B8

Introduction to Radio Fine Tuning
BSS release B8

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.02

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TYPICAL MODULE STRUCTURE objective(s) theoretical presentation training exercises and/or cases study + feedback

© Alcatel University - 8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02

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B8

PROGRAM

1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS 2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 3 OTHER ALGORITHMS 4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR 5 CASE STUDIES

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1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS

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1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS Session presentation

▼ Objective: to be able to characterize typical radio problems in order to trigger an intervention of the appropriate team ▼ Program: 1.1Theoretical presentation 1.2 Coverage problem 1.3 Interference problem 1.4 Unbalanced power budget problem 1.5 TCH Congestion problem 1.6 Deducing the right team for intervention 1.7 Exercises

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S1: TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS S2: ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS S3: OMC-R RADIO PARAMETERS S4: ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR S5: CASE STUDIES

© Alcatel University - 8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02

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1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS

1.1 Theoretical presentation

© Alcatel University - 8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.02

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Theoretical presentation Coverage problem Interference problem Unbalanced power budget problem TCH Congestion problem Deducing the right team for intervention Exercises

© Alcatel University - 8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02

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1.1 Theoretical presentation Justification

▼ Several sources of information can alert RFTM team: QoS indicators Customers complaints Drive tests Other teams information (NSS statistics) ▼ As many symptoms are common to several causes, it can be necessary to: Consolidate standard sources of information Carryout specific examinations Deduce the appropriate team for intervention
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2 Coverage problem © Alcatel University .02 1.02 Page 1.7 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS 1.7 Theoretical presentation Coverage problem Interference problem Unbalanced power budget problem TCH Congestion problem Deducing the right team for intervention Exercises © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

© Alcatel University . as there are non-mobiles making calls over there! w Nevertheless. Quality rather than Level since Qual has a greater priority in Alcatel HO causes. bordering the non-coverage area. mainly DL Quality HO will be triggered: DL because MS antenna is less efficient than BTS one.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.8 . cause radio interface failure 1. whereas cell B. cells in border of non-covered zones do have a particular behavior: B A w Cell A will mainly perform Better Cell handovers towards its neighbors.8 w No information is available on non-covered parts of the network. For these MS. will perform emergency handovers for MSs exiting the network. ▼ Symptoms: Customers complain about dropped calls or/and “no network” OMC QoS indicators TCH failure rate Call drop rate Low proportion of better cell HO High rate of DL quality HO A interface indicators High rate of Clear Request messages.02 Page 1.2 Coverage problem Definition and symptoms ▼ Definition: Bad coverage A network or cell facing coverage problems presents a bad RxLev and RxQual in the same time on some areas.1.

9 w RMS: new PM type in B7 Provides statistics from any area in the network which are available at any time.02 Page 1.2 Coverage problem Examination ▼ Depending on the information sources you have: Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) – (RxLevel . induced by call repetition Billing information High recall rate detected 1.95 dBm and RxQual > 4 OMC-R or A interface unexpected high traffic. Path Balance. Radio Link Counter S. © Alcatel University . NPA can save up to 15 days of RMS for the complete network. bad RxQual) Abis interface (for example with COMPASS) bad quality > 5% bad level RxLev < . urban. Cost-effective. C/I. RxQuality) matrix Radio Link Counter S vector Number of calls with DL/UL bad coverage (bad RxLev.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.1.) to define up to 16 templates (depending on cell type – rural. etc. The operator can tune 54 parameters (based on RxLev. Templates can be designed in RNO. BFI.9 . etc. Trigger from the OMC-R. – for example). Result reports are available in RNO and NPA. Easier and cheaper to perform than Drive test or Abis Trace.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.1.10 © Alcatel University .10 . ease outgoing HO 1. to be handled by specific means if black spot close to cell border.2 Coverage problem Typical causes ▼ If the actual coverage is not the one predicted by RNP tools check antenna system increase or decrease antenna down-tilt check BS_TXPWR_MAX to be increased if value different to RNP power budget ▼ If the actual coverage is OK compared to the predicted ones indoor traffic.

w If the trace is done on 3 mono-TRX cells.16% 2.14% 4.09 -3.02 Page 1.05% 92 87.91% 111 77.30% 2.43 123.36% Qual4 1.92% 2.82% 4.32% 3.05 121.43% Qual3 2. Be careful when interpreting this result table: even if average levels in the UL and the DL are high and a lot of Quality problems are seen.2 Coverage problem Investigation with Abis trace (1/2) ▼ Example of an Abis trace analysis Frequency RxLev_UL RxLev_DL RxQual_UL RxQual_DL Path_loss_UL Path_loss_DL delta_Path_loss delta_quality AV_MS_PW R nb_of samples 119 -89.37% 2.82% 2.23% Qual7 0.38% 11.02% Qual3 2.29% 1.14% 3.17 0.21 0.38 124.50% 92 88.70% Qual7 0.08% 2.30% 4.30% DISTRIBUTION OF DOW NLINK QUALITY Frequency Qual0 Qual1 Qual2 119 88.11 10253 111 -83.11 w It could have been coverage problems if this trace was made for 3 mono-TRX cells. w If this is a 3-TRX cell. showing a problem on this TRX.87 128. it could be a coverage problem.33 116.56% Qual6 0.16 32.77 -89.56% Qual5 2.53 3074 92 -89.82 123.03 35.51% 4.50% 2.50% 3.11% 1.60% 111 71.29 -84.30% Qual6 1.98% 1.16% Bad_Quality 4.67 0. Anyway.76% 0.15 0.11% 4.26% 0.73% 1.15 -0.19% 2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.70% 4.42 0.74% 4.16 -0. In this case.1.43% 4.01 34. delta path loss of frequency 111 is greater than 5dB.11 .15 -79.09 0. it cannot be a coverage problem as the three TRXs are not impacted.19% 0. the 3 lines are uncorrelated.98% 2.16% Qual5 1.94% 0.46% 1.17% 3.67 0.51% 5.22 -5.15% 1. in that case. nobody can say that samples with bad quality have a good level ! The level seen is just an average… w One should have a look to the next slide… © Alcatel University . It will be either interference or malfunction of one TRE.41 0.89% Qual4 1.82% 1.17% Bad_Quality 3.30% 3.50% 3.57% 2.9 5339 DISTRIBUTION OF UPLINK QUALITY Frequency Qual0 Qual1 Qual2 119 86.

12 .0 0 .6 4 .7 1 .1.1 0 6 .7 1 .5 6 d B m B S IC 2 < L ev> . w If the cell is 3 TRXs.0 0 .0 3 .9 8 . showing that this cell is not facing any interference problem.0 0 .1 0 2 .12 w All samples are Bad Coverage samples (BC).4 9 % 6 3 3 6 3 B S IC 2 2 6 3 . w By the way.1 0 7 .9 5 .0 0 < L ev> .0 0 % 5 .3 3 .1 0 1 .5 3 .5 4 S a m p le s 63 0 .0 2 % 3 .5 0 S a m p le s 67 48 0 .3 8 % N e ig h _ C e ll_ N b 0 1 F r e q u e n c y :1 1 1 N u m b e r_ U L :5 3 3 9 N u m b e r_ D L :5 3 3 9 In t_ U L : 0 BC_UL: 290 I n t_ D L : 0 % BC_D L: 626 1 1 .9 8 .8 8 .4 3 % < R x L e v _ S e r v i n g > = .8 0 . this is a coverage problem.1 7 d B m Thresholds t Bad Coverage – RxLev ≤ -95 – RxQual > 4 t Interference – RxLev > -95 – RxQual > 4 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.7 4 % N e ig h _ C e ll_ N b 0 10 5 7 F r e q u e n c y :9 2 N u m b e r _ U L :1 0 2 5 3 N u m b e r _ D L :1 0 2 5 3 In t_ U L : 2 BC_UL: 358 I n t_ D L : 0 % BC_D L: 244 2 . None is interference.8 0 .1 0 0 .9 8 .1 0 6 .1 7 d B m B S IC 2 5 < L ev> . this is a malfunction of the TRE (shown also by the high value of delta_path_loss).7 3 % N e ig h _ C e ll_ N b 10 < R x L e v _ S e r v i n g > = . if the cell is mono-TRX.2 Coverage problem Investigation with Abis trace (2/2) ▼ Example of an Abis trace analysis 5 7 11 1 12 BC_D L: 115 3 .1 0 4 .02 Page 1. © Alcatel University .6 1 3 3 1 1 1 S a m p le s 57 45 34 33 < R x L e v _ S e r v i n g > = .

1. w If a lot of samples of low level and bad quality are observed for only a sub-part of the TRXs (can be one only) then a BTS hardware problem or a problem on the antennae should be suspected. w To confirm.13 w A coverage problem is observed when a significant amount of the traffic of a cell is suffering from both low level and bad quality (RxQual).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. w If all the TRXs are experiencing a lot of samples of low level and bad quality then a coverage problem must be suspected.2 Coverage problem Investigation with RMS (1/2) ▼ Suspecting a cell coverage problem Distribution of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band Not acceptable coverage limit: Too low level Too bad quality Distribution of samples per RxLev band 1. per Cell: Matrix of Number of Measurement Results per DL RxQual value and per DL RxLev band RMQLDSAM = RMS_DL_RxQuality_RxLevel_sample Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxLev band RMQLDLVDV = RMS_DL_RxLevel_distrib Vector of Percentage of Samples per DL RxQual band RMQLDQUDV = RMS_DL_RxQuality_distrib © Alcatel University . w These RMS indicators are provided on RNO tool per TRX. distribution of samples per RXLEV band should be also considered to know the proportion of calls which are experiencing a low signal level.13 .02 Page 1.

Matrix of Average TA per UL RxQual value and per UL RxLev band RMQLUTAM = RMS_UL_RxQuality_RxLevel_TimingAdvance Rate of Measurements Results whose TA is greater than the TA threshold RMTAGTR = RMS_TimingAdvance_greater_threshold_rate Maximum TA value of all values reported in Measurement Results RMTAMXN = RMS_TimingAdvance_max © Alcatel University .14 w In order to know if the coverage problem is due to a big amount of traffic at the cell border or rather to indoor calls.02 Page 1. the average TA value per RXQUAL value and RXLEV band as well as the Percentage of TA values over TA threshold should be observed.14 .2 Coverage problem Investigation with RMS (2/2) ▼ Suspecting a cell coverage problem Average TA values per RxQual value and RxLev band Not acceptable coverage limit: Too low level Too bad quality Acceptable coverage limit: Sufficient level and good quality % of TA value over TA threshold has also to be considered 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.1.

15 Theoretical presentation Coverage problem Interference problem Unbalanced power budget problem TCH Congestion problem Deducing the right team for intervention Exercises © Alcatel University .15 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS 1.02 Page 1.3 Interference problem © Alcatel University .02 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

sometimes interferences are not coming from BS or MS but from another radio equipment. © Alcatel University .16 . since MSs are very close. And this problem will not change till the frequency plan is not returned… w Sometimes. w Finally. microcell area). either in the UL or the DL.1. cause radio interface failure 1. interference can be in the UL in very dense area (for example. w Mainly.16 w DL/UL depends on the way on which the interference is present. interferences are in the DL. ▼ Symptoms Customers complain about bad speech quality (noisy calls) and/or call drops OMC QoS indicators SDCCH/TCH Drop Low proportion of better cell HO High rate of DL/UL quality HO and interference HO Low HO success rate A interface indicators High rate of Clear Request messages.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.3 Interference problem Definition and symptoms ▼ Definition: Interference A network facing interference problems presents good RxLev and bad RxQual in the same time on some areas. due to bad frequency planning introducing interferences in the network.

assess the traffic distribution in the cell from statistics on reported neighboring cells. bad RxQual) Number of noisy calls (bad RxQual) with bad voice quality (bad FER) 1. © Alcatel University . no more need for measurement post-processing tools for statistics.1.17 w The feature Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) is designed to make far easier the work for planning and optimization of the network by providing the operator with useful statistics on reported radio measurements. w In regards to the “RTCH Measurements Observation” (measurement type 11).17 . assess the quality of the cell coverage.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. w Thanks to this feature. the operator is able to: detect interfered frequencies. the report files always have the same maximum length whatever the measurement duration is. Directly available with RNO or NPA. every measurement is taken into account (no sampling).3 Interference problem Examination with RMS (1/3) ▼ Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) – RxQual/RxLev matrix CFE/RxLev matrix C/I vectors for neighbors C/I vectors for MAFA frequencies MAFA is a new standardized GSM feature for mobiles MAFA mobiles can provide C/I measurements from non-neighbor cells Number of calls with DL/UL interference (good RxLev. detect and quantify cell unexpected propagation. evaluate the voice quality in the cell. w In fact these statistics give directly the real cell characteristics by taking into account the MS distribution. the Radio Measurement Statistics (RMS) bring the following advantages: smaller report files. etc.02 Page 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.3 Interference problem Examination with RMS (2/3) ▼ Suspecting a cell interference problem Number of samples per RxQual value and RxLev band Average DL RxQuality = 2.18 .1.18 © Alcatel University .81 Quality problems are obvious at any level of RMS data ² Interference highlighted Average RxQual value per RxLev band has also to be considered ² Network fine tuning needed 1.

3 Interference problem Examination with RMS (3/3) ▼ Suspecting a Voice Quality problem Number of samples per BFI band and RxLev band Consecutive Frame Erasure (BFI) is a measurement based on loss of consecutive speech frames over one SACCH mf It is directly linked to Voice Quality RxQual to be compared with CFE since Bad RxQual does not always mean bad VQ 1.02 Page 1. per Cell: Matrix of Number of Measurements Results per CFE band (or BFI band) and per UL RxLev band RMFEM = RMS_UL_ConsecutiveFrameErasure_RxLevel_sample Vector of Average number of Consecutive Frame Erasure per UL RxLev band RMFEBFAV = RMS_UL_ConsecutiveFrameErasure_avg_per_RxLevel Vector of Average UL RxQual per RxLev band RMQLUQUAV = RMS_UL_RxQuality_avg_per_RxLevel © Alcatel University .1.19 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.19 w These RMS indicators are provided on RNO tool per TRX.

1.3 Interference problem Typical causes ▼ GSM interference co-channel adjacent ▼ Non GSM interference other Mobile Networks other RF sources 1.02 Page 1.20 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.20 © Alcatel University .

1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.21 .21 © Alcatel University .3 Interference problem GSM interference: adjacent channel (1/2) ▼ Adjacent channel interference +6 dB are sufficient to interfere (9 dB according GSM) Level F(BTS1) F(BTS2) 6 dB F(BTS1)=F(BTS2)+1 Frequency 1.

or even change of antenna orientation Reduction of BS power if necessary.3 Interference problem GSM interference: adjacent channel (2/2) ▼ Adjacent channel interference: usually 20% of GSM interferences Symptom Usually downlink interference High rate of quality HO.1.22 . call drop (due to HO but mainly due to radio) and TCH assignment failure Examination Neighbor cells in Abis trace (only for BCCH) Non-neighbor cells in RMS (MAFA frequencies) Frequency planning C/(I adjacent) < -6 dB Correction Downtilt increase of interferer.22 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1. Change of frequency (best solution) Concentric cell implementation (1 extra TRX needed if traffic cannot be supported by Outer+Inner configuration) 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

23 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.1.3 Interference problem GSM interference: co-channel (1/2) ▼ GSM Interference Co-Channel interference -12 dB are sufficient (-9 dB according GSM) Level -12 dB F(BTS1)=F(BTS2) Frequency 1.23 .

3 Interference problem GSM interference: co-channel (2/2) ▼ Co-channel interference (usually 80% of GSM interferences) Symptom Usually downlink interference High rate of quality HO.24 .24 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1. or even change of antenna orientation Reduction of BS power. Change of frequency Concentric cell implementation (1 extra TRX needed if traffic cannot be supported by Outer+Inner configuration) 1. call drop and call failure Examination Neighbor cells in Abis trace (only for BCCH) Non-neighbor cells in RMS (MAFA frequencies) Frequency planning C/I < 12 dB Correction Downtilt increase of interferer.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.1.

02 Page 1. When the MS starts its call. By the way. A second mobile “B” is connected to cell B and moves down in the coverage area of cell B. But when MS B arrives outside the building where A is sitting. Even if both cells A & B are using adjacent frequencies (5 and 6). global level of freq B is increased in all cell B… creating interference in the UL. Then. it faces a loss of signal of 20 dB. the overlapping area is far from cell A antenna. © Alcatel University . it transmits full power and a PC algorithm quickly reduces MS power as the received level is very good (microcell coverage). A “red” MS is connected on cell A. But frequency planning tools mainly consider DL C/I and coverage. A and B are close and transmitting on adjacent frequencies… Then B has to increase its power to avoid dropping its call. When MS A enters the building. MS power of B decreases quickly down to MS_TXPWR_MIN as the MS is close to the antenna. let’s consider a microcell layer: B A A and B are 2 microcells with the coverage described before in dense urban environment. connected to BTS2 1: no level on BTS1 (BTS 1 under-roof) 2: . For example. w Some problems are more difficult to predict. in this area C/I is lower than 6 dB. Thus.25 . it’s not so hard to detect them.1.3 Interference problem GSM interference: µcellular ▼ GSM interference: µcellular BTS1: ARFCN 5 BTS2: ARFCN 6 MS1 indoor RxLev_UL: .25 w When interferences are created by frequency plannig.80 dBm on BTS1: interferer UL/DL 3: no level on BTS1 µcell algo prevents BTS2->BTS1 HO 1.90 dBm BTS2 MS2 1 2 BTS1 MS1 3 MS2 outdoor.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. MS power increases to MS_TXPWR_MAX.

In case these cells are congested. advantaging microcell for example). but no TCH available The MS connects to cell 1 with forced directed retry The MS is emitting at high level (far from BTS1) UL interference for BTS 3 BTS 1 is emitting at high level DL interference at BTS 3 cell 1 : 24 cell 2 : 45 cell 3 : 23 1.26 . since we have capture handovers. The FDR algorithm allows an MS connected on an SDDCH on a cell without any free TCH to make an SDCCHTCH handover (cause 20) so that it takes a TCH on its neighbor. even if upper or non-preferred band cells are free (due to MS idle mode selection. the TCH is to be seized on neighbor. since the MS is at the same time in the coverage area of both cells (preferred and not preferred). If the level greater than this threshold.1. This situation highlights a good network behavior. This is in that case a heavy-to-tune algorithm presenting of lot of interference and bad quality call risks. This algorithm is mainly based on neighbor level compared to parameter L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR (n). no impact on speech quality). the MS takes an SDCCH in the preferred cell.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Capture handovers send traffic to lower or preferred band cells. © Alcatel University . and this algorithm is very efficient to avoid cell congestion cases. since the mobile will be connected to a cell when being not in its service area. umbrella capture FDR microcell w The situation described on the slide corresponds to the usage of FDR in a single layer network.26 w Another more difficult case of interference: FDR When examining the preceding situation of planning tool: no problem of C/I. FDR is mandatory for dual layer or dual band networks (and very easy to configure in this case). With the FDR algorithm. and FDR is used to take a TCH on the non-preferred cell in case of congestion. As seen from the user.02 Page 1. No risk of interference.3 Interference problem GSM interference: Forced Directed Retry ▼ GSM Interference: Forced Directed Retry The MS should connect to cell2. calls may not be established. this is not a handover (call establishment phase.

. shop anti-theft mechanisms.3 Interference problem Non-GSM interference ▼ Other mobile networks: TACS/AMPS/NMT900 Inter-modulation with GSM BS/MS receiver spurious RACH for AMPS (AMPS Tx bands close to GSM uplink band) examination TASC: coverage hole with 600 m from TASC BTS AMPS => 50% reduction of range if AMPS/GSM BTS collocated ▼ Other RF interferers (Radar.) 1. On one frequency.1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.27 w Other RF interferers: medical devices: GSM equipments disturb them more than the opposite ! anti-theft mechanisms.02 Page 1.27 .. Abis trace: Qual Qual DL UL Level Level interference The Spectrum analyzer connected on the antenna feeder highlights a peak on GSM freq 6 in the UL… Anti-theft mechanism turned off: no more problem… © Alcatel University . medical device . Example: Microcell antenna shop The Microcell is showing a very high call drop rate. very small call duration. No problem seen in the frequency plannig. No potential interferer.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.28 .4 Unbalanced power budget problem © Alcatel University .02 1.02 Page 1.28 Theoretical presentation Coverage problem Interference problem Unbalanced power budget problem TCH Congestion problem Deducing the right team for intervention Exercises © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS 1.

© Alcatel University .4 Unbalanced power budget problem Definition and symptoms ▼ Definition: Unbalanced power budget A cell facing unbalanced power budget problems presents a too high pathloss difference between UL and DL (often DL>UL) Rule: try to have delta as small as possible to avoid access network possible only in 1 direction (usually BTS->MS: OK and MS->BTS: NOK) ▼ Symptoms: OMC QoS indicators High rate of Uplink quality Handover causes Low incoming HO success rate (no HO Access triggered on the uplink) Degradation of TCH failures and OC call drop indicators A interface indicators High rate of Clear Request messages.02 Page 1. cause radio interface failure O&M Alarms Voltage Standing Wave Ratio BTS Alarm (VSWR) TMA Alarm (in case of G2 BTS or Evolium BTS with high power TRE) 1.1.29 w UL Quality HO is triggered: UL since the problem is in the UL. Quality as Quality has greater priority than level.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.29 .

30 w Problem on 1 TRX: FU/CU or TRE problem or ANY problem or cables connected to this equipment. w All TRXs: problem on antenna. © Alcatel University .30 .4 Unbalanced power budget problem Examination wExamination: RMS – Path Balance vector per TRX Number of calls with abnormal bad FER (good RxQual & bad FER) Abis monitoring: |delta path-loss| > 5dB) check if problem is occurring for 1 TRX or all 1.02 Page 1. feeder.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. ANC).1. jumper or common equipment (ex: ANX.

74 % 0.53 % 2.31 Example of Computation of delta path loss based on Abis measurements BTS transmitted power combiner loss measured received DL level DL Path loss delta path loss computed on Abis 45.02 Page 1.46 31.94 % Q u a l4 0.77 % Q u a l5 1.1.57 % 1.79 % 1. 1 7 -8 3 .23 % 4.46 0.84 % D IS TR IB U TIO N O F D O W N L IN K Q U A L ITY F re q u e n c y Q u a l0 Q u a l1 Q u a l2 Q u a l3 106 90. 6 4 -2 .08 % 1.44 0. 1 4 -7 .25 0.30 -2 .23 % 124 90.31 .00 % 3.25 % 3.44 % 2.95 % 0. 8 2 D IS TR IB U TIO N O F U P L IN K Q U A L ITY F re q u e n c y Q u a l0 Q u a l1 Q u a l2 106 84.68 % 89 81.48 % Q u a l7 B a d _ Q u a lit y 0.41 % 3.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.30 % 0.72 % 3.48 130.82 % 124 77.95 % 0.95 % 1.05 % 1.4 Unbalanced power budget problem Abis trace ▼Example of an Abis trace analysis delta_Path_loss nb_of samples 2066 2001 3193 2931 AV_MS_PWR 33. 2 9 -9 0 .92 % 1.48 % Q u a l5 1. 3 0 106 89 118 124 -9 4 .32 123.02 % 3.03 31.59 Path_loss_UL Path_loss_DL delta_quality 0. 8 9 0.35 % 2. 7 5 -8 8 .14 % 4.65 0. 5 2 -8 4 .32 % 1.45 % 1.21 0.36 % 6.22 120.04 -0 .82 % Q u a l7 B a d _ Q u a lit y 0.41 % 1.35 % 1.36 128.87 % 5.35 % Q u a l4 1.19 118.79 % 1.95 % 118 83. 3 7 RxQual_UL RxQual_DL 0.75 % 4.85 % 118 86.41 0.18 0.70 % 2. 3 6 -8 5 .06 % 2.37 % 5.78 % 2.4 -4.21 % 1.07 % 1.03 32.10 % 3.65 % 3.16 % 6.50 % 1.50 % 2.4 -93 134 MS transmitted power measured received UL level UL path loss -3 dBm 33 -98 131 © Alcatel University .27 % 3.13 % 1.34 % 0.36 % 0.05 % 1.01 % 0.17 126.50 % 1. 8 5 -3 .19 % 3.29 127.97 % 0.67 Frequency RxLev_UL RxLev_DL -8 7 .55 % 89 80.43 0.18 % Q u a l3 3.30 % Q u a l6 0. 1 9 -7 5 .19 % 0.10 % 1.92 % 1.62 % 4.45 % 7.55 % 1.00 % 3.07 % 3.36 % Q u a l6 0.55 115.

9 dB Fair average Path Balance at Cell level can hide a bad value for one TRX 1.32 .1.32 w These RMS indicators are provided on RNO tool per TRX.4 Unbalanced power budget problem RMS data ▼ Suspecting a TRX hardware problem Average Path Balance Average Cell Path Balance = -0.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. per Cell: Vector of the Number of Measurement Results per Path Balance band RMPBV = RMS_PathBalance_sample Average Path Balance value RMPBAN = RMS_PathBalance_avg © Alcatel University .

. © Alcatel University .4 Unbalanced power budget problem Typical causes ▼ Antennae or common RF components.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.1. if problem located on only 1 FU 1.33 . TMA (pb common to all TRXs of the BTS) ▼ TRX RF cables/LNA .02 Page 1.33 w Every BTS has its proper architecture and the diagnosis must be adapted..

02 Page 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.34 .1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS 1.5 TCH Congestion problem © Alcatel University .02 1.34 Theoretical presentation Coverage problem Interference problem Unbalanced power budget problem TCH Congestion problem Deducing the right team for intervention Exercises © Alcatel University .

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.35 © Alcatel University .5 TCH Congestion problem Definition and symptoms ▼ Definition: TCH Congestion TCH Congestion rate (TCH Assignment Phase) is too high (more than 2%) Rule: try to meet the offered traffic (asked by users) by providing the right number of resources (TRX extension) ▼ Symptoms: Customers complain about ‘Network busy’ OMC QoS indicators High “TCH Congestion rate” Low “incoming Intra/Inter BSC HO success rate” (no TCH available) High “Directed Retry rate” if activated A interface indicator: “BSS Congestion failure in OC” High rate of Assignment Failure messages. No radio resource available 1.02 Page 1.35 .1.

1.02 Page 1. important meeting Activate some TRXs already installed (and use Synthesized FH) Add special moving BTSs Not foreseeable: car crash on the highway 1. During breaks.36 w Cells on wheel operational by several operators around the world for special events coverage & capacity IRMA (SFR) connected to Caen’s BSC. check the evolution of the TCH Congestion rate. © Alcatel University . During games. some TRX off cells around are turned off.36 .5 TCH Congestion problem Examination and typical causes ▼ Examination: TCH Congestion On a per cell basis examination. Orange coverage / Football WC 1998 for Paris « Stade de France »: Specific cells covering Paris Stadium. and frequencies are reused for stadium cells.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. only small capacity (using joker frequencies). ▼ Typical causes: Special events: Foreseeable: football match.

5 TCH Congestion problem Typical causes (1/2) Daily periodic problems At peak hour.1.TCH Congestion rate) Use the B-Erlang law to estimate the number of TCHs required for a 2% blocking rate.37 w Warning: “offered traffic” is not the capacity delivered by the system but the traffic asked by the users.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. thus the target configuration Add TRXs to reach the new target configuration and find ‘joker frequencies’ and / or implement concentric cells. Hardware solution (refer to Annex 1) Annex 1 Estimate the offered traffic: – At OMC-R level: Traffic in Erlang/(1. © Alcatel University .37 . 1. the cell is not correctly dimensioned.02 Page 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University .5 TCH Congestion problem Typical causes (2/2) ▼ Daily periodic problems At peak hour. the cell is not correctly dimensioned.38 w Half rate may not only mean “SW” solution. Software solution Use specific densification features – Half Rate – Forced Directed Retry – Traffic handover – Fast Traffic handover – Candidate Cell Evaluation (FREEFACTOR / LOADFACTOR) 1.02 Page 1. Need of G2 BSC/TC. Evolium TRE or G2 DRFU.1.38 .

