Intermediate ArcGIS 9 - Terrain Analysis

Prerequisites: Introduction to ArcGIS 9 - Basic Concepts Estimated Time: 6 hours
Downloadable PDF version of this class (2.5 MB)

This class is meant to introduce you to practical DEP applications of 3D data for modeling terrain. Like the other GIS training classes at MEDEP, this class will focus on environmental and health issues in Maine, in this case various issues around China Lake that deal with 3D data. China Lake is a shallow lake only a few miles from Messalonskee Lake, the latter of which has a serious invasive plant problem. In this class you will see how 3D data can be used to enhance maps, model the bottom of China Lake, compute the volume under various conditions, and determine possible areas of invasive plant colonization. China Lake is also a bustling community, and in this class you will see how 3D data can assist in assessing aesthetic impacts of certain types of development.

Intermediate ArcGIS 9 - Terrain Analysis - Outline
Prerequisites: Introduction to ArcGIS 9 - Basic Concepts Estimated Time: 6 hours Course Introduction Introduction Outline Terrain Data Overview TIN data model TIN examples DEP terrain data Terrain data limits Exercise 1 TINs in ArcMap Adding TINs TIN properties Z-factor TIN symbology Frame illumination Exercise 2 Editing Terrain Data 3D Analyst licensing 3D Analyst toolbar Creating TINs Adding features Clipping Units and z-factor Exercise 3 Surface Analysis 3D Analyst tools Create contour Steepest path Line-of-sight Interpolate 3D line Viewsheds Computing volume Converting to DEM Exercise 4 ArcScene Overview 2D vs. 3D data Arcscene tools Base heights / z-factor Draping over a TIN Pasting into ArcMap Exporting a scene Performance issues Exercise 5

Animations Animation toolbar Animation controls Keyframes Keyframe capture Flight path capture Exporting to video Exercise 6 Final quiz and course evaluation

in addition to storing x and y locational information. and other formats such as triangular irregular networks (TINs). raster data (digital elevation models). This could be as simple as having a field in a point feature class which stores elevation. or more sophisticated such as a terrain model for an area. lines (topographic contour lines).Terrain Data . also store elevation (known as 'z' values). Elevation contours Lake depth soundings Digital elevation model Triangular irregular network .Overview Concepts terrain data elevation data z values Terrain data are any GIS data which. Examples of terrain data can include points (elevations at mountain peaks or depth soundings in a lake). polygons (elevation zones or lake surface elevations).

while lines are known as 'break lines'. Points which are used to generate a TIN are called 'mass points'.TIN Data Model Concepts triangular irregular network (TIN) break lines (edges) mass points A common data model for storing terrain data is the triangular irregular network. Each point stores the elevation. while lines store elevation and indicate places where the terrain changes. such as a mountain top. and aspect at that point. a break line.'hard' indicating that the terrain changes (such as along a lakeshore). Zoomed in view of a TIN showing the mass points. Break lines are also known as 'edges' in a TIN. and the triangles. An example of a break line would be any line where the elevation is known. . Using the Identify tool in a TIN will return the elevation. or 'breaks'. or 'soft' indicating that the line shows elevation but the terrain does not change significantly (such as an elevation contour line). Slope and aspect are constant throughout a triangle. There are two types of break lines . but the elevation varies and is computed on-the-fly based on the elevation of the 3 corners. slope.Terrain Data . A TIN is a network of points and lines which are used to model a landscape. such as a contour line or a lake shoreline. An example of a mass point would be any point location where the elevation is known. or TIN.

by shading the TIN based on elevation values. these are simplified by turning them into points. . This TIN starts as elevation contour lines. The points all have known elevations and are tessellated into a TIN.A TIN can be created by taking existing elevation data and converting it into the TIN format as shown below. ArcMap adds the finishing touches.

such as computing the volume of a lake or computing visibility. Example of a TIN showing relief Example of a TIN showing areas of slope > 25% Example of a 3D volume computation from a TIN. such as showing relief in a map. slope. TINs can also be used for analysis. and elevation. aspect (the angle a slope faces). showing the volume of China Lake. There are several renderers in ArcMap which can be used to shade these properties of a TIN. .TIN Examples Concepts relief aspect slope elevation TINs can be used for a wide variety of mapping applications.Terrain Data .

Terrain Data .elevation contours.TINs for every USGS quad in Maine z:\images\dems .DEP Terrain Data Concepts DEP terrain data z:\images\tins z:\images\dems workspace\data_layers\topography Terrain data at DEP are located in a few different locations: z:\images\tins .lake depth soundings Terrain data in workspace\ data_layers\topography Terrain data in z:\image (dems and tins folders) . bathymetry lines workspace\data_layers\hydrography .DEMs for every USGS quad in Maine workspace\data_layers\topography .

Terrain Data . this is the length of one pixel side. Registration errors . no conversion factor required. DEM elevations are in METERS. this would create an artificial 'wall' of rock on this mountain peak. Must convert elevations to meters before doing any 3-D analysis with TINs. Label errors . In this case several lines are 300' higher than they should be. These limitations stem in some cases from the original USGS topo maps. .causing contours to 'hang' over the coastline.000 scale data TINS are comprised mostly of contour lines.some lines may be mislabeled causing pits or cliffs where they are not. and in other cases from processes used to convert them to digital format. The limitations are as follows: TINs and DEMs are based on 1:24. so soft lines will typically follow contour lines. TINs must be recreated after contours are fixed Lake elevations are based on USGS maps TIN elevations are in FEET. the terrain data have limitations with which the user must be aware. not the area) Contours often have errors and need to be fixed.contours may not line up exactly with other data . and mountains have no peaks (flat-topped) TINS and DEMs may not match up well at quad boundaries DEMs have a 26m (meter) cellsize (remember. while map units are METERS.Terrain Data Limits Concepts Limitations of terrain data at MEDEP As with any other GIS data.

9 MB) Step 2 Exploring terrain data and the TIN data model You will look at three types of terrain data at DEP. such as under your bureau folder).) What are the units?_____________________________________________________ . or paste the class data into some other folder you're comfortable using. You are looking at a digital elevation model (DEM) of the China Lake USGS topo map. Non-DEP users can download the class data here (17. Step 1 Copying the data for this class Double-click the Citrix Program Neighborhood and start up ArcCatalog: Navigate to \\dep-eia1fsd2550\workspace\training and copy the 'terrain_data' folder to your working folder (you can create your own folder under training if you like. The dark mass in the middle is China Lake. First. you’ll use ArcCatalog to copy class data and explore terrain data.) What information do you get from a DEM?__________________________________ 2. Zoom into an area of the shoreline and keep zooming in until you can see the pixels. 1.Exercise 1 Scenario In this lesson.Terrain Data . navigate to z:\images\dems\china-lake and click on the file 'dem24k' and click on the 'Preview' tab in ArcCatalog. and then identify one.

3.) What information do you get from contour lines?_____________________________ 4. These are the contour lines from the USGS topo maps. Identify some of these.) What are the units?_____________________________________________________ . navigate to \\depeia1fsd2550\workspace\data_layers\topography and preview the layer file 'Elevation_Contours'.While still zoomed in to this area.

