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Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Coffee is a sensorial and emotional pleasure. It is a catalyst to get you going in the morning. It can also give a moment of uplift, relaxation, indulgence or social connection. Coffee is a sample, accessible, affordable moment of pleasure in everyday life; and worldwide billions of people enjoy coffee everyday. The busier the day, the more those simple moments of coffee pleasures become important, all those developments led to some key trends in coffee. The annual coffee crop amounts to 7 billion kilos of green coffee. Global consumptions come to more than 800 billion cups: billions of people enjoy coffee pleasure every day, calculated as a cup of coffee and its consumptions still grows every year. If you multiply the number of cups with the price of good cup of coffee, you start to understand that coffee is a global business employing millions of people both in agriculture and in industry. Caffeine, adenosine and dopamine: these are three key terms in understanding the appeal of coffee. We all know caffeine, in pure form; it is an odorless white powder with a bitter taste. In the Philippines, coffee was first introduced by the Franciscans. Today, Philippines already one of the exporting countries producing coffees around the world. Background of the Study

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Theoretical Framework This study is anchored on the concept that

Conceptual Framework The figure that follows is a graphical representation of how this study was carried out. The study aimed at

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Feedback

UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST Figure 1 Research Paradigm The INPUT component contains the

Statement of the Problem This study will distinguish the implications of coffee drinking among the first year Business Administration (B.A) Students of the University of the East (UE), Manila for the first semester of academic year 2011-2012. Specifically, this endeavor will answer the following questions:

1.

What is the demographic profile of the first year Business Administration (B.A)

students of the University of the East (UE), Manila in terms of : I.1 I.2 I.3 2. 3. 2.1 2.2 gender, age, and General Point Average (GPA). What are the possible reasons for drinking coffee among the students? What are the possible effects of drinking coffee in terms of : Behavior Health, and

2.3 4.

Beliefs.

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Is there any significance relationship between drinking coffee with that of the

students GPA?

Assumptions This study is premised on the following hypotheses: 1. Scope and Limitations The focal point of this study was to Significance of the Study This research endeavored to Definition of Terms The following terms are hereby

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST This chapter discusses the review of related literature and studies. It details observation of books and studies on the subject matter conducted here and abroad and their connection to the current research. The researcher looked for a record of foreign and local studies and some related literatures that have either direct or indirect behavior to the study. Foreign Literature According to Nielsen, even though it tastes "stronger", dark roasted coffees actually have LESS caffeine than medium or light roasts. The longer a coffee is roasted, the darker it becomes and the more caffeine burns off during the process. Similarly, contrary to popular assumptions, espresso coffee actually contains about one-third of the caffeine of a brewed cup of coffee. This is partially due to the fact that espresso is typically made using top premium Arabica beans which have lower caffeine content than Robusta beans, which are found in many coffee blends used for standard brewing. Also, in the espresso brewing method, water is in contact with the grounds for only 20 to 25 seconds and extracts less caffeine than methods that put water in contact with the grounds for several minutes.
{Nielsen added that the term "Joe" when referring to coffee originates with

the fact that coffee has long been a favorite drink among American soldiers. Soldiers in the Civil War, for example, were issued rations of coffee which they brewed in water over camp fires. During World War II, American soldiers were given instant coffee rations and were known to consume large amounts of coffee.

Since these soldiers U N I V E R S I T Y O F T H E E phrase "cup of Joe" was were known as "G.I. Joes", the A S T adapted to describe a cup of coffee.}

According to Nielsen, caffeine can enhance athletic endurance and performance. Until 2004, caffeine was on the International Olympic Committee list of prohibited substances. Athletes who tested positive for more than 12 micrograms of caffeine per milliliter of urine (about 5 cups of coffee) were banned from the Olympic Games. Even though caffeine has now been removed from the list of prohibited substances, the controversy continues as experts differ in their opinions as to whether caffeine consumption on the day of performance can give an athlete an unfair advantage or not.

Local Literature According to Philippine panorama magazine under Nestor Cuartero column (2007), he states that in Batangas, coffee drinking is a daily, sometimes, hourly, habit, a way of life, shared by entire families at breakfast, or at any time of night and day. No one bothered to ask why we, children as tender as five or six years old, were allowed to drink the wicked brew so early in the day, and that early in our life. In addition, coffee is said to be healthier than what we think of it, says a

study by US scientist,U N I V E R S I T Y O F probablyE A S T who claim that coffee T H E contributes far more healthy antioxidants to our diet than fruits and vegetables. According to a DPA report, scientists measured the antioxidant content more than 100 different foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, spices, oils, and beverages. The findings were then combined with data from US department of Agriculture on each items contribution to the average American diet. They found out that coffee was the biggest source of antioxidants per serving and level consumption. It was followed by black tea, bananas, dry beans, and corn.