8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.39 .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.1 TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS 1.6 Deducing the right team for intervention © Alcatel University .02 1.39 Theoretical presentation Coverage problem Interference problem Unbalanced power budget problem TCH Congestion problem Deducing the right team for intervention Exercises © Alcatel University .

40 © Alcatel University .Hopping .40 .Marketing 1. db On purpose Cell corrected ? Neighbor cell ? NOK Check ? With QOS ? OK No Impact estimation System problem ? Yes Standard setting ? END DHCP No Yes Yes Choose an (other) classical algo Identify the tunable parameters Impact simulation of a parameter modification No N times =N Call expert No Simulation OK ? Yes Parameters modification Database updating .Interferences .Concentric .Coverage (indoor) .Microcell.1.Power budget .6 Deducing the right team for intervention Process QOS team Drive test team Problem characterization Make assumption causes END DHCP QOS alarm on the network.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. SDCCH) .BSS problem Recurrent problem ? Yes Planning/BSS causes No Correction action Check the tuning of default radio parameters Planning team Maintenance team Standard parameters ? Dimensionning team Consult the config.02 Page 1.Field measurements/planning . multiband .Subscriber complains No Investig problem ? Yes Yes No RFT team .Congestion (TCH.Indicators (% call drop) . on a BSC or some cells .

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.) and drive test team to check it If the field reality matches the RNP prediction Deployment team to add sites (tri-sector.02 Page 1.41 . indoor cells) 1.6 Deducing the right team for intervention Coverage problem ▼ Coverage problem: If the field reality does not match the RNP prediction Maintenance team to change physical configuration (tilt.41 © Alcatel University . micro cellular. azimuth.1. antenna height. etc.

) ▼ Unbalanced power budget problem: Maintenance team to check the impacted BTS (Antennae. LNA. etc.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. 1.) ▼ TCH Congestion problem: Traffic team (theoretically always in relation with the marketing team) to manage the need of TRX extension. densification policy. new frequency planning. TMA. etc.1. diversity system.6 Deducing the right team for intervention Others problems ▼ Interference problem: Planning team to identify the interference source and correct it (joker frequency.02 Page 1. RF cables.42 .42 © Alcatel University . etc.

43 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Typical radio problems Training exercise Unbalanced Bad Coverage Power Budget High rate of UL QUAL HO causes Good RXLEV and Bad RXQUAL alarm VSWR alarm (OMC-R) (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) Bad RXLEV and Bad RXQUAL High Path-loss difference between UL and DL Low incoming HO success rate OMC QOS indicators: %TCH ASS failure high %call drop high %QUAL HO %call drop %call failure Interferences TCH Congestion Time allowed: 10 minutes 1.1.02 Page 1.43 .

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.44 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.44 .2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS © Alcatel University .

2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS Session presentation ▼ Objective: to be able to describe the Power control and Handover algorithms and list the associated parameters ▼ Program: 2.1 Theoretical presentation 2.45 S1: TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS S2: ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS S3: OMC-R RADIO PARAMETERS S4: ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR S5: CASE STUDIES © Alcatel University .6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation 2.02 Page 1.4 Radio Link Supervision and Power control 2.2 Radio measurements principles 2.7 Handover Management 2.8 Exercise 1.5 Handover Detection 2.3 Averaging windows and book-keeping 2.45 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.46 Theoretical presentation Radio measurements principles Radio measurements data processing Radio Link Supervision and Power control Handover Detection Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Handover Management Exercise © Alcatel University .2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 2.46 .1 Theoretical presentation © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 1.

Dimensioning. Speech quality. Maintenance) or when the other teams cannot give any solution (too tight frequency planning. Radio engineering.) Its role: take charge of radio resources management process ▼ This process can be fully described by Power Control and Handover algorithms. indoor.02 Page 1. no financial budget for new sites.47 © Alcatel University .47 . etc.2.) the Radio Fine Tuning team has to find a compromise between: High traffic density (Erl/km²/Hz) High quality of service (Call drop. etc. ² In-depth knowledge of these algorithms is required for tuning 1.1 Theoretical presentation Justification JUSTIFICATION When the detected problem does not concern another team (Network planning and frequency planning. CSSR. no additional TRX available.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.48 Theoretical presentation Radio measurements principles Radio measurements data processing Radio Link Supervision and Power control Handover Detection Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Handover Management Exercise © Alcatel University .2 Radio measurements principles © Alcatel University .48 .2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 2.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.02 1.

3=good. 63]. 0=-110dBm.14%. 6=very bad. 63=-47dBm The higher the physical or binary value. 4=ok.14%.10% The lower the physical or binary value. 7=not acceptable © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2. or 4+2 (MULTIBAND_REPORTING=2). 5bis and 5ter are also used for multiband networks. the MS reports to the serving cell: measurement report message Received level of 6 best cells (which can change) DL level and quality of serving cell 1. the lower the bit error rate. 7]. MS reporting depends on EN_INTERBAND_NEIGH and on MULTIBAND_REPORTING parameters. or 5 strongest cells of the serving band + 1 strongest cell of another band (MULTIBAND_REPORTING=1). the better the quality 0-2=excellent. The MS may report: 6 strongest cells of any band (MULTIBAND_REPORTING=0). Sys info 2bis. 18. 0=0.2 Radio measurements principles Radio measurement mechanisms (1/2) MS connected (TCH or SDCCH) The serving cell gives the MS the list of the neighbor cells to listen to Every SACCH.49 w The BTS sends a SYS_INFO_5 message that contains the list of neighbor cells for connected mode.10%] Binary range: [0. -47dBm] Binary range: [0. w RXLEV Range: [-110dBm. 5=bad.02 Page 1. 2ter. or 3+3 (MULTIBAND_REPORTING=3). the higher the receiving level w RXQUAL Range: [0. 7=18. (The SYS_INFO_2 message contains the list of neighbor cells for idle mode).49 .

MS_TXPWR_CONF: last reported value of MS power (reported by the MS).50 . this message contains downlink measurements and. reports the uplink and downlink measurements to the BSC in the MEASUREMENT RESULT message. For power control and handover algorithms. Output flows Abis MEASUREMENT RESULT message Internal flows Radio measurements: Air MEASUREMENT REPORT message (DL) containing DL MS radio measurements. w The BTS stops sending MEASUREMENT RESULT messages upon receipt of one of the two following messages: DEACTIVATE SACCH RF CHANNEL RELEASE w Every SACCH multiframe. the BTS: receives the MEASUREMENT REPORT message from the MS. Timing advance: last TA calculated by the BTS.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Input flows Uplink radio signal: radio signal received on the Air interface. Uplink radio measurements (quality and level) and a flag indicating whether DTX was used in the downlink (DTX/DL). does uplink measurements.2. DTX_DL: indicator of downlink DTX use. BFI_SACCH: bad frame indicator of the SACCH block produced every SACCH multiframe (# 480ms): 0 = SACCH frame successfully decoded 1 = SACCH frame not successfully decoded © Alcatel University . in the layer 1 header. BS_TXPWR_CONF: BS transmit power currently used by the BS.02 Page 1.50 w The BTS starts sending MEASUREMENT RESULT messages as soon as it receives the RL ESTABLISH INDICATION message from the MS. BS_TXPWR_CONF: value of the BS transmit power currently in use. the power used by the MS.2 Radio measurements principles Radio measurement mechanisms (2/2) ▼ For each MS connected to the BTS (TCH or SDCCH) UL received level and quality is measured every SACCH BSC The Timing Advance (TA) is computed The UL information is gathered into the measurement report This is the message result sent by the BTS to the BSC Measurements Active channel preprocessing DL measurements measurement report UL+DL measurements measurement result PC execution HO & PC decision Candidate cell evaluation HO execution • • The BSC is computing algorithms usually using average value (sliding window) of these measurements 1.

0 means that the BTS succeeded in decoding the measurement report. w TOA is timing advance. w SUB frames correspond to the use of DTX if the mobile is in DTX. else rxlevfull is used that is to say all TSs are measured.2. w SACCH BFI: bad frame indicator. BTS power level used. the rxlevsub or rxqualsub is used to avoid measuring the TS where there is nothing to transmit in order not to distort measurements. the MEASUREMENT RESULT message is composed of: L1 info: SACCH Layer 1 header containing MS_TXPWR_CONF and TOA. L3 info: MEASUREMENT REPORT from the MS. w MS TXPOWER CONF: which is the actual power emitted by the MS.51 w Basically.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. 2 values 0 or 1.02 Page 1. w How the neighbor cells are coded: BCCH1 index in BA list / BSIC1. Uplink measurements performed by the BTS.51 . This message contains the downlink measurements and neighbor cell measurements.2 Radio measurements principles Structure of a measurement result L1 Info L3 Info Measurement Report From the MS 1. BCCH2 index in BA list / BSIC2 why? because it does not receive LAC/CI (too long ) but BCCH and replies with BCCH/BSIC © Alcatel University .

. the BTS normally receives from the MS an EXTENDED MEASUREMENT RESULT with the level of the frequencies to monitor. w When the BTS has to send this information. At the next SACCH multiframe. w The EMO must be sent after 2 complete sets of SYS_INFO5 and 6.> PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM < -------------------------------------------------------CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) (EMO included) -------------------------------------------------------. © Alcatel University .e. TCH establishment. it must replace the sending of system information 5. ------------------------------------------------------. This guarantees the MS has received a complete set.2 Radio measurements principles Extended Measurement Reporting (EMR) ▼ Extended Measurement Reporting mechanisms MS BTS BSC TCH ASSIGNMENT PHASE (OC or TC) MSC < ----------------------------------ASSIGNMENT REQUEST < -------------------------------------------------------PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST -------------------------------------------------------. The other frequencies will be considered in the same way as the BCCH frequency of neighbor cells: they will be linked to the neighbor level and C/I statistics. 5bis.> ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE Extended Measurement Order includes the MAFA frequencies the MS is asked to measure EMO sent once to the MS on SACCH after TCH seizure Extended Measurement Results include the average signal level measured on each MAFA frequency over one SACCH mf duration EMR received once per call on SACCH --------TCH---------> ASSIGNT COMPLETE <------SACCH---------------SACCH------> <------SACCH---------------SACCH------> <-------SACCH-------EMO (MAFA freq. . according to the order of the ARFCN. RxLev) ----------------------------------.> ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE 1. 5ter or 6 by this information. w Then.2.52 w When the BTS receives a CHANNEL ACTIVATION with the Extended Measurement Order (EMO) included. the BTS must identify the level of the BCCH frequency of the serving cell (which must always be part of the frequencies to monitor) and apply it as the RXLEV_DL in the Radio Measurement Statistics. The ‘EXTENDED_MEASUREMENT_RESULT’ is NOT forwarded to the BSC.52 . The BTS must make the correlation between these levels and the frequencies contained in the latest EMO information. --------SACCH------> EMR (MAFA freq.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. after the 2nd SYSINFO 6 after the reception of SABM. List) . the BTS must resume the sending of this system information by the replaced one. it must send this information on the SACCH to the corresponding mobile only once. after having decoded them.> CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE . w In particular. . i. instead a ‘MEASUREMENT_RESULT’ with indication ‘no_MS_results’ is sent to the BSC. .02 Page 1.

2.02 Page 1.53 . the MS only reports the decoded BSIC and the BCCH index when it sends measurement on the adjacent cell The BSC makes the correspondence between the couple (BSIC.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. BCCH index)/(LAC.53 © Alcatel University . BCCH index) and the real neighbor cell concerned [completely defined by (LAC.CI)] WHAT IS THE RISK? Time allowed: 5 minutes 1. CI) problem As LAC and CI information take up too much space.2 Radio measurements principles Training exercise (1/2) (BSIC.

2.46) CI=1964 GSM900 Cell 1 (7.02 Page 1. 62) 1.54 © Alcatel University . 62) CI=6169 GSM900 CI=6169 GSM900 Cell 2 (3.54 .2 Radio measurements principles Training exercise (2/2) ▼ Explain why cell 2 has a very high outgoing HO unsuccessful rate and a high call drop Cell 3 (7.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.55 Theoretical presentation Radio measurements principles Radio measurements data processing Radio Link Supervision and Power control Handover Detection Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Handover Management Exercise © Alcatel University .55 .02 Page 1.02 1.2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.3 Radio measurements data processing © Alcatel University .

3 Radio measurements data processing Functional entities BTS BSC Radio Link Measurements Active Channel Pre-processing the Assignment of radio measurements data processing functions in the ALCATEL BSS 1.02 Page 1.2. © Alcatel University . qualities and timing advance provided by the radio link measurements function.56 . w The pre-processing is based on a sliding window averaging technique.56 w The active channel pre-processing function calculates average values of signal levels. The averaging is either weighted or unweighted depending on the type of the input parameters.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

QUALITIES.57 .02 Page 1.57 © Alcatel University . TIMING ADVANCE USING “SLIDING WINDOW” TECHNIQUE BUILDING A BOOK-KEEPING LIST OF NEIGHBOR CELLS The MS is reporting the 6 best cells at one time They can change from 1 measurement to another Maximum for 1 call: last 32 best ones (among 64 maximum declared as neighbor) 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.3 Radio measurements data processing Active channel pre-processing ▼ Active channel pre-processing ACTIVATED EACH TIME A MEASUREMENT IS RECEIVED AVERAGING VALUES OF SIGNAL LEVELS.2.

each with MEAS_VALID bit set to 0 (validity indicator reported by the MS in the MEASUREMENT REPORT message). or ASSIGNMENT FAILURE from the MS (in case of intracell handover) STOPPED when a HANDOVER COMMAND is emitted in the serving BSC AVERAGING VALUES OF SIGNAL LEVELS. The pre-processing is done for every measurement sample. “PBGT” or “RANGE” and XX for “HO”.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. The pre-processing method is based on a sliding window averaging technique. “PC” or “MCHO”) samples. TIMING ADVANCE USING “SLIDING WINDOW” TECHNIQUE BUILDING A BOOK-KEEPING LIST OF NEIGHBOR CELLS 1.2. or HANDOVER FAILURE from the MS. w The pre-processing function is enabled again (in case of failure of an intracell or intercell handover) after reception of either messages listed above. qualities and timing advance. At this time.3 Radio measurements data processing Active channel pre-processing . The averaging intervals are expressed in terms of SACCH multiframe periods and their range is between 1 and 31.e. i. AV_BS_TXPWR_HO and AV_BS_TXPWR_DR. w The function calculates average values of levels. “DR”. are actually available except in case of the averaging of the received level from the neighbor cells and the averaging of AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO. every SACCH multiframe. w The averaging process for any variable can start as soon as A_YYYY_XX (YYYY stands for “LEV”. QUALITIES.58 w The pre-processing function is stopped when a HANDOVER COMMAND is emitted by the serving BSC. “QUAL”.02 Page 1.58 . and the old measurements are kept in the book-keeping list and taken into account in the new averaging. the MEASUREMENT RESULT messages are ignored by the pre-processing function and no update of the bookkeeping tables or averaging is done anymore. The input parameters of this function are provided by the BTS every SACCH multiframe in the MEASUREMENT RESULT message. w The pre-processing function is completely handled by the BSC. © Alcatel University .Principles ▼ Active channel pre-processing – Principles HANDLED by the BSC ACTIVATED when the BSC receives: ESTABLISH INDICATION from the MS on SAPI 0.

w One separate window exists for: power control on the uplink and the downlink (A_LEV_PC . fast emergency handover for microcells (A_LEV_MCHO). A_RANGE_HO).00 85.00 100. © Alcatel University .59 .3 Radio measurements data processing Measurement averaging (1/2) ▼ Avoid reacting too early to some “atypical” measurement(s) sliding window effect 105. better cell handover and better zone handover (A_PBGT_HO) for intra-layer.00 90.2. qualities and timing advance (i. interlayer and interzone handovers.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 level average (w indow 4) average (w indow 8) 7 8 9 1.e.00 80.02 Page 1. A_QUAL_HO . neighbor filtering and ranking for all HOs (A_PBGT_HO).00 95.59 w The calculation of levels. codec adaptation (A_QUAL_CA_HR_FR . distance information) uses a variety of averaging window sizes as well as specific weighting factors for quality estimates. A_QUAL_CA_FR_HR). forced directed retry (A_PBGT_DR). emergency handover (A_LEV_HO .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. A_QUAL_PC).00 75.

W_LEV_HO. W_LEV_MCHO. W_PBGT_HO. A_QUAL_HO=4. NBR_ADJ: number of declared adjacent cells of the serving cell denoted by n. W_QUAL_HO. n=1. AV_RANGE_HO.2.3 Radio measurements data processing Measurement averaging (2/2) ▼ Objective: average measurements to avoid reacting to transient degradation Principle: sliding window: level/quality/distance values are averaged for N last samples N = A_LEV_HO N = A_QUAL_HO N = A_RANGE_HO N = A_PGBT_HO samples for uplink and downlink level samples for uplink and downlink quality samples for distance for level used in power budget equation Example (A_LEV_HO=6. AV_RXLEV_DL_MCHO.60 . AV_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n).02 Page 1. W_LEV_PC. A_PBGT_HO. A_QUAL_HO. Averaged measurements for handover detection: AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO.. active channel pre-processing configuration parameters for HO: A_LEV_HO. A_QUAL_PC and W_QUAL_PC. for n=1 to NBR_ADJ: BSIC(n) and FREQ(n).BTSnum. AV_LOAD . cells list for book-keeping: BA_IND_SACCH: indicator of the change of the BA_allocation. AV_RXLEV_UL_MCHO. averaged traffic load AV_BS_TXPWR_HO. AV_RXLEV_UL_HO. AV_RXLEV_DL_HO. AV_RXLEV_PBGT_DR. A_PBGT_HO=8) Meas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -90 -92 -93 -98 -100 -99 -98 -90 -80 DL Level -95 -97 -96 -94 AV-RXLEV -95 -94 AV-LEV-PGBT 2 3 3 4 7 7 7 5 2 DL Qual 3 4 5 6 7 5 AV-RXQUAL 10 -75 -90 -92 1 4 11 -72 -86 -89 1 2 12 13 14 15 -71 -110 -70 -69 -81 -83 -80 -78 -86 -87 -83 -80 0 6 0 0 1 2 2 2 16 -68 -77 -77 0 2 17 -78 -78 -77 0 0 18 -88 -81 -78 1 0 19 -95 -78 -81 2 1 20 21 22 23 24 -98 -100 -110 -110 -110 -83 -88 -95 -100 -104 -85 -83 -88 -93 -99 3 6 7 7 7 2 3 5 6 7 Experiences some experiments have shown that the number of HOs is very sensitive to modification of these values 1. Output flows Averaged measurements for power control: AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC . AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO. A_LEV_MCHO.60 w At BSC level.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. AV_RXLEV_DL_PC: BS power control/threshold comparison. AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n). BFI_SACCH AV_RXQUAL_xx_CA_HR_FR. A_RANGE_HO. AV_RXQUAL_DL_PC . AV_RXQUAL_xx_CA_FR_HR MS_TXPOWER_CONF / BS_POWER: last power level reported by the MS and transmit power currently used by the BS. A_PBGT_DR. Input flows MEASUREMENT RESULT Control flows active channel pre-processing configuration parameters for PC: A_LEV_PC. © Alcatel University . AV_RXLEV_UL_PC: MS power control/threshold comparison. AV_RXLEV_NCELL_BIS(n).

the mobile reports the best cells of each supported frequency band (if available). from which up to 64 can be declared as adjacent cells to a given cell. the number of adjacent BCCH frequencies is limited to 32. w The MS reports to the BTS.. in the MEASUREMENT REPORT message.02 Page 1. w This is done by summing the raw measurement values over the last 20 samples. Moreover. In case of multiband capability. then the BSC sorts out all cells in the bookkeeping list. The book-keeping function keeps a table composed of the last 32 reported adjacent cells.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. the measurements of the NO_NCELL_M (NO_NCELL_M <= 6) best cells it receives (RXLEV_NCELL. w The BSC G1 maintains a table of up to 150 cells. w When the variable BTSnum reaches its maximum value of 32 and at least one new cell has to be entered in the list. All the corresponding cell entries are cleared from the bookkeeping list.3 Radio measurements data processing neighbor cell measurement book-keeping ▼ BUILDING A BOOK-KEEPING LIST OF NEIGHBOR CELLS The MS reports the measurements of the NO_NCELL_M (≤ 6) best cells every multi-frame The adjacent cells reported by the MS can change from one measurement to another The book-keeping function keeps a table of the last 32 reported adjacent cells Clearing process of non-reported neighbors during 10s (signal level=0) 1.. The total number of adjacent cells for which measurements reported by the MSs are available within the average interval is BTSnum. which have been reported with signal level = 0 for the last 20 measurements (10 seconds).61 . is provided. BTSnum is decreased by the number of cleared entries and some of the vacant entries are used to include the new cells. These measurements are used for the power budget computation in the BSC and the candidate cell evaluation in the BSC. from which up to 64 can be declared as adjacent cells to a given cell. BCCH frequency index and BSIC number) for each multiframe.61 w An MS is required to measure the BCCH power level of a number of BCCH frequencies. the maximum number of which is NBR_ADJ. when new cells are reported. a mechanism for overwriting obsolete entries in the bookkeeping table.2. w The BSC G2 maintains a list of up to 1000 cells. © Alcatel University . This reporting is allowed at BSS level by the flag EN_INTERBAND_NEIGH and it is specified by the parameter MULTIBAND_REPORTING. w Because the maximum number of adjacent cells may be greater than 32. The end of the comment is on the next page. w The adjacent cells reported by an MS can change over the averaging interval.

2. © Alcatel University . the corresponding measurements should be discarded. w When the couple (BSIC. the function has to check the BSIC number and the BCCH frequency index (FREQ(n)). which makes an average rate of 3 new cells per second. w Remark: Two cells can have the same BSIC number or the same BCCH frequency index.62 . BCCH frequency) is not in the reference list (received from the OMC).3 Radio measurements data processing Training exercise Measurements averaging With ‘averaging window’ excel sheet. w The potentiality of overflow of the book-keeping list is therefore excluded. the couple of these parameters is needed to define a cell. The chart will be automatically processed w The fact that there may not be enough cleared entries to store new measurements is excluded. a zero must be entered as measurement value. When the level of a cell is not reported. the overwriting mechanism described above will function correctly if there are less than 32 cells reported in every 10s. This function updates the table every multiframe except if the measurement report is missing or Measurement Valid Bit is set to not valid. it is useless to keep cells in the bookkeeping list which have not been reported for more than 10s.. BCCH frequency index) registered as described above. w The BTSnum variable is updated every multiframe except if the measurement report from the MS is missing. Therefore. It is incremented by the number of new couples (BSIC number.. For each multiframe and for each of the NO_NCELL_M cell measurements it receives. see justification below: w Because the MS must resynchronize at most every 10s with the neighbor cells it monitors. w Therefore. w The book-keeping is performed according to the BSIC and BCCH frequency couple. • Compute averaging on quality. it will be impossible to makkes an handover towards these cells.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.62 w Fill up the table with average function. distance and level • Make charts with different sliding averaging windows Time allowed: 10 minutes 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 2.4 Radio Link Supervision and Power Control © Alcatel University .63 .02 Page 1.63 Theoretical presentation Radio measurements principles Radio measurements data processing Radio Link Supervision and Power control Handover Detection Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Handover Management Exercise © Alcatel University .02 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. w Most of the input data required by the power control functions are provided by Active channel pre-processing function. This function is in charge of detecting a need for a power command and then of applying this power command. Therefore it can be divided into two processes: PC threshold comparison and PC command. The RF power control aims at minimizing the co-channel interference and also at reducing the DC power consumption of the MS. depending on configuration flags (EN_MS_PC and EN_BS_PC). based on incorrectly received SACCH frames.4 Radio link supervision and power control Functional entities BTS BSC Radio Link Supervision Radio Link Command Radio Link Measurements Active Channel Pre-processing PC Threshold Comparison PC Command Assignment of PC functions in the ALCATEL BSS 1. w The figure depicts in a general way: the interconnections between all these functions. w All these functions require directly or indirectly input parameters provided by the function in charge of the radio link measurements. MS and BS power control are operating independently.02 Page 1. The radio link failure procedure is always running and clears the call when the radio link has failed. The radio link command is responsible for commanding to set the power at a maximum level for radio link recovery or to clear the call when the radio link has failed. The radio link supervision is responsible for detection of the loss of the radio link. they can be activated or not.2. the implementation of these functions in the ALCATEL BSS.64 . © Alcatel University . Power control: This function handles the adaptive control of the RF transmit power from the MS and the BS.64 w The two main functions specified in this document and implemented in the ALCATEL BSS are: Radio link supervision and radio link command: These functions handle the detection of the radio link failure so that calls which fail either from loss of radio coverage or unacceptable interference are satisfactorily handled by the network. The radio link recovery can be activated or not. depending on a configuration flag (EN_RL_RECOV).

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. the criterion for incrementing/decrementing this counter should be based: either on the error rate on the uplink SACCH. According to the GSM Technical Specification 05. it is based on the number of SACCH frames which cannot be decoded.65 w The determination of the radio link failure is based on a counter. © Alcatel University . or on RXLEV/RXQUAL measurements of the MS.65 . The ALCATEL criterion is in fact the one recommended by the GSM Technical Specification 05.08 for the BSS. w In the ALCATEL BSS.4 Radio link supervision and power control Radio link supervision ▼ Principles Detection (by BTS) of a radio link failure with an MS notification to BSC for radio resource release Try to recover an MS when radio becomes poor optional mechanism “radio link recovery” by requiring BTS and MS to transmit at maximum power Equivalent mechanism in MS for Radio Link Failure detection 1.08 for the MS.02 Page 1. w It must be stressed that this criterion is related to the first one recommended above but it is not exactly the same.2.

S 0 1. As soon as the counter S is equal to the threshold N_BSTXPWR_M. a counter “S” is decremented by 1 each time an SACCH frame cannot be decoded (BFI=1) incremented by 2 each time a valid SACCH frame is received RLTO_BS RLTO (T100) S 0 Radio link Failure The value of S gives a measure of the “quality” of uplink radio link Initial value of S = BS_RADIO_LINK_TIMEOUT 18 16 SACCH block lost: . S is decremented by 1 while for each SACCH decoded. the radio link recovery is triggered if EN_RL_RECOV = ENABLE. w As soon as a radio link failure is detected. w In addition. The incrementation or decrementation is performed if the following condition is met: RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS >= counter S >= 0.1 N_BS_TXPWR_M if S reaches N_BSTXPWR_M.02 Page 1. RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS is the initial and maximum value of S. the radio link supervision must be started again in the BTS.66 w The radio link supervision function is performed in the BTS and it uses three parameters given to the BTS in the TRX configuration data message: EN_RL_RECOV: flag enabling/disabling the sending of CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION by the BTS when the need for radio link recovery is detected. the function handles a counter named S. © Alcatel University . For each SACCH not decoded. a radio link recovery is triggered (optional) if S reaches 0.66 . N_BSTXPWR_M: threshold for the radio link recovery.N_BSTXPWR_M) SACCH periods. the radio link recovery will be triggered after (RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS . w If the radio link recovery is not successful. a radio link failure is detected 13 Radio link Recovery SACCH block received: + 2 RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS ≥ RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT is important because the mobile must release the radio channel first.4 Radio link supervision and power control Principles of radio uplink supervision For each active radio channel. it is incremented by 2.2. the radio link failure procedure is applied. in the case where the shadowing is so strong that all SACCH frames are lost. w The parameter N_BSTXPWR_M must be set according this simple behavior. Therefore.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS: threshold (number of SACCH messages) for the radio link failure. as soon as S reaches 0.