Identify several areas on the peak.) Does the elevation change at different locations on the peak?____________________ 10. 11. This is a triangular irregular network (TIN) created from the contours and other USGS elevation data. you have seen several examples in this class of GIS applications which utilize terrain data.Finally. but choose a hill anyway). while still zoomed into the same area. navigate to z:\images\tins\china-lake and preview the file 'tin24'.) Name one specific application in your area of work which could utilize terrain data in GIS: ________________________________________________________________ .) What are the units?_____________________________________________________ 7.) What is the significance of the line along the shoreline of China Lake? ________________________________________________________________________ Zoom back out to the entire extent of the TIN. 9. then zoom into an area with a peak. Within a single triangle. identify a point near each corner. which measurement(s) changed?________________________________________________________________ 8. 5.) Why or why not?______________________________________________________ Finally.) When you identified the three different corners. so that you can see the whole peak (not that there are really any mountains near China Lake.) What information do you get from a USGS TIN?______________________________ 6. Zoom in on an area of the China Lake shoreline until you can see the actual triangles that make up the TIN.

with 10' increments from there.Close ArcCatalog. Notice the registration errors here. Work is underway to correct these errors.) What effect could this type of error have on terrain analysis?___________________ Go to View (menu) -Bookmarks and click on 'Fort Fairfield'. This type of error is fairly common along the border with Canada. This is the most common type of error in the contour lines and occurs in every USGS quad. 12. Answers . Note that the contours on the north side of the river are in foot increments. You will be zoomed to an area on the summit of Mt. Several are 300' higher than they should be. Start up ArcMap and open the map document in your folder called 'contour_errors'. and can skip it. while those on the south side are in metric increments. Initially it will zoom to an area on the Monhegan topo quad. especially the eastern border with New Brunswick. These errors appear sporadically throughout the contours and are the hardest to find. but in the meantime you will need to be aware of any errors and watch for them while doing terrain analysis. 14. Step 3 Contour errors Non-State-of-Maine users will not have the data to complete this step. Error level varies from 0m to 25m. Here you will notice that the contour line labels do not follow a consistent 20' increment.) What effect could this type of error have on terrain analysis?___________________ Close ArcMap and do not save your changes. it is important you know their limitations and errors.) What effect could this type of error have on terrain analysis?___________________ Go to View (menu) -Bookmarks and click on 'Chimney Peak'. Those on the south side should start with a 350' contour adjacent to the river. You will be zoomed to an area just east of Fort Fairfield.) How large of an error is present at this location (in meters)?____________________ 13. Katahdin. Since our terrain data is based almost exclusively on contour lines provided by Maine Office of GIS (MEGIS). 15.

. just use the Add Data button This icon indicates a TIN. like you would any other data.TINs in ArcMap .Adding TINs Concepts Adding TIN to a map Adding a TIN to a map is simple.

. a TIN has a context menu and a set of properties you can access for display.Basic Concepts class for a refresher if you so need). very similar to other layer properties dialogs.TINs in ArcMap . Choosing 'Properties' from the TIN layer context menu will provide a TIN layer properties dialog. so we will not review the functions here (refer back to the Introduction to ArcGIS 9 . The context menu has the following items: These all work the same as with any other layer.TIN properties Concepts TIN context menu TIN layer properties Like any other data in ArcMap.

then the vertical exaggeration would be roughly 3.more on this coming up). no z-factor is required (elevation is already in meters) .000 TIN from z:\images.000 TIN. but the elevations are in feet.000 scale USGS topographic contour lines.3048 . do not forget the concept of the unit conversion factor.if you have created a new TIN from a 1:24. all of our TINs are based on 1:24. setting a z-factor of . so it is up to the user to make sure he/she knows when a z-factor is appropriate and when one is not. In this case. These lines have x and y values in meters (since they are all in UTM projection).000 DEM from z:\images. and any measurements would be correspondingly incorrect. to make them all the same.3048 will convert the elevation values from feet to meters. If no z-factor is used.Z-Factor Concepts unit conversions z values z-factor THIS CONCEPT IS VERY IMPORTANT!!! We cannot state this strongly enough. Its importance is that it ensures that the x and y coordinates units are the same as the z units.when using a 1:24. or z-factor when using terrain data. Here are a few rules of thumb: . to set a z-factor which converts the zvalues from feet to meters. For example.when using a 1:24. . There is a simple fix for this. The z-factor can be set in the TIN layer properties on the "Source" tab.3 times what is real. that if you forget any other part of this class. ArcMap will not know when to use a z-factor and when not to. The z-factor is simply a ratio between the units used. and you have already applied a z-factor. Unfortunately. always apply a z-factor of . than you will not need to apply one again (because the z-factor was honored when the new TIN was created .TINs in ArcMap .

. and apply a z-factor to one. You have to manually reset it. whether you want it or not. Secondly. the next time you open that document. the z-factor is automatically reset to 1. then save the document. all the others will get that z-factor as well. if you set the z-factor on the source tab in either ArcMap or ArcScene. Keep that in mind if you are using this to exaggerate terrain. this also applies to layer files. First.BUG WARNING: Two bugs exist which affect z-factors and could negatively impact your analyses. if you have the same TIN in your map multiple times.

slope. or aspect. The 'Add' button allows you to display slope or aspect.TIN Symbology Concepts shaded elevation shaded slope shaded aspect shaded relief The TIN layer properties also has a very useful 'Symbology' tab which allows you to specify what will be shown in ArcMap. Typically this is one of four things: shaded relief. elevation. Doing so will bring up this list: .TINs in ArcMap .

coming up soon! . the formula to convert is as follows: Recall from your high school geometry the tangent of an angle is its opposite over its adjacent length. with 25%: 0.25 INV TAN = 14.03 (degrees) If you wanted to show slope > 25%.03 in your TIN slope symbology. NOT PERCENT. you would use a breakpoint of 14. Use the INV . you just run this equation backwards. which is also the formula for slope: To convert slope to degrees.TAN function on your calculator.NOTE THAT SLOPE IS IN DEGREES. For example. If you need to show shading based on percent slope. We will treat this topic in more detail in exercise 2.

TINs in ArcMap . .the height of the source of illumination in the sky contrast .the amount of shading to be used Changing these will change the way the shading and relief appears when using a TIN. Note that by default the azimuth of a relief map is to have the illumination coming from the Northwest.the angle of the source of illumination altitude . there is another tab called "Illumination Properties" which computes the shading to apply to a TIN. even though most folks in northern temperate latitudes would never see it that way since the Sun is always in the South.Frame Illumination Concepts azimuth altitude illumination On the data frame properties in ArcMap. This makes the most 'natural' look to a 3D map. This is based on 3 main factors relative to the source of illumination (the Sun): azimuth .

you will examine the functionality of TINs in ArcMap.3. Step 1 TIN layer properties Start up ArcMap and add the China-Lake TIN (z:\images\tins\china-lake\tin24).3048. TIN layer properties The China Lake TIN will automatically be symbolized to show elevation and breaklines (edges).) Why did changing the Z factor mess up the color classification?__________________________________ .TINs in ArcMap . Notice how the classification is all messed up. 1. The first and most important task is to set the Z factor.Y values and be off by a factor of 3. your Z values will not be consistent with your X. This will speed up rendering.Exercise 2 Scenario In this exercise. Click the Refresh button to redraw the data. Right-click on the TIN in the TOC and bring up its properties. If you do not set the Z factor. Remember that Z values of our typical TINs are in feet while X. A large TIN such as this can take some time to render. Click on the 'Source' tab and set a Z factor of .Y values are in meters. click 'OK'. so zoom into the area just encompassing the western 'lobe' of China lake.

