terrestrial. artillery on certainfire missions. The greatermajorityof the time fuzes recoveredhave hen the powder time train T-5 and the mechanical time VM-30. Both of these fu%es requirea wide numth projectile capableof acceptinga 2.03 diameter intrusion 9 threadsper inch. Standardpointdetonatingfuzeswith at their 1.40 intrusion 10 threadsper inch cannotbe fittedto the wide at and the M&n F-&U! projectile. The projectmouth 8smm Q=36s projectile iles may be employedinter changeably betweenantiaircraft and terrestrial field artillery weapms. Powdertime train fuzes employingpressedblack powderin time rings are notoriously affectedby altitudeand humidity. Burningrates may vary to such an extentto renderthe fuse ineffective for anti-aircraft purposes. ~or this reqsonzwst countries now eI@Oy mechanicaltime time fuzes are more fuzes in the antiaircraft role. However,mechanical. expensive and more difficult manufacture. The Sovietstook cognizance to of the advantages and disadvantages powder tdm train fuzes and initiof ated a redevelopment rogram. Since the Freasedblack pmde:r delay train p producedthe undesirable factor,this materialis being replacedby a non-gaseous, bichromate, burningmixturethat is relativelyunaffected by the antiaircraft enwelope. Because of this redevelopment ~wder time train fuzeshave retainedtheir positionwithinthe Sovietfuze family. It Is known that the Soviethave developedmechanical. time and powder time train fusesthat are not coveredin this document. The VM460 and TH-16Lare notableexamples. There have not been sufficient fume fragments collected positively to identifythese fuzes. It is aleo.known that the Scvi.eti othermembmx of the Commumist and KLoc pssess variableWee (VT) fuzeo. There is evidencethat this class of fuze may have bean employedin Vietnam,but this has not been solidified by fuze fragments fuaea. or Currently, th fuzes or cozhinatx$m no fues of ChiCornanufacture m It is certainthat ouch fuzes exist,if only for have been recovered. antiaircraft pmrposcs, but all. dud ChiCom8sms and NlOsm antiaircraft projectiles recovered have been equippedwith Sovietfuzes.

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SOVIET PoINTDETONATING COM131NATILJN FUZE J1ODEL D

~. GenerQ. The Model D fuze is providedwith a threadedprotective cover (not shown). The initialsettingof the fuze, as issued,is llK1l, canisteraction. Upon loadingthe shell,the protectivefwze for cover is removed(right-hand thread),and the fuze is set by turningthe bottomtime ring until the desiredgraduation the scaleis in lino of with the settingindex on the platformof the fuze body. Tha burning time may be adjustedfrom 1 through21 seconds. ‘i’he time mechta..nisrn consistsof two time rings. On the externalsurfaceof the bottomtime rin~ is engraveda scaleof 100 or 130 sightgraduations, the value of each graduation being 50 m., and, in additionto this, two lines markedwith the RussianlettersIIK1l VA!!,which correspond the settingsof thefhzs and to for cannister effectand for nondelay(impact) action,respectively.The graduation scale of the fhze corresponds the sightsof the 76-mm :regito mentalgun (howitzer) M1927. Specialfiringtablesare requiredto use the fuze in other 76-mm guns, The l%del D fuze is believedto k obsolote.

-----.--—-.—-——-----.-..-.---.—— .Action

—----- Time and nondelay 4C0 grams (0.882:Lb.)

—-----.--kaded weight----------------------

-------------------------Body material-----------—--------——— Brass Functiontig. No reliableinformation the functioning this on of now available. ‘,lea~nsnd Projectiles a vith which used. tleapons divisional ~TZ[~T;2~~$~$~~’ (hotitzer)-~0;27; tank guns lf1927/32 lQ938/39(IAl); and mountaingun (howitz4r) M1909 Projectiles 7*=%%-==IF;;Z

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING COMBINATION FUZE MODEL D

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SOVIET POINTDETONATING COMBINATION FU2E llO~L D-3 L ~. General. The maximumburningtime of the D-l fuze variesfrom 35 to 45 seconds, dependingon the conditions under which it is used. The bottomtime ring (6) has a scaleof 125 graduations; the minimum settingon this scaleis 10 graduations the older D-1 fuzes,and 5 on graduations the newer ones. If the fuze is set between115 and 125, on action is obtained the impactmechanism will not am. Nondelay(impact) by settingthe bottomtime ring at ~f$~ff & m characteristics. -time and nondelay

*

Action—-—-——-------—-—--——---—-—------Loadedweight----—-—— Body material. --—-—-——-—— --”-m.—---—.--—

430 gme (0.946lb.) ---------- brass

---—.----—

(1) For atim sett ~: Upon firing,the setlxuiktriker(11) s sets lmlc, i~ting the initiating pellet (12),which ignit(3s the powder train in the upper time ring (2). The fMe tra’~els aroundthe upper time ring, burns througha transmission hole, and ignitesthe powderin the middle time ring (4), at the same time @iting a powderbloclchgpellet (13). The blockingpellet burns away, releadng the safetyinterrupter (3). Centrit%gal force causesthe safetyinterrupter move outwati. to This actionio also accelerated the safetyinterrupter by spring, This actionfrees the impactStriker (l),which will. activate the ftue in the event the projectilestrikesan object before the powdertrain is consumed. Meanwhilethe flame from the middletime ring sses into the lower time ring (6) throughthe flash channel(1,4 and then througha flash channel,n the i r, has been centrifugally otatedto aline r safetyrotor (8) (which its flash channelwith the detonatorpellet (9) ). The flame thus reachesthe detonatorpellet (9),which activatesthe booster (10), explodtigthe projectile filler.
*

*

(2) For nondelay(impact) action (setting!Q@Jt): The 1Y31’1 ‘ settingpositionsthe time rings so that the maximumburning time ~f,45 secondsis assured. Up until the moment of impact, the me f%nctionsexact~ as describedabove. Upon impact, the im ct striker(1) is drivenrearwatiand forcesthe firing Pin (5 tito a ~rimer (7) dined with the flash channelof tile Y safe~ rotor (8]. tie from this primerpassesto the detonator pellet (9)2which then sets off the booster (10)and the prc)jectilefiller.

