This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Brugia malayi, Microfilariae, Hematoxylin Stain
Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilaria
At higher magnification, the discrete nature of the nuclei in the nuclei column is well demonstrated in thick blood film. The shape of the tail and the distribution of nuclei therein are especially clear in Figure 2.
Fig 1. This microfilaria is about the same size as that of W. bancrofti and has a sheath. In contrast to W. bancrofti, the B. malayi microfilaria has a long cephalic space, a compact column of nuclei, and a tail with subterminal and a terminal nucleus separated by a short constriction. In thick films, this microfilaria does not exhibit the smooth, graceful curves of W. bancrofti. Fig 2. Microfilaria from Knott concentration. This microfilaria demonstrates the typical morphologic features of this species, following preservation and concentration in 2% formalin, and staining with hematoxylin. Note the dot-like terminal and subterminal nuclein in the tail.
In hematoxylin-stained thick blood films, it is evident that the microfilaria has a sheath, short cephalic space, well demarcated anatomical landmarks, and a pointed tail devoid of nuclei (A). Occasionally, the lightly stained sheath is shed by the microfilaria before the blood film dries (b).
Microfilaria of W. bancrofti in thick blood film.
4 Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilaria
Microfilariae in thick blood films. The terminal and subterminal nuclei may not be evident in all microfilariae. Note the apparent absence of the subterminal nucleus in Figure 3. At high magnification (Fig 4), all the salient morphologic features are evident.
Brugia malayi, Microfilariae, thick blood films, Giemsa’s stain 1 2
In Giemsa-stained thick or thin blood films, the sheath of the microfilaria takes a pink stain, and the nuclear column stains an intense blue so that individual nuclei may be difficult to see.
LOA LOA At high magnification, note the long cephalic space and the structure of the tail. Even though the terminal and subterminal nuclei (arrows) have failed to stain, their position in the tail and the constriction between them is apparent in fig 4.
characteristic terminal and subterminal tail nuclei. However, as illustrated here, and in contrast to B. malayi, the sheath does not stain with Giemsa’s stain. ANGIOSTRONGYLUS CANTONENSIS
The microfilaria of this species is large and has a sheath. The nuclear column is densely stained and compact, and, distally, it is reduced to a column of five or six single, unevenly spaced nuclei. Occasionally, the microfilaria may shed its sheath (arrow) in thick blood films (fig3). DRACUNCULUS MEDINENSIS
Angiostrongylus cantonensis Adult female Note: “Barber pole” appearance which is made up of the dark red intestine tract filled with blood intertwined with a pair of the white genital tract.
Adult male Posterior end showing small bursa and two copulatory spicules. (..didn’t bother magnifying image, … couldn’t see the bursa and copulatory spicules even with Adobe)
Brugi timori, microfilariae in thick blood films, Giemsa’s stain. This microfilariae, first described in humans in 1967, has the characteristics of the genus Brugia. The microfilariae has a sheath, a densely stained Causes eosinophilic meningitis, nuclear a meningoencephalitis Humans are incidental column, characterized by eosinophlia in hosts. Passage of larvae in and the the CSF. Common in parts of humans has never been
documented and humans do not transmit either A. cantonensis or A costaricensis. Southern Asia and Pacific islands, Africa and the Caribbean (A. cantonensis)
Causes eosinophilic __________, an eosinophilic inflammation of the mesenteric arterioles of the ileocecal region of the gastro-intestinal tract that mimics appendicitis. Common in parts of Central and South America (A. costaricensis) Eggs hatch in the lungs, and first-stage larvae are passed in rodent feces (A. cantonensis)
Third-stage larvae are ingested by rats
Fig1. unstained microfilaria teased from skin snip. The unstained microfilaria is large, lacks a sheath, and has an attenuated, pointed tail that invariably flexed. Fig2. Giemsa-stained microfilaria from teased skin snip. The nuclear column may be densely packed and deeply stained. The cephalic space is longer than it is wide, and the nerve ring space is well demarcated. The nuclear column does not extend to the tail end of the body. The terminal portion of the tail, which lacks nuclei, may be difficult to see in some preparations.
First-stage larvae infect snails and slugs
Eggs hatch in the lungs, and firststage larvae are passed in rodent feces (A. cantonensis)
Humans become infected through food containing third-stage (infective) larvae. Food may include uncooked snails or slugs, vegetables contaminated with snails, slugs, or mollusk _________ or infested paratenic hosts (i.e. crabs, freshwater shrimp)
Slugs and snails are intermediate hosts, and after 2 months, the larvae reach the infective (third) stage.
Fig3. Hematoxylin-stained microfilaria teased from skin snip. Fig4. Hematoxylin-eosinstained section of human skin, one can see portions of microfilariae (arrows) in the superficial layer of the dermis.
Oncocerca volvulus subcutaneous tissue of thorax (human)