Click 'OK' in all boxes until you see ArcMap again. Now your increments are in meters instead of feet. Accept whatever default sample size is shown. One way to do this without changing the classes or colors is to force ArcMap to resample the TIN. China Lake's surface is at 196' above sea level. change the smallest break value to 59.) How many meters above sea level is China Lake?_____________________________ Under the 'Break Values' window shown above. click on 'Symbology' tab. you need to increment the value up another decimal place to make it the lowest value in the next class) . this is necessary because the break value is the highest value in a class. Now click on the 'Classify' button and click the 'Sampling' button. Bring up the TIN properties again. . You can change the break values manually to create the classes you want. 2. Suppose you want to change the symbology so that blue was at the level of the lake and below.You will need to change the classification to show the metric values. and then select 'Elevation' under the 'Show' box.74081 (note that we add a 1 to the end.

lyr'. You should see something like this: . A typical classification used by MDEP staff is to look at slopes in 3 classes: 0-25%. Bring up the calculator in Windows (Start-Programs-Accessories-Calculator) and change the View to 'Scientific'. Similar classes could be utilized to identify slope areas prone to erosion. Right-click on the TIN in the TOC and choose 'Save as Layer File'. Click on the 'Symbology' tab. Bring up the TIN properties again. with 25%: . you are going to change the symbology to show slope. Click on the 'Add' button and choose 'Face slope with graduated color ramp'. but first save this symbology as a layer file so you can easily get back to it later.) What is the degree equivalent of 40% slope?_________________________________ Change the first two break values to the degree equivalents of 25% and 40% slope (do the 40% break first). For example. and turn off 'Edge Types' and 'Elevation. You will display these classes with three different symbols in ArcMap using a classification. click 'Add' to add it to your symbology. These categories are used to help define the scenic value of a particular site. use the INV . It can also be used to indicate the scenic value of a particular site. then 'Dismiss' to make the renderer box go away.In a minute. You will need to compute the first two breaklines by converting % slope to degrees slope. store it in the same folder with your class data and call it 'china_lake_metric.25 INV TAN = 14. Step 2 Displaying slope Slope is often used as an indicator of soil stability and erosion potential. Click OK until you see ArcMap again. 3. 25-40%. which is also the formula for slope: To convert slope to degrees. and > 40%. Recall from your high school geometry that the tangent of an angle is its opposite length over its adjacent length.03 ArcMap uses degrees instead of % because there can be no % slope value for 90 degrees.TAN function on the calculator. You should see something like this: Change the number of classes to 3 and then click on the 'Classify' button.

3048 once you have seen the difference. You can manipulate these settings as desired to place the Sun in another part of the sky and at a specific angle. It does this by computing the location of a light source (i. Click on the 'Illumination' tab.Let's say you made a map of slope and FORGOT to first set the Z factor. the Sun) in 3 dimensions. Right-click on the Data Frame and bring up its properties. and turn on the elevation symbology. Step 3 Illumination properties The data frame uses 'false' illumination to trick your eyes into perceiving relief in 3-D. You should be able to see all of the hill in your view. You should see this: . 4.e. turn off the slope symbology. Go back into the TIN layer properties.) What kind of changes would you expect to see in your slope map?________________________________ Change the Z factor back to 1 and see what the slopes look like if you make this mistake. Pan to the hill in the north-central part of the TIN and set your scale to 1:36000. then shading areas which would fall into shadows. You can also increase/decrease the severity (contrast) of shadows. Change the Z factor back to .

the Sun from the South at 30 degrees altitude (you can either drag the little 'Sun' around to the South or change the number to 180). Note that the azimuth is at 315 degrees. Try changing the settings so they reflect what you'd see in Maine . Change the Sun's azimuth back to 315 degrees. The hill may now appear inverted to you. Look at the results in ArcMap. Answers . The azimuth is the angle from which the Sun shines in the sky. Click 'Apply' and look at your TIN to see the difference. The altitude is the height (in degrees) above the horizon from which the Sun shines. Bring up the image's properties and on the 'Display' tab set the transparency to 50%.) Is that cool or what?_____________________________________________________ Close ArcMap without saving any changes and close the Calculator application.) Why do you think putting the Sun in the South sky makes the hill appear inverted?_______________________________ Step 4 Adding TIN topography to a USGS topo quad A really nice cartographic effect can be shown by displaying a TIN under a USGS quad map with the quad map set at 50% transparency.tif. 7. where the Sun shines from the South? _____________________________________________________ 6. a bearing which would never occur in Maine. so exaggerate the shading by increasing the contrast to 10. when most GIS users will be in northern temperate latitudes.) Why do you think the default azimuth setting is from the North. Click 'Apply' and look at your TIN to see the difference.China Lake is not a very hilly area. and add the USGS quad z:\images\usgs24k\china-lake. 5. as if it were a great hole rather than a hill. Rearrange the layers in the TOC so the image draws on TOP of the TIN.

Editing Terrain Data - 3D Analyst Licensing
Concepts extensions licensing If you are just viewing TINs to see elevation, slope, or aspect, no additional license is needed. However, if you want to run any 3D analyses, or create or edit TINs, then the 3D Analyst extension license is needed. An extension is a software program that adds on to an existing one. In this case, the 3D Analyst extends ArcGIS by adding the 3D functionality. To turn on the extension, you must check out a 3D Analyst license. Do this by clicking on the 'Tools' menu and choosing 'Extensions'. Check the box for 3D Analyst. Note that while this box is checked, you have a license checked out. BE SURE to uncheck the box when you are done using 3D Analyst, otherwise you will continue to use a license whenever ArcMap is running - even if you are not using 3D functionality. There are 12 licenses of this extension for MEDEP staff.

Editing Terrain Data - 3D Analyst Toolbar
Concepts 3D Analyst tools 3D Analyst options The 3D Analyst toolbar has all of the additional functions you get with the 3D Analyst license. It includes tools for converting between TINs and DEMs, converting between 2D and 3D data, creating and editing TINs, and 3D analysis tools. One of the first things you want to do is set the working directory, this is where ArcGIS puts all your temporary files while using 3D Analyst. Do this by clicking on 'Options...' in the 3D Analyst menu.

Editing Terrain Data - Creating TINs
Concepts create TIN edit TIN mass points soft line hard line hard replace Any elevation data (z-values) can be converted into a TIN using 3D Analyst toolbar. Just click on the '3D Analyst' menu and choose 'Create/Modify TIN'.

