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lat 19th century? Why were religious beliefs and activities so important to so many African Americans Why did Black men in the US army engage in combat against native Americans the Spanish and Filipinos? What kinds of businesses did black men and women own and operate? What opportunities existed for African American men and women in the legal and medical professions? Who were some of the prominent African Americans in music and sports by the early 20th century? 1. Intro a. Economy of lat4e 19th cent changed Industrialization and rise of large powerful corporations b. European immigrants crowd cities of North and Midwest for jobs c. Rural southerners agriculture declined d. Most black people- nearly 8 million- remained in the south- struggle to confront white supremacy- disregard their rights, exclude them from its institutions and culture- black Americans relied on own resources and own communities e. Some turn to Education to elevate selves and people, disagreement over most appropriate approach f. By late 19th Century- black people mostly relied on each other and their own communities to sustain themselves i. Organize and support churches, schools, collges, established businesses and sometimes formed labor unions and went on strike, founded their own hospitals, expressed themselves in music by creating ragtime, jazz, and blues, at times allowed to participate with white people in organized sports, but more often formed own tems g. Point: African Americans refused to allow white supremacy to prevent them from creating a meaningful place for themselves in American society 2. Social Darwinism a. Herbert Spencer and William Graham- drew on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolutionSocial Darwinism: “through a process of natural selection, the strong would thrive, prosper, and replace while the weak would falter, fail, and die. Life was a struggle, only the fittest survived.” b. Applied to races and people- justified disparities in wealth!- explained Rockefeller and Gret Britian and Germany- conveniently explained why African, Asian, and Latin American societies seemed so backward and primitive c. Amreicans and Europeans obsorbed this ideology of class and race: Americans and Europeans came to believe had a duty to introduce the political, economic, and religious benefits and values of Western cultures to the “less advanced” and usually darker peoples of the globed. Social Darwinism influenced the way most Protestant white Americans perceived their society, leading them to believe people could be ranked from superior to inferior based on their race, nationality, and ethnicity- Black people ranked at the bottom, and eastern and souther European immigrants who were flooding the country only slightly above them- Black people biologically ordained subordinate- why should society devote resources to their education? 3. Education and Schools a. Huge obstacles to education- most black people were poor farmers who had few opportunities for an education and even fewer prospects for a career in business or one fo the professions b. Even rudiemtary education was not easy- rural schools for black children rarely operateddemands of fieldwork- blacks couldn’t attend schools on regular basis- schools often
to fill void of lack of private schools.the most influential black leadersin Am in 1900.passed to asstablish separate black land0grant colleges0 accelerated the development of practical education through the appropriateion of federal money for black land own colleges . The Morill Act. and teaching materials.haard work diligence and Christian morality. Hampton’s foremost graduate. In south almost no black high schools iii. Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute was founded in 1868 ub VA dominated by Camuel Chapman Armstrong. In many communites.charged modest tutuition. a second Morall Act 1890. electricity.white business and political leaders reassured by his message that black people themselves wer reassured by his message that black peple themselves were responsible for their economic progress. The Hampton Model i.accepted invitantion in 1881 to found a black college in AlabamaTuskegee Institute. Some black people and many white people regarded education for black youngsters as a pointless exersice ii.operated private academies and high schools.persuade black and white people that the surest way to advance was by learning skills and demonstrating a willingness to do manual labor iii.black people had made substantial and significant progress in education during last two decades in 19th century given difficulties in acquiring education d.white missionary with strong paternalistic inclinations.little emphasis on critical or independent thinking. In 1897 over the vehement protests of the black community white school officials in Augusta.dilapidated shacks no plumbing.passed by Congress in 1862 entitled each state to the proceeds from the sale of federal land (most of it in the West) for establishing land-grant colleges to provide agricultural and mechanical training.however southern states did not admit black students to their A&M (Agricultural and Mechanical) schools. teachers poorly paid. Would earn respect and acceptance of white Americans and eventually eradicate the race problem iv. Washington and the Tuskegee Model i. Segregated Schools i.black pepopel with the assistance of churches and northern philanthropists.rate ii. Went to hapot. closed Ware High School the black secondary school and transformed it into a black primary school.US Supreme court in Cummings v.productive members of community iii.often come from more prosperous families e.nations leading apostle of industrial trainingpreeminent leaders. To get to hih school young black people had to travel to a black college or university that offered a high school program v. He earned Accolades from white political leaders and philanthropists v. Most of those who did value schooling were convinced the most appropriate ed for black child was industrial or domestic trqaining. books. Richmond County 1899 refuse to accept the contention of black parents that elimination of the high school violeated separate but equal of Plessy v Ferguson iv.conform to middle class values f. underprepared c. Southern states operated separate schools but couldn’t even afford to support even one first. Main point: although ½ adult southerners were still illiterate in 1900.poc should avoid direct challenge to white supremacy ii. GA.