Note: the BFI flag is internal to the BTS and does not deal with the BFI flag defined by the GSM. Radio link failure: indication sent to the radio link command function in order to release the call. w Transmitted events Radio link recovery: indication sent to the radio link command function in order to set the BS and MS powers to the maximum. SACCH. reserved for National use).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. the BTS sends only once (to avoid overload of the Abis interface) the CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message to the BSC with cause "set MS/BS-TXPWR-M” (value: '001 1111'. w These events are sent to the BSC in the CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message: In case of Radio link recovery. © Alcatel University . One should look at the cause of CONFAIL. the BTS sends the CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message with cause 'Radio link Failure' to the BSC. This action (message formatting) is performed by the GSM layer 3. SACCH. BFI = 1: not decoded SACCH frame. Deactivate supervision: deactivation of the radio link supervision by the BTS telecom layer 3. In case of Radio link failure.4 Radio link supervision and power control S counter for radio link supervision 25 S = f [ BFI(t) ] RAD IO_LIN K_TIM EOU T_B S N_BSTXPW R_M S value 15 BFI S 10 5 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 SA C C H n u m b er 19 21 23 25 27 29 1.2. the CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message on Abis is not showing any call drop. w Thus. BFI = 0: decoded SACCH frame.67 .67 w Received events Activate supervision: activation of the radio link supervision from the BTS telecom layer 3.02 Page 1.

in a single step. if MS_TXPWR_MAX=33dBm and MS_TXPWR_MIN=13dBm. the BS power control process does not take into account the radio link recovery event. sends to the BTS a power increase command up to BS_TXPWR_MAX (BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER if the MS is on the inner zone of a concentric or multiband cell) in the BS POWER CONTROL message. w The maximum power increase of the MS is 2dB per 60 ms. This message can be sent by the BTS only if EN_RL_RECOV = ENABLE. 2.02 Page 1. sends to the MS a power increase command up to min(MS_TXPWR_MAX. i. the radio link command function: 1.P) (min (MS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER. the MS coming from MIN to Max will take 600 ms. © Alcatel University .2. Thus.4 Radio link supervision and power control Radio link recovery ▼ The BTS is sending a Connection Failure Indication message cause ‘001 1111’ reserved for national usage (ALCATEL: RLR) On K1205: “set MS/BS_TXPWR_MAX (Alcatel only)” ▼ The BSC is sending BS and MS POWER CONTROL messages required for maximum possible values The MS required level is embedded in the SACCH header in the downlink ▼ Optional mechanism EN_RL_RECOV =ENABLE useless without power control “master” vs. w This functionality is performed upon reception of the CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message (cause “set MS/BS-TXPWR-M”) from the BTS. w When a radio link recovery occurs.e.68 w The action consists in increasing the power of the MS and of the BTS to their maximum.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Thus. Upon reception of this message. if the link is failing.P) if the MS is in the inner zone of a concentric or multiband cell) in the message MS POWER CONTROL. the radio link command function gives an indication to the power control function once the power increase has been commanded. the BTS is not able to decode the SACCH anymore for some period of time. Note: the BS Power Control process does not interfere with the recovery procedure since the former comes to a halt when no SACCH multiframe is received. power control 1.68 .

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.69 w The task of the radio link command consists in informing the call control function to release the call. © Alcatel University . but with a longer reaction time.69 .2. w Note: the radio link supervision procedure will function also if SACCH frames are not lost continuously.4 Radio link supervision and power control Radio link failure ▼ Radio link failure The BTS is sending a Connection Failure Indication message Cause ‘radio link failure’ The BSC is notifying the loss to the MSC Usually Clear Request “radio interface failure” The BSC is releasing locally the radio resource (TCH or SDCCH) Radio frequency Channel Release message sent to BTS The call is dropped ! 1. The power value BS_TXPWR_MAX is applied in case of radio link recovery for an MS on an outer zone channel. w Concentric cell or multiband cell w The power value BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER is applied in case of radio link recovery for an MS in the inner zone.

2.4 Radio link supervision and power control Radio link supervision: training exercise With the “RLS” excel sheet... Taking into account the measurements with BFI and the parameter values (N_BSTXPWR_M and RADIOLINK_TIMEOUT_BS) Indicate when
A radio link recovery is triggered A radio link failure is triggered

Time allowed: 5 minutes
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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power control

▼ Aims of Power control
Reduce emitted power to the minimum possible Minimum power levels: GSM: 11dBm, 9dBm, 7dBm and 5dBm DCS: 2dBm, 0dBm Ensuring quality and received level of peer entity Adapted in real-time For Uplink PC: decrease UL interference and save MS battery For Downlink PC, decrease DL interference
BS_TXPWR
d ow nlin

RXLEV_UL

k

up

lin k

RXLEV_DL

MS_TXPWR

GSM-900 Power level 14 15 16 17 18 19 Output Power(dBm) 15 13 11 9 7 5

DCS-1800 Output Power(dBm) 2 0 -

1.71
w The main objective of the power control, in connection with handover algorithms, is to allow a maximum number of MSs to operate in the network while maintaining a minimum interference level. w The algorithms must ensure that any mobile is connected with the cell in which the output powers from the MS and the BS are as low as possible (to reduce MS power consumption and interference in the network) while keeping a satisfactory link quality. w When on a sufficient duration, the propagation conditions keep worsening, then action must be taken. w The first action is to increase the output power levels at the MS or the BS. When the maximum allowed value has been reached, a handover may become necessary. w To reflect this philosophy in macrocells (not in microcellular environment), the algorithm allows for handover on quality and strength reasons only when the last step of power control has been reached. If propagation conditions worsen rapidly when the MS is at low power, the power control algorithm allows to reach quickly the maximum power. w Nevertheless great care must be taken in choosing the relative values of the thresholds for power control and handover as well as the averaging window sizes (smaller window size and higher threshold for power control than for handover). It must be remembered that, although it is desired that the MS transmits with the lowest possible power, it is more important not to lose a call. Thus early triggering for the power control is possible, by choosing, small values for the averaging window sizes and higher comparison thresholds.

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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power Control principles

▼ Based on a threshold comparison mechanism ▼ Decrease emitted power when received level AND quality measured by peer entity are better than a given value ▼ Increase emitted power when the received level OR quality is lower than a given value ▼ Does not decrease power if the resulting level is below the low level threshold
² FEATURE REAL FAST PC GIVES REACTIVITY TO THE ALGORITHMS

1.72
w The threshold comparison process detects the need to change the MS power level. This detection is done by comparison between the averaged values produced by the active channel pre-processing function and thresholds.

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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power Control detection

▼ MS Power control (for BS PC, replace MS by BS and UL by DL)

U_RXQUAL_UL_P 1

L_RXQUAL_UL_P 2

-95 L_RXLEV_UL_P

-93 POW_RED_STEP_SIZE

-85 U_RXLEV_UL_P

1.73
w A need for a PC command is detected when one of the conditions above is true. Then, the information for the execution of the PC command is given to the ‘PC command’ process. w The MS power control function can be disabled with a flag EN_MS_PC. This flag is changeable from the OMC-R. Note: The GSM coding of quality is contra-intuitive, since the value 0 codes for the best quality and 7 for the worst. Thus, the comparison between two quality values must be understood in the opposite way in terms of quality. Note: POW_RED_STEP_SIZE is used in two ways: for PC_COMMAND (decrease of MS power) and for PC_THRESHOD_COMPARISON (to avoid ping-pong effect).

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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control MS PC Threshold comparison

▼ Power increase: If
AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC > L_RXQUAL_UL_P + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC ≤ L_RXQUAL_UL_P + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH and AV_RXLEV_UL_PC < L_RXLEV_UL_P Then PC_COMMAND(MS, INC, MS_P_INC dB, <min(MS_TXPWR_MAX, P))

▼ Power decrease: If
AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC < U_RXQUAL_UL_P and AV_RXLEV_UL_PC >= L_RXLEV_UL_P + POW_RED_STEP_SIZE AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC ≤ L_RXQUAL_UL_P + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH and AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC ≥ U_RXQUAL_UL_P and AV_RXLEV_UL_PC > U_RXLEV_UL_P Then PC_COMMAND(MS, RED, MS_P_RED dB, >MS_TXPWR_MIN)

1.74
w OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH is an internal variable that is equal to 0 in case of Non-Hopping cell and OFFSET_HOPPING_PC in case of BBH or RH.

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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control MS Power Control Command

▼ Power command philosophy: Target received level TARGET_RXLEV_UL
middle threshold between U_RXLEV_UL_P and L_RXLEV_UL_P

Adaptive power step size According to the average received level Limited power step size to MAX_POW_INC and MAX_POW_RED If only Quality problem: fixed power step size
POW_INC_STEP_SIZE and POW_RED_STEP_SIZE

Two weighting factors to modify the algorithm reactivity when level problem
POW_INC_FACTOR for power increase POW_RED_FACTOR for power decrease

1.75
w Whenever any of the threshold conditions occurs, a PC command must be sent to the MS over the air interface. w In order to compute the adaptive power step size, the middle threshold between the upper threshold U_RXLEV_UL_P and the lower threshold L_RXLEV_UL_P is considered. w This threshold is regarded as the target received level around which the MS should always stay. The following algorithm tries to maintain and bring the MS power closer to this target threshold. The size of the power step is limited to MAX_POW_INC for an increase of the MS power and MAX_POW_RED for a decrease of the MS power. w When the received level is between the two thresholds U_RXLEV_UL_P and L_RXLEV_UL_P (i.e. no need to change the level) and a power control on quality cause is triggered, fixed power step sizes are applied: POW_INC_STEP_SIZE for power increase and POW_RED_STEP_SIZE for power decrease. w Two weighting factors POW_INC_FACTOR (for power increase) and POW_RED_FACTOR (for power decrease) allow to modify the reactivity of the algorithm (the more POW_INC_FACTOR is nearby 1, the greater the reactivity of the algorithm is and the larger the power step size is). w The target received level is TARGET_RXLEV_UL for the uplink path. w TARGET_RXLEV_UL corresponds to the next higher multiple of 1 dB from (U_RXLEV_UL_P + L_RXLEV_UL_P)/2.

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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control
Fast and Normal PC comparison

w Example
4 SACCH=1 Measurement Report (MR) 2. MR 3. MR 4. MR Need for PC command detected PC Command 20dB POW_INC_STEP_SIZE=6dB -100 -110 0 t/ms 480 960 1440 1920 t/ms 60 0 180 120 300 420 480 Normal Power Control Fast Power Control

p/dBm -80 -90

240

360

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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control MS Power Increase Command computation

▼ PC_COMMAND (MS, INC, MS_P_INC dB, < power max)
If MS_TXPWR < power max then increase MS_TXPWR by min(MS_P_INC, MAX_POW_INC, powermaxMS_TXPWR)
where MS_P_INC is evaluated by the following algorithm: if (AV_RXLEV_UL_PC < L_RXLEV_UL_P) (problem of level) if (AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC ≤ L_RXQUAL_UL_P + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH) (sufficient quality) then MS_P_INC = roundup[ POW_INC_FACTOR* (TARGET_RXLEV_UL AV_RXLEV_UL_PC)] else MS_P_INC = roundup[ MAX ( POW_INC_FACTOR * (TARGET_RXLEV_UL - AV_RXLEV_UL_PC ), POW_INC_STEP_SIZE )] else (problem of quality) MS_P_INC = POW_INC_STEP_SIZE

1.77
w In the equations: MS_TXPWR is the last MS_TXPWR_CONF value reported by the BTS. ‘roundup’ means ‘round to its next higher multiple of 2 dB’. ‘rounddown’ means ‘round to its next lower multiple of 2 dB’. w The rate of change of MS power is required to be one nominal 2 dB step every 60 msec. Thus a 30 dB step change should be accomplished in 900 msec. The operator should be warned of this as it may impact on the choice of settings for MS_P_CON_ACK and MS_P_CON_INT. w Then the ordered value of the MS transmit power, called MS_TXPWR, is sent to the MS as follows: The BSC sends the MS POWER CONTROL message to the BTS (i.e. to the TRX handling the relevant channel) which then forwards the PC command to the MS in the Layer 1 header. The MS applies the PC command and confirms this action by transmitting the applied power value (MS_TXPWR_CONF) on the uplink SACCH in the layer 1 header. w On SACCH channel, the MS may not send the MEASUREMENT REPORT message (e.g. in case of transmission of Short Message). In this case, the BSC receives a MEASUREMENT RESULT message which does not contain the MEASUREMENT REPORT. The BSC takes into account the MS_TXPWR_CONF variable.

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2.4 Radio link supervision and power control MS Power Decrease Command computation

▼ PC_COMMAND (MS, RED, MS_P_RED dB, > power min)
If MS_TXPWR > power min then decrease MS_TXPWR by min(MS_P_RED, MAX_POW_RED, MS_TXPWR- power min)
where MS_P_RED is evaluated by the following algorithm: if (AV_RXLEV_UL_PC > U_RXLEV_UL_P) (good level) if (AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC ≥ U_RXQUAL_UL_P) (sufficient quality) then MS_P_RED = roundup[ MAX(POW_RED_FACTOR* (AV_RXLEV_UL_PC- TARGET_RXLEV_UL)), 2dB] else MS_P_RED = roundup[ MAX ( POW_RED_FACTOR * (AV_RXLEV_UL_PC- TARGET_RXLEV_UL), POW_RED_STEP_SIZE )] else (good quality) MS_P_RED = POW_RED_STEP_SIZE

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Frequency hopping is applied then OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH = Offset_Hopping_PC otherwise OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH = 0 w Offset_Hopping_PC is a parameter defined on a per cell basis. the MS is measuring a very good downlink level each time it hops on the BCCH. it is possible to require from the MS not to include the BCCH measurement in the averages. the BSC inhibits the BS power control on all the channels which use the BCCH carrier.4 Radio link supervision and power control Frequency Hopping cases ▼ OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH This variable allows to take into account the frequency hopping in the RxQual evaluation (see Annex 2) Defined on a per cell basis Annex 2 Algorithm: If Frequency hopping applied then OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH = Offset_hopping_PC Else OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH = 0 1. The entity performing the BS power control in the BSC gets all the information concerning a new channel and decides whether to activate the BS power control for this channel.79 w In order to take into account the frequency hopping in the RXQUAL evaluation. The power control must be inhibited when the frequency used by the new channel is the same as the frequency used for the BCCH in the BTS (cell) in which the channel is activated.79 .02 Page 1. To avoid that this results in a too optimistic average. For any channel which has the BCCH frequency in its hopping sequence (MA). This is achieved by setting the PWRC flag to 1 in the SYSTEM INFORMATION type 6 message sent by the BSS on the SACCH.2. w If on the corresponding channel. it is considered as a nonhopping channel and it is concerned by the non-frequency hopping case. If the channel is hopping only on the BCCH frequency (after a transmitter failure). w PC Downlink in Frequency hopping case In this case.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. the variable OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH is introduced. © Alcatel University .

the timer is stopped. If the expected value of MS_TXPWR_CONF is received before the timer MS_P_CON_ACK is elapsed. © Alcatel University . Then the MS PC threshold comparison process is resumed with MS_TXPWR_CONF for the same MS as soon as MS_P_CON_INT expires. the timer MS_P_CON_ACK is stopped and the timer MS_P_CON_INT is triggered. If the timer expires. This timer is changeable at the OMC-R level on a per cell basis.02 Page 1. if necessary: MS_P_CON_INT BS_P_CON_INT 1. the power control is inhibited on SDCCH. some time must be expected before MS_TXPWR_CONF (power confirmation sent by the MS on the uplink SACCH) can reach the desired value. It is triggered upon receipt of the ESTABLISH INDICATION message after SDCCH activation for immediate assignment procedure. the confirmation is awaited: MS_P_CON_ACK BS_P_CON_ACK As soon as the new power is acknowledged. the power control will be enabled again on SDCCH.2. the power control decision process is resumed immediately with the last MS_TXPWR_CONF received. PC will be enabled after T_SDCCH_PC expiry (about 5s). w T_SDCCH_PC is useful in case of long SDCCH phases. PC disabled should be preferred with a view to secure call setup.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. w After any PC command is sent to the MS. The timer MS_P_CON_ACK is triggered after any power modification command to monitor that the desired transmission power MS_TXPWR is reached.80 . Nevertheless. to avoid interference. SDCCH phases may be long. If the timer is running at the sending of the RF CHANNEL RELEASE message. In this case.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power Control timers (1/2) ▼ Timers T_SDCCH_PC allows the inhibition of PC on SDCCH When a new power is required. w During SDCCH for call establishment. a fixed duration is awaited to trigger a new change of power. If MS_P_CON_ACK elapses before the expected value of MS_TXPWR_CONF is received. if SMS usage is very high.80 w The timer T_SDCCH_PC allows to inhibit the MS and BS power control on SDCCH. As long as the timer runs.

81 .81 © Alcatel University .2.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power Control timers (2/2) ▼ IF xx_P_CON_ACK is expiring. it is a system problem: Wrong setting of xx_P_CON_ACK (too short) No reception of power command by the MS a radio link recovery can be activated Problem on Abis repetition of BS power command ▼ The expiry of P_CON_INT is a normal mechanism 1.

02 Page 1. the BCCH power must not be changed by the BS power control function. Once the indication is received. In this release of the ALCATEL BSS. If MS_P_CON_ACK elapses before the expected value of MS_TXPWR_CONF is received.4 Radio link supervision and power control Extra information ▼ LEVEL and QUALITY USED in EQUATION are average ones with window size A_QUAL_PC and A_LEV_PC ▼ BS POWER CONTROL INHIBITED ON BCCH frequency BCCH must be emitted at the maximum level ▼ MS dynamic constraint minimum 2dB every 60 ms ▼ Emitted power can be changed by radio link supervision algorithm Radio link supervision has a greater priority ▼ Activation of power control can slow down HO decision some causes can be triggered only if the MS (BTS) is emitting at the maximum power 1.P).08 section 7. i.82 . This means that all dedicated channels (TCH. the BCCH carrier must be broadcast with a constant power in the cell. w According to GSM Technical Specification 05. SDCCH) which are on the BCCH frequency must always be transmitted with the maximum power. the power control decision process is resumed immediately with MS_TXPWR_CONF = min(MS_TXPWR_MAX.1.2. this constant value is set to the maximum power allowed in the cell that is defined by the parameter BS_TXPWR_MAX.82 w Interaction with radio link command The MS power control function is informed of a radio link recovery by the radio link command function. © Alcatel University . the PC command process is resumed immediately: timer MS_P_CON_ACK is started (or reset and started if running).e.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

83 .02 Page 1.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power Control: Training exercise (1/3) ▼ Power control UL (Remark: Use the default parameters document) What happens if we do not use Frequency Hopping? Why is it better to have A_LEV_PC=A_LEV_HO/2? Thresholds: Lower QUAL of RX uplink = 3 High QUAL of RX uplink = 2 Lower LEV of RX uplink = -90dBm Upper LEV of RX uplink = -75dBm POW_RED_STEP_SIZE= 4 POW_INC_STEP_SIZE= 6 Put the right threshold in the next slide chart Time allowed: 25 minutes 1.2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.83 © Alcatel University .

6 and MAX_POW_INC=MAX_PO W_RED=8 6 4 -91 Lev Nb of case ---> 1 AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC AV_RXLEV_UL_PC Power control Delta value 0 -98 2 1 -80 3 2 -73 4 6 -69 5 3 -86 1.6 And POW_RED_FACTOR=0.84 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.2.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power Control: Training exercise (2/3) ▼ Power control UL Qual QUESTION For each case • PC triggered? • Step size value? With POW_INC_FACTOR=0.84 .

6 POW_RED_FACTOR = 0.2.02 Page 1. find each parameter value: POW_INC_STEP_SIZE = ? BS_P_CON_INT = ? POW_RED_STEP_SIZE = ? OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH = 0 or 1 ? Which phenomenon can you observe as regards the successive PC commands? 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.85 © Alcatel University .8 MAX_POW_INC = 16dB MAX_POW_RED = 16dB BS_P_CON_ACK = 3s BS_TXPWR_MIN = -16dB Using the Trace Abis Excel file.9 U_RXQUAL_DL_P = 1 A_QUAL_PC = 4 A_LEV_PC = 4 POW_INC_FACTOR = 0.4 Radio link supervision and power control Power Control: Training exercise (3/3) ▼ Power control DL Thresholds: L_RXLEV_DL_P = -85dBm U_RXLEV_DL_P = -75dBm L_RXQUAL_DL_P = 2.85 .

02 Page 1.86 Theoretical presentation Radio measurements principles Radio measurements data processing Radio Link Supervision and Power control Handover Detection Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Handover Management Exercise © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.86 .02 1.2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 2.5 Handover Detection © Alcatel University .

" too long MS-BS distance". “too short MS-BS distance”.87 .2.87 w Emergency intercell handovers: These handovers are triggered when the call conditions deteriorate significantly in order to rescue the call. The basic assumption for these handovers is that they should respect the cell planning decided by the operator. signaling load reduction.02 Page 1. This spans: interference reduction. The causes are: "too low quality" .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. "high level in neighbor lower layer cell for slow mobile". © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Handover main objective SEND CONNECTED MS TO ANOTHER CELL When needed: “rescue/emergency” handover If useful: “better cell” handover TOWARD THE “BEST” CELL From a radio point of view power budget level From a traffic point of view less loaded target From a dynamic point of view MS speed “history” of the call From an operator point of view 1. "level dropping under high threshold". "consecutive bad SACCH frames". The causes are: "power budget" . "too low level". traffic unbalance smoothing. w Better cell HO: These handovers are triggered to improve the overall system traffic capacity. "high level in neighbor cell in the preferred band" and “traffic handover”.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.88 .02 Page 1.2.5 Handover Detection Principles ▼ The BSC is analyzing averaged measurement results active channel pre-processing (measurements averaging and book-keeping) ▼ To detect need/utility to handover Handover detection process ▼ To choose/rank target cells according to several criteria Candidate cell evaluation process ▼ To perform the handover Handover management process 1.88 © Alcatel University .

the directed retry is performed either under the BSC control (internal directed retry) or under the MSC control (external directed retry). w Once the handover preparation is completed.08. w The handover preparation requires indirectly input parameters provided by the function in charge of the radio link measurements. w The handover candidate cell evaluation works out a list of possible candidate cells for the handover.5 Handover Detection Functional entities BTS BSC HO Preparation Radio Link Measurements Active Channel Pre-processing HO Candidate Cell Evaluation HO Detection HO management HO protocol MSC Assignment of HO functions in the ALCATEL BSS 1.89 w The HO Preparation function can also be named "handover algorithms" as the algorithms described are the "heart" of this function. © Alcatel University . The directed retry preparation is performed by the handover preparation function. The ALCATEL handover preparation is derived from the basic algorithm found in Annex A of the GSM Technical Specification 05. w The handover detection process analyzes the radio measurements reported by the BTS and triggers the candidate cell evaluation process each time a handover cause (emergency or better cell type) is fulfilled.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2. Therefore it can be divided into two processes: handover detection and handover candidate cell evaluation.89 . w An example of implementation of these functions except for directed retry is given in the GSM Technical Specification 05. Once the directed retry preparation is completed.02 Page 1. the implementation of these functions in the ALCATEL BSS.08. w The figure above depicts in a general way: the interconnections between these functions. This list is sorted according to the evaluation of each cell as well as the layer they belong to (in a hierarchical network) and the frequency band they use (in a multiband network). The handover preparation is in charge of detecting a need for handover and proposing a list of target cells. the handover decision and execution (handover management entity) is performed under the MSC or BSC control. w Most of the input data required by the handover functions are provided by a function called: Active channel preprocessing.

w The cause of handover is based either on a situation of emergency (this cause is therefore called "emergency cause") or on the existence of better conditions. or the subset which verify the handover causes (plus other specific cells in particular cases). upper or none.90 w The process is achieved in the BSC. the name of the cause depends on the context of application: for intercell handovers. © Alcatel University . If the need for a handover is detected. this process checks whether a handover is needed. it is called "Better zone cause". The context of application for a handover is either "intercell" (the handover is performed between two different cells) or "intracell" (the handover is performed in the same cell). as it is applied only in the case of interzone handovers in concentric or multiband cells. w In case of a handover alarm. it is called "Better cell cause". traffic.5 Handover Detection Handover causes detection ▼ Based on the contents of the measurement results ▼ The BSC is computing the need or utility to trigger a handover ▼ HO causes 25. etc. w Four main handover categories are provided. better cell handover power budget. which can be either all neighbors. For intracell handovers. the target cell evaluation process is triggered. split into 2 main categories: emergency handover quality. the handover detection process gives to the cell evaluation process: the preferred target cell layer: lower. The cause of handover.02 Page 1. level. etc. With each cell is given one of the handover causes which have been verified. the raw candidate cell list. distance. w Each time a set of pre-processed (averaged) measurements is available.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.90 . w The detection of a need for handover is performed through handover causes which are going to be detailed.2. In this last case. depending on the cause of handover and the context of application. ▼ Some are specific to hierarchical and concentric architectures 1.

02 Page 1.B8 ▼ HO causes for standard networks cause 2 cause 3 cause 4 cause 5 cause 6 cause 10 cause 11 cause 15 cause 16 cause 26 cause 24 cause 12 cause 23 cause 13 cause 27 cause 20 cause 28 cause 29 2.5 Handover Detection Handover causes : too low quality on the uplink Emergency HO : too low level on the uplink : too low quality on the downlink : too low level on the downlink : Too long distance between the MS and the BTS : too low level on the uplink in the inner zone : too low level on the downlink in the inner zone : high interference on the uplink (intracell HO) : high interference on the downlink (intracell HO) : AMR channel adaptation HO (HR to FR) : general capture Modified in B8 : power budget evaluation : traffic Modified in B8 : Outer zone level Uplink & Downlink : AMR channel adaptation HO (FR to HR) : forced directed retry Better conditions HO : Fast traffic HO : TFO HO 1.91 w HO causes for Extended Cells: Emergency causes cause 22: too short MS-BTS distance w HO causes for hierarchical or multiband network: Emergency causes cause 7: consecutive bad SACCH frames received in a microcell cause 17: too low level on the uplink in a microcell compared to a high threshold cause 18: too low level on the downlink in a microcell compared to a high threshold Better causes cause 14: high level in neighbor lower layer cell for slow mobile cause 21: high level in neighbor cell in the preferred band © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.91 .

except for the causes specific to microcellular environment.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. if the MS moves away from the line of sight street. 3.92 . © Alcatel University .92 w Quality and Level causes (2. MS_TXPWR_MAX) and EN_RXQUAL_UL= ENABLE LEV Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_HO Size of window for averaging level: A_LEV_HO 1. 5. w In case of simultaneous low-level and low-quality signals. while the attenuation is quite high. an intercell handover is requested. 15. 4. These conditions may appear for example in big city streets which enable a line of sight propagation from the BTS antenna.02 Page 1. These causes wait generally for the power control process to increase the BTS and MS power to their maximum values.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 2: UL Quality ▼ CAUSE 2: too low quality on the Uplink QUAL AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO > L_RXQUAL_UL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH and AV_RXLEV_UL_HO <= RXLEV_UL_IH and MS_TXPWR = min (P. 16) w The aim of these causes is to keep the call going when the radio link is degrading otherwise the radio link failure might be detected and the call released. There is in this case a risk of abrupt quality degradation.2. w Handover on "too low level" is used to avoid situations where the interference level is low.

MS_TXPWR_MAX) and EN_RXLEV_UL= ENABLE Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_HO Size of window for averaging level: A_LEV_HO LEV 1.93 © Alcatel University .93 .2.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 3: UL Level ▼ CAUSE 3: too low level on the uplink QUAL AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO <= L_RXQUAL_UL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH and AV_RXLEV_UL_HO < L_RXLEV_UL_H and MS_TXPWR = min (P.

02 Page 1.94 .94 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 4: DL Quality ▼ CAUSE 4: too low quality on the downlink QUAL AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO > L_RXQUAL_DL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH and AV_RXLEV_DL_HO <= RXLEV_DL_IH and BS_TXPWR = BS_TXPWR_MAX and EN_RXQUAL_DL= ENABLE Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_HO Size of window for averaging level: A_LEV_HO LEV 1.