For any particular source of elevation data, you have to choose what type of elevations to provide to the TIN. These typically fall into 4 different categories: mass points - simple elevation values to add to the TIN hard line - a line with elevation value which also indicates a break in the terrain (such as a lake shoreline) soft line - a line with elevation values, but does not indicate a break in the terrain (a contour line) hard replace - a polygon with elevation values that will replace (overwrite) any other values in the polygon(s)

The process is as follows: .000 USGS topo map elevations.Our 1:24.000 TINs are created from mostly 1:24.

such as contour lines. except that an input TIN is specified. choose 'Create/Modify TIN' and then 'Add Features to TIN'. to see this dialog box: It is essentially the same as creating a TIN. .Editing Terrain Data . elevation points. or other such data. On the 3D Analyst menu.Adding Features Concepts adding features edit TIN Any TIN can have features added to it.

Editing Terrain Data . but use these settings: Height source: None Triangulate as: hard clip (meaning no terrain will be calculated beyond the clip) .Clipping Concepts hard clip A TIN can be clipped the same way you add features to a TIN. Just specify a clip layer as a feature to be added.

Z factors can be used to intentionally exaggerate terrain (such as in ArcScene). .Otherwise.Units and Z-factor Concepts z-factor Just to recap the MAJOR items related to units and z-factor: .3048 will ensure that the elevation units match the map units . hillshading will be exaggerated and volumes/surfaces will be incorrectly calculated.Editing Terrain Data . .Our UTM data have map units as meters .Our elevation data are in feet (per users requests!) . but take care when using them in calculations.Setting a Z factor of .

you will look at an example of a combination bathymetry/terrain TIN for Monhegan Island. you are using a license for 3-D Analyst. The toolbar looks like this: You will need to tell ArcMap where to store temporary files while you are working. We only have 12 of these. Go to Tools .Toolbars . Before creating any TINs.'Add features to TIN'. You will see this screen: . choose 'Create/Modify TIN' . add the TIN layer file you created previously (china_lake_metric. so be sure to un-check (deactivate) the extension when you are done using it!!! Next.Extensions and check '3-D Analyst'.Exercise 3 Scenario In this which will limit analysis to just the area around China Lake. and another will be used to make a smaller TIN for use in ArcScene later. In these exercises. Finally. specifically you will take a layer with depth soundings from China Lake and add them to a TIN. Like all toolbars. 1. On the 3-D Analyst toolbar menu. Set the Z factor to convert meters to feet. choose 'Options'. you will clip the China Lake TIN to two different boundaries .) Will Mike know if you don't turn off your extensions and waste a license?______________ Step 2 Clipping a TIN There may be times when you want to subset a TIN.Editing Terrain Data . Clipping a TIN is exactly the same as adding features to a TIN. you will learn how to add data to a TIN. You will then use this TIN to answer some questions about potential invasive milfoil habitat. you can move this one around and dock it someplace convenient for you. Do this by setting the working directory. turn on the 3-D Analyst toolbar (assuming it's not already turned on).lyr). Click on the button next to 'Working Directory' and navigate to the folder where you saved your class data (look under 'My Network Places'). NOTE: As long as you have this box checked. Click 'OK' to close 'Options'. Go to View . Step 1 Starting 3-D Analyst Start ArcMap.and click '3-D Analyst'. On the 3-D Analyst toolbar menu. you must activate the 3-D Analyst extension and toolbar.

What is the Z factor?______ What are the Z units? _______________________________ Step 3 Adding new features to a TIN There will undoubtedly be times when you want to add some type of Z values to a TIN. choose 'hard clip'. In your student folder is a shapefile with depth soundings from China Lake.7408m (the surface elevation of China Lake). Call it 'cl_analysis'.shp' in your folder. but somebody's gotta do it. Follow the same procedure for clipping a TIN (as above).shp' to the TIN you created called 'cl_analysis'. instead of as a flat surface. Hard work. for 'Triangulate as'. 2. Click on the button next to 'Layers' and find the shapefile 'analysis_clip. choose 'None'. Choose the field 'Elevation' for 'Height source'. The shapefile has both depth and elevation fields. Save the changes to another TIN in your student folder called 'cl_depth'. The elevation is simply the depth subtracted from 59. Repeat the above steps to clip the China Lake TIN using the shapefile 'arcscene_clip.Make sure the 'Input TIN' is 'tin24'. These were collected by GPS'ing locations and recording the depth read from a depthfinder at each location. while traversing the lake in a boat.) Look in the layer properties for the new TINs at the Z factor. and choose 'mass points' for 'Triangulate as'. choose 'Save changes into a new output TIN'. For 'Height source'. Save it as 'cl_arcscene'.shp'. but add the shapefile 'depth_soundings. To save the TIN. and browse to your folder to store the TIN. Note how the lake is shown in 3-D now. .

lyr. it is possible to generate a TIN that includes marine bathymetry. 'hard clip' and 'mass points'. adding barriers to growth. 3.) Think of one way in which you could utilize additional terrain data in your work (i. Remove any other layers from ArcMap and take a few minutes to look at this TIN: z:\images\tins\monhegan\bathtin. create a simple map (whatever you can put together in 5 minutes) showing the areas of potential variable watermilfoil habitat in China Lake using the 'cl_depth' TIN. Variable watermilfoil is almost always found in water < 15 feet deep.000 TINs. China Lake currently does not have any known areas of variable watermilfoil infestation. you have looked at two methods of triangulating features. and using volunteers to patrol potential milfoil habitat. This layer file shows depth and elevation categories. The Z units here are in feet.In this exercise. but one heavily-infested lake is only 9 miles away . removal of plants.) Briefly explain what each method does: hard clip ________________________________________________________________ mass points ______________________________________________________________ hard line ________________________________________________________________ hard replace _____________________________________________________________ 4. The other two commonly-used methods are 'hard line' and 'hard replace'.).) Can you find any areas where contour line errors have messed up this TIN?___________________________ Close ArcMap and don't save your changes. Using the skills you've learned already. Answers . Sideline: Monhegan Island Sine we have 10-meter bathymetry lines for marine waters in Maine.e. 5. Save your map in your folder and call it 'china_potential_milfoil'. data not currently represented in the 1:24.__________________________________________________ Remove all layers except 'cl_depth' from ArcMap. identifying likely points of entry. Step 4 Hunting for milfoil Variable watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum) is an invasive aquatic plant creeping into Maine's lakes. Management of this plant includes inspecting boats.Messalonskee Lake. use of herbicides.

They include Create Contour Steepest Path Line-of-sight Interpolate 3-D line and on the 3D Anlayst menu.Surface Analysis .3D Analyst tools Concepts 3D Analyst tools The 3-D Analyst toolbar has many tools to allow surface analysis which we will see in this section. Viewsheds Computing volume .

Create contour Concepts contour graphic The Create Contour tool will create a contour line showing points at the same elevation based on a point where you click. . which means it has no attributes and is just a 'picture' in the data frame. This line is a graphic.Surface Analysis .