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SUVIET POINTDETONATING COMBINATION FUZZ MODELD-1 d*
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Projectiles

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING COMBINATION FUZE MODEL OM-82 w
~. QgJf&Q. The OM-82 is a powdertrain time fuze used to ignite the expellingchargein the Soviet82==mm ortarpropagandashells. The m base portionof the body is threaded, apparently receivea safetycap. to No data is availableon the safeb cap.

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—.--.—--—

-—-—..----.----.-.---.!.——

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Imded weight -------.-—--------------------.. --.-...--.—
*

Body materials-—---—-.--------—.-

—-—

------ brass and steel

When the round is fired, setbackcausesthe fLI?~ s“ Filnctio* pin (1) to overcome;he resistance the sprtig (2) and move rearward of The flash from the prim? until it strikesand ignitesthe primer (4). moves alon a flash channeluntil it ignitesthe powder train in the upper The burningpowdertti followsa path withh the upper 3). time ring !! time ring (3),, ~ugh a passageto the centertime :ring t (5),within the centertime ring (5),througha passageto the lower tbe ring (6),,to flash channel(8),and then ignitesthe powdermagazSne(7),which in turn functionsthe burstingchargeof the projectile.
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SOVIET POINT DETONATING TIME FUZE MODEL T-3

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a. LkmxQJ!* The T-3 fuze is used with shrapnelshellsin 76-mm divisional, tank, and antiaircraft WS. It iS used for both groundad antiaircraft fire. Construction the T-3 fuze is stiplejm comparison of to fuzes in the 22-secondseriesand other time fuzes,but it is subject to failureduringfflght. This fuze has a settingscalegraduabd up to 32. This &e will arm at a distanceof 30 to 60 feet from the muzzle of the gun and has a maximumburningtime of 21.7 seconds. The T-3 me does not have percussion actionupon impact. The base portionof the fuze body is threadedfor a safetycap which must ?M removed!t the fira ing point.
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Action—-—------------—— .-—---------—--- Time, canistereffect?and solid shot effect ~aded weight —--.-----—-.--—---—---.—--—-. 650 gr~S (1043lb,)

Body material—--------—---------—————— -------------—-------Steel
Functioning With the fuze set for time functioning, upon firing, ~. setback causes the f;ring Pin (1) to overcome the resis~ce of the, spring

9

*

(6) and move rearwarduntil it strikesand ignitesthe prime:r (7). The flashfrom the primeris trmsmitted to the upper time ring (2),where it ignitesthe powdertrain. The burningpowdertrain followsa path within the,upper time ring (2),througha passageto the centertfi~ r(3)> withinthe centertime ring througha passageto the lower t:ime ring (4), and tithinthe lowe~time ring to the channel(8). The bur@ng powder. traixr then fkshes throughthe channelto ignitethe black powdermlgazine fo:r (5)which functions the projectile. When the fuze is set on ‘tKfI, canistereffect,the passagesof the time rings are directlyalinedto the channel(8);consequently,fter the burnjngpowdertrain consumest]he a path withinthe upper time rjng (2),it goes directl.y.to channel,, the to the magazine, and functions the projectile. When the fuze is set on Wl~l, it will not function. The powdertrdn in the upper time ring (2) is con. sumed,but the time ringshave keen positionedso that the passagesar~ blockedand the powdertrain is prohibited from burningbeyondthe r~per time ring. The l~YD1l settingresultsin the projectile havinga soktd shot effectagainstthe target. $-7

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING TIME FUZE MODELT-3 h ~. Weamns and uro~ectileswith WhiC l.ls~. Weapons Projectiles

76-mm: divisional guns ~902/30,M1933, 76-mmShrapnelAh-361;Sh361A; M1936(F-22) M1939(USV), and Sh-35LR;Sh-355 M1942(ZIS-3 tank guns ~938/39 j; (hll) -d M1939. (F-32); antiaircraft guns M1931,M1931/33, and H1938

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POINTDETONATING TIME FUZE MODEL T3(UG)

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A. ~. The T3 (UG) (~~b~, ~.go Obrazt~a, -~uch~he~og~~ W’uze,3rd l%del,ImprovedDimensions’) t was de~igned Qabarita:literally, for use with bar shrapnelshellsused i.n %-mm antiaircraft guns and has been used with shra~el projectiles for Soviet76-mmdivisional, regimental, and tank guns. This fuze is designedonly for an air burst, since it contains arrangement no for tipactfunctioning.This fuze has 165 graduations the time scalering. The matimutnurningtime of the T3 on b is 32 seconds, The powdertrain of the T21 fuze burnsmore uniformlyt~n the powdertrain of the A5.second fuze becauseof the arrwgement of openingsin the nose and sidesof the streamlined fuze windshield; consequently, the T3 has a greaterheightof action. This fuze is fitlmd with a safetycap which must be removedjust prior to setting Setting
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,,,

Action---—--------------------—.