02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 5: DL Level w CAUSE 5: too low level on the downlink QUAL AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO <= L_RXQUAL_DL_H + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH AV_RXLEV_DL_HO < L_RXLEV_DL_H BS_TXPWR = BS_TXPWR_MAX and EN_RXLEV_DL= ENABLE Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_HO Size of window for averaging level: A_LEV_HO LEV 1.95 .2.95 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

w It may then happen that these exceptional conditions suddenly drop and the link is lost.02 Page 1.96 . It just does not allow an MS to talk to a BTS if it is too far away. due to propagation conditions of the operational network. So for these reasons. The consequence of these spurious coverages is the probable production of a high level of co-channel interference.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 6: Distance ▼ CAUSE 6: Too long distance between the MS and the BTS AV_RANGE_HO > U_TIME_ADVANCE and EN_DIST_HO= ENABLE Size of window for distance averaging: A_RANGE_HO 1. w It may happen for example that some peculiar propagation conditions exist at one point in time that provide exceptional quality and level although the serving BTS is far and another is closer and should be the one the mobile should be connected to if the conditions were normal. w This cause is different from the others as it is more preventive. which would not have happened if the mobile had been connected to the closest cell.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University . this cause does not wait for the power control to react.96 w This cause is used when a dominant cell provides a lot of scattered coverages inside other cells.2. It does not make use of the propagation conditions of a call.

97 © Alcatel University .97 .5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells ▼ Emergency handovers specific to concentric cells Intracell handovers from inner to outer zone cause 10: too low level on the uplink in inner zone cause 11: too low level on the downlink in inner zone ▼ May be triggered From inner zone of a concentric cell Towards outer zone.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. same cell OUTER INNER 1.2.02 Page 1.

02 Page 1.2.98 .98 © Alcatel University . MS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER) Averaging window: A_LEV_HO 1.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 10 ▼ CAUSE 10: too low level on the uplink in the inner zone AV_RXLEV_UL_HO < RXLEV_UL_ZONE and MS_TXPWR = min (P.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

99 .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 11 ▼ CAUSE 11: too low level on the downlink in the inner zone AV_RXLEV_DL_HO < RXLEV_DL_ZONE and BS_TXPWR = BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER Averaging window: A_LEV_HO 1.2.99 © Alcatel University .

100 . same cell OUTER INNER 1.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 13 (1/6) ▼ CAUSE 13: too high level on UL and DL in the outer zone Better condition intracell handover If the cell is a multi-band cell.100 © Alcatel University . cause 13 is checked only for multi-band MSs ▼ May be triggered From outer zone of a concentric cell Towards inner zone.2.

call_ref) and AV_RXLEV_NCELL_BIS(n) <= neighbour_RXLEV(0.2.02 Page 1.101 © Alcatel University .call_ref) and AV_RXLEV_DL_HO > RXLEV_DL_ZONE + + ZONE_HO_HYST_DL + + (BS_TXPWR .n) and EN_CAUSE_13 = ENABLE (B7) and EN_BETTER_ZONE_HO = ENABLE Averaging windows: A_LEV_HO and A_PBGT_HO (for n) 1.101 .BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER) + + PING_PONG_MARGIN(0.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 13 (2/6) ▼ CAUSE 13: too high level on UL and DL in the outer zone AV_RXLEV_UL_HO > RXLEV_UL_ZONE + + ZONE_HO_HYST_UL + + (MS_TXPWR .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.MS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER) + + PING_PONG_MARGIN(0.

2.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 13 (3/6) ▼ ZONE_HO_HYST_UL UL static hysteresis for interzone HO from outer to inner In case of multi-band cell. should take into account the difference of propagation between GSM and DCS Added to cause 10 threshold RXLEV_UL_ZONE ▼ ZONE_HO_HYST_DL DL static hysteresis for interzone HO from outer to inner In case of multi-band cell.102 © Alcatel University .102 .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. should take into account the difference of propagation between GSM and DCS and the difference of BTS transmission power in the two bands Added to cause 11 threshold RXLEV_DL_ZONE 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.103 .call_ref) Penalty PING_PONG_HCP put on cause 13 if The immediately preceding zone in which the call has been is the inner zone of the serving cell And The last handover was not external intracell And T_HCP is still running PING_PONG_MARGIN(0.103 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 13 (4/6) ▼ PING_PONG_MARGIN(0.call_ref) = 0 If the call was not previously in serving’s inner zone Or T_HCP has expired OUTER INNER 1.2.

2.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 13 (5/6)

▼ neighbour_RXLEV(0,n)
INNER zone interferer 1
OUTER INNER

INNER zone interferer 2

?

Concentric cells are designed to create an INNER zone
protected from external interferers and creating no interferences on other cells … to be able to face more aggressive frequency reuse in INNER zone TRXs

neighbour_RXLEV(0,n) tuning enables to avoid handovers if the MS position will lead to interferences the condition is checked towards all neighbor cells belonging to the same layer and band than the serving cell
1.104

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2.5 Handover Detection Handover algorithms for concentric cells: cause 13 (6/6)

▼ EN_CAUSE_13 Load balance between inner and outer zones may be allowed by setting EN_LOAD_BALANCE = ENABLE If EN_LOAD_BALANCE = ENABLE
If INNER zone is less loaded than OUTER, EN_CAUSE_13 = ENABLE If INNER zone is more loaded than OUTER, EN_CAUSE_13 = DISABLE

If EN_LOAD_BALANCE = DISABLE
EN_CAUSE_13 = ENABLE

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2.5 Handover Detection Outgoing intercell handovers from concentric Cell

▼Outgoing intercell handovers from concentric cells As explained here before, the MS located in a concentric cell can make intercell, emergency or better condition HO regardless their current zone
For example, an MS located in the INNER zone of a concentric cell can make directly a HO cause 12 towards another cell, WITHOUT having to trigger any cause 10 or 11 to the OUTER zone before

1.106
w The only restrictions are linked to EN_MULTI-BAND_PBGT_HO and EN_BI-BAND_MS parameters.

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2.5 Handover Detection Incoming intercell handovers towards a Concentric Cell (1/2)

▼ Incoming intercell handovers towards a concentric cell In case an MS is making an incoming handover towards a concentric cell (due to outer PBGT measurements,etc.), a TCH may be allocated
either in the INNER or in the OUTER zone, as for call setup depending on radio conditions In case of a multi-band cell, if the MS is not multi-band, it will always be sent to the OUTER zone

OUTER

INNER

?

?

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2.5 Handover Detection Incoming intercell handovers towards a Concentric Cell (2/2)

▼ Use part of Handover cause 13 algorithm on each potential target ▼ IF Cell(n) is external The MS is directed to the OUTER zone of (n) ▼ ELSE (cell(n) is internal) IF
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RXLEV_DL_ZONE + ZONE_HO_HYST_DL + + (BS_TXPWR - BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER) and EN_BETTER_ZONE_HO = ENABLE

The MS is directed towards the INNER zone ELSE The MS is directed towards the OUTER zone

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2.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (1/11)

▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget Decision based mainly on comparison of serving and neighbor cells for: downlink level of serving and neighbor cells maximum emitting level of MS Aiming at decreasing UL & DL emitted power Should be the “normal” handover type no matter of emergency

1.109
w In this case, there is another cell with a better power budget i.e., the link quality can be improved or maintained with a reduced transmit power of both the MS and the BTS. The radio link is not degraded but there is the opportunity to decrease the overall interference level by changing the serving cell of the given MS. w In conjunction with power control, it presents the advantage to keep the interference as low as possible, since it minimizes the path loss between the BTS and the MS. w This cause is especially designed to cope with the requirement that the mobile should be connected with the cell with which the lowest possible output powers are used. To assess which of the cells is this "best cell", the algorithm performs every measurement reporting period the comparison of the path loss in the current and in the neighbor cell. This is a feature special to GSM which is made possible because the mobile measures the adjacent cell signal levels and reports the six best ones. w This power budget gives the difference in path loss between the current cell and the adjacent cells reported by the mobile. w When PBGT(n) is greater than 0, then the path loss from cell n is less than the path loss from the serving cell and thus the radiated power in the downlink direction, and therefore in the uplink direction as well, will be lower in cell n than in the current cell. w However it would not be advisable to hand over the MS to another cell as soon as PBGT is greater than 0, because the MS would probably oscillate between the two adjacent cells as the propagation conditions vary. An hysteresis mechanism is implemented to avoid this undesirable effect. w No PBGT between different layers. w Ok between different bands if EN_INTERBAND_PBGT_HO = 1

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110 w The MS may be handed over from the serving cell indexed 0 to a neighbor cell indexed n only if the power budget exceeds the handover Margin(0.02 Page 1. w However. It is still possible that a ping-pong mechanism is created by different handover causes. © Alcatel University . the same algorithm is applied in the new cell.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (2/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget equation PBGT(n) = AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) . The handover Margin(0. Once the MS is handed over. w To avoid this problem. In this way. but in the neighbor cell.AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO .PING_PONG_MARGIN(n. the global hysteresis (from cell 0 to cell n and back to cell 0) is the sum of the two HOMargins). w In case of handover from SDCCH to SDCCH. it may be handed over from the serving cell indexed 0 to a neighbor multiband cell indexed n only if the power budget exceeds the handover Margin(0. the cause “power budget” is only checked between multiband cells. for instance a handover may be triggered towards a neighbor cell for bad quality. the mobile can operate in a different band than the frequency band of the BCCHs. in a way to maintain the MS in the preferred band). power budget handover can be delayed towards a loaded cell and traffic load handover can be triggered from a loaded cell.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.n) plus the offset handover margin which allows to handicap or favor the PBGT (In the inner zone.(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) – MS_TXPWR_MAX) . w The offset handover margin can possibly be used in concentric cells. This can lead to circular ping-pong handovers from the inner zone if the new band is DCS 1800 or to the impossibility to trigger PBGT handovers from the inner zone if the preferred band is GSM 900. call_ref) 1. (Thus. an additional anti-ping-pong mechanism is implemented in the power budget calculation.110 . w In multiband cell environment.n). It enables to penalize for a certain time the cell on which the call has been before.n) can be modified according to the traffic situation in the serving cell and the neighbor cell n.2. when the MS is in the inner zone of a multiband cell. this cause does not take the traffic situation into account. a handover back may be triggered for power budget reasons. and a new PBGT is computed (which will be close to the opposite value of PBGT in the old cell) and compared to a new HOMargin.(BS_TXPWR_MAX – AV_BS_TXPWR_HO) . In order to avoid this.

(AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO + C) with C = BS_TXPWR_MAX .AV_BS_TXPWR_HO.e. © Alcatel University . call_ref) AV_RXLEV_NCELL received level of BCCH of neighbor cell AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO received level of serving cell (BCCH or not) AV_RXLEV_NCELL .AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO the highest is the best neighbor cell but serving might not be at the maximum level (with DL power control) necessity to have a corrective factor 1.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2. w This corresponds to the difference of received BCCH signal levels.111 w ∆ BCCH = AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) .5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (3/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget PBGT(n) = AV_RXLEV_N CELL(n) − AV_RXLEV_P BGT_HO − (BS_TXPWR_ MAX − AV_BS_TXPW R_HO ) − (MS_TXPWR_ MAX(n) − MS_TWXPWR_ MAX) − PING_PONG_ MARGIN(n. AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO) may not be measured on BCCH. because the received signal level (i. A correction factor C is taken into account for the serving cell.111 .

112 .2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1. not absolute level = (“bts_max_power”+BS_TXPWR_MAX) (“bts_max_power”+AV_BS_TXPWR_HO) AV_BS_TXPWR_HO: average of BS_POWER over A_PBGT_HO measurements corrective factor used to compensate for the fact that the serving cell may not emit at the maximum level AV_RXLEV_NCELL-[AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO+(BS_TXPWR_MAXAV_BS_TXPWR_HO)] compare received level of neighbor and serving cells as if the serving one was emitting at the maximum level 1.112 © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (4/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget PBGT(n) = AV_RXLEV_N CELL(n) − AV_RXLEV_P BGT_HO − (BS_TXPWR_ MAX − AV_BS_TXPW R_HO ) − (MS_TXPWR_ MAX(n) − MS_TWXPWR_ MAX) − PING_PONG_ MARGIN(n. call_ref) BS_TXPWR_MAX – AV_BS_TXPWR_HO BS_TXPWR_MAX are attenuations.

can be corrected with HO_MARGIN(0.MS_TXPWR_MAX Corrective factor to compensate for the difference of maximum power of each cell MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) .n) parameter (HO hysteresis).MS_TXPWR_MAX.n) 1. Only BS_TXPWR_MAX is defined (it is sent on the air interface). This condition is met in most cases. w As the first step of calculation is based on the downlink parameters.113 .MS_TXPWR_MAX = bts_max_power(n) bts_max_power which should be the case if delta_path_loss is equilibrated if not exact. the difference can be corrected by the operator with the HO_MARGIN(0.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. it is not easy for the evaluating BSC to know the maximum BS powers of the neighbor cells.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (5/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget PBGT(n) = AV_RXLEV_N CELL(n) − AV_RXLEV_P BGT_HO − (BS_TXPWR_ MAX − AV_BS_TXPW R_HO ) − (MS_TXPWR_ MAX(n) − MS_TWXPWR_ MAX) − PING_PONG_ MARGIN(n.113 w Then. call_ref) MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) maximum emitting power for the MS in neighbor cell n MS_TXPWR_MAX maximum emitting power for the MS in the serving cell MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) . If it is not the case. w PBGT <0: the serving cell is more advantageous than the current cell. w PBGT >0: the neighbor cell is more advantageous as the path loss is lower than in the current cell. the GSM does not specify formally the maximum BS power of the neighbor cells. another correction factor must be taken into account because the maximum BS powers of the serving and neighbor cells may be different: ∆ TXPWR= MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) . this correction factor should be based on the maximum BS powers used in the serving and neighbor cells. © Alcatel University .2.02 Page 1. w The use of the maximum MS powers requires that the difference of MS powers is equal to the difference of BS powers. w Two reasons (which are not completely de-correlated) for not using the BS powers can be envisaged: for a given cell.

this cell belongs to the same BSC as the serving cell. which is an oscillating back and forth handover between two (or three) cells.n) can also be used to correct delta_path_loss “Dynamic” penalty for call coming from cell n: ping_pong_margin(n. or if the call has just performed a forced directed retry.2. w PING_PONG_MARGIN(n. the call has not performed a forced directed retry towards the serving cell.02 Page 1. less than T_HCP seconds have elapsed since the last handover.114 w The main drawback of this handover category is the risk of "ping-pong " effect.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. if the algorithms have a too sensitive reaction.114 .call_ref) = 0 © Alcatel University .call_ref) is a penalty put on the cell n if: it is the immediately precedent cell on which the call has been. the variation of the radio conditions will trigger a big amount of better cell handovers. Hence. call_ref) Hysteresis to avoid ping-pong HO Static hysteresis defined for each couple of cells: HO_MARGIN (0.call_ref) penalty applied during a limited duration: T_HCP not used if call arrived with a forced directed retry penalty defined on a cell basis 1. or if the preceding cell was external. In this case PING_PONG_MARGIN(n.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (6/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget PBGT(n) = AV_RXLEV_N CELL(n) − AV_RXLEV_P BGT_HO − (BS_TXPWR_ MAX − AV_BS_TXPW R_HO ) − (MS_TXPWR_ MAX(n) − MS_TWXPWR_ MAX) − PING_PONG_ MARGIN(n. or if the timer T_HCP has expired. As the "better cell" handovers are meant to find the "best cell". then PING_PONG_MARGIN(n. in order to prevent these oscillations from occurring repeatedly at given places. some mechanisms are forecast.call_ref) = PING_PONG_HCP w If the call was not precedently on cell n.

w But.115 .2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (7/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget ping_pong_margin example Case 2: ping-pong in normal case OK with ping_pong_margin Case 3: Not a ping-pong case OK with ping_pong_margin and T_HCP Case 1: OK 1. © Alcatel University . Tuning PING_PONG_HCP parameter is thus very important. never forget that anti-ping-pong mechanism distorts the serving areas of the cells.115 w This chart shows the efficiency of the anti-ping_pong mechanism. based on T_INHIBIT_CPT timer). w This is why interference problems might occur when enabling this mechanism. w Warning: this mechanism is not applied for emergency handovers (new mechanism in B7 exists for capture HO.02 Page 1.

02 Page 1.n)) (n=1…BTSnum) Then PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(0.116 . This is why there are two equations according to the activation of HO cause 23 (EN_TRAFFIC_HO).2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.n) + OFFSET_HO_MARGIN_INNER Else PBGT(n) > HO _MARGIN(0.n)=ENABLE + max(0. DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.n) + OFFSET_HO_MARGIN_INNER AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO ≤ RXLEV_LIMIT_PBGT_HO EN_PBGT_HO = ENABLE AND AND Size of window for level averaging: A_PBGT_HO 1.116 w Cause 12 HO is correlated with HO cause 23. © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (8/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget If EN_TRAFFIC_HO(0.

there is no need to perform an HO.02 Page 1. w How? With a modification of the power budget triggering cause. w Therefore.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (9/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget Mechanism to avoid PBGT HO if the level from the serving cell is high enough RXLEV_LIMIT_PBGT_HO: threshold above which it is not necessary to trigger a handover on power budget AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO: average of the received levels over A_PBGT_HO measurements Specific to particular algorithms (not mentioned in this course) OFFSET_HO_MARGIN_INNER: offset which allows to take into account the radio differences between outer and inner zones (especially in case of multi-band cells) 1.2. w Why? Especially in microcellular environment (where cell radius is smaller). the Alcatel BSS tunes the number of handovers performed to the accurate need by taking into account the level received by the serving cell.117 . the best trade-off between quality of speech and intempestive handovers is achieved. W/O B6 WITH B6 © Alcatel University . w In very dense networks. w Consequence: Less HOs when the number of overlapping cells is high. w Principles: HO cause 12 (Power Budget HO) is modified and takes into account the received downlink level of the serving cell (new criterion): if the received level is high enough. Since B6. But it is necessary to maintain the better cell HO. especially in the microcellular environment. there is a lot of overlapping between adjacent cells: a better cell handover will be realized very often.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. the better cell HO (based on Power Budget) is likely to be performed at a high rate to the detriment of the quality.117 w RXLEV_LIMIT_PBGT_HO: Dense Network Handover Regulator features w The feature aims at optimizing the better cell handovers.

02 Page 1. BS_TXPWR_MAX and MS_TXPWR_MAX in equation must be replaced by BS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER and MS_TXPWR_MAX_INNER respectively. the formulation of equation is not changed.DELTA_DEC_HO_margin If Traffic_load(0) = low and Traffic_load(n) = high. Note: In the case of concentric or multiband cells.n) = . w When the traffic in the serving cell is high and is low in the cell n: DELTA_INC_HO_margin allows to penalize the cause 12 detection when the traffic in the serving cell is low and is high in the cell n.n) = DELTA_INC_HO_margin Else DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0. © Alcatel University .n)=0 where DELTA_DEC_HO_margin allows the cause 23 (traffic handover) detection.2. DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0. 1.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (10/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget Specific to traffic considerations DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0. if the channel is in the inner zone (ZONE_TYPE = INNER).n)= DELTA_INC_HO_margin else DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.118 w DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0. Note: The value of PBGT(n) is calculated every SACCH period for each neighbor cell n whose measures are kept in the book-keeping list.n): evaluated according to the traffic situation of the serving cell and the neighbor cell n (Traffic_load(n)) in the following way: If Traffic_load(0) = high and Traffic_load(n) = low.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.n) = 0 Philosophy This mechanism aims at penalizing cause 12 detection when the traffic in the serving cell is low and is high in the cell n.n) is evaluated according to the traffic situation of the serving cell and the neighbor cell n (Traffic_load(n)) in the following way: If Traffic_load(0)=high and Traffic_load(n)=low DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.118 .n)= -DELTA_DEC_HO_margin If Traffic_load(0)=low and Traffic_load(n)=high DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0. If the channel is in the outer zone (ZONE_TYPE = OUTER).

2.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12: Power Budget (11/11) ▼ CAUSE 12: Power budget Traffic_load() is a function managed for every cell of a BSC Traffic_load() can have three values: high: cell is loaded low: cell is unloaded indefinite: cell is neither loaded nor unloaded Traffic_load() value is modified according to the long term traffic evaluation algorithm using the following parameters: A_TRAFFIC_LOAD.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.119 w TCH_INFO_PERIOD = 5s period used by the BSC to count the number of free TCHs. IND_TRAFFIC_LOAD. © Alcatel University . HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD.119 . LOW_TRAFFIC_LOAD: can be modified per cell TCH_INFO_PERIOD: cannot be modified Annex 3 1. N_TRAFFIC_LOAD.

w Cause 23 is checked over all the neighboring cells belonging to the same layer. the power budget will increase and a better cell handover will be triggered earlier. w This cause is inhibited for handover from SDCCH to SDCCH.n) = ENABLE (n=1…BTSnum) Size of window for level averaging: A_PBGT_HO New condition for multiband cells in B8 (see comments) 1. between cells whose CELL_LAYER_TYPE is lower. the cell frequency band condition for checking Cause 23 is as follows whether or not the MS is in the inner zone of a multi-band cell: a) The MS is not in the inner zone of a multi-band cell If the flag EN_MULTI-BAND_PBGT_HO is set to “disabled”. and between cells whose CELL_LAYER_TYPE is indoor. These cells do not have enough resources to receive incoming handovers due to congestion of neighbor cells. w In addition to the condition on the cell layer type. b) The MS is in the inner zone of a multi-band cell If the flag EN_MULTI-BAND_PBGT_HO is set to “disabled”.02 Page 1.n) < 0dB 2.e cells having different CELL_BAND_TYPE).B8 ▼ CAUSE 23: Traffic Handover DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.n) AND EN_TRAFFIC_HO(0. Cause 23 will be checked over all the neighboring cells without any cell frequency band restriction. w When the mobile moves away from the BTS. w It is recommended to inhibit Traffic handover towards 1-TRX cells. Cause 23 must not be checked between cells which use different frequency bands (i.120 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Moreover because of the great variation of traffic in the 1-TRX cells. Cause 23 is checked over all the neighboring cell multi-band cells (FREQUENCY_RANGE= PGSM-DCS1800 or EGSM-DCS1800) which belong to the same BSC as the serving cell. It means that it is checked between cells whose CELL_LAYER_TYPE is single or upper.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 23: Traffic (1/2) AND PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(0.n) + OFFSET_HO_MARGIN_INNER + DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0. © Alcatel University . Cause 23 will be checked over all the neighboring cells without any cell frequency band restriction. If the flag EN_MULTI-BAND_PBGT_HO is set to “enabled”.120 w The principle of this handover is to reduce the size of the serving cell when it is high-loaded relatively to a low-loaded cell. traffic load is never considered as low. If the flag EN_MULTI-BAND_PBGT_HO is set to “enabled”.

n) computation is already described in Cause 12 HO DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.121 . this cause is triggered before cause 12 1.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 23: Traffic (2/2) DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.n) < 0dB means that The serving cell is loaded The target cell is unloaded PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN(0.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 ▼ CAUSE 23: Traffic Handover 2.n) (n=1…BTSnum) This constraint is less discriminative than Cause 12 In specific traffic distribution.121 © Alcatel University .n) + OFFSET_HO_MARGIN_INNER + DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.

© Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 2.122 .5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 12 & 23 interworking ▼ Cause 12 & 23: A dynamic way to handle traffic load 1.122 w The figure represents the triggering areas of PBGT and traffic handovers according to the traffic load in the serving cell and in the neighbor cell.02 Page 1.

the MS is allocated an SPCCH ▼ If no TCH is available.5 Handover Detection Directed Retry principles ▼ Directed Retry is: an SDCCH to TCH intercell handover Triggered during call setup procedure ▼ If the serving cell is completely congested.123 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. the MS is queued Under certain conditions.123 © Alcatel University .2) 1.2. the MS obtains TCH in another cell ▼ SDCCH-TCH handover on: better condition or emergency causes = Directed Retry cause 20 = Forced Directed Retry ▼ Internal and External Directed Retries are possible (since B6.02 Page 1.

11 and 13 (concentric cells) and causes 15 and 16 (intracell HO)) candidate cell evaluation process: same as for TCH HO 1.5 Handover Detection Directed Retry ▼ Directed Retry Set on a per cell basis with parameter EN_DR Same behavior as TCH HO Intercell handover causes are checked (i.e.124 © Alcatel University .2.02 Page 1. all HO causes except 10.124 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

125 © Alcatel University .2.5 Handover Detection Forced Directed Retry: cause 20 ▼ CAUSE 20: Forced Directed Retry AV_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) > L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) And EN_FORCED_DR = ENABLE EN_FORCED_DR value is only relevant if EN_DR = true AV_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) is calculated with A_PBGT_DR window if less than A_PBGT_DR samples are available.02 Page 1. the average value is calculated with the available samples and the averaging window is filled in with -110 dBm 1.125 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) .AV_RXLEV_PBGT_DR .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.(BS_TXPWR_MAX .MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) .2.BS_TXPWR) .MS_TXPWR_MAX) 1.n).5 Handover Detection FDR: Candidate cell evaluation ▼ Pre-ranking using PREF_LAYER. PRIORITY(0. frequency band ▼ Filtering process AV_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) > RXLEVmin(n) +max(0.P) Number of free TCHs t(n) > FREElevel_DR(n) ▼ Remaining cells are sorted according their PBGT_DR(n) (averaging window A_PBGT_DR) PBGT_DR(n) = AV_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) .126 .126 © Alcatel University .

02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection FDR: parameters ▼ L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n): level required in the neighbor cell n The parameter considered is the one set in the neighbor cell The default value depends on network architecture See next slide ▼ Freelevel_DR(n): number of free TCH channels required in the neighbor cell n The parameter considered is the one set in the neighbor cell Default value = 0 to 4 TCHs (linked to the nb of TRXs) ▼ A_PBGT_DR: Averaging window Default value = 4 SACCHs 1.2.127 © Alcatel University .127 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

etc.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.128 © Alcatel University . 1.128 . band. whatever its type.B8 ▼ CAUSE 24: general capture capture handover 2.5 Handover Detection Cause 24: general capture Modified in B8:Inhibition of capture handovers for “Single layer serving cell” May be triggered From all cells Towards all cells except serving Can be used to capture traffic by any cell.02 Page 1.

i. [MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) . CELL_LAYER_TYPE(n–1) = lower or indoor. CELL_BAND_TYPE(n–1) <> CELL_BAND_TYPE(n0).e. i.02 Page 1. HIGH. or the frequency band of the immediately preceding cell n-1 is different from the frequency band of the serving cell n0. If Conditions 1 and 2 are fulfilled the timer T_INHIBIT_CPT is started © Alcatel University . NOT_LOW Anti ping-pong: not checked if T_INHIBIT_CPT is running – new in B8 for single layer 1. 4.B8 ▼ CAUSE 24: general capture 2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.P]) Traffic_load(0) = CAPTURE_TRAFFIC_CONDITION Traffic_load(n) ≠ HIGH EN_GENERAL_CAPTURE_HO = ENABLE Size of window for averaging level: A_PBGT_HO CAPTURE_TRAFFIC_CONDITION can take 3 values: ANY_LOAD (default).129 .129 w Case the serving cell is in the upper or single layer (CELL_LAYER_TYPE(n0) = upper or single): w Condition 1: The immediately preceding cell n-1 is in the indoor or lower layer. w Condition 2: The call has previously performed i) an emergency internal handover on quality (Cause 2.e.n) + max (0.5 Handover Detection Cause 24: general capture and and and AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > L_RXLEV_CPT_HO(0. and 7) towards the serving cell or ii) an external handover with the A interface GSM cause “uplink quality or downlink quality” and there is a bi-directional adjacency link between the preceding external cell n-1and the serving cell n0.

setting FREElevel_DR(n) to 255 for an external cell inhibits outgoing external fast traffic handover towards this cell.130 AV_RXLEV_NCELL( n) > L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR( n) + max(0.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 28: Fast Traffic HO (1/4) ▼ CAUSE 28: Fast Traffic HO Push out of a cell a mobile in dedicated mode to allow a queued request to be served in the serving cell Complement the current traffic HO (Cause 23). It should be greater than RXLEVmin(n). And t(n) > FREElevel_DR(n) FREElevel_DR(n) is the minimum threshold of free TCHs in the neighbor cell n for forced directed retry and fast traffic handover. t(n) is the absolute number of free (dual rate) TCHs in the neighbor cell n. © Alcatel University .2. Setting FREElevel_DR(n) to any other value will allow outgoing external fast traffic handover towards this cell.[MS_TXPWR_MAX( n)-P]) The threshold L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) is the observed level from the neighbor cell n at the border of the area where fast traffic handovers are enabled. EN_CAUSE_28 = enable The flag EN_CAUSE_28 is not an OMC flag but a HOP flag. This threshold fixes the size of the overlapping area where fast traffic handovers can be performed.130 .02 Page 1. t( n) is fixed to the arbitrary value t(n) = 255. For external cells.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. for sudden traffic peaks (no averaging window used) More efficient where the overlap of adjacent cells is reduced New call attempt Most appropriate MS to be pushed out HO Congested cell New call attempt H O Upper Layer Cell Most appropriated MS to be pushed out 1. Therefore.