Steepest path Concepts steepest path graphic The steepest path tool creates a graphic from where you click.Surface Analysis . any triangle with slope = 0). Like the contour graphic. . showing the steepest path downhill to a flat area (in a TIN. this graphic is just a 'picture' in the data frame with no attributes.

this graphic is just a 'picture' in the data frame with no attributes.Surface Analysis . Like other graphics.Line-of-sight Concepts line of sight graphic observer point destination point allows you to click on two points and create a graphic showing what The line-of-sight tool areas are visible between the two points (visible FROM the observer TO the destination). .

the 3D line can be then used to create a profile graph.Surface Analysis .y coordinates. The 3D polygon and 3D point tools work in a similar fashion. In the case of a graphic. which we'll see in the next section. any 3D graphic will appear in the right place on the terrain if the z-values are correct). The line will then have the z-values for every vertex interpolated from the underlying terrain data (a TIN in this case. then the line created will be stored as a 3D line feature in the layer. but are really only useful as 3D features. at least in ArcMap (in ArcScene. the 3D line can be stored as part of a regular 3D layer. If an edit The 'Interpolate 3D line' tool session is running. Remember that the only difference between a 3D line layer and any other line layer is that every vertex and end (node) has a z-value stored as well as x. you can create a line by clicking on the screen. In the case of a feature. When you use the tool. Single-click for each vertex. and an editable 3D layer is chosen as the target layer.Interpolate 3D line Concepts 3D line graphic 3D line feature creates a 3D line as either a graphic or a feature. but could also be a DEM). Otherwise the 3D line will be stored as a graphic. double-click to end. .

Surface Analysis .Viewsheds Concepts viewshed model viewshed raster On the 3D Analyst menu. and will not show small features (such as large boulders) or vegetation (tall trees) which may impede a view. the z-values for the points are interpolated from the terrain data). Each observer point can optionally store offsets to change the is blocked by a mountain. If the viewshed shows that something can be seen however. and should only be used as a beginning point to knowing what is visible. and the points are assumed to be on the ground-level of the terrain data (that is. or ridge. 3D Analyst analysis. rocks. Each pixel in the output viewshed raster shows the number of observer points from which that pixel is visible. hill. there still may be other factors (trees. you can use the Viewshed tool to create a viewshed model. but without them be aware that the viewshed is basically a 'naked earth' viewshed. A viewshed is stored as a raster and indicates all the areas that are visible or not visible from one or more observer points. All of these things can be modelled if they are known in advance. then it really cannot . or angles limiting the field of view by adding certain fields (look in the ArcMap help index for viewshed. . The observer points are stored as a point layer. buildings) which could block the view. A viewshed which is computed from TINs in z:\images will only be as good as the USGS topo maps. for more details). If the viewshed shows that something cannot be seen. Viewshed disclaimer: It is very important to note that any computed viewshed will have limitations.

Surface Analysis . .Computing volume Concepts 3D surface area volume Also on the 3D Analyst menu is a tool to compute volumes from a TIN. Such volumes would be important for a number of water regulatory needs. and for determining how to combat certain invasive species. This is very useful for folks who need to compute volumes of lakes at various levels. The tool allows you to change the level of the lakes surface and compute volumes under different scenarios.

Separate rasters are required for elevation. and hillshade.Surface Analysis .Converting to DEM Concepts TIN to raster Sometimes it is useful to convert a TIN to a raster. On the 3D Analyst menu is a tool to convert a TIN to a raster. this would be if somebody wanted a DEM (which is simply an elevation raster). Elevation rasters are not as sophisticated as TINs for modeling a surface. slope. . but they do have other analytical capabilities (attribute table. aspect. raster modeling in Spatial Analyst) which TINs do not. Typically.

) When you used the 'Create Steepest Path' tool. what happened at the hill's summit? ________________________________________________________________________ Why?___________________________________________________________________ 5. You have created a contour line which shows the limits of potential habitat for this plant. are the lines that are created GIS data?________________ Why or why not? _________________________________________________________ 3. Use the 'Create Steepest Path' tool in a few different locations on the hillside. Step 2 Steepest path graphics Pan to the area in the north-central part of the TIN where the big hill is. Also try doing it right at the summit. This could be used as an alternative way of displaying the same data you previously showed for variable watermilfoil. and other obstructions to visibility that you might encounter at a given site.) Will you need to set a Z factor?_____ Why or why not?_______________________ Step 1 Creating contour graphics Recall from the previous exercise that variable watermilfoil occurs at depths < 15'. 1.Exercise 4 Scenario You will use several surface analysis tools in this exercise to answer questions about aesthetic impacts of dock sitings and you will briefly revisit the topic of variable watermilfoil. they can be used to get some general idea about what areas would be visible from a given site. 2. they don't take into account trees.) When you used the 'Create Steepest Path' tool. .) In both of the above cases. That said.Surface Analysis .) List one application of either of these tools to your work_______________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Step 3 Line-of-sight graphics This tool gives a simple representation of what is visible or not visible from an observation point to a target point. what caused the lines to stop? _______________________________________________________________________ 4. Start ArcMap and add the 'cl_depth' TIN. Use the 'Create Contours' button and click on that site.000 TINs are coarse data sets. Also. and will not display the higher levels of terrain variability that you would see if you visited a certain place. Use the identify tool to find a place along the shoreline where the depth is roughly 15' (make sure you get your feet-meters conversions correct). buildings. as long as the user understands they are not a substitute for field visits. It should be noted that these lines are limited by the terrain data in use. 1:24.

Change the TIN symbology so only the surface of the lake is blue (59.Joe Developer wants to build a big marina on China Lake. But it is subject to variation depending on where you click. Remove the 'cl_depth' TIN and delete any graphics you created. use the line-of-sight tool to see if any of the proposed sites are clearly visible from the China Neck viewpoint. Step 4 Computing a viewshed The line-of-sight graphic tool is useful for conducting simple analysis of visibility. and is not useful with multiple viewpoints. A viewshed can be computed to show ALL visible areas from a number of viewpoints. and will also tell you from how many viewpoints a particular area is seen. Add the 'cl_analysis' TIN and the shapefiles 'proposed_marinas. somewhere on the sides of China Neck?____________________________________________________ Note that all the graphics tools on the 3D Analyst toolbar work on whatever layer is shown on the toolbar. On the 3-D Analyst toolbar.) Which proposed site(s) are visible from the China Neck viewpoint?______________ 7.7408m and below).5 meters.shp' and 'scenic_viewpoints. Use the 'Marina_ID' field when referring to proposed marina sites. Green indicates visible points on the line of sight. If you have more than one TIN or raster in your map. The first goal is to see if the development is visible from designated scenic areas.) Will your results vary if you click on the 'summit' of China Neck vs. Such a development would require an NRPA (MRSA 38 480-D) permit based on proposed rules regarding scenic value of areas. Your job is to answer the first question and see if the proposed sites are visible from 4 different scenic viewpoints. Set observer offset to 1. and if so it is then ranked based on scenic criteria. Symbolize them so you can clearly tell the difference between the proposed marinas and the scenic viewpoints. .) Which one(s) are not?___________________________________________________ 8. 6. and has submitted 3 possible locations.shp' to your ArcMap document. you will need to check the layer specified in the toolbar before using these tools.