Ioadedweight -—------—-------.---------Eody material—--—————.—— —---------,---

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FunctionQg The firingpin (1) is retainedwithinthe stem of the f%e body (5)by~ retaining plug (8) and held away from t,he primer (lo) by the spring(9). With the fuze set for time functioning, upon firj!ng, setbackcausesthe firingpin (1) to overcomethe resistance the spring of (9)and move rf3aXWard until it strikesand ignitesthe primer (10).The flash from the primeris transmitted the upper time ring (2) where it to ignitesthe powdertrain. The burningpowdertrain :~ollows.path within a the upper time ring (2),througha passageto the centertime ring (3), within the centertime ring througha passageto the lower time ring (4), and withinthe lower time ring to the channel(U), The burningpowder train then flashesthroughthe channelto ignitethe black powdermagazine (6) and send a jet of flame throughbase plug (7) to explodethe projectile, When the fuze is set on IIK’l canistereffect,the passagesof the time for ringsare directlyalinedto the channel(11);consequent~,after the burningpowdertrain consumesthe path within the upper time ring (2), it

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING TIME FUZE MODEL T~(UG)
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goes directlyto the channel,to the magazine, and e~lodes the projectile at about 100 to 165 feet from the gun muzzle. Normallythe T3(U~)fuze is not fired with the settingof “YD1~;he exception t would arisewhen no armorpiercfigroundswere available and directfire againsttankswas needed. In this case,with the fuze set on ?tYD~l, fuze would not tiction and the the projectile would producea solid shot effectagainstthe target, When the fuze is firedwith the ~IYD~I setting,the powdertrain ti the upper time but the.timerings have been positioned ‘sothat the ring (2) is consumed, passagesare blocked-and the powdertrain is prohibited from burningbeyond the uppertime ring. ectilesd thwhich use . ~ si* WeaDonsend Dro..i Weapons Projectiles

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II ,~ TIME FUZE MODEL T-5 SOVIET YOINTDEI’ONATING
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T-5 Soviet a, General. ‘l’he fuze is the fifth model of ‘tTfl-series fuzes are the T-3 (UG),T-6, T-7, and T-Il. fuzeso OtherKnown “TII The T-5 fuzie was designedfor fragmentation shellsused in medium guns. It is a boresafepowdertrain fuze havin~~ caliberantiaircraft the Sovietsafetycla~sificationf ‘safe.” The T-5 fuze has no o provision for other than time functioning.. has a m@mum ‘burning It time of approximately 2 seconds. The time scalering is graduated 3 from 5 to 165. Models of recentmanufacture discardthe settingsl’YA” and “K”; the formeris a settingwherebythe fuze does not function and the projectile has a solid shot effectat the target,and the Iat,ter, a zero point, settingwhich producesa canisterburst about 10 to 32 feet from the gun muzzle. The fuze is shippedwith a settingof ~tlO.t’ According regulations to the lowestpermissible settingis ‘181’; lower settingsare used only for self-defense a gun batteryagai:nst of the T-5 fuze comparesfavorably ground-attacking aircraft. Externally with the T-6 fuze exceptfor stampings, threadedbase die.meter,nd a colorbands. The T-6 time scalering is graduatedfrom”10to 139. The diameterof the threadedbase of the T-5 fuze is much lar,ger han t that of the T-6 fuze. The T-5 fuze windshieldand safety cap, which ‘isremovedbeforefiring,have a black color band,whereasthe T-6 fuze windshield has one red colorband and the safetycap has two :red color bands. These windshield and safetycap color bands ~’e slwayspresent. Internally the T-5 fuze comparesfavorablywith the T3 (UG)fuze. The train of actionof the T-5 is essentially .,,same as that,,, the the,, of ,, ,,,, T3 (UG),the difference being in the additionof ’’tibperation the ‘in’ base of the fuze betweenthe flash channeland the magazinecharge. e b. Chsractristicq. Actio~-------------------time, canistereffect,and solid shot effect -----------------------------------gm. (1.562lb.) Loadedweight‘ 710 Body material-------------------.-----...-----.-----.-..----a 1~num

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FunctioQQg. Regardless the settingof the time scale of ring ?;),when the projectile fired the slidersetbacklocking is pin (7) overcomes the tensionof its springand sets backA;n~hethe sliderwhich housesthe detonatorto hold it immovable? projectile rotatesthroughthe bore centrifugal orce causesthe two f sliderlockingpins, one on each side of the sliderto compresstheir springsand move outward,away from the slider. After the projectile has left the bore and the setbackforce ceases,the slidersetback lockingpin springreturnsthe slidersetbacklockingpin to its originalpositionawey from the slider.

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SOVIET POINT DETONATING TIME FUZE MODEL T-5 Centrifugal force then acts upon the counterweight n the sliderto i move the sliderso that the detonatorin the sliderbecomesalined with the flash channel(8) and the magazinechargeor booster(4). At the same time, the firingpin (.5) overcomes the resistance its of springand moves rearwarduntil it strikesand ignitesthe primer (6). The flash from the primer is transmitted the upper time ring (1) to where it ignitesthe powdertrain. If the fuze is set for time functioning, the ~owdertrain burns successively throughthe center time rin~ (2) and the lower time ring (3), passesthe flame through the flash channel(8) to ignitethe detonatorin the slider,the detonatorfunctionsthe booster,and the boosterin turn ex-lodesthe projectile. If the fuze is set for canistereffectthe actionis essentially the same exceptthat the powdertrain burns throu~hthe time rings in the most directmanner and the projectile bursts dangerously closeto the gun muzzle. If the fuze is set so e.s not to function, the time rings are positioned stop the powdertrain from to burningbeyondthe upper time ring. with which used. d. Weaponsand uroflectiles Weapons 76-mm antiaircraft guns M1931, M1931/33j and M1938 85-mm antiaircraft M1939; tank guns M1943 (D-5T85 and M1944 r (21 S-S53);SPguns M1943 (D5-S85 and D5-S85A)
76-mm Frag -- 0-361;(3-361D