There was an idea that came from Prof. Joe Vinson, head researcher at Scranton University in Pennsylvania said: Americans get more of their antioxidants from coffee than any other dietary source. The study revealed that both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee appeared to provide similar antioxidant levels. Antioxidants are the bodys agents against harmful free radicals and destructive molecules that damage cells and DNA. They bring to the human body various heart benefits such as protection against heart disease and cancer. In recent years, studies have shown that coffee-drinking could help reduce risk of liver and colon cancer, type 2 diabetes and Parkinsons diseases. An observation is shared by Dr. Gerry H. Tan, Chief of the section of endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism of College of Medicine at Cebu Doctors University. Some facts: A study of Finnish men and women published in the journal of American Medical Association in 2004 said increased coffee consumption is

U N I risk of I T Y O F T H 2 E A S T associated with decreasing V E R S developing typeE diabetes. On the other hand, the Atherosclerosis risk in Communities (ARIC) Study published in the American According to Shabs Piercy her father tell not to drink too much coffee as it mixes to the blood and makes her skin darker. It had been always a refreshing advice every time she tell them I could drink five to six cups, as in, "mugs" of coffee in a day in exchange of inculcating into me that too much drinking [of coffee] would give a negative effect her my health.Coffee had been a staple drink in my province, Batangas (Philippines). We call it "kapeng barako". A strong and aromatic coffee was naturally processed. It could be perfect with rice crispies or what we called here as "pinipig". In every Filipinos, coffee would never be missing besides; it is already a part of Filipino culture. Cups of coffee turn up in any context, at any time. Early in the morning it is poured in the intimacy of ones kitchen, the clatter of the market KAPIHAN or the hash of the caf. Coffee lends itself to many purposes. It is both sword and shield in handling stress. It is the source of livelihood to over 30,000 growers, and to hundreds of thousands more traders, roasters, caf owners and corporate employees. Coffee engages a wide range of energies, from the preoccupations of farmers and agronomists to the creativity of the chefs. Coffee has woven itself into the community life of the Igorot, where it is accorded its own ritual. Coffee entrepreneur Patrick Joson of Kape ni Juan, coffee has become an anchor of national identity and source of pride .coffee is everywhere, and everywhere performs its called-upon duty (Noel Sy Quia, 2007).

U N I V Coffee Institute T H E E A Nestle with a request. In 1930 the Brazilian, E R S I T Y O F approached S T Brazil had been building up surplus stocks of coffee , and beans often had to be destroyed to keep prices from getting punitively low. When it first appeared in the Philippines , this can was a novelty . A generation later it was the stuff of nostalgia. According to Shabs Piercy her father tells not to drink too much coffee as it mixes to the blood and makes her skin darker. It had been always a refreshing advice every time she tell them I could drink five to six cups, as in, "mugs" of coffee in a day in exchange of inculcating into me that too much drinking [of coffee] would give a negative effect her my health. Coffee had been a staple drink in my province, Batangas (Philippines). We call it "kapeng barako". A strong, aromatic coffee was naturally processed. It could be perfect with rice crispies or what we called here as "pinipig". Some Filipino families use coffee not just as drink but also include it to their main course. Hot or cold, they pour it over a steaming or left over rice which we called, "kaning lamig". It is perfect with "tuyo" or sun-dried fish and "sinaing na isda" or fish cooked in a clay pot. It is very unique for the Filipinos how we make use of coffee in our meals. Like also for our breakfast. Common families make use of it as a dip for breads which we call, "pandesal". In doing so, we had the old kidding connotation of being so clean that we have to wash first the food we are about to eat. Coffee was never just a steroid for us Filipinos, it was the bean of the innate that can never be taken away from our lifestyle, from what we got used to.

U N came S I T Y O F T we E A S T There was an idea that I V E Rfrom Jessie thatH E can't get away a morning without 10 coffee is the start of a bad day. It has become a part of our culture. Drinking coffee becomes extra special whenever we share it with our loved ones. Barako is a rare and exotic coffee grown primarily in the Philippines. Barako (also spelled Baraco) has become a generic name for all coffee from the province of Batangas, but real Barako is actually Philippine Liberica and is known for its particularly strong taste, powerful body, and a distinctly pungent aroma. The beans are indigenous to the Philippines, though the trees can also be found in Vietnam and Indonesia. Of the four identified species of coffee (Robusta, Excelsa, Arabica and Liberica), Liberica has the largest cherries and therefore, bigger beans. Liberica is now predominantly grown in the province of Cavite. However, this coffee is in danger of becoming extinct. The reason why this coffee has become rare stems from the plight of the once thriving Philippine coffee industry.