From the 3-D Analyst toolbar. if one viewpoint had an observation platform 100' high. To read more about these fields. look in the ArcGIS help index for 'viewshed. The computation may take 2 minutes. optional parameters'. choose Surface Analysis . How could you use existing DEP GIS data to alter your TIN to reflect a more realistic model for viewsheds? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ .) For each marina site.) These viewsheds are based on no vegetation or buildings. you could set a 100' vertical offset just for the point.) Why did we not specify a Z factor?________________________________________ This will compute a new raster which will have a cell value indicating from how many viewpoints the cell is visible. which proposed marina would be the most suitable?______ Although the viewshed only shows visible / not visible by default. For example. and give each class a color that makes sense to you. 10. how many viewpoints can see it? Marina_ID 1:_____ Marina_ID 2:______ Marina_ID 3:_______ 12. but the default is to show non-visibility (0) as red and visibility (> 0) as green. 11. 9. A 7m offset was used on the China Neck viewpoint. You can symbolize this as you like. Change the symbology of the viewshed to unique values. Advanced viewshed tips: You can add fields to your viewpoints which specify additional parameters and offsets for each viewpoint. each cell actually stores the number of viewpoints from which it can be seen.Viewshed: Check to make sure the input surface is set to 'cl_analysis' and the observer points are 'scenic_viewpoints'. You may need to move the viewshed on top of the TIN in the TOC to see it in ArcMap.) Based only on visibility. Click the check-box to use the Earth's curvature and set the cell size to 10m. Save the output raster as 'viewshed'.

7408m). and then see how raising or lowering the lake level changes the volume. and can be used in lake management policy. we will compute the volume of China Lake. and calculate statistics below that plane. Recall that we clipped out areas below China Lake in this TIN for this specific purpose (we did that back in exercise 3). In this example. On the 3-D Analyst menu. Volumes of lakes are used to determine amount of discharge a lake can absorb. The surface area is the actual area of the lake bed and the volume will be the volume of China Lake.'Area and Volume': The height of plane is the elevation from which the volume and area will be measured. choose 'Surface Analysis' . In our case.Step 5 Computing surface area and volume Any 3-D area can have its volume and surface area computed using 3-D Analyst. we will use the lake level of China Lake (59.) What would happen if we ran this analysis with the standard USGS TIN (tin24)? ________________________________________________________________________ 14. Remove all layers and graphics from ArcMap and add the 'cl_depth' TIN.) What is the volume of China Lake? ______________________________________ . 13. compare that volume to those shown on the PEARL web site. One example is to mitigate the effect of invasive Hydrilla (in the case of Pickerel Pond in Limerick).

This ensures there are no areas below the 'Height of plane' in the TIN which are not in the lake (this has already been done for China Lake). and click on the link 'Maine Lakes: Morphometry and Geographic Information'. you can just set the 'Height of Plane' to a lower number and rerun the calculation.) What percentage of the 'normal' China Lake volume is lost by a 1 foot decrease in the lake level?____________________________________________________________ Note that when adjusting lake levels you will probably get the best results by clipping the TIN by the drainage divide(s) which drains into the lake.Waterbody Name'.) Under what conditions could a custom-made TIN with GPS soundings (such as 'cl_depth') be less accurate than a PEARL lake volume measurement? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ You can also use the 3-D Analyst tool to compute the volume of a lake under different conditions. 23. Answers . Check the box next to 'Volume' to retrieve lake volumes. areas for missing depths were interpolated using linear interpolation.asp. Finally. Click the 'Submit' button. These lake volumes were calculated 'by hand' using the IF&W bathymetric maps on which isodepth lines were drawn. Click on the 'General Information' button. these areas were converted to a lake volume by using a standard algorithm. and farther down on this page choose 'Order by .5 to convert to cubic meters. Area at each depth was determined using a planimeter. Close ArcMap and don't save your where you will see the volume in acre-feet.7408m).maine. Multiply that value by 1233. listed in alphabetical order.15.) What is the volume of China Lake according to PEARL?______________________ 19. If China Lake is 1 foot below normal lake level (59.) What are the units?____________________________________________________ 20.) Which measurement do you think is more precise?___________________________ 21.) What are the units? ___________________________________________________ Now open Internet Explorer and go to http://www. You will be returned all the lake volume data for Maine lakes.pearl.) What are the units?____________________________________________________ 16. You will have to skip up several pages (probably 6) to get to China Lake.) What is the surface area of the lake bed?___________________________________ 17. 18.) Which measurement do you think is more accurate?__________________________ 22.

3D scenes are perspective views which can be imported into ArcMap layouts.ArcScene . .Overview Concepts ArcScene ArcScene is a separate application in ArcGIS used for constructing 3D scenes and animations. 3D animations are digital 'movies' showing the terrain as if you were flying over it.

. It is not necessary to convert data from 2D to 3D just for use in ArcScene. Should you need to actually store the z-values in the data and convert to 3D. It is not enough to have a field with elevations in it. than the data are known as 3D data. When elevation (z) is stored as well. as any 2D data can have its z-values interpolated from a TIN. use the tools in the 3D Analyst menu. Most vector data at MEDEP are 2D data. the true 3D data layer has the z-values actually encoded in the feature.2D vs 3D data Concepts 2D data 3D data GIS vector data store x and y coordinates for each feature.ArcScene .

Many of these you are already familiar with from ArcMap. as shown below.ArcScene . .ArcScene tools Concepts 3D tools ArcScene has a number of tools useful for navigating through a 3D scene. The others we will discuss in more detail in exercise 5 (coming up).

it is important to set the z-factor in ArcScene if it is required. The same bugs regarding the z-factor in ArcMap also exist in ArcScene. this would apply to all layers. Individual layers in ArcScene can have their z-values changed using the 'Base Heights' tab in the layer properties in ArcScene (you will not see this tab in ArcMap). You can also apply an exaggeration factor or a constant offset if you want to change the way the data are shown in ArcScene. as it fully applies to ArcScene as well. Just bring up the scene properties (similar to data frame properties in ArcMap): . Additionally.ArcScene . Earth is a pretty flat place when you start looking at it in terrain models).Base heights and z-factor Concepts base heights z-factor exaggeration Just like in ArcMap. Vertical exaggeration is often used to highlight terrain features (in general. fo definition of what a z-factor is and the two bugs we mentioned earlier. in ArcMap you can apply the z-values from 3D data (terrain data. such as a TIN) to 2D data. Vertical exaggeration can also be applied to the entire scene. Please review the z-factor discussion for ArcMap.


such as an aerial photo. over a TIN to produce a 3D aerial photo. set the base heights to a TIN. you can increase the quality of the image (makes it look will take forever. The process is pretty simple: Add the aerial photo (here. but may slow down processing) .Draping over a TIN Concepts draping very cool This is so cool . be careful not to add a photo for the whole state .ArcScene .you can drape an image. use the doqs in z:\images\doqs) On the layer properties for the photo. and set a conversion factor if necessary On the 'Rendering' tab.

Example of a draped image: .

then copy that and paste it into ArcMap. This has something to do with the way ArcMap pastes the image. A workaround is to paste the image into Microsoft Word. Copy from ArcScene and paste into ArcMap layout: In ArcScene: In ArcMap layout view: BUG NOTE: This can cause 'wrapping' of pixels where a line of pixels from one side of the image appears on the other side of the image.Pasting into ArcMap Concepts copy/paste image A scene can be copied and pasted. or imported. into ArcMap from ArcScene.ArcScene . Stupid? Yes. This forces ArcMap to recognize the correct format of the image. but it will work if you see 'wrapping' in your pasted scene. .

