Technical University of Denmark

DTU Aqua

Cold-Chain Management, 2-3 June, Bonn, Germany

Seafood Spoilage and Safety Predictor (SSSP) – Version 3 from 2008
Paw Dalgaard, Ole Mejlholm, Jette Emborg and Brian J. Cowan
Seafood & Predictive Microbiology, National Institute of Aquatic Resources (DTU Aqua) Technical University of Denmark (DTU) www.difres.dk/micro/sssp - pad@aqua.dtu.dk

DTU Aqua

Technical University of Denmark

DTU Aqua

Seafood Spoilage and Safety Predictor (SSSP) Outline:

Key features of SSSP v. 2 from 2005
Flexible time-temperature integration tool for spoilage and shelf-life evaluation

Histamine formation in seafood
Morganella psychrotolerans (0 - 20°C) M. psychrotolerans and M. morganii (0 - 44°C)

Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria
New growth and growth boundary models

• Conclusions and perspectives
DTU Aqua

difres.dk/micro/sssp/ DTU Aqua .Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Key features of SSSP – relative rates of spoilage (RRS) Http://www.

Shelf-life at a constant temperature is known RRS at different temperatures can be predicted Shelf . Olley og Ratkowsky (1973) DTU Aqua .life at Tref (°C) Shelf . 2.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Key features of SSSP – relative rates of spoilage (RRS) Shelf-life can be predicted at different temperatures when: 1.life (T °C) = RRS at T (°C) RRS-models can be used: • • Although spoilage microorganisms are not known Over wide ranges of storage temperatures Spencer og Baines (1964).

Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Key features of SSSP – relative rates of spoilage (RRS) RRS: Shelf-life at Tref (°C) divided by shelf-life at T°C Cooked and brined MAP shrimps Ln (Relative rates of spoilage) EA ~ 100 a ~ 0.Square-root model .0 Fresh seafood .12 T min = -10°C ~ 61 ~ 0.09 .0 3.Cold waters Packed cold-smoked salmon Hot smoked and packed fish ~ 80 ~ 0.15 4.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Dalgaard (2000) DTU Aqua Temperature (°C) .025 .0 2.Arrhenius model 0.0 1.Tropical waters Fresh seafood .Exponential model ~ 20 ~ 0.

difres.dk/micro/sssp/ DTU Aqua .Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Key features of SSSP – microbial spoilage models Http://www.

Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Key features of SSSP – microbial spoilage models DTU Aqua .

difres.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Key features of SSSP – time-temperature integration SSSP predicts the effect of product temperature profiles: • Series of constant temperatures • Data recorded by temperature loggers Http://www.dk/micro/sssp/ DTU Aqua .

export) • Other predictive microbiology software DTU Aqua .Model evaluation and validation . storage conditions) • Data formats (import.g.Model development and equations .Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Key features of SSSP – an extensive help-menu SSSP help-menu: • How to use SSSP (e.Range of applicability (products. for time-temperature integration) • Information about individual predictive models: .

2005 and 2008 • SSSP is used by more than 3000 people/institutions from more than 100 different countries: – Production and distribution of seafood – Seafood inspection – Research – Teaching : 33 % : 19 % : 17 % : 13 % • SSSP is free and available in 12 different languages – www.difres.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua SSSP users • SSSP has been available since January 1999 – New versions in 2004.dk/micro/sssp/ DTU Aqua .

2 from 2005 Flexible time-temperature integration tool for spoilage and shelf-life evaluation • Histamine formation in seafood Morganella psychrotolerans (0 .44°C) • Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria New growth and growth boundary models • Conclusions and perspectives DTU Aqua . morganii (0 . psychrotolerans and M.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Seafood Spoilage and Safety Predictor (SSSP) Outline: • Key features of SSSP v.20°C) M.

Photobacterium phosphoreum .At above 0°C: Morganella psychrotolerans.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Histamine formation in seafood • Histamine fish poisoning (HFP) occurs world wide and is the most common finfish-borne human disease • HFP is due to marine finfish with >500-1000 mg histamine/kg • Specific bacteria produce histamine in seafood .At above 7-10°C: Morganella morganii. Raoultella planticola • EU regulation: 100-200 mg histamine/kg Dalgaard et al. 2008 DTU Aqua .

8°C: Frank et al.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Histamine formation in seafood • Models for histamine formation have been available for years: 21.1 – 37. (1983) -1.1 – 15.6°C: Frank & Yoshinaga (1987) • Models for bacterial growth and histamine formation are new 8 7 7000 6 7000 6000 5000 4000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 Log (CFU/g) 5 4 3 Histamine mg/kg Histamine mg/kg 3000 2 1 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 2000 1000 0 Storage period (Days) Storage period (Days) Emborg & Dalgaard 2007 DTU Aqua .

Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Histamine formation in seafood SSSP v.difres.dk/micro/sssp/ DTU Aqua . 3 includes models for histamine formation in seafood Http://www.

Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Histamine formation in seafood Chilled tuna                                                     Chilled cold‐smoked tuna  DTU Aqua .

morganii model allows growth and histamine formation to be evaluated for a wide range of temperatures 9 8 7 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 6 7 25°C 5°C Log (cfu/g) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Histamine (mg/kg) Dashed lines : Histamine Solid lines : Bacteria Storage period (Days) DTU Aqua Emborg & Dalgaard – submitted .Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Histamine formation in seafood A combined M. psychrotolerans and M.

20°C) M.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Seafood Spoilage and Safety Predictor (SSSP) Outline: • Key features of SSSP v. morganii (0 . 2 from 2005 Flexible time-temperature integration tool for spoilage and shelf-life evaluation • Histamine formation in seafood Morganella psychrotolerans (0 .44°C) • Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria New growth and growth boundary models • Conclusions and perspectives DTU Aqua . psychrotolerans and M.

It must be documented that 100 cfu/g is not exceeded within the storage period .0 and aw ≤ 0.pH ≤ 4.Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria EU-regulation (EC 2073/2005) distinguish between ready-to-eat foods able or unable to support growth of Listeria monocytogenes Ready-to-eat foods Support growth Support growth Unable to support growth Critical limit None in 25 g 100 cfu/g 100 cfu/g Comments .When produced .Shelf-life below 5 days DTU Aqua .4 or aw ≤ 0.94 .Documentation .pH ≤ 5.92 .

Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria SSSP v. food Prot. 70. 70-84 and 2485-2497 .J.b) . 3 includes extensive growth and growth boundary models for Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria DTU Aqua Mejlholm and Dalgaard (2007a.

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dk/micro/sssp/ pad@aqua.Product development and quality control . 3 includes new seafood safety models for: .Product specific e-learning modules .dtu.Improved links to other freeware www.difres.Time-temperature integration .Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Conclusions and perspectives • SSSP has stimulated the use of predictive models and time-temperature integration within the seafood sector • SSSP v.Documentation of seafood safety • Future developments of SSSP may include: .dk DTU Aqua .

Technical University of Denmark DTU Aqua Thanks • • • Colleagues at DTU Aqua Financial support Industry collaboration Last but not least I thank you for your attention DTU Aqua .