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t!5-mm rag ---------0-365 F

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SOVIXT POINTDETONATING COMBINATION l?UZE MODEL T-6

The T-6 fize was designedfor fragmentaticm, sti~j~el, A. GenerQ. incendia~, propaganda, and illuminating shellsof variousmc)dels of medium-calibereapons. This is a bore safe powdertnin fuze, havinga w It a Sovietsafetyclassificationf IIsafell. is considered c~ouble-actiop o fuze sinceit has both time and impactfunctioning. The fuze is shij?ped with a hermetically sealedsafetycap in placewhich must be removedbefore to firingin order to set the time rings. The T-6 fuze is quite simil.a]r The T-6 fuze other ‘tTtt-series f’uzes, specifically he modelsT-5 snd T-7. t has one red colorkand on the fuze wind shieldand two red cc)lor bands on the safetycap, whereasthe T-5 fuze has one black color band on t~tll,t,he fuze windshield and safetycap; the fuze identified a T-7 fuze ha:3 one as violetcolorband on both the fuze windshieldand th~ safetycap. The major diameterof the base threadsof the T-6 and T-7 is approtimatel.y the same;the major diameterof the base threadsof the T-5 f’uze ELppis roximately 5/8-inchlarger,by comparison. The T-6 s.nd T-7 f’uzes have an impactfunctioning mechmism; the T-5 does not. The time scale ring of the T-6 fuze is graduatedfrom 10 to 139, whereasthe time scale rings‘if the T-5 and T-7 fuzes are ~raduatedfhwm 5 to 165. The graduationon the T-6 fuze correspond the sightgraduations the 76-mm gerimental to of gun N1927 end specialrange tablesare needed if the tie is to be employed in otherweapons. Two additional indexes, ?ly~ and W!’, may appear stamped on the time scale rings of the T-5, T-6, and T-7 fuzes;however,more recentlymanufactured fuzesdiscardone or both of these indexes. Th~e letters“y# tidicatea settingwherew the shell functions with nond,elay actionon impactwith the target. The letter ‘lKf! indicates canistera effectsettingto be used with shrapnel and fragmentation shells,but only in a last-ditch effortto defenda batteryposition. The Wilt setting producesan airburst65 to 100 feet from the gun. 12* UMracter@tics — —*

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Action----—--------------—--—— Ioadedweight —-.---—--.---———

time, nondelay,and canistereffect ----------—540 grams (1.19 lbs) aluminum

Body mterial ———--—..------------------—.-..------,.-

. . Q. ~~ontig. Mhen the round is fired, the primerhousing (12’) in the base of the fhze body (5) is setbackover the stirrup (7) and &he prongsof the stirrupbecomeengagedin a groove. isidethe primerhclu~ing t in the reamost position,thus aming the fuze for impactfunctiming, the resistance its spring of Simultaneously, firing pin (9) overcomes the and moves rearwarduntil it strikesend ignitesthe primer (2). The flash from the primeris transmitted the upper time ring (1)whe]?e ignites to it the powdertrain. If the fuze is set for time functioning the powder train continues burn successively to throughthe centertime ring (;1) and the
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SOVIET POINT DETONATING CO1IBINATION FUZE MODEL T-6 lower time rixg (4);the flame passesthroughthe flash channel(11) to ignite the black powderIase charge (8)which sets off the bursting chargesin the shell. If the fuze is set for canistereffect (theminimum burningtime setting), the actionis essentially the same except that the powder tratiburns in a straight passagethroughthe time rings to the flash channel,and then to the base charge. Becauseof dispersion at the beginning the powdertrain combustion, of the projectile may burst dangerously closeto the gun muzzlewhen the canistersetting”is used. If the fuze is set for impactfunctioning, if the fuze fails to funcor tion on the time or canister settings, upon impact the pfimerholder (13), the stirrup (7),and the primerhousing (12)are thrownforwardto overcome the tensionof the anticreepspringand cause the impactprimer (L) to tipingeagainstthe fixed firingpin (10). !lhis actioncausesa ,~rojectionon the base of the primerholderto be moved out of the cc.ltral hole in the primerhousingretainer(1.4),herebyopeningthis orificeto t allow the flame from the ignitedprimerto pass to the base chargeand then to the shell. with which USed. rmns and rrofiectiles d -* ?Jea Weapons guns (howitzers) 1fL927 76-mm regimental : and M1943;mountainguns (howitzers)1~909 and IQ938;divisional gllllS M1902/30 M1936(F-22) M1939 , , (USV) and 1Q942(ZIS-3) tank guns , M1927/32,1~938/39 (Ul\ , ~11.939 (F-32) }n940(F-34) and N1941 , (ZIS-5\ 8P gun 1’a942/43 SAU-76) ; (
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6 TPI

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SOVIET POINTDETONATING COMBINATION FUZE NODEL T-7 b’ The SovietT-7 fuze is a the and point detonating ~. GeneraJ. superquick fuze with settings for time and instantaneous ction. It is a of the powdertrain type and is bore ssfe. The T-7 is nearly identical to the T-6 fuze in design and functioning, differingin that the T-7 time scale is graduated from 5 to 165, insteadof 10 -139 as in the T-6. The T-7 is identified the violet-coloredand on the shippingcap and by b on the fuze windshield. It can be employedon the same projectiles and fired from the same guns as the T-6. It is transported with a shipping cap,which moistureproofsthe fuze. The cap must be removedto set the time z%ngs. There additional indexesmarked !FY and WI’ on the time ring ‘I scales. Thses settingsindicatenondelayimpactfunctioning and muzzle burst actionrespectively. b -~ Ch” racteristics. -----time and supe~~uick

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L

Action—-—--------------.---.———...—--—

--------------- 540 grams (1.1’?bs) Loadedweight -----—------,-----, l Eody material.----—-----------------—----——-----—-aluminum