Exporting a scene Concepts export insert You can also export a scene to 2D (such as EMF or JPG file) or to 3D (VRML). An exported 2D scene can be inserted into an ArcMap layout. Export from ArcScene and insert into ArcMap: In ArcScene: In ArcMap layout view: choose '2D' and file type EMF choose file type EMF .ArcScene .

ArcScene . .Performance issues Concepts performance A summary of performance issues: Large TINs (such as the ones in z:\images) demand a high amount of computer resource. and then make another adjustment Animation made from large TINs will NOT be affected by this. and will be sluggish or jerky when rendering in ArcScene For fluid navigation. it renders smoothly in AVI format. try clipping the TIN to your extent Or use the 'light touch' when navigating . wait for it to refresh.make a small adjustment.

Bring up the layer properties for 'cl_arcscene' and change the symbology so that only the lake is blue. Step 1 Z factor and base heights Open the TIN layer properties in ArcScene. while moving it up will zoom you out. Maximize ArcScene so it uses your whole screen.ArcScene . and use it to look at your China Lake TINs. Use the 'Zoom to Target' tool and click on a target. Try rotating the scene and changing the altitude. 1. To set a Z factor. To fly. Try to fly the length of the lake and turn around at the end.Exercise 5 Scenario In this exercise you will explore some of the functionality in ArcScene. right banks right. exaggerated beyond any reality to emphasize the relief. Moving up ascends and moving down descends.) Will you need to set a Z factor with 'cl_arcscene'?____________________________ Look at the base heights tab.) Is the 'Fly' tool the most fun you've seen in GIS yet?___________________________ . or from the 3-D Analyst toolbar in ArcMap. It will look like the layer properties in ArcMap with a couple additional tabs. It sometimes requires a subtle touch. as if you were standing at the edge looking out over the lake. Change the scene so you can see it edge-on. Try using the 'Zoom In/Out' tool. Start ArcScene from either the Citrix Program Neighborhood. This is typically how you see 3-D maps.just like in ArcMap. When you hold the mouse button down. 2. Moving your mouse to the left banks left. you would do so on the 'Source' tab . Remember you can fly right through the surface and out the other side. Add the 'cl_arcscene' TIN.) What is the difference between the 'Z Units Conversion' on the 'Base Heights' tab. left-click to speed up and rightclick to slow down (or even reverse). moving your mouse down will zoom you in. There is also a 'Z Units Conversion' here. 3. Zoom back out to the whole TIN and try using the 'Fly' tool. Hit ESC to stop flying if you get lost. and the 'Z unit conversion factor' on the 'Source' tab? ________________________________________________________________________ Set the 'Z Unit Conversion' (which tab would you use?) to exaggerate elevation by a factor of 3. Step 2 Navigation and zooming tools Use the 'Navigation' tool to move the scene around.

Step 4 Draping imagery over a TIN Add the aerial photo z:\images\doqs\china-lake.) Why does it still draw below the TIN?______________________________________ Set the 'Z Units Conversion' to the same exaggeration factor we used for 'cl_arcscene'. Turn off the TIN 'cl_arcscene' to clearly see the aerial photo. on the 'Rendering' tab you can specify a higher resolution. . and zoom to the whole TIN. Zoom into an area and notice how much less resolution the aerial photo had than when it was 2D. even though using it interactively is slower. Bring up the layer properties for the photo and click on the 'Base Heights' tab. With animations. Note there is a tradeoff in rendering 3-D imagery between performance and resolution. you can set this to the maximum setting and have a good animation. 4.Step 3 Performance issues The larger a TIN is. and move the photo above the TIN in the TOC.sid. Zoom out to the whole TIN. Once rendered. but your drawing speeds may decrease as a result. Remove 'tin24' when you are done. Try using the 'Navigate' and 'Zoom to Target' with this TIN. the harder it is to render dynamically in ArcScene. tell it to obtain base heights from 'cl_arcscene' and click 'Apply'. we will use the TIN base heights for the photo.) Why does the aerial photo still draw below the TIN?__________________________ To correct this. If you bring up the layer properties for the aerial photo. Turn 'cl_arcscene' back on. Set the 'Quality enhancement for raster images' setting on the 'Rendering' tab of the aerial photo's layer properties to 'High'. Turn off the 'cl_arcscene' TIN for a minute and add the TIN z:\images\tins\china-lake\tin24. It may take up to two minutes to initially render the image. 5. it will work almost as well as the lower-resolution image.

There are 3 methods: On 'Edit' menu in ArcScene choose 'Copy Scene to Clipboard'.it is a little slower but looks better. On 'File' menu in ArcScene. On 'Edit' menu in ArcScene. choose 'Copy Scene to Clipboard'. Answers .emf) and insert that as a picture into ArcMap layout. Also works for getting things into PowerPoint. Step 5 Getting a scene into ArcMap A scene can only be pasted into an ArcMap layout as a picture . export the scene as a 2-D enhanced metafile (. Note that this often results in a 'wrapping' of pixels from one edge of the scene to the other. then paste into MS Word. Copy the image from MS Word and paste into ArcMap. try using the MS Word method instead. but lower-resolution renderings will want to try one of the other options. I don't know why this fixes the 'wrapping' problem but it does. Start ArcMap from the ArcScene toolbar and choose one of the above methods to get your scene into an ArcMap is not updated when you update the scene in ArcScene.Example of high-resolution rendering . If you see 'wrapping' of the image (a sliver of the right side of the image is on the left side). You choose which you prefer. then in ArcMap layout view choose 'Paste'. When you initially choose the 'Copy Scene to Clipboard' function. it may take up to 2 minutes to render the scene into a metafile (especially if you have increased the raster quality). Close ArcMap (don't save). It works fine with high-resolution renderings.

right. left. or above a terrain model in ArcScene.). etc. The keyframes are points the animation passes through and also gives the animation the correct perspective for viewing (should it be looking up.Animation toolbar Concepts animation animation tools keyframe An animation is like a movie where you simulate moving through. across.Animations . There are many tools in ArcScene to create and manage animations. An animation is composed of a set of keyframes which are points in space with a particular angle and azimuth for observation. how high. down. The animation toolbar has most of these: .

and provide tools to record interactive animations and play back any animation.Animations .Animation controls Concepts animation controls The animation controls are called from the animation toolbar. .

The animation will smoothly go from keyframe to keyframe until it ends.Keyframes Concepts keyframe A keyframe is a point and perspective in space which is captured in an animation. This simple animation would flow from keyframe 1 to 2 and then to 3.Animations . . It is analogous to a vertex on a line in 2-D data.

Animations . .Keyframe capture Concepts keyframe Keyframes can be captured interactively by navigating around the TIN and then capturing a keyframe on the animation toolbar.