131 © Alcatel University .2.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 28: Fast Traffic HO (2/4) ▼ CAUSE 28: Fast Traffic Handover Cause 28 is only checked if the channel of the candidate MS can support the channel rate (HR or FR) required by the queued request: QUEUED R EQUEST HR FR C ANDID ATE MS HR or FR on dual rate TR X FR (whatever the TR X type) HO is triggered when a request is queued at the top of the queue 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.131 .

132 © Alcatel University .[MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P]) t(n) > FREElevel_DR(n) EN_CAUSE_28 = ENABLE EN_FAST_TRAFFIC_HO = ENABLE AND AND AND Size of window for averaging level: A_PBGT_DR Same thresholds and window as Cause 20 (Forced Directed Retry) EN_CAUSE_28 is an internal HOP process variable 1.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 28: Fast Traffic HO (3/4) ▼ CAUSE 28: Fast Traffic Handover equation AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) + max(0.2.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.132 .

the flag EN_CAUSE_28 is set to “disable” so as not to perform more than one handover. enough free resources in the target cell) are checked one more time. the RAM process asks the HOP process to start HO for this mobile. the first two conditions of Cause 28 (good enough level. If that is so. the HOP process gets back to the RAM process a Fast Traffic HO Acknowledge which contains the queued request reference and the reference of the MS that can perform HO. If several answers are sent to the RAM process. otherwise the process is stopped. In the same time. otherwise the process is stopped. If the conditions are fulfilled. only the first one corresponding to the queued request is taken into account. Once the HOP process receives this message.133 w HO cause 28 process: If EN_FAST_TRAFFIC_HO = enable. when an assignment request (or external emergency HO request) is queued.2. HO cause 28 becomes checkable (EN_CAUSE_28=enable).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Then. Once an HO alarm for cause 28 is triggered. © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.133 .5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 28: Fast Traffic HO (4/4) ▼ CAUSE 28: Fast Traffic Handover process Resource Allocation Management Assignment request queued Handover Preparation Fast Traffic HO Request Queued request reference Channel rate of queued request EN_CAUSE_28=enable Handover Management HO alarm Cause 28? Fast Traffic HO Acknowledge Queued request reference Reference of MS can perform HO YES NO Request still queued? EN_CAUSE_28=disable Start HO Cause number (28) END NO YES Reference of the call to handover (which corresponds to the first candidate MS received) Check first 2 OK conditions of Cause 28 NOK END T_FILTER is started 1. the RAM process sends to the HOP process a Fast Traffic HO request which contains the queued request reference and its channel rate. Note: the first two conditions of cause 28 are tested twice in order to be sure that the candidate cells are still valid when the « cause 28 start HO » message is received from the RAM process. the HOP process sends an alarm to the HOM entity and the timer T_FILTER is started . The RAM process checks if the request is still queued.

02 Page 1.134 .5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 15: UL Interference ▼ CAUSE 15: High interference on the uplink Intracell HO AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO > THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_15 + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH AND AV_RXLEV_UL_HO > RXLEV_UL_IH AND EN_CAUSE_15 = ENABLE AND [ no previous intracell handover for this connection failed OR EN_INTRACELL_REPEATED = ENABLE ] Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_HO Size of window for averaging level: A_LEV_HO 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.134 w THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_15 and EN_CAUSE_15 are not parameters but variables defined just after. w In B7: New causes (26 & 27) introduced due to AMR support Cause 26 is an emergency condition: Intracell HO: speech codec from AMR-HR to AMR-FR Cause 27 is a better condition Intracell HO: speech codec from AMR-FR to AMR-HR Causes 15 & 16 are modified due to AMR support Specifics enablers and thresholds for AMR calls AMR emergency HO (cause 26) is triggered if cause 15 or 16 has already been triggered Cause 29 is created for intracell handover due to TFO Codec sharing and optimization for MTM calls © Alcatel University .2.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection Handover Cause 15: DL Interference ▼ CAUSE 16: High interference on the downlink Intracell HO AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO > THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_16 + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH AND AV_RXLEV_DL_HO > RXLEV_DL_IH AND EN_CAUSE_16 = ENABLE AND [ no previous intracell handover for this connection failed OR EN_INTRACELL_REPEATED = ENABLE ] Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_HO Size of window for averaging level: A_LEV_HO 1.135 .135 w THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_16 and EN_CAUSE_16 are not parameters but variables defined after. © Alcatel University .2.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. it can be modified as UPLINK (or DOWLINK) QUALITY. the thresholds used are identical to the ones used for CAUSE 2 and CAUSE 4. w In this case and if EN_INTRACELL_REPEATED = DISABLE.02 Page 1.136 . when aN HO CAUSE 15 (or 16) fails. © Alcatel University .136 w XX = UL or DL w For a non AMR call. HO CAUSE 2 (respectively HO CAUSE 4).2.5 Handover Detection New parameters for causes 15 & 16 ▼ CAUSE 15 and CAUSE 16: THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_15 (or 16) and EN_CAUSE_15 (or 16) are specific to HOP THR_RXQUAL_CAUSE_15 (or 16) = L_RXQUAL_XX_H for a non AMR call (same threshold as CAUSE 2 or CAUSE 4) L_RXQUAL_XX_H_AMR for an AMR call EN_ CAUSE _15 (or 16) = EN_INTRA_XX for a non AMR call EN_INTRA_XX_AMR for an AMR call 1.

to increase network capacity.137 w Speech coding contains speech information (the “useful” part). w Channel coding protects speech information (against radio degradations). • Increase network capacity by offering a good half rate solution. GSM has specified a half rate speech codec. It has been specified more than 10 years ago.6 Kbit/s (HR) 22. especially for mobile to mobile calls (double transcoding degrades very much the speech quality of the half rate codec) and under poor radio conditions.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Adaptive Multi-rate codec (AMR) ▼ Principles: Two consecutive encodings: speech coding and channel coding With current codecs.4 Kbit/s (HR TS) Audio Speech coding Speech information “useful part” Channel coding Speech protection “against degradation” Radio 1. Around 1992. But this codec showed strong limitations in terms of speech quality. w The main speech codec currently used in GSM networks. the share of each coding is FIXED (not optimized) 13 Kbit/s (FR) 12. speech Full Rate.2 Kbit/s (EFR) 5. studies on AMR have been launched to provide a solution to: • Increase speech quality in full rate and half rate.02 Page 1. is quite old.2.137 . to avoid adding more and more codecs handled independently from the others. w Recently. © Alcatel University .8 Kbit/s (FR TS) 11. • Use a long-term solution.

only a subset out of these 8 codecs is used. metric used: C/I (Carrier over interference ratio). w Full Rate: Alcatel implementation is fully compliant with GSM recommendations. metric used: RX_QUAL uplink and downlink. protects speech information.4 6. he can define a codec subset limited to the common codec modes supported by all the BSSs of its network (some BSSs may not be able to support all of them due to implementability problems).9 and 4. All these AMR FR codec modes are supported. It is up to the operator to define its own codec subset. When radio conditions are bad.75 22. In particular.138 . increases speech information.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University . 5.2 10.75 codec mode which uses polynomials of constraint length 7 to ensure a high protection. In particular.95.2 7.9 5.95 is not supported) which are fully compliant with GSM recommendations. w Half Rate: Alcatel implementation supports 5 out of 6 AMR HR codec modes (AMR HR 7. The subset can include from 1 to 4 codecs.95 not supported Audio Speech coding Variable speech coding rate Channel coding Variable channel coding rate Radio Choice between FR and HR Codecs: Channel Mode Adaptation 1. The codec subset defined by the operator is the same in the uplink and in the downlink. the Alcatel BSS has implemented the 4.95 7.2.138 w In order to adapt the intermediate rate. the Alcatel BSS has implemented the 7. w Codec Mode adaptation: dynamic change from one codec to another.4 Kbit/s (HR TS) AMR HR 7. a set of speech codecs has been defined by ETSI to be used by AMR: When radio conditions are good.5 Handover Detection AMR: codec and channel adaptation AMR uses a variable balance between speech coding and channel coding (CODEC Mode Adaptation) 12.7 5. w Channel Mode adaptation: change from one FR channel to an HR one and vice-versa independently from the codec mode. using the same channel (FR or HR).8 Kbit/s (FR TS) 11. In particular. w During a call.75 codec modes which use polynomials of constraint length 7 to ensure a high protection.15 4.02 Page 1.

In the channel coding.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Speech Quality [dBQ] or [MOS] High bit rate (for example 12. w The codec used in the uplink and used in the downlink can be different: the adaptation is independent in each direction. 5. to use the one with the best speech quality. w This permits to use an optimal codec for each C/I value of each direction. 7. but this information can be well protected due to redundancy in the channel coding.90) C/I [dB] © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.90 kbit/s) AMR-FR with codec subset (12. Under poor radio conditions. a codec with a high bit rate is used. Under good radio conditions. only little place is left for redundancy. taking into account the C/I measured by the BTS (for uplink adaptation) and by the MS (for downlink adaptation). Speech is encoded with less information.139 w The AMR principle is to have a set of codecs and. as indicated in the figure below. a codec with a low bit rate is chosen.5 Handover Detection AMR codec adaptation objective Based on adaptive trade-off between the share of throughput given to speech coding and the one given to channel coding (speech protection) Depends on radio conditions estimated in real-time Medium radio conditions Bad radio conditions Good radio conditions Speech coding = speech information Channel coding = speech protection 1.95.95 kbit/s) Low bit rate (for example 5.2. for any radio conditions. Speech is encoded with more information so the quality is better. w The BSS adapts dynamically the codec in uplink direction and in downlink direction.2.139 .2 kbit/s: EFR) Medium bit rate (for example 7.

02 Page 1. the BTS compares C/I value to the threshold corresponding to the current codec (belonging to the codec subset defined by the operator) Downlink codec mode adaptation: Same process as uplink adaptation Nevertheless.5 Handover Detection AMR: codec mode adaptation (1/3) ▼ Codec mode adaptation Only a subset out of these codecs can be used This subset may include from 1 to 4 codecs The same codec subset is used for both the Uplink and the Downlink Uplink codec mode adaptation: For each SACCH frame.2.140 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.140 . the BTS remains the master Unrelated processes ⇒ uplink and downlink codecs may be different at a given time 1.

141 © Alcatel University .141 .2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. for the uplink and the C/Inorm downlink High AMR_FR_THR_3 + AMR_FR_HYST AMR_FR_THR_3 CODEC_MODE_3 AMR_FR_THR_2 + AMR_FR_HYST AMR_FR_THR_2 CODEC_MODE_2 AMR_FR_THR_1 + AMR_FR_HYST AMR_FR_THR_1 CODEC_MODE_1 (most robust) CODEC_MODE_4 (less robust) Low 1. ▼ Decision based on thresholds (OMC-R settable).5 Handover Detection AMR codec mode adaptation (2/3) ▼ The Codec mode can be modified on one frame out of two (CMI / CMC-CMR).02 Page 1.

2.142 .5 Handover Detection AMR: codec mode adaptation (3/3) ▼ Codec mode adaptation Uplink adaptation MS BTS C/I evaluation & thresholds comparison Codec Mode Command (new codec mode) Codec Mode Indication (new codec mode) TC Codec Mode Indication (new codec mode) Downlink adaptation MS C/I evaluation & thresholds comparison Codec Mode Request (new codec mode) BTS TC Codec Mode Request (new codec mode) Codec Mode Indication (new codec mode) Codec Mode Indication (new codec mode) 1.142 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

5 Handover Detection AMR: codec and channel mode adaptation ▼ Codec mode adaptation is dynamically performed through a set of pre-defined “codec modes”: 12. It is transparent for the BSC and the layer 3 of the BTS. This adaptation is performed by the layer 1 of the BTS.4 Kbit/s (HR TS) Speech coding Variable speech coding rate Channel coding To end of chain ▼ Choice between HR and FR (Channel mode adaptation) is done at call setup and during call through HO causes 26 & 27 1.15 4. using the same channel (FR or HR).9 5. w The metric used for codec mode adaptation is the evaluation of the ratio: signal over noise.2 7.15 4.8 Kbit/s (FR TS) From acoustic parts Speech coding Variable speech coding rate Channel coding 7.75 22.7 5.9 5.4 6.95 7.2 In FR mode: 10.143 .143 w Codec mode adaptation: w The codec mode adaptation is the dynamic change from one codec to another codec.7 5.4 6.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.75 To end of chain In HR mode: From acoustic parts 11.02 Page 1.2. © Alcatel University .

w A few years later. But this codec showed strong limitations in terms of speech quality. EFR was specified for GSM.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. • Take into account Tandem Free Operation (TFO).144 . Indeed speech quality was a major argument for customers used to have a good speech quality with analog systems. especially between MSs on half rate on one side and on full rate on the other side. to increase network capacity.5 Handover Detection AMR gain ▼ AMR: always gives end user the best satisfaction Comparison between different codecs in terms of capacity and quality: SPEECH QUALITY REQUIREMENT FR EFR HR AMR-FR AMR-HR AMR-FR + AMR-HR CAPACITY REQUIREMENT ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ ☺ 1.2. • Use a long-term solution.144 w The main speech codec currently used in GSM networks. speech Full Rate. For that issue. studies on AMR have been launched to provide a solution to: • Increase speech quality in full rate and half rate. w Around 1992. when GSM started to be introduced in North America.02 Page 1. is quite old. It has been specified more than 10 years ago. © Alcatel University . • Increase network capacity by offering a good half rate solution. GSM has specified a half rate speech codec. w Recently. to avoid adding more and more codecs handled independently from the others. American operators asked for an improved speech codec for full rate channels. especially for mobile to mobile calls (double transcoding degrades very much the speech quality of the half rate codec) and under poor radio conditions.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. As a consequence. if the load of the cell increases.2. AMR HR capable MSs can be the first to be allocated in HR (HR SV3) for load reasons. w AMR HR (HR SV3) offers a better speech quality than HR SV1. This is why two variables of load are defined: LOAD_SV3 and LOAD_SV1. w Therefore cell load process has a periodicity of 1mn by default (TCH_INFO_PERIOD*LOAD_EV_PERIOD). and if the load still increases. w LOAD_EV_PERIOD is the averaging window size for cell load computation. and if the load still increases. w Each load variable is calculated through its own threshold set: the thresholds related to the variable LOAD_SV3 (THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV3 and THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV3) are less restrictive than the ones related to the variable LOAD_SV1 (THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV1 and THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV1). then all the HR capable MSs can be allocated in HR (HR SV1 & HR SV3) for load reasons. then the variable LOAD_SV3 will first equal TRUE.145 w Load samples are computed by the BSC every TCH_INFO_PERIOD = 5 seconds. w The allocation of Half rate resources is decided upon the load evaluation in the serving cell. the variable LOAD_SV1 will then equal TRUE.5 Handover Detection AMR: TCH allocation ▼ FR / HR discrimination cell load AV_LOAD() computed from load samples = NB_BUSY_TS / NB_TS * 100 non sliding window (LOAD_EV_PERIOD) averaging process AV_LOAD() 100% THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV1 = 80% THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV3 =60% THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV1 =50% THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV3 =40% time 1.145 . Previous state LOAD_SV1 where LOAD_SV1 = many w The variable LOAD_SV1 corresponds to a level of load= FALSE it is important to put asTRUE MSs on half rate TCH as AV_LOAD possible: HR SV3 or HR SV1. AV_LOAD ≤ THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV1 THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV1 < AV_LOAD ≤ THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV1 THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV1 < AV_LOAD LOAD_SV1 = FALSE LOAD_SV1 = FALSE LOAD_SV1 = FALSE LOAD_SV1 = TRUE LOAD_SV1 = TRUE LOAD_SV1 = TRUE w The same computation is done to compute LOAD_SV3 with the thresholds: THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV3 and THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV3 with the following relations: THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV3 ≤ THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV3 THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV3 ≤ THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV1 THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV3 ≤ THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV1 © Alcatel University . It is equal to 12 but can be changed at the OMC-R level on a per cell basis. The Alcatel BSS offers thus the possibility to define a set of thresholds specific for AMR.02 Page 1. If the load increases.

5 Handover Detection Cause 26: AMR HR to FR HO (1/4) ▼ CAUSE 26: AMR channel adaptation HO (HR to FR) Cause 26 is triggered if : Current channel rate is HR Current channel is dual rate and changes are allowed AMR_FR speech codec is allowed: EN_AMR_FR = ENABLE 1.146 .146 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2.02 Page 1.

02 Page 1.147 .147 © Alcatel University .2.5 Handover Detection Cause 26: AMR HR to FR HO (2/4) ▼ CAUSE 26: AMR channel adaptation HO (HR to FR) equation [ a previous intracell HO cause 15 or 16 has been triggered for this call in the serving cell OR EN_INTRA_DL_AMR = DISABLE and EN_INTRA_UL_AMR = DISABLE ] AND AV_RXQUAL_UL_CA_HR_FR > THR_RXQUAL_CA + OFFSET_CA + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH and AV_RXLEV_UL_HO > RXLEV_UL_IH OR AV_RXQUAL_DL_CA_HR_FR > THR_RXQUAL_CA + OFFSET_CA + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH and AV_RXLEV_DL_HO > RXLEV_DL_IH AND EN_AMR_CA = ENABLE Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_CA_HR_FR 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

148 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.148 .2.5 Handover Detection Cause 26: AMR HR to FR HO (3/4) ▼ CAUSE 26: AMR channel adaptation HO (HR to FR) THR_RXQUAL_CA and OFFSET_CA are set as follows : if LOAD_SV3(0) = false then THR_RXQUAL_CA = THR_RXQUAL_CA_NORMAL OFFSET_CA = OFFSET_CA_NORMAL if LOAD_SV3(0) = true then THR_RXQUAL_CA = THR_RXQUAL_CA_HIGH OFFSET_CA = OFFSET_CA_HIGH 1.

149 © Alcatel University .149 .2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection Cause 26: AMR HR to FR HO (4/4) ▼ CAUSE 26: AMR channel adaptation HO (HR to FR) Calculation of LOAD_SV3(0): If previous value of LOAD_SV3 = false then if AV_LOAD > THR_FR_LOAD_U_SV3 then LOAD_SV3 = true else LOAD_SV3 = false Else (if previous value of LOAD_SV3 = true then) if AV_LOAD <= THR_FR_LOAD_L_SV3 then LOAD_SV3 = false else LOAD_SV3 = true Annex 3 1.

5 Handover Detection Cause 27: AMR FR to HR HO (1/2) ▼ CAUSE 27: AMR channel adaptation HO (FR to HR) ▼ Cause 27 is triggered if : Current channel rate is FR Current channel is dual rate and changes are allowed AMR_HR speech codec is allowed: EN_AMR_HR = ENABLE 1.2.150 .02 Page 1.150 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

151 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.151 © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Cause 27: AMR FR to HR HO (2/2) ▼ CAUSE 27: AMR channel adaptation HO (FR to HR) equation AV_RXQUAL_UL_CA_FR_HR <= THR_RXQUAL_CA + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH AND AV_RXQUAL_DL_CA_FR_HR <= THR_RXQUAL_CA + OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH AND EN_AMR_CA = ENABLE Size of window for averaging quality: A_QUAL_CA_FR_HR 1.02 Page 1.2.

152 .02 Page 1.152 © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Cause 26 & 27 interworking ▼ Cause 26 & 27 interaction Quality good quality: 0 Half Rate HO cause 27 THR_RXQUAL_CA_NORMAL THR_RXQUAL_CA_NORMAL + OFFSET_CA_NORMAL Half Rate HO cause 26 THR_RXQUAL_CA_HIGH THR_RXQUAL_CA_HIGH + OFFSET_CA_HIGH HO cause 27 Full Rate HO cause 26 bad quality: 7 Load = FALSE Full Rate Load = TRUE 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2.

02 Page 1.2. w With TFO. one GSM codec type is used between the first mobile and the first transcoder. after call establishment. then the speech is transcoded into A/µ law between transcoders and finally this speech is transcoded again into a second GSM codec type (which may be the same as the first one) between the second transcoder and the second mobile.5 Handover Detection Introduction to TFO (1/2) ▼ Tandem Free Operation (TFO) solution TC TC Codec GSM (a) (8 or 16 Kbit/s) A/µ law (64 Kbit/s) Codec GSM (b) (8 or 16 Kbit/s) Double transcoding without TFO TC TC Codec GSM (8 or 16 Kbit/s) No transcoding with TFO 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.153 w The Tandem Free Operation (TFO) feature is a way to avoid double transcoding in mobile to mobile speech calls. both BSSs at each side are able to negotiate a common GSM codec type which is then used from one mobile to the other mobile. This negotiation is performed through in-band signaling between transcoders. © Alcatel University .153 . w Indeed without TFO.

TFO Messages .Original PCM speech samples on the MSB 1.154 .TFO Frames on the LSB containing .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Introduction to TFO (2/2) ▼ Applicability: Only MS to MS speech calls ▼ TFO is based on information exchanged between transcoders BTS BSC MSC IPE IPE MSC BSC BTS MS TRAU TRAU MS 64 kbit/s Speech Samples carrying .02 Page 1.Control bits .154 © Alcatel University .2.Compressed speech samples .

intra-BSS handover where no TFO was previously ongoing): New call setup Exchange of codec capabilities Codec mismatch No common codec found Common codec found Exchange of codec capabilities Intracell HO Normal operation Codec match Exchange of codec capabilities TFO mode ON 1.5 Handover Detection TFO principles ▼ In the case of first allocation (normal assignment at call setup.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1. interBSS handover.155 © Alcatel University .155 .2.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.156 .156 © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Cause 29: TFO HO ▼ CAUSE 29: TFO HO Intracell HO used in case of codec mismatch between two MSs calling.02 Page 1.2. in order to match their speech codec No radio measurements needed triggered at any time Conditions: HO_INTRACELL_ALLOWED = ENABLE AND EN_TFO_MATCH = ENABLE No priority and may be 1.

EFR is considered as better than FR. via the BTS. established with AMR to initiate a TFO negotiation and. to try to find a better codec type than the current one. This flag is forwarded to the TC. Codec mismatch resolution is authorized in the BSC using an O&M flag: EN_TFO_MATCH. Once both BSSs operate in Tandem Free.02 Page 1. w In-Path Equipments (IPEs): TFO can only be activated if TFO frames (at 8 or 16 Kbit/s) can be sent transparently through the public switching network. AMR is to allow a call. per cell ▼FORCE_TFO_VS_AMR enables/disables the basic functions of TFO for GSM EFR. a codec mismatch occurs.5 Handover Detection Cause 29: TFO parameters (1/5) ▼EN_TFO enables/disables the feature. In-path equipments are equipments such as echo cancelers or A/µ law converters that modify the 64 Kbit/s speech signal. © Alcatel University . This flag is forwarded to the TC. w Classification of codec types : In all cases.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.157 w Codec mismatch: At call setup for a mobile to mobile speech call. considered as better than HR. AMR : TFO + AMR is not supported in this implementation of TFO. w Force TFO vs. TFO is considered better as any tandeming configuration. either one or possibly both BSSs perform an intracell handover to use the common codec type found. via the BTS. it can occur that a first common codec type can be found but a better speech quality would be provided with another common codec type. per cell ▼EN_TFO_MATCH enables/disables resolution of codec mismatch. HR or EFR to establish TFO. to change of codec type to FR.2. if possible. In the normal operation. they exchange their complete codec capabilities. If a common codec type can be found. when both BSSs do not use the same codec type. Codec optimization is authorized in the BSC using an O&M flag : EN_TFO_OPT. Afterwards TFO can be started using this common codec type. The goal of the function Force TFO vs. a call established with AMR will not initiate a TFO negotiation. Such equipments need to be deactivated for TFO calls. In TFO. w Codec optimization: At call setup for a mobile to mobile speech call.157 . FR and HR codec types when the current codec is AMR FR or AMR HR ▼FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED controls the establishment of TFO in HR when the cell is loaded ▼KEEP_CODEC_HO indicates if the BSC tries to keep the same codec in case of internal intercell HO 1. per cell ▼EN_TFO_OPT enables/disables codec optimization.

02 Page 1.158 © Alcatel University . but FR is possible too HO cause 29 will be triggered on both sides towards best codec 1.2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Cause 29: TFO parameters (2/5) ▼ EN_TFO_OPT: enables/disables codec optimization. HR is used at both sides. per cell Allows new TFO negotiation on an on-going MTM call to find a better common codec For example.158 .

159 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection Cause 29: TFO parameters (3/5) ▼ FORCE_TFO_VS_AMR: TFO AMR not specified Call setup in AMR is not followed by TFO negotiation FORCE_TFO_VS_AMR enables HO cause 29 after AMR call establishment towards best TFO codec MS / cell cap: AMR/HR/EFR/FR MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR The MS using AMR.2.159 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. could use HR/EFR/FR DISABLED (ETSI implementation) ENABLED (Alcatel patent) FORCE_TFO_VS_AMR The MS can use HR/EFR/FR The MS can only use HR/EFR/FR The MS can use HR/EFR/FR TFO not possible EFR + TFO 1.

TFO_HR_ONLY. TFO 3 values: TFO_HR_NOT_FORCED.160 The MS can use HR/EFR/FR The MS can only use HR The MS can use HR/EFR/FR EFR + TFO HR + TFO © Alcatel University .2.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Cause 29: TFO parameters (4/5) ▼ FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED: Gives control on load regulation precedence vs.160 . TFO_HR_PREFERRED enable different behaviours in case of loaded cell Loaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR The MS can use HR/EFR/FR DISABLED (ETSI implementation) ENABLED (Alcatel patent) FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED 1.