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@

U n firtig,with the fuze set on time, setlmclc Q* ~cti oninq. causesthe firingpin (1 to move rearwatiagainstits spring (2) emd r functionthe powdertrainprimer (4). Flame from the primerignitesthe powdertrain in the upper time ring (3),which burnsuntil the flame reachesthe transferchannelto tt.e centertime ring (5) ignitingits powdertrain. This sequenceis repeatedin the lower time ring (7). When flame reachesthe flash channel(6),a flash pellet sencls flame to the magazinecharge (10),which functionsthe projectile. When the fuze is set for nondelay,the flash channelto the time rings is blocked. Upon being fired,setbackcausesthe safetybushing (Ii)down over the primercarrier(13). The legs on the primercarrierengagethe internal groovein the busQing (Xl.) ockingthe bushingend carriertc~gethern the l i rearwardposition. The We is now armed. Upon impact,the primer c:arrier (13)and bushing(11)move forwardby inertia,impalingthe primer (8) on the fixed firingpin (9). Flame from the primerflashesintc} the magazine charge (10)functioning the projectile. When the We is set, for muz~zle burqt action,the flxune transferchannelsin the three time rings aro all set in linetith the flash channel(6). The projectile will travel65 to 100 feet from the muzzlebeforefunctioning. This settingia normally employedin cannister ammunition.

tid

SOVl13TPQI1?T DETONATING COIIBINATIQN FUZE IJODE T-7 L

Q.

with which used. Heawns and ~ro.iectiles J Weapons Pro jectiles 122-mmShrapnel------ ~~h-460T Illuminating ——- %’+.26 propaganda ------ A-1,62 152-mmShrapnel-—-—Sh-5ClT
.

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122-m : howitzerli1938

152-rlmlhowitzerM1943 :

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8-22

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SOVIET POINTDETONATING IMPACTFUZE NOEL T-lL

.

The T-n time fuzo $.s smlar in ovordJ appearance and construction to the T-5 fuze, but cliff tiom the latterM hatinga time powder train ers of an improvedslow-burning gaaleoapowdercomposition.This composition burns more slowlythan the ueual power ufled, and does not fail at high altitudes does the powderused An the T-3 fuze, The T-n. does no~, as have a percussion arrangement for Impaotfiring,and must thereforebe set only for aerialbursts, It is used with the O-361 and O-.36lD rcJp jectilesin the 76-zm antddroraft guns M1931,M1931/33,and M1938

,,,,

.,

S~VIET POINT DETONATING TIIE FUZE MODEL VM-2

L+(
VM-2 is believedto have been desi@ed mainly g. General. ‘I’he for antiaircraft fire, since it functionsonly throughthe actionof’ its clockwork mechnniamand has no provisionfor functionupon impact. It can be set for lon~erburningtime than any other Scnriet uze known to f be used in the S5-mmantiaircrdt gun 1’1939.The windshieldand fum body are made of aluminum;the lockingring and internalmcch.anism aru made of brass. The settingsin secondsare inscribed the winclsh.i,old on and the time settingindicator point is inscribed the fuze bod.~~. on The fuze ic get to desiredtime of functionby rotatingthe windshield until the desiredtine graduation linesup with the indicatorline on the fuze body. The entirefuze mechanismcloselyresemblesthe Ckmman ZT,Z S/jO artillery fuze which was used with thhnm antiaircraft guns. -. b Characteristics. ——

*

P

-—---------—----- mechanicaltinw Action --—----.----------— ------.-.----.,.,..--__., Loadedweight -—-----------.-. 755 ~r~~s (1.66l-bs) --.-----------.--Body material---— -----go

,.-.-----,.-aluminum
move

Functioning

On firing

setback causes the trigger (8) to

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rearwati~d release”the hand (7~. The hand, upon being released,is rota$~~, a ~o,~,t~rclockwise W dimytiqn by the main cprtigand clockwcmk mechanism. The completeclockwork mechanismhas not been sho~m in t;he drawing. Nhen the hand has clearedthe safetybridge (1) it is pressed Up a ainst the hsnd race on the under surfaceof the to of the reta:iner Cup ?9) by a spring (2) under the centerof the hand (7 . LMen the hand Y reachesthe portionof the hand race which is cut out to receiveit, it is forcedupwardby its springand the ring-likesectionof the hand, clearsthe prong of the safetylever (3),allowingit to move outward under the pressureof its springand centrifugal force. This pulls the lower section,f the safetylever out of the safetyslot of the firing o pin (4)} dlowtig the firingpin to go rearwardunder the influenceof its springand activatethe primer (6) wfich inturndetonatesthe booster (?.C). The fuse has an additional safetyfeaturein its spring-loaded shutte~(5) which remainsin place, blockingthe prfierfrom the firingpin until the centrifugal force of the rotationof the shell. flightpulls it to the in side and leavesa clearpassageto the primer. Q. llea~onsnd ~ro.lect~.les which used. a with !Ieapons 85-mm antiaircraft : gun MI.939 Projectiles 85-mm Trag .---------,---0-;16514

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8-25

,

SOVIET POINT DETONATING TIME l?UZE

liODELVM-2

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SOVIET MECHANICAL TIME FUZE VM-30 has re.se$e” The SovietMechanicalTime fuse VM-30have not been ntact.Only fragumts of variouacomponents been studied. to the distortion these fragments, of causedby the detonatingpo-

Due

1 I ~ II II *

jectileit has not been entirelypssible to reconstruct the fuze as in was the caae with the U-429 ad MM series fuseat The VLsO appears to havewst of the characteristicsf the VM-2. o The clocktype main springis presentalongwith a springpoweredfiring pin. Evidenceis not ooncluaive, but the VM-30may imorpcmte a centrifugal operatd detonator mlider of the type seen in the T-5 powder the train fuze. ThiE would be in keepingwith currentfuse desi~ ]philosophy on bore ad detonatorsafe fuses. s,, b. Characterbtic Action—---——-haded weight— Body material——
g.

P
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.—— --.. —.—m— .-—---—m

Mechanical, time unknown —--Aluminum

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Functioning, Sbd.larto the SovietV&2.

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S~,V~T poINT UIT;,J1jAT~G COM13mATION FUZJ3 MODEL 22G

.