Animations .Flight path capture Concepts flight path keyframe Another way to create an animation is to use a line graphic or selected line feature as a flight path. or it can be a constant height above the surface. The flight path can be static (at a constant elevation). meaning the animation will 'fly' along the line and capture keyframes for your animation. The former method produces an airplane-like animation (steady flight). while the latter is more of a 'cruise missile' flight where the viewer rises and falls with the terrain (don't forget your barf bag!). .

on the animation menu choose 'Export to Video' and set the options you desire.Exporting to video Concepts export to AVI AVI file Any animation can be exported to a video file format.Animations . . Once your animation is set up the way you want. such as an AVI file.

When the animation is complete. . you can view it in Windows Media Player.

Use the 'Navigate' tool to flatten out your scene a bit (lower the altitude) and zoom in a little more. Z. the smaller the animation file). and roll values. Capture another keyframe . Plus it's cool! Resize ArcScene so it uses about 2/3 of your screen. zoom out to the whole extent of the 'cl_arcscene' TIN. This will be the first keyframe.Y. azimuth. Now zoom about halfway to the lake and capture another keyframe.Animations .Exercise 6 Scenario In this last exercise. Go to View-Toolbars and turn on the 'Animation' toolbar. The 'cl_arcscene' TIN should still be turned off and the aerial photo still draped over it. It's components are X. Step 1 Creating animation with keyframes A keyframe is a point in 3-D space. You will create a simple 10-second animation with 4 keyframes. First. This will speed things up later when exporting your animation (the smaller the scene frame. Click on the 'Capture the view to an animation' button (the camera) or use CTRL-A. you will create animation and export it to video. You can create animation easily by saving a series of keyframes and then running the animation (which will just move from keyframe to keyframe). This can be very useful in presentations when trying to represent an area. inclination.

Save your animation in your folder and call it 'keyframe. Note that if you see blue wireframes instead of your image rendering. Click on the 'Options' button and increase it to 10 seconds. By default your animation will be 3 seconds.Finally. choose 'Camera Flyby from Path'. Try increasing it to 2 seconds. . We will first try this using the flightpath in 2-D mode. Next you will create a flightpath animation which will follow a line feature stored in a shapefile.) Why does the line draw below all the other layers?____________________________ Select the line using any selection tool you desire. 1. click on the 'Open Animation Controls' button and click on the 'Play' button. use 'Zoom to Target' on a distant hillside and capture that point as your last keyframe. In this section you will create an animation which follows a predefined path saved in a shapefile. choose 'Clear Animation'. it will smooth out if exported to video. you will need to increase the refresh rate on the rendering tab of the aerial photo's layer properties. then replay your animation. Then on the Animation menu. Zoom out to the full extent of 'cl_arcscene'. Add the shapefile 'flight_path' to ArcScene (it's in your student folder). Step 2 Capturing animation along a flightpath The previous section showed how to create an interactive animation.asa'. To view your animation. on the 'Animation' menu. If your animation seems jerky. For now.

Redo the animation (i.Set the 'Vertical offset' to 500. Open the Animation Controls and set the duration to 10 seconds.e. This time the Z values from the TIN have been used and your offset of 100m added. and roll in the 'Orientation Settings'. 2. Open the Animation Controls and set the duration to 10 seconds. Note that advanced settings can specify azimuth. use the 'Camera Flyby from Path' tool again). Play your animation.asa'. Click 'Import'. why does a 500m altitude come so close to the hill at the end of the animation? ________________________________________________________________________ We will rerun the animation using a 3-D flightpath. Then turn off the layer so the 3-D line is not visible (so we don't actually see it in the animation). This time set the 'Vertical offset' to 100m.asa'. inclination. Play your animation. convert the flightpath to a 3-D shapefile. This means the observer is always 100m above the TIN being used. .) Since the highest elevation in the TIN is 146m. Clear your animation. Change the Z unit conversion on the 'Base Heights' tab to match the exaggeration you gave to your TIN. Remove the 2-D shapefile from your scene and select the 3-D line. This is also known as 'Airplane' mode. Clear your existing animation. the fly-by is done at a constant altitude of 500m above sea level. Save your animation as 'cruise_missile. Save your animation as 'airplane. You can also append this to a previous animation created with other methods. This is more like 'cruise missile' mode. Using the 3-D Analyst menu. Since this a 2-D representation. This is the height above the line the animation will 'fly'.

Turn off the 'Animation Controls' box. but produces the highest quality video. choose 'Export to Video'. the smoother the video . whichever one you liked the best. set the frame rate to 20 and the compression quality to 75. The higher the setting. A good rule of thumb is to keep this between 10-30. the crisper the video resolution . and is probably the easiest way to use one in a presentation. First. This is the preferred way to distribute animations to other audiences. The more frames. Windows Media Player will start up and you can run your video.. After a second. If you have a good computer. a 'Video Compression' box will come up. The frame rate is the number of frames per second rendered on the video.Step 3 Exporting animation to video Any animation can be exported to AVI format to view in the Windows Media Player. The procedure is very straightforward.asa'). you can set this to 100. map a network drive to \\depsuna\workspace (or open an existing connection there) and double-click on your video in your folder. For this exercise.avi' if you chose 'airplane.but also the larger the file size and the faster a computer you will need to render it. Now if only you had some popcorn.but also the larger the file size and the faster a computer you will need to render it. you can leave these settings alone. On the 'Animation' menu. This will also increase file size and rendering time. In general. load one of the animations you just made.. We recommend using the Cinepak compressor. Note for even higher-resolution video you can go back and set the rendering properties (Rendering tab on the layer properties) for the aerial photo to the highest quality. The 'Compression Quality' setting indicates how high of a resolution will be used when rendering the video. To view your video. You will see the frames rendering in ArcScene as it exports (make sure your toolbar is not sitting on top of your scene because you will see it in your video). Navigate to your folder and give your video a name (like 'airplane. Answers . This may take up to 5 minutes. Export your animation. otherwise leave it at 75.

After you complete the evaluation.) If you apply a z-factor and save your map. This is required for you to get credit for your training (i.) Make sure all your point data have z-values 2.) The image will get its z-values from the TIN 3.Register completion of this class.) If you drape an image over a TIN and change the image quality to 'high' on the rendering tab.) Why are the TINs in z:\images flat-topped on mountains? ____________________________ 5. Please evaluate this class.) Make sure you have a good dessert in your lunch d.e. Answer the questions below and check your answers.) Make sure the data are in TIN format b.y units and z-units are consistent c. then download the certificate of completion for this class.) Would you need to apply a z-factor conversion to TINs in z:\images?___________________ 7.) Would you need to apply a z-factor conversion to all TINs? ___________________________ 6. you will be able to download a certificate of completion for the class.) People will look at it and say "Gee whiz that's keen!" c. Your input will help make this class better for everyone.) The TIN navigation will be faster d.Final Quiz These are the key concepts you should have learned during this class. which of the following will NOT occur: a. 1.) Make sure your x.) The image will be clearer in the scene b. for training bonuses or to meet performance expectations).) What is the difference between: hard break line and a soft break line _______________________________________________ hard replace and hard clip _______________________________________________________ mass points and soft break line __________________________________________________ 4. will that z-factor be stored in the map document? ______________ Final Quiz Answers MEDEP employees . .) Which of the following is most important when working with terrain data? a.

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