161 © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Cause 29: TFO parameters (5/5) ▼ KEEP_CODEC_HO keeps the same codec type in the new cell in case of internal intercell HO in order to avoid resolving a new mismatch codec situation Avoids double speech quality transition: TFO --> non-TFO --> TFO 3 possible behaviors: TFO_CALLS_ONLY: codec is preferably kept in case of internal intercell HO for TFO calls only ALL_CALLS: codec is preferably kept in case of internal intercell HO for all calls (whatever the TFO state) FREE: the choice of the codec type is free and depends on the situation in the target cell 1.02 Page 1.2.161 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

we get the following list: Emergency: 7 > 17 > 18 > 2 > 4 > 3 > 5 > 6 > 22 > 10 > 11 > 26 > 15 > 16 Better conditions: 21=14=24=12=23 > 13 > 27 > 20 > 28 29 has no priority © Alcatel University . w Dealing with all available causes.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. 12 and 23 have the same priority. if a cell is a candidate for both causes.162 w The causes 24.162 . Nevertheless.2.02 Page 1. triggered in the same time.5 Handover Detection Handover causes priorities HANDOVER PRIORITIES EMERGENCY HANDOVER BETTER CONDITION HANDOVER UPLINK QUALITY CAUSE 2 CAPTURE HANDOVER CAUSE 24 DONWLINK QUALITY CAUSE 4 POWER BUDGET CAUSE 12 UPLINK LEVEL CAUSE 3 TRAFFIC CAUSE 23 DOWNLINK LEVEL CAUSE 5 OUTER UL/DL LEVEL CAUSE 13 DISTANCE CAUSE 6 FR to HR CHANNEL ADAPTATION CAUSE 27 Intracell TOO LOW LEVEL UL INNER CAUSE 10 FORCED DIRECTED RETRY CAUSE 20 FAST TRAFFIC HO CAUSE 28 TOO LOW LEVEL DL INNER CAUSE 11 HR to FR CHANNEL ADAPTATION CAUSE 26 Intracell UPLINK INTERFERENCE CAUSE 15 Intracell DONWLINK INTERFERENCE CAUSE 16 Intracell XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 1. it is kept only for cause 12.

What is the HO cause 2? 2.Which is the flag to activate the HO cause 2? Time allowed: 45 minutes 1.2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.163 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.163 .5 Handover Detection Training exercises (1/16) ▼Emergency causes 1.

69 33 6 QUAL 4 .> AV_RXQ UAL_UL_HO AV_RXLEV_UL_HO Current MS Power HO cause 2 : YES/NO ? 1 4 .02 Page 1.2.70 33 5 4 .164 © Alcatel University .164 .79 33 3 3 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (2/16) ▼Emergency causes Complete the diagram below and fill in the chart with: L_RXQUAL_UL_H = 3 RXLEV_UL_IH = -70 dBm ---> Nb of case --.75 33 4 4 .72 29 (0.81 33 2 1 .8 w) LEV 1.

75 4 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.n)=5 dB Serving cell MS Ncell Fill up the chart: Nb of case ---> AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO PBGT(n) HO cause 12: YES/NO ? 1 .02 Page 1.80 .75 5 .165 .79 6 .75 .165 © Alcatel University .70 .70 .96 1.70 3 .70 .n)=Disable No Ping-Pong margin HO_MARGIN(0.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (3/16) ▼Better condition causes (simple case) There are only 2W cells and 2W MS EN_TRAFFIC_HO(0.80 2 .2.70 .

166 .80 10 YES 2 .96 21 YES 1.166 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.n)=Disable Ping-Pong margin PING_PONG_HCP=15db Ncell Serving cell MS T_HCP =15s HO_MARGIN(0.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (4/16) ▼ Better condition causes (ping-pong case) EN_TRAFFIC_HO(0.70 .> 1 AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO PBGT(n) « a » only HO cause 12: YES/NO ? PBGT > HO margin PING_PONG_HCP=15 .70 .75 -5 NO 4 .70 0 NO 3 . what happens after 4s? ---> Nb of case --.n)=5 dB A_PBGT_HO = 8 SACCH A n to 0 HO has just been triggered.80 .> PBGT(n) HO cause 12: YES/NO ? .79 9 YES 6 .02 Page 1.70 .75 5 NO 5 .2.75 .70 .

167 .n)=5 dB DELTA_DEC_HO_margin=5dB DELTA_INC_HO_margin=5dB Serving cell MS Ncell 1.n)=Enable No Ping-Pong margin HO_MARGIN(0.167 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2.5 Handover Detection Training exercise (5/16) ▼Training exercise: Handover Detection Better condition causes (traffic case) EN_TRAFFIC_HO(0.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. n) Cause 12 HO: YES/NO? Cause 23 HO: YES/NO? 1 -71 dBm -80 dBm 0: tr low N: tr high 2 -71 dBm -80 dBm 0: tr high N: tr low 3 -76 dBm -80 dBm 0: tr high N: tr low 4 -71 dBm -80 dBm 0: tr low N: tr low 1.168 .2.02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (6/16) ▼Better condition causes (traffic case) Fill up the chart: Serving cell MS Ncell Number of case AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) AV_RXLEV_PBGT_HO Traffic distribution PBGT(n) DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.168 © Alcatel University .

use only HR calls for quality 0 .2.169 . use HR calls for qualities 0 to 3.Under normal load.02 Page 1.Under high load.169 © Alcatel University . with an hysteresis of 1 Find the thresholds and offsets for normal and high load: THR_RXQUAL_CA_NORMAL = ? THR_RXQUAL_CA_HIGH = ? OFFSET_CA_NORMAL = ? OFFSET_CA_HIGH = ? 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (7/16) ▼ Channel adaptation (cause 26 and cause 27) 12Why is it recommended to have A_QUAL_CA_FR_HR ≥ A_QUAL_CA_HR_FR ? An operator may be willing to: .

2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.170 .5 Handover Detection Training exercises (8/16) ▼Channel adaptation (cause 26 and cause 27) EN_INTRA_XX_AMR = Disable RXLEV_XX_IH = -110 dBm OFFSET_RXQUAL_FH = 0 A_QUAL_CA_FR_HR =4 and A_QUAL_CA_HR_FR = 2 Use the previous thresholds and fill up the chart: UL_QUAL DL_QUAL LOAD_SV3 AV_RXQUAL_UL_CA_HR_FR AV_RXQUAL_DL_CA_HR_FR AV_RXQUAL_UL_CA_FR_HR AV_RXQUAL_DL_CA_FR_HR CHANNEL TYPE 0 1 2 3 0 0 1 1 false false false false 3 1 true 1 0 true 1 0 true 0 2 true 0 4 true 1 3 true FR FR FR 1.170 © Alcatel University .

n) = -85dBm EN_GENERAL_CAPTURE_HO = ENABLE Ncell Fill up the chart: ---> Nb of case ---> 1 AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) CAPTURE_TRAFFIC_CONDITION TRAFFIC_LOAD(0) TRAFFIC_LOAD(n) 24: YES/NO HO cause 24: YES/NO ? .02 Page 1.171 .70 HIGH LOW LOW 6 -85 HIGH HIGH LOW ANY_LOAD INDEFINITE INDEFINITE 1.80 Serving cell MS 4 .2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.171 © Alcatel University .70 NOT_LOW HIGH HIGH 2 .5 Handover Detection Training exercises (9/16) ▼capture HO (Cause 24 ) There are only 2W cells and 2W MS L_RXLEV_CPT_HO(0.70 HIGH HIGH LOW 5 .70 HIGH LOW LOW 3 .

172 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.172 .2. MS3 FR on Dual rate TRX t(n) for neighbor cells: t(1)=1.02 Page 1. MS2 HR.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (10/16) ▼Fast Traffic HO (cause 28) Find the appropriate candidate MS for this queued request: Channel rate required: HR L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) = -85 dBm (whatever n) FREElevel_DR(n) = 1 (whatever n) Channel rate: MS1 FR on Full rate TRX. t(2)=2. t(3)=2 AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) in dBm: Neighbors 1 2 3 MS 1 -82 -79 -90 2 -85 -86 -82 3 -78 -92 -89 1.

5 Handover Detection Training exercises (11/16) ▼TFO HO (cause 29): after call setup Find the 2 speech version types of the following MS to MS call EN_TFO = enable. EN_TFO_MATCH = enable FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED = TFO_HR_NOT_FORCED Loaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: EFR/FR After call setup After TFO negotiation TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? 1.2.173 .173 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.

EN_TFO_MATCH = enable FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED = TFO_HR_ONLY Loaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: EFR/FR After call setup After TFO negotiation TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? 1.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (12/16) ▼TFO HO (cause 29): after call setup Find the 2 speech version types of the following MS to MS call EN_TFO = enable.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.2.174 .174 © Alcatel University .

175 © Alcatel University .5 Handover Detection Training exercises (13/16) ▼TFO HO (cause 29): after call setup Find the 2 speech version types of the following MS to MS call EN_TFO = enable. EN_TFO_MATCH = enable FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED = TFO_HR_PREFERRED Loaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: EFR/FR After call setup After TFO negotiation TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? 1.02 Page 1.175 .2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

5 Handover Detection Training exercises (14/16) ▼TFO HO (cause 29): after call setup Find the 2 speech version types of the following MS to MS call EN_TFO = enable. EN_TFO_MATCH = enable FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED = TFO_HR_ONLY Loaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR After call setup After TFO negotiation TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? TCH = ? 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.176 © Alcatel University .2.02 Page 1.176 .

02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. KEEP_CODEC_HO = FREE Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Loaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR TFO? ? MS1 TFO? 1. EN_TFO_MATCH = enable FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED = TFO_HR_ONLY 1.2. KEEP_CODEC_HO = TFO_CALLS_ONLY 2.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (15/16) ▼TFO HO (cause 29): after handover Find the speech version types of the following MS to MS call EN_TFO = enable.177 .177 MS2 MS2 call setup + TFO negotiation ? HO ? Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR © Alcatel University .

02 Page 1.5 Handover Detection Training exercises (16/16) ▼TFO HO (cause 29): after handover Find the speech version types of the following MS to MS call EN_TFO = enable.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.178 © Alcatel University .2. EN_TFO_OPT = enable MS2 MS2 HO ? Loaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR Unloaded cell MS / cell cap: HR/EFR/FR TFO? ? MS1 call setup + TFO negotiation ? TFO? 1.178 . EN_TFO_OPT = disable 2. EN_TFO_MATCH = enable FORCE_TFO_HR_WHEN_LOADED = TFO_HR_ONLY KEEP_CODEC_HO = TFO_CALLS_ONLY 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation © Alcatel University .179 .2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 2.02 Page 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.179 Theoretical presentation Radio measurements principles Radio measurements data processing Radio Link Supervision and Power control Handover Detection Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Handover Management Exercise © Alcatel University .02 1.

Once a need for handover is detected. BTS BSC HO Preparation Radio Link Measurements Active Channel Pre-processing HO Detection HO Candidate Cell Evaluation HO management HO protocol MSC © Alcatel University .180 w Handover candidate cell evaluation The process is performed in the BSC.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Principles ▼ Used to rank potential target cells: Ranking based on radio characteristics Ranking based on operator preferences Ranking based on traffic intensity 1.180 .2. this process looks for possible target cells (except if it is an intracell handover or an interzone handover) and provides the BSC entity in charge of the HO decision and execution entity with a list of candidate cells and their respective HO cause.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.

n) = 4 Priority (0.n) = 1 Priority (0. w In case of intracell handover alarm (HO causes 10.n) = 5 Grade Priority (0. w The handover detection gives as indication the raw cell list (built from book-keeping list) and the preferred layer for the handover. if the serving cell belongs to the raw cell list (emergency handover from the DCS 1800 inner zone of a multiband cell). © Alcatel University .n) = 1 Priority (0.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Evaluation process Raw cell list MEASUREMENT PREPROCESSING Measurement result according • • • • A_LEV_HO A_QUAL_HO A_PBGT_HO A_RANGE_HO HO_DETECTION max Every SACCH cause 2: uplink quality cause 3: uplink level cause 4: downlink quality cause 5: downlink level cause 6: distance cause 12: power budget Performed every SACCH cell 1: cause C2 cell 2: cause C2 cell 3: cause C2 cell 4: cause C2 cell 5: cause C2 cell 6: cause C2 cell 7: cause C2 cell 8: cause C2 … Max 32 cells Preprocess measurement Performed every SACCH PBGT_FILTERING PRE-RANKING Priority (0. having the highest priority (if EN_PRIORITY_ORDERING=ENABLE) and/or having the same frequency band type as the serving cell.n) = 2 Priority (0. In case of an intercell handover alarm.02 Page 1.n) = 0 cell 2: cause C2 cell 3: cause C2 cell 4: cause C2 Priority (0. In case of emergency handover alarms or cause 20 alarm.n) = 2 Priority (0.n) = 4 Priority (0.181 .n) = 0 cell 4 cause C2 cell 3 cause C2 cell 2 cause C2 Priority (0.n) = 3 cell 6: cause C2 cell 8 cause C2 Priority (0.n) = 3 cell 6: cause C2 cell 8 cause C2 Priority (0. putting in the first position the cells belonging to the preferred layer and having the highest priority (if EN_PRIORITY_ORDERING=ENABLE).n) = 0 cell 2: cause C2 cell 3: cause C2 cell 4: cause C2 Priority (0. the cell evaluation will order the cells given in the raw list. 11.n) = 4 Priority (0. this cell is put at the end of the candidate cell list with the MS zone indication OUTER. the cell evaluation will order the cells given in the raw list.n) = 5 HO_MARGIN_XX(0.n) = 2 Priority (0.n) = 1 Priority (0.n) = 3 cell 6: cause C2 cell 8: cause C2 Priority (0.n) = 5 HO CANDIDATE CELLS EVALUATION Order Priority (0.n) = 0 cell 4 cause C2 cell 2 cause C2 Cell 3 cause C2 Priority (0.n) = 1 cell 1: cause C2 Priority (0.2.181 w The HO candidate evaluation process is run after all intercell handover alarms.n) = 2 Priority (0.n) = 5 1.n) CELLS EVALUATION PROCESS Order or Grade Priority (0. w In case of better condition handover alarms (except cause 20).n) = 3 cell 5: cause C2 cell 6: cause C2 cell 7: cause C2 cell 8: cause C2 Priority (0. 16). the candidate cell evaluation process is skipped: the target cell is the serving cell. putting in the first position the cells belonging to the preferred layer.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. 13. 15.n) = 4 Priority (0.

2.n) = 1 Cell_band_type ≠ serving cell List of candidate cells n Priority(0.n) = 0 Cell_layer_type = Pref_layer Priority(0.182 © Alcatel University .182 .02 Page 1.n) = 1 Priority(0.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Pre-ranking ▼ Pre-ranking in hierarchical or multi-band networks: Cell_band_type = serving cell Priority(0.n) = 5 Priority(0.n) = 0 Cell_layer_type ≠ Pref_layer Priority(0.n) = 5 1.

w The cell evaluation function is then applied to the different candidate cell lists defined from the preferred layer indication.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. The candidate cell evaluation process takes into account these characteristics in the candidate cell ordering.70 dBm. pbgt: + 10 dB P1 Serving cell P0 Candidate cell 2: Rxlev: . the candidate cell evaluation sorts the candidate cells according to the parameter PRIORITY(0. w In case of emergency handover. They are followed by the cells of the other layer. for each couple of cells: settings.n) (parameter on line changeable from the OMC-R). in each part of the list.n) is only used when the flag EN_PRIORTY_ORDERING is set to “enable”. The PRIORITY(0.n) settings the operator can. for each category (preferred layer and other layer) and between cells having the same priority.90 dBm.2. w The cells having the highest priority are put in the first place of the list.183 w Cell ordering according to target layer and target band w In hierarchical or multiband environment.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Pre-ranking w with priority(0. the HO detection process can indicate a preferred layer where the handover must be directed to. PBGT: + 5dB 1.n) parameter and the frequency band of the serving cell (only in case of emergency handover). They are followed by the cells having the lowest priorities. If this indication is used. w In hierarchical environment. the candidate cells belonging to the preferred layer. w After this possible distinction. tag the target cell with a defined priority (from 0 = max to 5 = min) this definition has an higher priority than usual order/grade ranking w especially useful for multi band/hierarchical architectures: architectures a simple way to force a target cell whatever its RxLev level and PBGT nevertheless can be skipped over by filtering processes low interest for standard networks Candidate cell 1: RxLev: . cells are characterized by the layer they belong to or/and the frequency band they use.02 Page 1. the candidate cell evaluation puts in the first places of the list. © Alcatel University . the candidate cell evaluation sorts the candidate cells according to the frequency band they use: the cells which use the same frequency band as the serving cell are put first and they are followed by the cells which use the other frequency band. providing they are also correct candidates.183 . the PRIORITY(0.

w The candidate cells are filtered on their power budget in relation to a handover margin threshold based on the handover cause.5 for cause 6 OFFSET_HO_MARGIN_INNER is only applied when the MS is in the inner zone of a concentric or multi band cell The averaging window is A_PBGT_HO 1. Note: the averaging window used for this process is A_PBGT_HO (even for emergency handovers.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. where a handover alarm could have been raised through A_LEV_HO or A_QUAL_HO samples) © Alcatel University .184 .n) HO_MARGIN_XX (0.4 for cause 3.n) HO_MARGIN_XX (0.n) + OFFSET_HO_MARGIN_INNER HO_MARGIN_XX (0.n) = HO_MARGIN_QUAL (0. flag EN_PBGT_FILTERING filter out cells from the target list inhibited for better cell handovers based on power budget per couple of cells was needed for multiband architecture PBGT(n) > HO_MARGIN_XX (0. w It can be enabled/disabled on-line on a per cell basis from the OMC-R with the flag EN_PBGT_FILTERING.n) for cause 2.2.n) = HO_MARGIN_LEV (0.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation PBGT Filtering w PBGT filtering: optional.184 w The filtering process allows to filter out cells from the target list before sending them to the ORDER or GRADE evaluation process.n) = HO_MARGIN_DIST (0.02 Page 1.

n) Cell "n" is kept if: AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > RXLEVmin (n) + max [0. w ORDER and GRADE are two different methods of cell ranking. Note: the A_PBGT_HO averaging window is used for this process. the first cell in the list is taken as a target cell. w The type of cell evaluation is chosen by the operator on a (serving) cell basis and is provided to the BSC with the parameter CELL_EV. i. w For any handover cause. They both consist in giving a mark or ’figure of merit’ to each candidate cell.185 w Two types of cell evaluation algorithms can be used: ORDER and GRADE. The candidate cell evaluation process takes into account the number of free TCHs in the candidate cells. The candidate cell evaluation process takes into account the relative load of traffic channels in the candidate cells.n) . The cells do not need to fulfil any other condition. w If no cell fulfils the condition and the serving cell does not belong to the target cell list. the cell with the highest value of ORDER(n).6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation ORDER evaluation ▼ ORDER cell evaluation process Cell "n" is ranked among other accordingly: If EN_LOAD_ORDER = ENABLE and cell n is internal to the BSC ORDER (n) = PBGT(n) + LINK_FACTOR(0.n) Link_factor (0. decrease incoming flow of HO to a cell from another FREEfactor is TCH traffic based bonus/penalty to rank cells If EN_LOAD_ORDER = DISABLE or cell n is external to the BSC ORDER (n) = PBGT(n) + LINK_FACTOR(0.185 . © Alcatel University .2. the target cell list is empty and no further action is carried out.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1. with GRADE The candidate cell evaluation process does not interact with the handover detection.HO_MARGIN_XX(0.FREEfactor(0)HO_MARGIN_XX(0.n) is an operator parameter to give a bonus/penalty to a cell ex: avoid external HO.n) + FREEfactor(n) .(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P)] [dBm] 1.e. w The basic differences between ORDER and GRADE are that: with ORDER The candidate cell evaluation process interacts with the handover detection by use of cause-dependent handover margins.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. i.e. w LINKfactor(n1.n) Cell "n" is kept if: Annex 4 AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > RXLEVmin(n) + max [0.n) is a parameter set by OMC command for each cell(n). If no cell fulfils the condition and the serving cell does not belong to the target cell list.186 w LINKfactor(0.(MS_TXPWR_MAX(n)-P)] 1. the first cell in the list is taken as a target cell.n) is an operator parameter to give a bonus/penalty to a cell LOADfactor(n) is a weighting factor that takes into account the relative load of traffic channels in a cell If EN_LOAD_ORDER = DISABLE or cell n is external to the BSC GRADE (n) = PBGT(n) + LINK_FACTOR(0.186 . the target cell list is empty and no further action is carried out.02 Page 1.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation GRADE Evaluation ▼ GRADE cell evaluation process Cell "n" is ranked among other accordingly: If EN_LOAD_ORDER = ENABLE and cell n is internal to the BSC GRADE (n) = PBGT(n) + LINK_FACTOR(0. Note: the A_PBGT_HO averaging window is used for this process © Alcatel University .n) + LOADfactor(n) Link_factor (0. it can be used to disadvantage an external cell when an internal cell is also a possible candidate. w For any handover cause. In particular.n2) allows the operator to handicap or to favor the cell n1 with respect to its neighbor cell n2.2. the cell with the highest value of GRADE(n).

Filtering simulation for a list of candidate cells Ranking simulation for a list of candidate cells 1Time allowed: 15 minutes Book-keeping list 1.02 Page 1.xls” excel sheet.187 .187 © Alcatel University ..6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Training exercise (1/2) ▼Emergency HO detected With the “Candidate evaluation.2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed..

2.6 Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Training exercise (2/2) ▼Emergency HO detected 2Averaging measurement ? 34PBGT Filtering ? GRADE evaluation process ? 5Target Cell ? 1.188 © Alcatel University .188 .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

02 Page 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.189 .2 ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS 2.7 Exercise © Alcatel University .02 1.189 Theoretical presentation Radio measurements principles Radio measurements data processing Radio Link Supervision and Power control Handover Detection Handover Candidate Cell Evaluation Handover Management Exercise © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

02 Page 1.190 © Alcatel University .8 Exercise ▼List all the parameters involved in the detection of cause 23 ▼List all the causes impacted by the parameter DELTA_INC_HO_MARGIN Time allowed: 10 minutes ▼List all the causes impacted by the parameter L_RXQUAL_UL_H ▼List all the causes impacted by the parameter BS_TXPWR_MAX ▼List all the causes impacted by the parameter BS_P_CON_ACK 1.2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.190 .

191 .02 1.B8 3 OTHER ALGORITHMS © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.191 © Alcatel University .

1 LCS 3.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. MS reselection algorithms and list the associated parameters ▼ Program: 3.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation 3.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm 3. TCH resource allocation.192 S1: TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS S2: ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS S3: OTHER ALGORITHMS S4: ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR S5: CASE STUDIES © Alcatel University .B8 3 OTHER ALGORITHMS Session presentation ▼ Objective: to be able to describe LCS.02 Page 1. SDCCH Dynamic allocation.192 .4 MS Reselection algorithms 1.

02 1.B8 3 OTHER ALGORITHMS 3.02 Page 1.1 LCS © Alcatel University .193 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.193 LCS Dynamic SDDCH allocation MS Reselection algorithms © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

© Alcatel University . RTD: Real Time Difference: This means the relative synchronization difference in the network between two BTSs. MS-Assisted GPS. Mobile-assisted: The MS performs and reports OTD signal measurements to the network and the network computes the MS’s location estimate.1 LCS Definitions ▼ New end-user services which provide the geographical location of an MS: On MS request to know its own location On network request (especially during Emergency calls) On external request (LCS Client) ▼ Several positioning methods: Cell-ID or Cell-ID + TA (Timing Advance) Conventional (standalone) GPS Assisted GPS (with A-GPS server help to compute location) MS-based (MB): the MS is able to perform a precomputation MS-assisted (MA): the MS sends info. 4 methods are possible for positioning: Cell ID+ TA. w Finally. When an active mobile is connected to a base station. This is the simplest method for determining the location of a mobile. MS-based Assisted GPS.B8 3.194 . the network provides the MS with the additional information such as BTS coordinates and the RTD values.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. These assistance data can be either broadcast on the CBCH (using SMSCB function) or provided by the BSS in a point-to-point connection (either spontaneously or on request from the MS).194 w Assisted GPS Method: Mobile-based: The MS performs OTD signal measurements and computes its own location estimate. It relies on the hypothesis that the geographical coverage of a cell corresponds to that predicted by radio coverage studies. Network computes 1. With OTD: Observed Time Difference: the time interval that is observed by an MS between the receptions of signals (bursts) from two different BTSs. the mobile is assumed to be located geographically within the area predicted to be best served by this base station Conventional (MS equipped with GPS System).02 Page 1. In this case.

1 LCS LCS architecture Where is the accident? 2 MSC Lg GMLC Le External LCS client Lb MS GPS reference network OSP Lh Where is my son? Abis 3 BTS SMLC SAGI MFS SMLC function integrated in MFS: A-GPS server HLR .195 .195 © Alcatel University .Schedules all the necessary actions to get MS location . Request from the GMLC through the MSC/BSC .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.Provides the result back to the GMLC LCS: Location Services SMLC: Serving Mobile Location Center GMLC: Gateway Mobile Location Center A-GPS: Assisted GPS 1.receives the loc.B8 LCS function: Architecture Emergency call Where am I? BTS 1 Abis BSC A 3.Computes MS location 1 MS Request 2 Network Request 3 External Request .

196 . Location request 5.196 w If the MS is in idle mode.e. Individual positioning HLR SMLC MFS 1. Provide subscriber location 8. authentication and ciphering in order to establish an SDCCH with the MS.e. Routing information 6. or during an on-going call). except towards GPRS MS in Packet Transfer Mode which may suspend its GPRS traffic in order to answer to the CS Paging (i. ciphering. authentication. notification 3. Location response LCS Client BSC MSC GMLC 1. not fully transparent for the subscriber). Provide subscriber location OSP GMLC 7. the MSC first performs a CS paging. w w When the MS is in dedicated mode (after a specific SDCCH establishment for location.1 LCS LCS Positionning procedure 3. Location report 2. Paging. which forwards it to the SMLC © Alcatel University . The MS subscriber is not aware of it. the MSC sends the location request to BSC in the existing SCCP connection for the current call.02 Page 1.B8 4.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. i. no ringing tone.

02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 3.1 LCS LCS protocol (1/2) Signaling Protocols between the SMLC and the MS (CS domain) 1.197 .197 © Alcatel University .

© Alcatel University . Abort by BSS If an ongoing location request is interrupted at the BSC level for the following reasons: by an inter-BSC handover. the BSC must send either a PERFORM LOCATION ABORT message or a ABORT message to the SMLC and starts the timer T_Loc_abort w The useful B8 content of the received PERFORM LOCATION REQUEST message is: Location type. or to the SMLC either a PERFORM LOCATION ABORT or an ABORT message. when an 08. This timer is stopped only at the end of the location procedure in the BSC.e. and starts instead the T_Location_Longer timer. w Aborts: Abort by MSC Depending on the location procedure and its current state of execution. Requested QoS: provides service requirement concerning geographic positioning and response time accuracy. The BSC starts the timer T_Loc_abort to supervise the SMLC response.198 .02 Page 1.1 LCS LCS protocol (2/2) Example: Mobile terminated location request success (External request) MS BTS BSC SMLC MSC GMLC HLR LCS Client LCS Service Request Send_Routing_Info rqst Send_Routing_Info resp Provide_Subscriber_Location Paging Authentication + Ciphering . Current Cell Id + TA information are always provided to the SMLC. Classmark information 3.08 PERFORM LOCATION RESPONSE message is sent back to the MSC. the BSC stops the T_Location timer. the BSC sends immediately to the MSC a PERFORM LOCATION RESPONSE message (when no exchange on the Lb interface is on-going). BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Request Starts T_location Adequate positioning method chosen by SMLC with optional additional scenario BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response BSSMAP Perform_Location_Response Stop T_location Provide_Subscriber_Location Result BSSMAP Clear Command and Release LCS Service Response 1.198 w T_location_Longer used in case of optional additional scenario (see graph): Upon receipt of the MS POSITION COMMAND message from the SMLC (optional additional scenario). or the SCCP connection on the A interface is released. i. or if the timer T_Location expires. or if the main signaling link to the target MS is lost or released. w The time of transfer of the assitance data on the SDCCH is estimated about 14s for a 1000 octets information. the response time category (Low Delay or Delay Tolerant).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 3. upon PERFORM LOCATION ABORT message receipt.