The 22G is one of the f’uzes the 22-seccmdseries, in which also includesthe models 22-see.?22P, and 22PG. The Midel 22-see. fuze appearedin 1899 and was standarduntil the outbreakof World Mar 11. The 22G is similarto all other fuses in the 22-second seriesin internal construction.The major difference betweenthese fuzes lies in the armtime, canister’, or ing safetyarrangements.The 22G fuze may be set fc]r Some of nondel.ay action,as can all other fuzes of the 22-secondseries. the fuzes in the serieshave keen foundwith safetycaps which are removed the 22-second seriesfuzes have been prior to firing. In all probability, replacedby the “T” seriesin the Soviet services.
g-

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s

Sett&pg —.
11011 lt~~tl grad~tfons -----------------------

Action
Time

tfyDI1----------------------------------------Nondelay
IIKII —--------------. ..—
--”-

=.--Cani,ster effect

k* QUQX@!@J@LXi* Action --------------------------Time, nondelay,and canistereffect —-—----- --...— --------------- ‘? Iaadedweight -----------—--------,-----A1.urn:l.nl.lm Body material------...-----.------------.---..”--..— Q. l?unctioni.ng. firing,when the f%ze is set for time action, On the setbackfiringpin (1) overcomes the resistance the primer carrier of spring(2) and ignitesthe primer (10)which ignitesthe upper time ring t (3) a lower tfme ring (4)0 When the lower time ring burns through,,he flamepassesthroughthe flash channel(11)and actuatesthe detonatcxr assembly(9). When set for instantaneous ction,setkackcaulses the sina ning sleeve (7) to move reamard and over the safetyring (8), compre:tsing the aming spring (6),and temporarily holdingthe split safetyring (8) closed;this actionpreventsthe split safetyring from openingto reZea~e the detonatorassemblyfor forwardmovementwhile the round is in the bore of the weapon. After the projectile leavesthe bore, the arming spring (6) lifts the amning springupward,making it possiblefor the split safety ring (8) to spreadapart (by centrifugal force)and free the deton,ehr assembly(9) for forwardmovement. On impactwith the target,the F.~tonatormoves forwardand strikesthe impactstriker(5) and the e-:<~losive train is actuated. When set for canister the time rings (3 and 4) nre linedup and the flash from the primer (1~,after burningthroughths

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8-29

SOVIET POINTDETONATING COMBINATION FUZE MODEL 22G alined time rings,passesdirectlyinto the flash chsnnel(11)and actuatesthe detonatorassembly.

&

-S.tiyro-jectiles Weapons

with W~Ch used

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Projectiles 76-mm Nmapnel - Sh-354;Sh-354P

76-mm: Mountainguns (howitzers)’
mw9 and 1’3938

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SOVIET POINT

CO;. JIllW.’IO1J

a* QQQzQ” hcept that it differsslightly:inthe aming sa:f’ety arrmgenent, the 22P fuze is virtuallyidentical the 22G. to
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with which u5Q. ‘Jea~onsgcl a nro.iectiles
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‘, Jeapon~ -s 1~i902/30 76-m : divisional 1’1936 (F-2;:~ , 1:2.939 (U~vj , ond 1291i2 (ZIS-3)

Projectiles

I

-&~h-,354.;Jh-354G; 76-mm :;hramcl i~h-.35LU Incendiary --------1-3%

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SOVIET POINT WTOEAT1lJG COMBINATION FUZE l;ODEL 22PG
i“ g,

~. General. The 22FG fuse is almostidenticalto the 22G and 22P fuzes, exceptthat it differsslightlyin aming safetyarran~ements. a tileswith which use~o b -* l]ea~onsnd mo.fec i;eapons 7&m Projectiles

K1902,and 76-mm Shrapnel~h-354;~h-354G; : gUnS 11190[;, Sh-35@;Sh-3 52P liL902/30; tank gurlS 1’11938/39 Incendiary ------——Z-354 (Ml), K1939(F-32), M1940 (F-34), and 1Z1941 S-5); (21 mountaingun (howitzers) 1909 M and 11L938;ivisional d guns 1:1902/30, i1936 (F-22),KL939 (USV),and H1942 (zIS-3); regiHJ927 mental gun (hovitzer)

.

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SOVIET POINT DEJ!JNATIXG TIME FUZE MODEL 32-SEC

The 32-see.time fuze has three settings. When set a“ Quiw at “K”,the projectile will travelonly a shortdistancebefclre t is i activated, gitinga canistereffect. The fuze may also be set for time i%nctioning (l-32seconds) use of the firingring,,When set at ItYA’t by all flash channels are closedoff and the fuze will not function.
.

b

acteristics. char tirnLe, Ca.nifiter

Action —---.——---.-.—--———-—-----.-—-....--,---&

..-.-..--1. ? Ioadedweight ------—-—-----—-—---- .----—------------------------—-.-— Bcdy material-—--..--—-—- —--------tit)eel

Functio@JJg On firing,setbackcausesthe firingpin (1) to overc%lethe resist~ce of the spring (2) and strikethe primer (3). The flash tiom the primertravelsthroughthe upper flash channelend ignites the powdertrain in the upoer time ring (4) which burns successively throughthe middletime ring (5) and lower time ring (6). The flash from “thelower time rin ~sses throughthe flash channel(7) and ignitesthe powdermagazine’(8 which in turn explodesthe projectile. 7 ,,,,,

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Weaucnsand ~ro.iectiles vith which USed. .,1, , ,, , on ‘1.nfortition this subjectis not available. ““”’” ,, ,, !), ; J

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SOVIET PUINT DETONATING TINE FUZE MODEL 32AEC

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SOVIET POINTDETONATING COMBINATION FUZE MODEL 45-SEC
,,

General. The 45 secondfuze has three settings: g. time, impact, and canister. The time graduation marlcs the lower time t,rain on ring and the graduation indexmark is on the fuze body. This fuze is ussd with low-velocity howitzers well as high-velocity s. The safsty as pins (Ill) re used to pin the time primer carrier(22 and t,he a impact Y stirrup(5) to the fuze body for safetyduring transport and[ ~~lg. Thesepins are remomd prior to use. This fuze is of very cld desi,gn and is quite similarinternally the U.S. 21-secondcombination to fuze M1907which has been obsoletein the UnitedStates servicefor some years.