Black clergymen. Curch fulfilled spirtiaul needs through sermons and music.like white counterparts. Emotional involvement nd enthusiastic participation in church services an escape from dreary oppressive lives ii.manual laborprepared students to teachg.rarely bachelors degress.vi.even veiled comments might invite retaliation or even lynching iii.often stressed middle class valuessuggested that many black people found themselves in shameful situations because of their sinful ways v.god called men to preachh.after civil warsources of spiritual comfort and centers of social activity b. Some argue designed to train black people for a subordinate roel in American society0 ii. agriculture.south had more black Baptists than any other denomination. Church service itself most important aspect of religious life. Miller and the Mission of the Black Land-Grant College h.more indimendnt and less supervision by hurch hierarchyc. Washington was wrong to believe education for black people that focused on economic progress would earn the respect of most white Americans. 189. WEB Du Bois. Became larger debate in 20th century debate over value of practical educationand over most effective strategy.had to take courses in trades. and domestic services.and AME Bishop Henry M. The Church as Solace and Escape i.it would confront racial problems.most white people preffered ignorant and unsuccessful black people to educated and prosperous ones vi. . Some black clergymen refuse to challenge white supremacy. Many white people still viewed black religious gatherings as a threat black churches burned and black ministers assaulted and killed in late 19th century iv. Most congregationist did not want scholarly sermons or theologically sound addresses g. Thomas E.create wise meniii.helped the sick attende school and college d. In fairness. Infrequent but sometimes women led congregations j.free from white people to plan organize and lead. The Holiness Movement and the Pentecostal Church i.involved intellectual growth and development. Turner believed education went beyond mere training and the acquisition of skills. Church most important institution balck people control for themselves. Many private black colleges resisted the emphaisis on agricultural and mechanical training-: American Missionary Association schoosl: Fisk etcprometed liberal arts Morehouse.accommodation or confrontation for overcoming Jim Crow and white supremacy 4. Black people give added meaning to Christianity f.sanctuary for black women. Critics of the Tuskegee Model i. But some black religious leaders publically and vigorously opposed white supremacy and insisted that black people stand up for their rights AME Turner k.Washington did not deny the importance of liberal arts but industry was the foundation to progress v.talented tenth.would lead people forward iv. Church and Religion a. Some black leaders disturbed y poorly prepared and uncgrammatical appeals ex Washignton and Du Bois i. Many of the institutions were not actually colleges.parishioners expected to participate and not merely listene. Many black ministers had little or no education.
7. Civilian Hostility to Black Soldiers Brownsville African Americans in the Navy The Black Cowboys The Spanish-American War a. Roman Catholics and Episcopalians m. Medicine b. 16. 6. Basketball and other sports d. 9. Maggie Lena Walker c. William Key and Beautiful Jim Key c. Profile Henry Mcneal Turner Red versus Black: The Buffalo Soldiers a. After the War The Philippine Insurrection a. Black Men in Battle in Cuba b. The Buffalo Soldiers in combat c.5. Black Officers c. The Blues Sports a. Would Black men fight Brown men? Black Businesspeople and Entrepreneurs African Americans and Labor a. 12. Ragtime b. Discrimination in the Army b. Jazz c. 11. 13. A man and his horse: Dr. A Splendid little War d. Baseball c. 8. 14. l. College athletics Conclusion . The Law Music a. Jack Johnson b. 10. 15. Unions b. Strikes Black Professionals a.