Marcus Smith tells that Philippine Civet Coffee is the best for refreshing your mood and soothing your senses. Renowned for its mellow aftertaste, caramel colour soothing aroma, Philippine civet coffee is produced in the highlands of Benguet region at a height of 1800 to 1970 meters above sea level. Besides stimulating taste and aroma, the rareness and provenance of civet coffee beans make them the choice of connoisseurs of coffee.

U N I name I the O F T H E E A S called civet, which has catCivet coffee owes itsV E R StoT Y little-bodied animalT 11 like appearance. It is so because civet coffee beans are collected from civet dung. Now, you must be thinking why they are collected from the civet faeces. Civets love coffee cherries and have the sense to choose the tastiest cherries from the tree. They eat the fruity outer part of cherries only and pass the beans inside, where the enzymes work on the beans and add exceptional flavour and pleasing aroma to them. After spending around a day in civets digestive tract, these coffee beans are defecated in clump. The local tribes then hand pick these beans from civet dung and subsequently wash, sterilise and dry them before roasting and brewing. Some interesting facts about the provenance of civet coffee beans are: Production of this coffee began when beans were collected in wild by the tribes from where a civet would defecate to mark their territory. Earlier civets were widely hunted by the local tribes. But now with the growing popularity and high income brought by civet coffee beans, civet farming has become a common practice among them.

Foreign Studies According to Rachel Nielsen from her column in EZINE ARTICLES, the three biggest coffee drinkers in the world are the Americans, the French and the Germans. They consume nearly 65% of the total world's consumption of coffee. Worldwide annual coffee consumption is over 400 billion cups and continues to

U N the seventh largest T H agricultural grow. In 2005, coffee was I V E R S I T Y O F legal E E A S T export in the world by value. Rachael Nielsen added that, in the United States alone, we consume 400 million cups every day, or 35% of the world's total. The statistics show that 54% of the adult population drinks coffee cups on a daily basis, and another 25% of all Americans drink it once in a while. This means that more than three quarters of American adults drink coffee. Rachel states that, Men drink as much, if not more, coffee than women. In the year 2000, a National Coffee Association survey reported that the average consumption of coffee corresponds to approximately 1.9 cups of coffee per day for men and 1.4 cups per day for women when looking at the total population. However, when looking at coffee drinkers only, the average consumption is raised to about 3.1 cups per person per day. Nielsen also believes that coffee can be good for you! Coffee can increase the effectiveness of pain killers, reduce headaches and can help fight asthma, possibly due to the enhanced adrenal effect from the caffeine. Coffee may reduce the risk for some cancers and Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have shown that caffeine reduces the incidence of diabetes by 54% for men and 30% for women. Lastly, coffee's stimulant effects and fat burning potential has some in the medical field pushing it as a means of lowering the incidence of heart disease.

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Rachel Nielsen U N I V E R thatT Y O F loved the A S T over. There are not concluded S I coffee is T H E E world too many beverages which inspire the love and devotion that coffee does. In fact, coffee is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water.

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Local Studies

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Local Literature

Some Filipino families use coffee not just as drink but also include it to their main course. Hot or cold, they pour it over a steaming or left over rice which we called, "kaning lamig". It is perfect with "tuyo" or sun-dried fish and "sinaing na isda"

U pot. E R very Y O F T the E A S T or fish cooked in a clay N I VIt is S I T unique for H E Filipinos how we make use of coffee in our meals. Like also for our breakfast. Common families make use of it as a dip for breads which we call, "pandesal". In doing so, we had the old kidding connotation of being so clean that we have to wash first the food we are about to eat.Coffee was never just a steroid for us Filipinos, it was the bean of the innate that can never be taken away from our lifestyle, from what we got used to.

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Marcus Smith tells that Philippine Civet Coffee is the best for refreshing your mood and soothing your senses. Renowned for its mellow aftertaste, caramel colour soothing aroma, Philippine civet coffee is produced in the highlands of Benguet region at a height of 1800 to 1970 meters above sea level. Besides stimulating taste and aroma, the rareness and provenance of civet coffee beans make them the choice of connoisseurs of coffee. Civet coffee owes its name to the little-bodied animal called civet, which has cat-like appearance. It is so because civet coffee beans are collected from civet dung. Now, you must be thinking why they are collected from the civet faeces. Civets love coffee cherries and have the sense to choose the tastiest cherries from the tree. They eat the fruity outer part of cherries only and pass the beans inside, where the enzymes work on the beans and add exceptional flavour and pleasing aroma to them. After spending around a day in civets digestive tract, these coffee beans are

defecated in clump. The local tribes then hand pick these beans from civet dung and subsequently wash, sterilise and dry them before roasting and brewing. Some

interesting facts aboutU N IprovenanceY O F T H E E A S T the V E R S I T of civet coffee beans are: Production of this coffee began when beans were collected in wild by the tribes from where a civet would defecate to mark their territory. Earlier civets were widely hunted by the local tribes. But now with the growing popularity and high income brought by civet coffee beans, civet farming has become a common practice among them.