Setting

Action

11011 “45” (seconds) .--—-.--—.-—--.---—--- —..-.-—---- ------ time
W)ff .-----—-------.-----—--—---.-.--..-—----Iqqll ------—-—----—-------—-.-—-—---

— —-----

canister effect impact, nondelay

b -“ Qlpracteristics. Action—--—-—--———----——— baded weight ——-----— time, canistereffect,and nondelay 48o gm. (1.056lb,),

--——-- -.--.---—, ——

Body material-——-------- ———--------------- ..------,,.-. aluminu~.
s.

Functioning.

(1) Time. on firtig,the time primer carrier(1.2) sets back overcoming its retainer(not shown in drawing)and impinges upon the firingpin (u), ignitingthe primer (13) set in the carrier@ich in turn ignitesthe upper time ring (IL).Flame successivelyassesthroughthe middle (2) and lower rings I(3) p into the channel(15),and thenceto the detonator(9) which emitsa flame jet througha hole in the plug (16)into the burstertub of the projectile.
(2) Q@stero Same as above exceptthat the fuze setting!1OI1 alinesholes in all three ringswith the channel(15)and the flame jet passesdirectlyto the detonator(9) withcutpassing aroundthe time rings.

8-35

,–-—

SOVIET POIIJT DETONATING CO1Y8INATION FUZE MODEL L5-SEC

bloc!:s he j’l:]ne t (3) Imuact (nondela~). The settingof ‘ty~fl holes in the time rings and upon firing,setbackfovcesthe impact stirrup(5) rearwmi, over the impactprimercarr:~w(8) and retainer(7) where it is held during the fliChtof :I:e projectile. on impact,carrier(8) and stirrup (5) go folrwcrd, overcoming the resistance the retainer(7) and the an~;icreep of spring. The impactprimer (6) is ignitedby the firin~yin (L) and activatesthe detonator(10)which in turn actu~.teche tire ‘ detonator(9). The flame jet then pastesthro~h the hole in the plug (16) into the burstertube of the projectile or, in into the. deho]l~torthe case of a conventional shrapnelshell, bo9 ster. d. Ueaponsand uro.fiectiles which used. with Weapons lo7-mm corps guns M1910/30, h1940 : (IvMO), and M1941
Projcctilen

107-mmShrapnel--------~h-:,>2

U22-mm howitzersK1910/30, : M1909/37, 122-mmShrapnel--------:;h-1.60 and M1938 (H330) 152-Mm: howitzers M1909/30,N1938 (M-1O) and iCLbi3 , (D-1) 152-mmShrapnel---—---- ‘h-~01

2.’04 “

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CHAPTER 9

MISCELLANEOUS FUZES

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FUZES MISCELLANEOUS

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This chapterincludesthose fuzeathat do not, by definition, fit securelyin the other seationsof this document. However,these fuz,es are no less important theh those residingin conventional classification. A case in pointis the Long Delay Fuze, HNC-82. This fuze holds a
unique position inthe worlds explosive ordnance in that it is the only known long del~ fuze employedwith projected munitions. Employmentof

the fuze has been IAmited,but the threatthe fuse presentsid real. The NNC is bore safe,well coristruoted uniquein that it arms and only upon impact. E& Americanstandards its only disadvantage its is lack of detonatorsafety. The NVA/VCair burst fuze is aalnterim attemptto fill i~ void in their ordnancefamily. They currmntlylack a fuze for use in infantry weapons that will produce a.h burstsfor anti-personnelr antiaircraft o purposes. It is expectedthat additional fuzes of this clasflification will appear. Sincethe Vietnamese conflictmay be classe&lin some stages,as a clandestine guerrilla war, it can be assumedthat additional special purposefuzeswill be developed that will residein the miz3cellaneou!3 classification.

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A.

Gene~L.

The NVA/’VC ir Burstmortarfuze ,has A not been recovered.

The drawingis an artistsconception the fuze,drawn from a detailed of description fuze manufacture of taken fron a captured document. The .?ue employs the Soviet/ChiCom M-6 mortarfuze body, boosterand detonatcr. The’membrsne sectionof the fuze body is cut off as is one threadirclm the bottom. The insideof the armingmechanismsupportbulkheadis drilled out slightly accommodate greaterdiameterfiringmechanism. All to a internalcomponents are differentfrom the II-6 fuze, exceptfor the locking balls. The nose cap (1) is made from sheetmetal welded to forr. ogive for an the .fuze, and the cap is held on by wire clips (5) in the samemanner as fuze. The firingpin housing (13) contains the nose cap is held to the ];-6 lockingballs (4) lock the firingpin the firingpin (14)and spring. ‘The (lL.) n the cockedposition. The firingpin housingthreadsinto the delay i (7) and safehousing (25). The delay houstig (15)containsa rofleprir.er ty fuze (8)with a burningtime of 2.5 to 3.0 seconds. This Ijime ~Y be variedduringmanufacture the fuze. The detonatorholder (9) fits inside of the delay housing (15)end containsthe modified1+:-6 fuze d~tc>nator. The eler~entc firin~pin housing (13)and the delay housing (15)are the riclged
They are loc~:ed into position hy the baster of the fuzet The booster (12) is the conven’~ional !1-6 fuze b~>oster
-. b

adapter

(U).

Charac terictics.