1= Disabled. RRLP protocol is not required). w Based on: Cell Identity (CI) of the serving cell and Timing Advance (TA) value reported by MS ² intersection point of a line from the BTS antenna in their main direction with a circle which radius is corresponding with the propagation delay (timing advance) is the MS estimated position ² Omni-directional cells: MS position = site position w Parameters: w EN_LCS – flag to enable/disable the Location Services per BSS 0 = Enabled.02 A TA 3dB points given by the azimuth and the HPBW MS Estimated Location Annex 5 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. no signalling exchange is required between the SMLC and the MS (i. Default = 0 ² IF EN_LCS=1.e. The TA positioning method is applicable to all the MSs (supporting LCS or not). CI+TA method is enabled in all the BSS cells LCS_LATITUDE Latitude of the BTS supporting the cell LCS_LONGITUDE Longitude of the BTS supporting the cell LCS_AZIMUTH Antenna direction orientation for the sector supporting the cell HALFPWR_BEAM_WIDTH Antenna half power beamwidth for the sector supporting the cell w Optimization parameters: ARC_SIZE_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the width in degree of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method.1 LCS Positioning methods : CI+TA positioning ▼ Principles of CI + TA Positioning Method am y Be b in en Ma n giv th tio rec azimu Di the 553 m Site Geographical Information (Lat/Long) w With the TA positioning method.199 Page 1.B8 3.199 . MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the minimum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the maximum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method © Alcatel University .

200 .200 The MS continiously computes its position Terminal searches for satellites.02 Page 1.1 LCS Positioning methods : Conventional GPS ▼ Conventional GPS location procedure This optional location procedure is chosen by the SMLC (if the MS support it) upon reception of a Perform Location Request message from the BSC MS BTS BSC (X.Y) (X.Y) 1.Y) Measurement Position Response (X.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 3. acquires all the GPS data. computes its own position and finally provides the location estimation to the SMLC © Alcatel University .Y) : Computed position Perform Location Response (X.Y) SMLC Perform Location Request Location Request Location Request Measurement Position Request Location Response Location Response (X.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.201 . 1 = enabled. ephemeris) Ionospheric model Time integrity GPS MS 1.1 LCS Positioning method : Assisted GPS Positioning 1/3 ▼ Assisted GPS Positioning Method (A-GPS) Assistance GPS Positioning Method is split into: MS Based A-GPS method MS Assisted A-GPS method GPS reference network Assistance data on request GPS acquisition assistance Navigation model (almanac. default = 0 © Alcatel University . 1 = enabled.02 Page 1.201 A-GPS Server w Assistance data gathered from a GPS reference network receiver is broadcasted to the GPS MS w Flags/Parameters EN_LCS = 1 EN_MS_BASED_AGPS – enables/disables the positioning method MS Based A-GPS per CELL 0 = disabled. default = 0 EN_MS_ASSISTED_AGPS – enables/disables the positioning method MS Assisted A-GPS per CELL 0 = disabled.B8 3.

MS computes by itself the position and sends it back to the SMLC © Alcatel University .202 .202 w Using assistance data.Y) : Computed position 1.Y) Location Response Location Response POSITIONING CALCULATION latitude.02 Page 1. longitude (and altitude) (X.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.Y) Measurement Position Response (X.B8 3.Y) Perform (X.1 LCS Positioning method : Assisted GPS Positioning 2/3 ▼ A-GPS location procedure / MS Based A-GPS MS BTS BSC SMLC Perform Location Request A-GPS Server GPS info Request GPS info Response Location Request Assistance Data Assistance Data Ack Assistance Data Position Request Measurement Position Request Position Response (X.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.203 Using a reduced set of assistance data.Y) Location Response (X.Y) (X. which fixes the position in the end © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.203 .Y) : Computed position 1.Y) Perform (X.B8 3.1 LCS Positioning method : Assisted GPS Positioning 3/3 ▼ A-GPS location procedure / MS Assisted A-GPS MS BTS BSC SMLC Perform Location Request A-GPS Server GPS info Request GPS info Response Location Request Assistance Data Assistance Data Ack Assistance Data Position Request Measurement Position Request Position Response Pseudo-range MEASUREMENTS Measurement Position Response (M) GPS Location Request (M) GPS Location Location Response Response (X. the MS makes pseudo–range measurements and sends the result to the A-GPS server.

BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Request Starts T_location BSSLAP .204 HO needed during LCS procedure © Alcatel University .1 LCS LCS impact on HO 1/3 HLR LCS Client LCS Service Request Send_Routing_Info rqst Send_Routing_Info resp Provide_Subscriber_Location Paging Authentication + Ciphering .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.Reset EMERGENCY HO DETECTION 1.B8 ▼ HO preparation Inhibition of “better cell handovers” Other HO MS BTS BSC SMLC MSC GMLC 3.204 .02 Page 1.

BSSMAP Perform_Location_Request BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response BSSLAP-Reset BSSMAP PERFORM LOCATION RESPONSE (Cause = “Intra-BSC Handover Complete”) HO COMPLETE 1.205 Mobile in communication © Alcatel University .205 .1 LCS LCS impact on HO 2/3 GMLC HLR LCS Client INTRA BSC HO On going .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.B8 ▼ HO management Internal HO MS BTS BSC SMLC MSC 3.

1 LCS LCS impact on HO 2/3 MS BTS SERVING BSC SMLC MSC GMLC HLR LCS Client external BSC HO BSSMAP HO REQUIRED BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Abortt BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response BSSAP-LE Perform_Location_Response 1.206 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.206 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.B8 ▼ HO management external HO 3.

T_Loc_Abort BSC timer to guard the response from the SMLC in case of Location Abort.1 LCS BSS Parameters EN_LCS T_Location EN_SAGI T_Location_longer T_Loc_Abort ▼ OPTIMIZATION DATA T_LCS_delay_tolerant T_LCS_LowDelay ARC_SIZE_FACTOR MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR T_RRLP_low_delay T_RRLP_delay_tolerant 1.B8 ▼ FLAGS ▼ Timers 3. MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the minimum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the maximum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method Page 1.207 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. MSAssisted A-GPS. T_RRLP_delay_tolerant Timer to guard the RRLP exchange between the SMLC and the MS. Replace T_Location timer in case of Conventional GPS. MS-Based A-GPS. when no RRLP exchange is triggered with the MS. EN_SAGI Flag indicating whether SAGI is configured or not for this BSS T_Location: BSC timer on a per call basis to guard the response from the SMLC in case of Location Request. T_LCS_DelayTolerant SMLC timer to guard the calculation of the MS position (including the RRLP message exchange with the target MS) in case of a Delay Tolerant Location Request. when an RRLP exchange is triggered with the MS. T_LCS_LowDelay SMLC timer to guard the calculation of the MS position (including the RRLP message exchange with the target MS) in case of a Low Delay Location Request. T_Location_longer: BSC timer on a per call basis to guard the response from the SMLC in case of Location Request. T_RRLP_Low_delay Timer to guard the RRLP exchange between the SMLC and the MS .02 Optimization data: ARC_SIZE_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the width in degree of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method.207 w BSS PARAMETERS EN_LCS (BSC) Flag which enables or disables the LCS feature in the BSS. T_LCS_LowDelay SMLC timer to guard the calculation of the MS position (including the RRLP message exchange with the target MS) in case of a Low Delay Location Request. © Alcatel University .

208 w CELL PARAMETERS EN_CONV_GPS Flag to enable/disable the Conventional GPS positioning method. LCS_LATITUDE Latitude of the BTS supporting the cell (used by the MFS to compute location estimate based on TA positioning method).1 LCS Cell Parameters ▼ SITE DATA LCS_LATITUDE LCS_LONGITUDE LCS_SIGNIFICANT_GC LCS_AZIMUTH HALF_POWER_BANDWIDTH 1. setting of MAX_PDCH to a value > 0. LCS_LONGITUDE Longitude of the BTS supporting the cell (used by the MFS to compute location estimate based on TA positioning method). the cell being kept locked for GPRS if the operator does not want to have GPRS running on this cell) and configure all the required transmission resources (Ater and Gb resources) on the GPU(s) connected to this BSC © Alcatel University . LCS_SIGNIFICANT_GC Indicates whether latitude and longitude are significant or not LCS_AZIMUTH Antenna direction orientation for the sector supporting the cell (used by the MFS to compute location estimate based on TA positioning method).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. HALF_POWER_BANDWIDTH Half power beam width of the antenna for the sector supporting the cell (used by the MFS to compute location estimate based on TA positioning method). the operator must activate LCS on the BSS handling this cell but he must also activate GPRS for this cell (i. Remark: To have LCS supported for a cell. EN_MS_BASED_AGPS Flag to enable/disable the MS Based A-GPS positioning method. EN_MS_ASSISTED_AGPS Flag to enable/disable the MS Assisted A-GPS positioning method.B8 ▼ FLAGS EN_CONV_GPS EN_MS_ASSISTED_AGPS EN_MS_BASED_AGPS 3.208 .02 Page 1.e.

209 .B8 3.1 LCS Exercise ▼Where is implemented the SMLC function? Time allowed: 10 minutes ▼What are the LCS impacts on cell dimensioning? 1.02 Page 1.209 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

210 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.B8 3 OTHER ALGORITHMS 3.210 LCS Dynamic SDDCH allocation MS Reselection algorithms © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 1.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation © Alcatel University .

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.211 w Definitions A Static SDCCH timeslot is a physical timeslot fixed allocated on the air interface. It contains 3. SDCCH/7. 7 or 8 SDCCH subchannels depending on whether the timeslot is an SDCCH/3. SDCCH/4.211 . or SDCCH/8 timeslot.B8 ▼SDCCH/8 time slots can be dynamically allocated on demand on a cell-by-cell basis. 4. “Dynamic SDCCH/8 time slots”. “Static SDCCH time slots” 3.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation Purpose Allocated Dynamic SDCCH/8 time slots Static Min SDCCH time slots Max TCH Capacity 1. © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.

02 Page 1.212 . w Signaling load cases Timeslot split between signaling and traffic channels depends on the network signaling load. The main cases are: .2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation Principle (1/2) ▼Principles Too few SDCCH time slots could result in high blocking rate on SDCCH (Configuration 1) Too many SDCCH time slots could lead to a lack of TCH resources (Configuration 2) Configuration 1 SDCCH time slots TCH Capacity Configuration 2 SDCCH time slots TCH Capacity 1.B8 3. 1 SDCCH timeslot for a 3-TRX cell) .High signaling load cells: Urban or suburban area cells in the center of a Location Area Rural area cells at the border of Location Areas (e.g. 3 SDCCH time slots for a 3-TRX cell) © Alcatel University .g.g. 2 SDCCH time slots for a 3-TRX cell) .212 w Definition An SDCCH is a logical SDCCH sub-channel mapped on a Static SDCCH timeslot or a Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot.Normal signaling load cells: Rural area cells in center of Location Areas (e.Very high signaling load cells: Urban or suburban area cells at the border of a Location Area Cells with high SMS load (more than one SMS per call) (e.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 3.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation Principle (2/2) ▼ Allocation and de-allocation of Dynamic SDCCH/8 time slots • An additional dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot is allocated by the BSC if there is no SDCCH sub-channel free in the cell.213 . • A dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot is de-allocated by the BSC after T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD (10s) delay if all of its SDCCH sub-channels become free + - BCC TCH SDD TCH SDD SDC SDC TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH BCC: BCCH SDC: Static SDCCH SDD: Dynamic SDCCH 1.02 Page 1.213 w The location of the Dynamic SDCCH/8 time slots are fixed by O&M configuration. w © Alcatel University .

a radio timeslot can be defined as: Pure BCCH timeslot: The BCCH timeslot is the radio timeslot configured as BCC by O&M. − 8 for a normal SDCCH timeslot. Static SDCCH timeslot (SDC): It is a timeslot carrying SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8. Such a timeslot only carries TCH traffic. It can carry TCH traffic or PS traffic. Such a timeslot can carry SDCCH traffic. Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot (SDD): It is a timeslot carrying TCH + SACCH or SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 TCH timeslot (TCH): It is a timeslot carrying TCH + SACCH or PDCH wIn RAM point of view. Main combined BCCH timeslot (CBC): It is a timeslot carrying FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4 + SACCH/4. − 7 in case of non-combined CCCH and when CBCH is configured on the timeslot. It can carry TCH traffic or SDCCH traffic. wA pure SDCCH timeslot can carry x SDCCH sub-channels where x equal to: − 4 in case of combined CCCH and when CBCH is not configured on the timeslot.214 wThe OMC-R provides the BSC with the following O&M type of radio timeslots: Main BCCH timeslot (BCC): It is a timeslot carrying FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH. TCH/SDCCH timeslot: A TCH/SDCCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as SDD by O&M.B8 ▼ NEW TIMESLOT TYPES : 3. Such a timeslot can only carry common PS signalling.02 Page 1. MPDCH timeslot: A MPDCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as TCH by O&M. − 3 in case of combined CCCH and when CBCH is configured on the timeslot. Such a timeslot is dynamically allocated as TCH or as SPDCH depending on the usage of the timeslot. © Alcatel University . Such a timeslot only carries common CS signalling. a TCH/SDCCH timeslot can carry up to 8 SDCCH sub-channels. Such a timeslot is dynamically allocated as TCH or as SDCCH depending on the usage of the timeslot.214 . Pure SDCCH timeslot: A pure SDCCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as a CBC or SDC by O&M. wWhen allocated as SDCCH.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. TCH/SPDCH timeslot: A TCH/SPDCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as TCH by O&M. Pure TCH timeslot: A pure TCH timeslot is a timeslot configured as TCH by O&M.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation TIMESLOT types SDCCH Pure SDCCH or “ static SDCCH “ TCH Pure TCH TCH/SDCCH “ dynamic SDCCH” TCH/SPDCH MPDCH 1.

B8 SDCCH mapped on” TCU very high load state” removal 3.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation Allocation algorithm SDCCH REQUEST Are they any free SDCCH sub-channel among Static SDCCH timeslots ? No Are they any free SDCCH sub-channel among Dynamic SDCCH/8 already allocated ? No Are they any Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslots available and free in the cell ? Yes ? Yes ? Yes No ? SDCCH request rejected !!! Allocate one dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot Selection of one SDCCH sub-channel Select one SDCCH sub-channel 1.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.215 Principle 1 : Preference is given to pure SDCCH timeslots Principle 2 : Balance TCU processor load between different TCUs in fact before entering in this algorithm ( see slide) the first step is : Removal of all the SDCCH subchannels mapped on TCU in « Very High Overload » state Principle 3 : FR TRX preference © Alcatel University .215 .

If all remaining TCH/SDCCH timeslots are reserved by NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation SDCCH sub-channel selection TS with LOWEST TCU LOAD Pure SDCCH Timeslots TCH/SDCCH TS allocated as SDCCH TCH/SDCCH allocated as TCH TS with MAXIMUM FREE SDCCH Sub channels TS on FR TRX TS with lowest index on TRX with lowest TRX_ID 1.216 Note that a SDCCH request can not access the timeslots reserved by NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO.B8 3.02 Page 1.216 . then the SDCCH request shall be rejected.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University .

© Alcatel University .2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation De allocation algorithm At least one TCH/SDCCH allocated T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD ? No started Yes T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD No running ? Yes ? Yes T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD Expires ? No ? TCH/SDCCH deallocated 1.217 . and T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD is re-started and the just freed dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot is de-allocated immediately.217 T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD stopped · The de-allocation algorithm ensures that : TCH/SDCCH timeslots are not allocated too fast to TCH after de-allocating them TCH/SDCCH timeslots are not re-allocated too frequently to SDCCH Note : · while T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD is running: ¨ the dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot marked as “HOLD” is still considered as allocated to SDCCH (and can not be allocated to TCH).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. T_DYN_SDCCH_HOLD is re-started and precedent dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot in “HOLD” state is de-allocated immediately.B8 all SDCCH sub-channels of a TCH/SDCCH timeslot in the cell are free ? Yes No 3.02 Page 1. ¨ If a subsequent dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot (used as SDCCH and in the same cell) becomes free: a) If this just freed dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot has a higher priority. b) If this just freed dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot has lower priority.

© Alcatel University . wIn multiband and concentric cells. which belongs to the outer zone.218 . wThe operator must configure at least one static SDCCH/8 or SDCCH/4 timeslot on BCCH TRX in a cell. can support dynamic and static SDCCHs.218 wDynamic sdcch rules wThe CBCH must be configured on a static SDCCH/8 or SDCCH/4 timeslot. a dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot cannot have the characteristic of being a PDCH (it cannot carry GPRS traffic). only the TRX.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation O&M configuration 1/2 ▼ Massive modification by script 10 templates Template customization Template launched through PRC 3 4 2 7 9 12 1 6 10 8 11 5 1. wIn cells with E-GSM. wCombined SDCCHs (SDCCH/4 + BCCH) are always static. wUp to 24 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels can be configured per TRX. which do not belong to the G1 band.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. only the TRX.B8 ▼ selection of static or dynamic SDCCH Timeslot configuration menu 3. can support dynamic and static SDCCHs.02 Page 1. wTo avoid incoherent allocation strategy between SDCCH and PDCH.

Note2: An additional dynamic SDCCH/8 must be provided for each DR TRX (these are expected mainly on small cells). w rules: At least one static SDCCH/4 or SDCCH/8 on BCCH TRX Up to 24 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels per TRX Up to 32 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels per TCU Up to 88 static/dynamic SDCCH sub-channels per CELL © Alcatel University .B8 3.2 Dynamic SDCCH allocation O&M configuration 2/2 ▼ Default configuration for a cell which has only Full rate TRX 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.219 .02 Page 1. all dynamic SDCCHs will not be used. According to the Alcatel traffic model.219 Note1: For one TRX. dynamic SDCCHs are over-dimensioned because of the granularity of 8.

02 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm © Alcatel University .220 .3 OTHER ALGORITHMS 3.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.220 LCS Dynamic SDDCH allocation MS Reselection algorithms © Alcatel University .

3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Radio Allocation and Management ▼ Radio resource allocation and management (RAM) aims at: Managing pools of TCH radio resources by: defining TCH radio timeslots as a function of the cell radio configuration from the operator sorting these TCH TS according to their radio capabilities (FR or DR.221 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.221 . frequency band (G1 or GSM/DCS)) Allocating dedicated TCH radio resources by: selecting the TCH pool in which the TCH should be chosen according to: the requested channel rate (FR or HR) the radio capability of the mobile the TRE DR capability and the TRE band selecting the best TCH resource among the available TCH channels of this pool according to several criteria 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 3.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. © Alcatel University . If it carries signalling it is called a Master PDCH (MPDCH) TS and it carries: either the logical channels PBCCH+PPCH+PAGCH+PRACH: it is then called a Primary MPDCH or only PPCH+PAGCH+PRACH: it is then called a Secondary MPDCH w SDD TS can carry either TCH or SDCCH channels but not both at the same time.02 Page 1.222 .B8 3.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Radio Timeslot of a cell : Operator view ▼ On the OMC-R the operator can configure the following Radio TS per cell: Main BCCH timeslot (BCC): TS carrying FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH Main combined BCCH timeslot (CBC): TS carrying FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4 + SACCH/4 Static SDCCH timeslot (SDC): TS carrying SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 Dynamic SDCCH/8 timeslot (SDD): TS carrying TCH + SACCH or SDCCH/8 + SACCH/8 TCH timeslot (TCH): TS carrying TCH + SACCH or used as a PS timeslot (PDCH) 1. w A PDCH is a radio timeslot used for PS traffic or signalling. If it carries traffic it is called a Slave PDCH (SPDCH) TS and it carries the logical channels PDTCH+PACCH+PTTCH. w TCH TS can carry either CS traffic channel TCH or PS logical channels but not both at the same time. w It can carry either PS traffic or PS signalling but not both.222 w The operator has to choose between a Combined BCCH (CBC TS) or a Non-combined BCCH configuration (BCC TS).

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.223 .3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Radio Timeslot of a cell : RAM view ▼ In the BSS the RAM software module maps the OMC-R cell radio configuration to its own types of TS : Pure BCCH timeslot: BCC TS carrying only common CS signalling (BCCH+CCCH) Pure SDCCH timeslot: CBC or SDC TS carrying only dedicated CS signalling (SDCCH) Pure TCH timeslot: TCH TS carrying only TCH traffic TCH/SDCCH timeslot: SDD TS carrying either CS traffic (TCH) or dedicated CS signalling (SDCCH) TCH/SPDCH timeslot: TCH TS carrying either CS traffic (TCH) or PS traffic (SPDCH channels) MPDCH timeslot: TCH TS carrying common PS signalling (PBCCH+PCCCH or PCCCH only) 1.223 w TCH/SDCCH timeslots are allocated as TCH or SDCCH according to an SDCCH dynamic allocation algorithm presented in the “Introduction to Radio Fine Tuning B8” training course. © Alcatel University .B8 3. w TCH/SPDCH timeslots are allocated as TCH or SPDCH according to a SPDCH dynamic allocation algorithm presented in the “Introduction to GPRS & E-GPRS Quality of Service Monitoring B8” training course.

02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 OMC-R radio TS BCC CBC SDC SDD TCH 3.224 w MPDCH TS are defined on the BCCH TRX even if the corresponding TRX_PREF_MARK is different than 0.224 .3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Radio Timeslot : OMC-R / RAM mapping RAM radio TS Pure BCCH Pure SDCCH TCH/SDCCH TCH/SPDCH MPDCH Pure TCH ▼ NB_TS_MPCH MPDCH TS are defined on the BCCH TRX : on the timeslots configured as TCH TS on the OMC-R having the lowest timeslot index ▼ TCH/SPDCH TS are defined as being part of an SPDCH group ▼ Pure TCH timeslots are OMC-R TCH TS neither defined as MPDCH TS nor in an SPDCH group 1. © Alcatel University .

1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 3. an SPDCH group is defined on a per TRX basis and is made of consecutive timeslots: mapped on OMC-R TCH TS located on a PS capable TRX (TRX_PREF_MARK = 0) not defined as MPDCH TS having the same radio configuration (MA. the BSS chooses the SPDCH group of timeslots having the highest number of consecutive timeslots. the timeslots having the lowest index) shall be chosen. ▼ A radio timeslot belonging to one of the different SPDCH groups of the cell is identified in RAM as a TCH/SPDCH timeslot.225 .e. © Alcatel University .225 w The timeslots shall be consecutive on a given TRX means that there shall be no hole in the SPDCH group.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Definition of a TCH/SPDCH TS ▼ For PS traffic resource allocation.02 Page 1. MAIO) ▼ If several SPDCH groups can be defined on a given TRX. w If several SPDCH groups can be defined on the same TRX and having the same number of consecutive timeslots then the group that is located on the left side of the TRX (i.

TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 SDC © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.B8 3. w If several SPDCH groups can be defined on the same TRX and having the same number of consecutive timeslots then the group that is located on the left side of the TRX (i.e.02 Page 1. the timeslots having the lowest index) shall be chosen.226 w The timeslots shall be consecutive on a given TRX means that there shall be no hole in the SPDCH group.226 .3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Exercise 1 ▼ A non hopping cell is configured on the OMC-R TRX_PREF_MARK 0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 BCC SDD SDC TCH TCH 1 TCH TCH TCH TCH 2 SDC SDC TCH TCH 3 TCH TCH TCH TCH 4 TCH TCH TCH TCH 5 TCH TCH TCH TCH 6 TCH TCH TCH TCH 7 TCH TCH TCH TCH 0 0 0 1 ▼ Find the radio TS configuration in RAM if NB_TS_MPDCH= 2 PBC: Pure BCCH PSD: Pure SDCCH TSD: TCH/SDCCH TSP: TCH/SPDCH MPD: MPDCH PTC: Pure TCH TRX4 1.

TCH/SPDCH. TCH/SDCCH TS can be: Busy: if it is not free to serve a FR TCH request Free: if it is free to serve a FR TCH request 1.02 Page 1.B8 3.227 .3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH pools ▼ 3 pools of TCH resources are managed per cell: G1 pure TCH pool: contains all the free TCH sub-channels (FR or HR) free on the pure TCH TS of the G1 TRXs GSM/DCS pure TCH . w A DR TS is busy if at least one TCH is allocated for a call on this timeslot: 1 FR TCH or 1 HR TCH (HR 0 TCH or HR 1 TCH) or 2 HR TCHs (HR 0 TCH and HR 1 TCH) © Alcatel University .227 w A DR TS (timeslot on a DR TRX) is free if no FR TCH or HR TCH is allocated for a call on this timeslot.TCH/SPDCH pool: contains all the free TCH sub-channels (FR or HR) free on the pure TCH TS and on the TCH/SPDCH TS of the GSM/DCS TRXs GSM/DCS TCH/SDCCH pool: contains all the free TCH subchannels (FR or HR) free on the TCH/SDCCH TS of the GSM/DCS TRXs ▼ any pure TCH.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

228 w Inputs for TCH allocation function: © Alcatel University .3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH sub-pools ▼ FR TCH channels can be allocated on both FR and DR TRXs whereas HR TCH channels can only be allocated on DR TRXs ▼ Each of the three TCH pools is divided in three sub-pools: FR sub-pool: contains all the free FR TCH sub-channels available on the FR TRX DR: sub-pool: contains all the free FR TCH sub-channels available on the DR TRX HR sub-pool: contains all the free HR TCH sub-channels whose mate HR TCH sub-channel is busy (always located on the DR TRX) 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.228 .02 Page 1.B8 3.

EFR. AMR HR © Alcatel University . AMR FR.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. AMR FR.229 Inputs for TCH allocation function: w radio capability of the MS: the BSS knows the radio capability of the mobile from the MS CLASSMARK after the Radio Link Establishment procedure w requirements from the MSC: channel type (mandatory) is one of the following: FR HR DR FR P NCA DR FR P CA DR HR P NCA DR HR P CA DR SV P NCA DR SV P CA Full Rate only Half Rate only Dual Rate Full Rate Preferred No Changes Allowed after first channel allocation as a result of the request Dual Rate Full Rate Preferred Changes Allowed after first channel allocation as a result of the request Dual Rate Half Rate Preferred No Changes Allowed after first channel allocation as a result of the request Dual Rate Half Rate Preferred Changes Allowed after first channel allocation as a result of the request Dual Rate No Changes of channel rate Allowed after first channel allocation as a result of the request Dual Rate Changes of channel rate Allowed after first channel allocation as a result of the request list of preferred speech version (optional): GSM full rate speech version 1 = FR GSM full rate speech version 2 = EFR GSM full rate speech version 3 = AMR FR GSM half rate speech version 1 = HR GSM half rate speech version 3 = AMR HR w capabilities of the cell: FR TCHs only if only FR TRXs / FR+HR TCHs if some DR TRXs codec supported among: FR.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH allocation process 1/2 TCH request cell channel type capability cell codec type capability cell load radio capability of the mobile channel type (FR.02 Page 1. HR. HR. EFR.DR) speech version (FR. AMR HR) request type (NA or HO) TCH allocation no yes TCH free? yes no Queuing? Select a TCH sub-pool Select a TCH in this sub-pool TCH rejected TCH queued TCH selected 1.HR.229 .B8 3.

.B8 3. The QUEUE_ANYWAY flag is checked by the Normal Assignment (NASS) entity. - © Alcatel University .230 The timer T11 corresponds to normal assignment with queuing authorised. The timer T11_FORCED corresponds to normal assignment i) when the queuing is not authorised by the MSC but forced by the BSC (QUEUE_ANYWAY = TRUE). or ii) when the queuing is not authorised but the request has its pre-emption indicator set and has already forced the release of a lower priority pre-emptable on-going call.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH allocation process 2/2 NUM_TCH_EGNCY_HO T_QHO TCH allocation no yes ALLOC_ANYWAY T11 T11_ FORCED TCH free? yes no Queuing? Select a TCH sub-pool Select a TCH in this sub-pool TCH rejected TCH queued TCH selected 1.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.The timer T_qho corresponds to an external channel change with queuing authorised or to an external channel change when the queuing is not authorised but the request has its pre-emption indicator set and has already forced the release of a lower priority pre-emptable on-going call.230 .

