Sociology Chapter One: The Sociological Perspective  Sociology: the study of systematic study of human society o Sociological Perspective

: as seeing in the particular; look for general patterns in the behavior of particular people. o Just as social change encourages sociological thinking, sociological thinking can bring about social change.  Global Perspective: the study of the larger world and our society’s place in it. “global village”  Positivism: a way of understanding based on science\  Sociologist make use of three major theoretical approaches: o Structural-functional approach: is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability\  Social Structure: any relatively stable pattern of social behavior  Social Functions: the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.  Manifest Functions: the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern  Latent Functions: the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern  Social Dysfunction: is any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society o Social-conflict approach: framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.  Gender conflict approach: a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men.  Feminism: support of social equality for women and men  Race conflict approach: a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic group categories o Symbolic-interaction approach: (micro level orientation) is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday life of individuals. Chapter Two: Sociological Investigation  People’s truths differ the world over, and we often encounter facts at odds with our own.  Science: is a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation, standing apart from faith, the wisdom of experts and general agreement.  Positivist Sociology: the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior o Operationalize a variable: by specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable o Reliability: consistency in measure and Validity: actually measuring what you need to o Cause and effect: a relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another o Correlation: a relationship in which two variables change together o Spurious correlation: an apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is caused by some other variable. o Control: holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable o Objectivity: personal neutrality in conducting research  Interpretive Sociology: the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world…understanding the meaning that people create in their everyday lives

disrupting a cultural system  Ethnocentrism: the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture  Cultural relativism: the practice of judging a culture by its own standards  Cultural universals: traits that are part of every known culture  Sociobiology: a theoretical approach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture . the ways of acting. and the material objects that together from a people’s way of life. o Nonmaterial culture: the ideas created by members of a society o Material Culture: the physical things by members of a society o Culture Shock: personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life o Symbol: anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture o Cultural transmission: the process by which one generation passes culture to the next o Sapir-Whorf Thesis: the idea that people see and understand the world through the cultural lens of language. Critical Sociology: focuses on the need for social change Androcentricity: approaching an issue from the male perspective o Gynocentricity: seeing world from women’s perspective Hawthorn Effect: to refer to a change in a subjects behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied Participant Observation: a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities. Inductive Logical Thought: reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory. moving upward o Deductive logical thought: is reasoning that transforms general theory into specific hypotheses suitable for testing Chapter Three: Culture  Culture: way of thinking. o Beliefs: specific ideas that people hold to be true  Social Control: attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior  Norms: rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members o Mores: norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance o Folkways: norms for routine or causal interaction  High Culture: cultural patterns that distinguish a society elite o Popular Culture: cultural patterns that are widespread among a societies population o Subculture: cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society’s population o Counterculture: cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society o Multiculturalism: a perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions… (Eurocentrism / Afrocentrism) o Cultural Integration: the close relationship among various elements of a cultural system o Cultural Lag: the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others.     o The interpretive society sociologist does not just observe what people do but also tries to understand why they do it. o Values: culturally defined standards that people use to decide what are desirable good and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.

thinking and feeling . but we created it)  Anomie: a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals  Mechanical Solidarity: social bonds. based on common sentiments and shared moral values.  Division of labor: specialized economic activity Chapter Five: Socialization  Socialization: the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture o Personality: a person fairly consistent patterns of acting. that are strong among members of preindustrial societies (bound by tradition)  Organic solidarity: social bonds based on specialization and interdependence that are strong among members of industrial societies.Chapter Four: Society  Society: refers to the people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture o Gerhard Lenski: importance of technology in shaping any society  Sociocultural evolution: changes that occur as a society gains new technology  Hunting and Gathering: making use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food  Horticultural: the use of hand tools to raise crops  Pastoralism: domestication of animals  Agriculture: large scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources  Industrialism: the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery  Post-industrialism: the production of information using computer technology o Karl Marx: social conflict that arises as people work in economic system to produce material goods (economic production can shape ideas)  Social conflict: the struggle between segments of society over valued resources  Capitalist: people who own and operate factories and other business in pursuit of profits  Proletarians: people who sell their labor for wages  Social institutions: the major spheres of social life or societal subsystems organized to meet human needs  False consciousness: explaining social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society  Class conflict: conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society’s wealth and power  Class conscience: workers recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalist and ultimately to capitalism it’s self  Alienation: economic inequality o Max Webber: power of ideas shapes society (ideas / mode of thinking)  Ideal Type: an abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon  Rationalization of society: the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought  Alienation: bureaucracy countless rules and regulations o Emile Durkheim: society is defined by its type of solidarity (society takes a life of its own.

He identified four stages if cognitive development o Sensorimotor Stage: involves knowing the world only through the senses o Preoperational stage: involves starting to use language and other symbols o Concrete operational stage: allow individuals to understand casual connections o Formal operational stage: involves abstract and critical thought Lawrence Kohlberg: applied Piaget’s approach to stages if moral development o We first judge rightness in preconventional terms. with males relying more on abstract standards or rightness and females more on the effects of actions on relationships George Herbert Mead o The self is part of our personality and includes self-awareness and self-image o The self develops only as a result of social experience o Social experience involves the exchange of symbols o Social interaction depends on understanding the intention of another which requires taking the role of the other o Human actions is partly spontaneous (the I) and partly in response to others (the me) o We gain social experience through imitation. play. and understanding the generalized other Charles Horton Cooley: used the term looking glass self to explain that we see ourselves as we imagine other see us Erik H Erikson: identified challenges that individuals face at each stage of life from infancy to old age . according to our individuals needs o Next conventional moral reasoning takes account of parental attitudes and cultural norms o Finally. postconventional reasoning allows us to criticize society itself Carol Gilligan: found that gender plays an important part in moral development. pleasure-seeking drives and the demands of society Jean Piaget: believed that human development involves both biological maturation and gaining social experience. pleasure-seeking human drives o Superego: the demands of society in the form of internalized values and norms o Ego: our efforts to balance innate.        o Socialization is a matter of Nurture rather than nature Sigmund Fred’s: model of the human personality has three parts o Id: innate. games.

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