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!1 buxct ? ,

i’iction -..--.----.*---------------.----------...--------~*--mwe"-Loaded wei~ht -------------------” material -----.-------..--e---------

air ,,,! ,. -m-e-.”-w 0--------

-------------------------------------------

:Iactic

Upon firing, the setback cleeve (3) r~oTfcsrea.rQ* @ ctioning. The ball (2) faUs into the o,give cavity, compressing its sprin~. the compressed setbacl: spring overcomes the forces of accell.erat5.mJ it forces th~ setback sleeve Ij) ~pw=d into the space formal.lfl~ occ~:L~iedby the ball (2). This uncovers the lockd..ng ball recess. The lOCl.inG

ballsare Caymnedut of theirrecessby the cockedfiringpin (L’+j.‘;ltis o releasesthe firingpin which stri~:eshe primer. The primer (7) flashes, t ignitingthe safetyfuze (8) which burns for 2.5 to 3.0 seconds, Upon the detonator(10),which functions safetyfuze burncut,flame initiates the booster, ThQ hei@th of bur~t is dependententirelyupon the number of increments employedon the projectile and the angle. the riortar ube, of t
n ro:cctiles .— with~lxich Q* ‘T!capo s and D_4 }!es.pens Soviet or ChiCom GZ-mmmortars used. Projectiles L2-nufiHIM’raC- :.~oviet cm ChiCom

9-1

~.-. .,

NVA/VC AIR BURSTMORTAR FUZE MODEL UNKNOWN

n

13

14

15

m),

9-2

NOR!?!H VD2TNAMESE CHEMICALIONG DELAY FUZE MODEL NNC 82

a“ S!ax?zQ” The North Vietnamese82-mm ChemicalLang Delay Fuse Model N’NC is the only lmown long delay fuze employedwith project@d $2 munitions. For this reasonit occupiesa unique~sition in the worlds well cavi~ familyof I?uzesoTo use the flue, the explosivein the flaze of the mortar shellis drilledout to a depth of 2.5 inches. The fize providesfour standard long dehy petiods~ selecting colaredacettone a filledglassampulewith differentconcentrationsf acetone. A yellow o ampuleFrOduce9a delay of 2.5 hours;red producesa delay Of 3.5 ho~~s; blue reduces5 hoursand violet8 hours. All times are~ 20% at 8(,QF (30°Cy. Iawertemperatures will producelongerdelays.

,!,,

.

,,

The fuze consistsof four major sections: The nose plug, upper fuze body, lower fuze body, and the boostercup. The nose plug (1), tith fiberwasher (2) screwsinto the upper fize body (3). The uppe~’ fuze body (3) threadsinto the ~ti me body (J-4) @ iS sealed~ H fibr washer (21). The boostercup (19) screwsinto the bottomof the main i%ze body (14)on fine pitch threads. The boostercontdns 12.5 grams of pressedtetryland wax (18)and a detonator(17). A copper disc and two fiberdiscs (16)hold the boosterpellet (18) in position. The delay firingmechanismconsistsof a plasticw=her (5),w~.ch is the delay element,a steel striker(12)with a taper~ head (4) embeddedin the delay washer (5),a strikerhousing [[10) nto which t)he i striker(12)is threadedd a strikerspring (9). Me plasticde~y element(5) rests on the delay support(8). The strikerspring (9) 5.s compressed betweenthe delay support(8) and an titerrupted (24-) at the bottomof the strikerhousing (10). The strikerspring (9) pulls the strikerthroughthe acetonesoftenedplasticbody (5). The delay element(5) protruiesthrougha body washer (6) which rests againstthe bottomof the upper fuze body (3). A fiber washer (23) seala the bottom of the ampule cawl.ty (22). The delay elementsupport(8) rests under the body washer (6).~The firingmechanismhousing (15)is the rigid support for all tie components. It threadsinto the kot.omof the main fume body and has recessesfor the lockingballs (lI.) nd an annular oove a for the balls to fall into. The two 0.25 inch lockingballs (11 posiY tivelylock the striker(12)until impactfrees them,,The lacktigbl.ls (Xl.) re furtherretainedin their recessesby a brass impactarming a in collar (13). The collaris maintained the rear positionby the impact aX?ning pring(7). s

,

9-3
.

-..,

..=. =.—— -

NORTHVIETNAMESE CHEMICALI-KING DELAY FUZE MODELNNC g2

~.

Chsxa cteristics.
—-——— —— --------— ChemicalLong Delay 232.5Grams Aluminum -e ------....--.—-—---——— —-—----—. ---—--—--”

Action--—----——— bulledweight —--—

Body material-——-----—-------—-----——

Prior to firing an ampule is installed in the fuze ning the nose plug (1). This releases acetone on
the delay element (5) that retainsthe striker(10)fi the cockedPOSitiOn*

.

;

the The striker.is furtherheld in the safe positionprior to impact two lockingballs (n) seatedunder the strikerhousingflange (24 . 7 Nose impactis the only force that arms the fuze. Upon firing,setback NO locks all moveableparts firmlyt~lgether. arming movementoccurs. Upon impact,the impactarming collar (13)moves foward compressing the b~s (~) f~ out ofthe~ impact spring (7), simultaneously the 10-g recessesdue to inertia. The balls move into the circumferentialrooves g in the firingmechanismhousing (15)and are held in this groovewhen the Impactarming collar (15 is forcedre~ ) by the spring (I-1.). The striker(12)is now unlockedand the fuze armed. As the acetonesoftens the plasticdelay element(5) the strikerspring (9) pulls the head of the striker(4) throughthe softenedphstic ~ prope~s the Spointed striker(I-2) nto the stab sehsitive i detonator(17) causingthe detonatorand boosterto detonate. It is apparantthe fuze may have the fUze ampule czwhed at any time prior to firing. Wtil impact,the fuze remainsunarmedand safe. If the long delay periodexpiresprior to firing,the fuze will detonate
non-delay upon impact. ~. Weapons and Dro~ectiles with which US+. Weapons Projectiles

1’
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82.mm Wrtsr M1937,~94.2,m943

O-832D 82-mm HE Frag ----O-832;

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