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Since the average yearly production of civet coffee is 1000 pounds only, its cost varies between USD100 and USD 600 per pound. Due to the high cost involved it is out of reach for many and hence, is not available in all coffee stores. With the growing number of online coffee merchants, you can get the costly Philippine Civet Coffee at your doorstep. All you need to do is browse the web to find out the online sellers of civet coffee and place an order with the one whom you find the best suitable.Coffee is one of the most important crops not only in the Philippines but also in other countries. It is said that water maybe the essential liquid for Earths life forms, but coffee really gets the bodys motor going. Each day, millions stagger to the kitchen coffee pot. It is among the top ten agricultural crops in terms of value (Agriculture Magazine). No wonder why coffee occupies an important role in the economy. In world trade, coffee ranks first among the enjoyment goods, surpassing alcohol drinks, tea and tobacco. (http://hubpages.com/hub/coffee-productionphilippines)

Based on the book of (Pacita U. Juan and Ma. Regina S. Francisco). In the Philippines, coffee is still reigns supreme over tea. In the provinces that grow coffee,

U N I V E (those with the reddest cherries) are separated for the best coffee, the best crops R S I T Y O F T H E E A S T private consumption (home use or family use) and are never sold. These are specially roasted in pans and meticulously pounded or ground and passed through screens until the grind is perfectly even. The grounds are then cooked in pots and served freshly boiled or brewed.Roasting is done in small batches, usually limited to as much as what the family will use for a week or a few days. Upon entering a house in the province, the first beverage offered is coffee. Coffee is then prepared and usually drank just with a little sugar. Milk is an option, which is usually fresh carabaos milk or convenience, evaporated milk in cans.

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Foreign Studies As far as the studies abroad are concerned, it can be assumed that no study of this sort has ever been conducted The introduction of coffee to the Americas was effected by Captain Gabriel des Clieux, who obtained cuttings from the reluctant botanist Antoine de Jussieu, who was loath to disfigure the

king's coffee tree. Clieux, when water rations dwindled during a difficult voyage, shared his portion with his precious plants and protected them from a Dutchman, perhaps an agent of the Provinces jealous of the Batavian trade. Clieux nurtured the plants on his arrival in the West Indies, and established them

in Guadeloupe and Saint - Domingue in addition to Martinique, where a blight had struck the cacao plantations, which were replaced by coffee plantations in a space of

U N to E R S I through T colonization three years, is attributed I VFrance T Y O F its H E E A S T of many parts of the continent starting with the Martinique and the colonies of the West Indies where the first French coffee plantations were founded. The first coffee plantation in Brazil occurred in 1727 when Lt. Col. Francisco de MeloPalheta smuggled seeds, still essentially from the germ plasm originally taken from Yemen to Batavia, from French Guiana. By the 1800s, Brazil's harvests would turn coffee from an elite indulgence to a drink for the masses. Brazil, which like most other countries cultivates coffee as a commercial commodity, relied heavily on slave labor from Africa for the viability of the plantations until the abolition of slavery in 1888. The success of coffee in 17th-century Europe was paralleled with the spread of the habit of tobacco smoking all over the continent during the course of the Thirty Years' War (16181648). For many decades in the 19th and early 20th centuries, Brazil was the biggest producer of coffee and a virtual monopolist in the trade. However, a policy of maintaining high prices soon opened opportunities to other nations, such as Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua,Indonesia and Vietnam, now second only to Brazil as the major coffee producer in the world. Large-scale production in Vietnam began following normalization of trade relations with the US in 1995. Nearly all of the coffee grown there is Robusta. Despite the origins of coffee cultivation in Ethiopia, that country produced only a small amount for export until the Twentieth Century, and much of that not from the south of the country but from the environs of Harar in the northeast.

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UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST The Kingdom of Kaffa, home of the plant, was estimated to produce between 50,000 and 60,000 kilograms of coffee beans in the 1880s. Commercial production effectively began in 1907 with the founding of the inland port of Gambela, and greatly increased afterwards: 100,000 kilograms of coffee was exported from Gambela in 1908, while in 1927-8 over 4 million kilograms passed through that port. Coffee plantations were also developed in Arsi Province at the same time, and were eventually exported by means of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway. While only 245,000 kilograms were freighted by the Railway, this amount jumped to 2,240,000 kilograms by 1922, surpassed exports of "Harari" coffee by 1925, and reached 9,260,000 kilograms in 1936. Australia is a minor coffee producer, with little product for export, but its coffee history goes back to 1880 when the first of 500 acres (2.0 km2) began to be developed in an area between northern New South Wales and Cooktown. Today there are several producers of Arabica coffee in Australia that use a mechanical harvesting system invented in 1981.

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Local Studies The Philippines belongs to this special are area and is one of only fifty-three countries that produce coffee (pacita and regina). Several masters theses and

doctoral dissertations U N I V E R Sthe Y O F T H E E A S T of coffee was once a focusing on I T production and export major industry in the Philippines, which 200 years ago was the fourth

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largest coffee producing nation. Today, however, the Philippines produce only . 012% of the world's coffee supply. Efforts are being undertaken to revive the industry however, with the majority of coffee produced in the mountain areas of Batangas,Bukidnon, Benguet, Cavite, Kalinga, Apayao, Davao, (Wikipedia.com) and Claveria.

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Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies According to Kevin Knox and Julie Sheldon Huffaker (1997), A considerable number of foreign and local literature containing discussions in developing knowledgeable relationship with coffee and particularly to learn to distinguish and appreciate its content one must first understand what coffee is and where did it came from, The coffee bean is actually the seed, or pit, of the round, red cherry fruit of a tropical evergreen shrub. Coffee according to Pacita and regina beans come from coffee cherries which are the fruit of tree. Each cherry contains two beans. The belt wraps the earth and is bound by the tropic of can cer and tropic of Capricorn.

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Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The purpose of this study was to conduct a linguistic-syntactic analysis of expressions and utterances from selected short stories in English by National Artists to draw out from them Filipino family values. This chapter hallmarks the

Method of Research The researcher made use of the

Research Instrument Data-Gathering Procedure The procedure followed by the researcher is hereby presented.

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Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter hallmarks the analysis and interpretation of data, following the sequence of the specific problems stated in Chapter 1.

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Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study conducted a linguistic-syntactic analysis of expressions and utterances from selected short stories in English by National Artists to draw out from them Filipino family values. Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions

Summary Based on the analysis and interpretation of data gathered, the research hereby presents the following findings of the study.

Conclusions Based on the foregoing findings, this researcher arrived at the following conclusions:

UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST Recommendations From the findings and conclusions of this study, the researcher has come up with the following recommendations:

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WORKS CITED BOOKS Abcarian, Richard and Marvin Klotz. Literature: The Human Experience. New York: St. Martins Press, Inc., 1988. Print. Andres, Tomas D. Understanding Filipino Values. Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1981. Print. ---. Dictionary of Values. Quezon City: Giraffe Books, 2000. Print.

UNPUBLISHED THESES AND DISSERTATIONS Agua, Naomi B. Teaching Philippine Literature for Values Reorientation. MA thesis. Baguio Colleges Foundation, 1997. Print. Alibanto, Dominga E. Filipino Values in the Short Stories of Selected Bikolano Writers in English. MA thesis. Bicol University, Bicol, 1990. Print. Bael, Renie B. Filipino Values as Portrayed in the Selected Works of Edilberto K. Tiempo. MA thesis. Andres Bonifacio College, Dipolog City, 1992. Print. PERIODICALS

UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST Gonzalez, NVM. The Poetic Image in Philippine Letter. Literature and Society. Manila: Alberto S. Florentino, 1964. Print. Halili- Jao, Nina. Pinoys Turn to God in Times of Crisis. The Philippine Star. 11 October 2009: M-2. Print.

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ELECTRONIC SOURCES AND OTHER REFERENCES Brynildssen, Shawna. Character Education Through Childrens Literature. August 2002. Web. 1 April 2008. Caballero, Mariana. What is Sociolinguistics? Web. 3 January 2009. Conrad D. and Hedin D. School-based Community Service: What we Know from Research and Theory. Web. 1 April 2008.

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APPENDICES Appendix 1: The Short Stories Under Study

Appendix 2: Quotes on Family

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CERTIFICATION OF EDITING

This is to certify that the research work presented in this thesis entitled Short Stories in English by National Artists: A Linguistic-Syntactic Analysis of Expressions and Utterances by Julius Cesar Rosales Pascual has been edited by the undersigned.

MILAGROS F. CAARES, PhD Editor

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