3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH sub-pool selection ▼ The BSS selects the TCH sub-pools in which a TCH channel can be allocated according to: the requested channel rate and the cell load situation favour HR if cell is loaded a priority given to generic resources 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.231 w TCH allocation without list of preferred speech versions FR request: FR pool DR pool HR request: HR pool DR pool DR FR Preferred request: cell load=False: FR pool DR pool HR pool cell load=True: HR pool DR pool FR pool DR HR Pref. GSM/DCS TCH/SDCCH pool an optimisation of FR/HR resources favour FR pool over DR pool for a FR TCH request favour HR pool over DR pool for an HR TCH request the availability of a TCH channel in the sub-pool 1.TCH/SPDCH pool 3.B8 3. request: HR pool DR pool FR pool w TCH allocation with a list of preferred speech versions FR SV then HR SV: FR pool DR pool HR HR SV then FR SV: HR pool DR pool FR FR SV only: FR pool DR pool HR SV only: HR pool DR pool w favour G1 pool for an E-GSM mobile (penetration of E-GSM mobile is low and GSM/DCS traffic is high) w disfavour TCH allocation on TCH/SDCCH TS (favour signalling over traffic) w Example : E-GSM mobile / DR FR P NCA / no sub-pool is empty BSS selects a TCH in the G1 pure TCH pool / FR sub-pool © Alcatel University .231 . GSM/DCS pure TCH . G1 pool (E-GSM mobile only) 2.

02 Page 1. Favour TCH allocation on pure TCH TS 2.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH selection ▼ sub-pool of the GSM/DCS pure TCH .B8 3.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.232 . Optimise PS traffic on TCH/SPDCH TS TCH allocated on TRX of highest TRX rank – and on TS of highest TS index SPDCH allocated on TRX of lowest TRX rank – and on TS of lowest TS index ▼ 2 modes of TCH selection on pure TCH or TCH/SDCCH timeslots on TCH/SPDCH timeslots 1.TCH/SPDCH pool optimise CS/PS traffic resources 1.232 w TCH selection on pure TCH or TCH/SDCCH timeslots if: there is at least one candidate TCH free on pure TCH TS OR there is no candidate TCH free on TCH/SPDCH TS only the candidate TCH sub-channels available on pure TCH TS and on TCH/SDCCH TS are kept as candidate w TCH selection on TCH/SPDCH timeslots if: there is at least one candidate TCH free on a TCH/SPDCH TS AND there is no candidate TCH free on pure TCH TS only the candidate TCH sub-channels available on TCH/SPDCH TS are kept as candidate © Alcatel University .

w The BSS chooses the best TCH among the sub-channels of the selected TCH sub-pool applying criteria below in the specified order of priority: 1. the TCH selection function favours the TS belonging to the best Interference Band (IB). thus the user will perceive a better quality of service.233 w The BSS attempts to offer the best quality of service for TCH calls in accordance with the privileged order between the groups of TRXs (if any) defined by the operator. the operator may know which TRX should be a priori favored for TCH selection. 4. the TCH selection function favors the TS with the biggest MA (i. the overall interference is kept as low as possible. This selection criterion is enabled/disabled via the flag EN_MA_SELECTION changeable at the OMC-R side on a per cell basis. 2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. The range of TRX_PREF_MARK will be from 0 (lowest priority) to 7 (highest priority). TCH on TS from the best Interference Band Considering that the uplink received level measured by the BTS on an idle channel is a means to assess the quality when in connected mode. For that purpose. The TCH selection function favours the channels with the highest TPM. with the most frequencies in their frequency hopping sequence). TCH on TS with the biggest Mobile Allocation (for hopping cell only) Considering that the number of frequencies is a key factor for the average quality of channels. it is possible for operators to give a preference mark to each TRX of a cell.02 Page 1. TCH on TRX with the highest TRX identity 5.233 . low measured interference). w The benefits from this type of allocation are that the operator has the possibility to define groups of TRXs and to favour (or to disadvantage) them on the other if he wants to do so. TCH on TS with the highest TRX Preference Mark According to the frequency plan. HR 0 TCH if the two sub-channels remaining candidates are the 2 HR TCH of the same free TS © Alcatel University . the coverage and interference probability of a cell (or according to measurements). Among a group of TRXs the BSS attempts to allocate traffic channels that have the best quality characteristics (channels using frequency with low reuse factor. Five IBs are defined through 5 parameters INTFBD1 to INTFBD5 where INTFBD(i)< INTFBD(i+1) and INTFBD5 = -47 all changeable at the OMC-R side on a per BTS basis. large hopping frequency sets. Among a group of pure TCH or TCH/SDCCH timeslots. TCH on TS with the highest TS index 6. This mark is given through the parameters TRX_PREF_MARK (TPM) changeable at OMC-R side per TRX.e. Note that a few Pure TCH TS should be available in a cell on a TRX of TRX_PREF_MARK value of 0 since TCH/SPDCH TS may also be defined on this TRX according to PS radio resource configuration. 3.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH selection on pure TCH or TCH/SDCCH TS ▼ The TCH is chosen from the selected sub-pool according to the following criteria: EN_MA_SELECTION = true TCH candidates of the selected TCH sub-pool Highest TRX_PREF_MARK Biggest Mobile Allocation Best Interference Band non hopping cell Selected TCH HR 0 TCH sub-channel Highest TS index Highest TRX identity FR allocation or HR allocation on busy TS 1.B8 3.

For that purpose. © Alcatel University .234 w The BSS tends to allocate to the MFS the TCH/SPDCH timeslots so as to avoid conflicts between CS and PS allocations on PS capable TRX.g.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm TCH selection on TCH/SPDCH TS ▼ The TCH is chosen from the selected sub-pool according to the following criteria: TCH candidates of the selected TCH sub-pool Highest TRX rank Highest TS index HR 0 TCH sub-channel Selected TCH FR allocation or HR allocation on busy TS TRX rank is determined by the TRX Ranking algorithm described in the “GPRS & EGPRS Radio Algorithms Description” training course 1. w In order to be able to allocate as much slave PDCHs as possible to a given TBF. avoid on a TRX a configuration such as TCH – TCH – SPDCH – SPDCH – TCH – SPDCH – SPDCH – SPDCH). The TRX having the highest TRX rank is preferentially selected for TCH allocations.234 .B8 3. whereas SPDCH are preferentially allocated on the left side (lowest TS index). On a given PS capable TRX.02 Page 1. a TRX rank is assigned to each PS capable TRX. TCH are preferentially allocated on the right side of the TRX (highest TS index).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. whereas TRX having the lowest TRX rank is preferentially selected for SPDCH allocations w This rule only applies on PS capable TRX. it is important to avoid any mix of allocation between TCHs and SPDCHs (e.

1/3 ▼ A cell is configured on the OMC-R and TRE are mapped by BSS TRX_PREF_MARK 0 BCC SDD SDC SDC TCH TCH 1 SDC TCH TCH TCH TCH 2 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH 3 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH 4 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH 5 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH 6 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH 7 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TRE G4 MP FR G4 MP DR G3 DR G4 MP FR G3 DR 0 0 1 0 1 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 TRX5 Time allowed: 10 minutes 1.235 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Exercise 2 .235 .B8 3.

236 .2/3 ▼ Find the radio TS configuration in RAM if NB_TS_MPDCH= 2 Pure BCCH TS Pure SDCCH TS TCH/SDDCH TS TRX_PREF_MARK PBC PSD TSD PTC TSP MPD Pure TCH TS TCH/SPDCH TS MPDCH 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TRE G4 MP FR 0 0 1 0 1 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 TRX5 SDC G4 MP DR G3 DR G4 MP FR G3 DR 1.B8 3.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.236 © Alcatel University .3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Exercise 2 .02 Page 1.

DR 3.237 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed..3 TCH resource allocation algorithm Exercise 2 . MS5.B8 3. For MS3: GSM. …. For MS2: GSM/DCS.02 Page 1. MSn: E-GSM. DR TRX Rank n=? 4 P F: FR TCH call H: HR TCH call Cell load = true 0 TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 TRX5 H P H H SDC TSD 1 2 3 5 P H F P H 6 P 7 TRE GSM/FR 2 3 1 - P F P H P F P P F P P F P F F F P F H H GSM/DR GSM/DR GSM/FR G1/DR 1.237 © Alcatel University .3/3 Pure TCH TS TCH/SPDCH TS TCH/SDDCH TS as TCH TS P: SPDCH TS ▼ Find which TCH sub-channel is allocated: 1. For MS1: E-GSM. DR 2. FR 4. For MS4.

238 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 1.4 MS Reselection algorithms © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.3 OTHER ALGORITHMS 3.238 LCS Dynamic SDDCH allocation MS Reselection algorithms © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.

No entries in the BCCH list. or the location is completely different: scan frequency band.GSM1800 neighbor cells put into SI 2/2bis The MS measures RXLEV from BCCH of the serving and neighbor cells. The BTS sends the neighbor cells list (BCCH allocation BA) on BCCH in System Information (SI) 2.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.239 . the MS is selecting a cell with best C1 once “camped on” one cell (in idle mode)… ▼ …the MS can decide to reselect on another one if: C1 criteria is too low the MS cannot decode downlink messages the current cell is becoming forbidden (e.g. The MS camps on a cell.239 w Idle mode Status null: the mobile station (MS) is off Status search BCCH: the MS searches a broadcast channel with the best signal level (cell selection and reselection) BCCH list: up to 36 BCCH frequencies plus BSIC can be saved on SIM per visited network.GSM900 neighbor cells put into SI 2 . regarding C2 criteria 1. Look if frequencies of the BCCH list can be used. 2bis and 2ter if BSS parameter EN_INTERBAND_NEIGH in dual band networks: GSM900 serving cell .4 MS Reselection algorithms Selection and reselection principles ▼ At startup (IMSI Attach).02 Page 1.3. The MS needs to be accessible by the network.GSM1800 neighbor cells put into SI 2ter/2bis GSM1800 serving cell . Reselection is done using the mechanisms referenced above ‘handover algorithms’ in idle mode © Alcatel University . Status BCCH: the MS is synchronized on a BCCH.GSM900 neighbor cells put into SI 2ter . barred) the MS cannot access the cell there is a better cell. Camping on a cell is performed using C1 criteria only (the chosen cell is the one with the best C1) The MS needs to have access to the network.

3.02 Page 1. if a call was attempted.4 MS Reselection algorithms C1 criteria (1/2) ▼ C1 ensure that.240 © Alcatel University .240 . it would be done with a sufficient downlink and uplink received level based on 2 parameters. broadcast on BCCH RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN [dBm] minimum level to access the cell MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH [dBm] maximum level for MS emitting 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

if B > 0.241 .241 © Alcatel University .B) > 0 A = RxLev .P P maximum power of MS assess that the BTS received level will be sufficient if MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH < P If A > 0 & B < 0 OK.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN assess that the MS received level is sufficient B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH .02 Page 1.4 MS Reselection algorithms C1 criteria (2/2) ▼ C1 evaluated every 5 sec (minimum) C1 = A . it can be compensated by A A >> 0 means that the MS is closer to the BTS 1.3.MAX(0.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. If no cell with normal priority is available then the MS would select the lower priority cell with the highest C2 (C1>0). micro-cell vs. it will be penalized compared to ALL its neighbors.02 Page 1.242 w Note: CRO: from 0 to 126 dB. step 2dB PENALTY_TIME: from 1=20s to 30=600s. © Alcatel University . w Cell selection and cell reselection considering CELL_BAR_QUALIFY in case of phase 2 MS and CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND=1.TEMPORARY_OFFSET (T) (if PENALTY_TIME ≠ 31) if T > PENALTY_TIME. 7 = infinite w The use of a second formula (Penalty_time = 31) is restricted to very special cases.242 . 31=infinite TEMPORARY_OFFSET: from 1=10dB to 6=60dB. If a cell is parametered with PT=31.g. once T > PENALTY_TIME) Or C2 = C1 . umbrella. To penalize a cell compared to one neighbor. one should better boost the neighbor cell (using the first formula). w The first formula is very useful for favoring indoor cell or microcell. TEMPORARY_OFFSET(T) = 0 used to avoid locating on “transient cell” CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET used to favor cell among other (e. it is possible to set priorities to cells CELL_BAR_QUALIFY Two values: 0 = normal priority (default value) 1 = lower priority Interacts with CELL_BAR_ACCESS (barring cell) A phase 2 MS selects the suitable cell with the highest C2 (C1>0) belonging to the list of normal priority.3.CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET (if PENALTY_TIME = 31) CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET used to handicap some cells among others One reselection criterion is compared to C2s C2neighbor > C2current if cells belong to same LA C2neighbor > C2current+Cell_Reselect_Hysteresis if cells from a different LA 1.4 MS Reselection algorithms C2 criteria ▼ C2 CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND= not present THEN C2=C1 else C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET . as we do not like to penalize a cell. step: 20s.

4 MS Reselection algorithms Training Exercise (1/2) ▼On this network example List the parameters involved in the selection / reselection process CI=1823 GSM900 CI=6271 GSM900 Cell (8557.3.243 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1. 1823) CI=6270 GSM900 CI=6169 GSM900 Cell (8564.6169) CI=1964 GSM900 Cell (8564.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.243 . 1964) Time allowed: 5 minutes 1.

1964) 1.3.244 . 1823) CI=6270 GSM900 Measurements 1 2 3 4 5 RxLev (1) RxLev (2) RxLev (3) -80 -84 -88 -88 -89 -96 -90 -90 -87 -85 -104 -100 -87 -82 CI=6169 GSM900 -78 Cell 2 (8564.02 Page 1.6169) CI=1964 GSM900 Cell 1 (8564.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.4 MS Reselection algorithms Training Exercise (2/2) Find the selected cell by the MS CI=1823 GSM900 CI=6271 GSM900 Cell 3 (8557.244 © Alcatel University .

02 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.245 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR © Alcatel University .245 .

1 Theoretical presentation 4.02 Page 1.246 .246 S1: TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS S2: ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS S3: OMC-R RADIO PARAMETERS S4: ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR S5: CASE STUDIES © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR Session presentation ▼ Objective: to be able to Estimate qualitatively the impact of parameters change ▼ Program: 4.2 Examples and exercises 1.

1 Theoretical presentation © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR 4.247 Theoretical presentation Examples and Exercises © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.247 .02 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.248 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.248 .4.1 Theoretical presentation Session objectives ▼ SESSION OBJECTIVES Be able to estimate qualitatively the impact of a parameter change ▼ JUSTIFICATION Tuning is not an exact science The optimizer has to control every parameter change and predict qualitatively what the consequences will be v Note: Each change of parameter and its justification have to be registered in a database for operation convenience ▼ DETAILED PROGRAM Three Example/Exercises 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.02 1.249 .1 Examples and Exercises © Alcatel University .4 ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR 4.249 Theoretical presentation Examples and Exercises © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.

4.250 .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2 Examples and Exercises Overview ▼ Example 1: Optimization of handover algorithms Sliding averaging window ▼ Example 2: Optimization of power control algorithms Sliding averaging window ▼ Example 3: Traffic load sharing Parameters qualitative influence 1.250 © Alcatel University .

251 © Alcatel University .251 .02 Page 1.2 Examples and Exercises Example 1: Optimization of Handover Algorithms (1/4) ▼ Search for best tuning of HO parameters to decrease call drop Call drop HO/Call 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.4.

252 .252 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 1: Optimization of Handover Algorithms (2/4) ▼ Main Objective: make the HO algorithm as efficient as possible Minimize call drop rate trigger HO soon enough toward the “best” neighbor while keeping a good speech quality avoid HO due to quality: “too late” avoid having HO/call rate too high 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

5 1 0 . L_RXLEV_DL_H. L_RXLEV_DL_P OK as soon as HO success rate stabilized 1. RxQUAL 7 6 5 4 RxQUAL 3 2 1 0 11 0 10 8 10 6 10 4 10 2 10 0 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 78 76 74 72 70 © Alcatel University . Any parameter tuning done after an Abis study has to be checked periodically as the distribution in the cell can change from one week to another.5 0 3 2 1 0 ▼ Then tune according to QoS indicators (OMC-R) by repetitive process A_PBGT_HO/A_LEV_HO/A_QUAL_HO L_RXLEV_UL_H.4.253 w Never forget that Abis information takes into account the traffic distribution in the cell.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. w Use the pivot table function (Excel) to build this graph.02 Page 1.253 . L_RXLEV_UL_P.2 Examples and Exercises Example 1: Optimization of Handover Algorithms (3/4) ▼ Method Collect Abis trace chart Search for HO level to avoid quality lower than 4 (or even 3) sufficient number of “bad quality” samples low standard deviation problem when HO already activated < R x Q u a l _ D L > = f(A V _ R x L e v_ D L ) < R x Q u a l_ U L > = f(A V _ R x L e v_ U L ) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 N b_sam ples N b_ sa m ple s 600 400 200 0 1000 800 600 400 200 0 S ta n d a rd D e vi a ti o n S ta n d a rd D e vi a ti o n 2 1 .

254 .254 © Alcatel University .4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 1: Optimization of Handover Algorithms (4/4) ▼ neighboring relationship cleanup Remove useless relationships (A interface statistics.02 Page 1. check the main QoS indicators Call drop rate HO failure rate HO/call rate 1. PM Type 180) Remove the common BCCH/BSIC couple Add new relationships when a new site is created ▼ Finally.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

2 Examples and Exercises Example 1: training exercise ▼ According to the Abis results and some parameters already set.4.02 Page 1.255 © Alcatel University .255 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. ▼ tune qualitatively the sliding averaging windows: A_QUAL_HO A_LEV_HO Level at RxQual=3 L_RXLEV_DL_H A_QUAL_HO A_LEV_HO -80dBm -85dBm 6 ? -96dBm -90dBm 6 ? -90dBm Time allowed: -90dBm ? 4 5 minutes 1.

4.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2 Examples and Exercises Example 2: Optimization of Power Control Algorithms (1/2) ▼ Optimization of Downlink Power Control Decrease of downlink interference Risks of delay of HO (without fast power control) ▼ Optimization of Uplink Power Control Decrease of Uplink interference MS battery saving Risks of delay of HO (without fast power control) 1.256 © Alcatel University .256 .02 Page 1.

a dynamic MS PC is activated. and debase call drop rate Power control threshold must be within HO ones Dynamic step size must be activated if possible 1.02 Page 1.257 w In the example below.257 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. RxLev_UL 1 39 77 115 153 191 229 267 305 343 381 419 457 495 533 571 609 647 685 723 761 799 837 875 913 951 989 1027 -70 -75 -80 -85 RxLev_UL -90 -95 -100 33 31 29 27 25 23 MS_PwrLevel 21 19 17 15 13 1 40 79 118 157 196 235 274 313 352 391 430 469 508 547 586 625 664 703 742 781 820 859 898 937 976 1015 © Alcatel University . which can slow down HO decision.2 Examples and Exercises Example 2: Optimization of Power Control Algorithms (2/2) ▼ The main tuning problem is the interaction with handover. The MS power changes are really reactive and control the UL level between -80 and -90dBm.4. the HO threshold is -98 dBm. In this example.

4.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.258 © Alcatel University .258 .2 Examples and Exercises Example 2: Training Exercise ▼ Explain qualitatively the impacts of some parameter changes What happens if: we increase POW_INC_FACTOR? we increase MAX_POW_INC? We increase A_LEV_PC? Time allowed: 5 minutes 1.02 Page 1.

259 © Alcatel University .4. without HW extension ▼ Trade-off between traffic sharing/radio quality ▼ Different algorithm Fast Traffic Handover: Cause 28 Traffic Handover: Cause 23 and 12 with DELTA_HO_MARGIN(0.n) Static (couple of cells): HO_MARGIN. LINK_FACTOR On a local traffic basis: Load_Factor/Free_Factor Forced Directed Retry 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (1/12) ▼ Used to unload cell with too high traffic.259 .02 Page 1.

Interaction with Forced DR due to the use of same thresholds Optimization method (repetitive process) Tunes L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n).4. QoS indicators 1.260 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.260 . checks traffic peaks. FREElevel_DR(n) Applies new values.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (2/12) ▼ Fast Traffic HO Useful in case of sudden traffic peaks as the process response is instantaneous (no averaging window) The principle is to force handover towards neighbor cells which have lower traffic when a request is queued in the serving cell.02 Page 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.261 .4.261 © Alcatel University .2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (3/12) ▼ The Pros and cons of Fast Traffic HO Efficiency depends on traffic location in the loaded cell capacity of neighbor cells Ä increase of the number of HO/call Ä increase of incoming HOs fail rate (risk of ping-pong effect) in case of internal HO: use PING_PONG_HCP with T_HCP or/and enable HO CAUSE 23 Ä heavy to tune (has to be done for each couple of cells) À Adapted to instantaneous traffic modification À can be used to send traffic towards a cell external to the serving BSC À adapted to hierarchical network.02 Page 1. but also to standard ones 1.

4.n) ▼ CHANGE DYNAMICALLY TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION WITH HO: Traffic HO Cause 23 Ease outgoing better condition HO on a traffic point of view Slow down outgoing better cell HO (to be tuned for a given couple of cells) When the better cell in radio condition is the worst cell in traffic terms Optimization method (repetitive process) Tune DELTA_DEC_HO_MARGIN and DELTA_INC_HO_MARGIN Apply new values.262 . check traffic.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (4/12) ▼ DELTA_HO_MARGIN (0.262 © Alcatel University . QoS indicators and possibly speech quality 1.02 Page 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (5/12) ▼ The Pros and cons of DELTA_HO_MARGIN (0. before being “exported” it can be rejected À Easy to tune (dynamic process) À Adaptability to instantaneous and long term traffic modifications 1.263 .263 © Alcatel University .n) method Efficiency depends on traffic location in the loaded cell cells overlap capacity of neighbor cells Ä increase the number of HO/call Ä cannot be used to send traffic toward a cell external to the serving BSC Ä the call has to be first established on a loaded cell.02 Page 1.4.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. use LINK_FACTOR to favor them if not.264 . use HO_MARGIN and LINK_FACTOR Apply new values. check traffic. QoS indicators and possibly speech quality 1.02 Page 1.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (6/12) ▼ HO_MARGIN / LINK_FACTOR ▼ CHANGE STATICALLY TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION WITH HO: Ease outgoing better cell HO (to be tuned for a given couple of cells) Decrease HO_MARGIN (can make a cell “candidate”) Increase LINK_FACTOR (used to rank candidate cells) Optimization method (repetitive process) Look for neighbor cells able to carry extra traffic Use Abis trace to check if these cells are candidate if yes.4.264 © Alcatel University .

265 © Alcatel University .2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (7/12) ▼ The Pros and cons of LINK_FACTOR/HO_MARGIN can be efficient (up to 20% increase of capacity) in some cases cell overlap capacity of neighbor cells Ä increase the number of HO/call Ä the call has to be first established on a loaded cell. before being “exported” Ä it can be rejected Ä heavy to tune (has to be done for each couple of cells) Ä no adaptability to instantaneous and long term traffic modifications À can be used to send traffic toward a cell external to the serving BSC 1.02 Page 1.265 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.4.

send the MS toward the less loaded cell with HO Ease outgoing better cell HO.266 © Alcatel University .266 . only change ranking Tuning method (repetitive) to be activated locally for each cell with default parameter setting look for QoS indicators (esp.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. according to Load_Factor (% of TCH occupancy) of serving and “target” cells Free_Factor (number of free TCHs) of serving and target cells (order only) cannot make a “candidate” cell. traffic intensity and blocking rate) tune tables accordingly 1.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (8/12) ▼ FREE_FACTOR/LOAD_FACTOR ▼ Taking into account the current load of cells.4.02 Page 1.

4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (9/12)

The Pros and cons of load/free factors method Ä Lower efficiency compared to LINK_FACTOR/HO_MARGIN À No increase of HO/call rate Ä Calls have to be established on a loaded cell before being “exported” Ä Tuning is performed on a cell-per-cell basis Ä Cannot be used to send traffic toward an external cell À Adapted to dynamic change of traffic and capacity (for Load_Factor)

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4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (10/12)

▼ Forced directed retry method Mechanisms the MS is connected on an SDCCH of cell1 it must switch on TCH no TCH is free on cell1 there is at least 1 neighbor cell which has sufficient DL level seen by the MS enough free TCHs the MS is handed over to TCH towards this cell if there are several cells, the one with the best PBGT is selected

1.268

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4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (11/12)

▼ method: trade-off between traffic and radio quality mainly L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) parameter to tune the lower, the better the traffic sharing the lower, the higher the interference risks QoS indicators and field tests (speech quality) are necessary for tuning

cell 1 : 24

cell 2 : 45

cell 3 : 23

1.269
w Forced directed retry The following condition is checked every measurement reporting period and if at least one input pre-processed parameter AV_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) is available. CAUSE = 20 (high level in neighbor cell for forced directed retry) AV_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) > L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) (n = 1 ... BTSnum) and EN_FORCED_DR = ENABLE The threshold L_RXLEV_NCELL_DR(n) is the observed level from the neighbor cell n at the border of the area where forced directed retry is enabled. This threshold fixes the size of the overlapping area where forced directed retry can be performed. It should be greater than RXLEVmin(n).

© Alcatel University - 8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02

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4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: Traffic Load Sharing (12/12)

▼ The Pros and cons of Forced directed retry À highest efficiency (up to 30%) À no increase of HO/call rate À can be used to send traffic toward an external cell À adapted to dynamic change of traffic À adapted to hierarchical networks, but also to standard ones Ä tuning is performed on a cell-per-cell basis

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4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: training exercise (1/3)

▼ Draw qualitatively the new serving areas on the pseudo map when enabling traffic HO with:
DELTA_DEC_HO_MARGIN=6dB DELTA_INC_HO_MARGIN=4dB
Loaded cell 0 PBGT(0)=PBGT(n)= 0 Unloaded cell n

Cause 12

Cause 12

EN_TRAFFIC_HO = 0

PBGT(0) = 5

PBGT(n) = 5
Solution

Time allowed: 5 minutes

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4.2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: training exercise (2/3)

▼ What happens when EN_FAST_TRAFFIC_HO = ENABLE and EN_TRAFFIC_HO(0,n) = DISABLE
Loaded cell 0 PBGT(0)=PBGT(n)=0 Unloaded cell n

Queued Ass Req

Av_Rxlev_Ncell(n) = -82dBm

Av_Rxlev_Ncell(0) = -74dBm Av_Rxlev_PBGT_HO = -82dBm

L_RLEV_NCELL_DR(n) = -85dBm PBGT(0) = 5 PBGT(n) = 5

Time allowed: 5 minutes
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2 Examples and Exercises Example 3: training exercise (3/3) ▼ What happens when EN_FAST_TRAFFIC_HO = ENABLE and EN_TRAFFIC_HO(0.273 .273 Time allowed: 5 minutes © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.4.n) = ENABLE Loaded cell 0 Unloaded cell n Queued Ass Req Av_Rxlev_Ncell(0) = -74dBm Av_Rxlev_PBGT_HO = -82dBm Av_Rxlev_Ncell(n) = -82dBm PBGT(n) = -1 PBGT(0) = 5 1.02 PBGT(0) = 9 Page 1.

5 CASE STUDIES © Alcatel University .274 .274 © Alcatel University .02 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.

5 CASE STUDIES Session presentation ▼ Objective: to be able to propose a set of parameters to solve typical radio problems ▼ Program: 5.2 TUNNEL Case 5.4 TOWER Case 5.3 RADAR Case 5.9 INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case 1.6 FOREST Case 5.1 Theoretical presentation 5.275 .5 RESURGENCE Case 5.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.7 HIGHWAY Case 5.02 Page 1.8 TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case 5.275 S1: TYPICAL RADIO PROBLEMS S2: ALGORITHMS AND ASSOCIATED PARAMETERS S3: OMC-R RADIO PARAMETERS S4: ALGORITHMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR S5: CASE STUDIES © Alcatel University .

5 CASE STUDIES 5.02 1.276 .1 Theoretical presentation © Alcatel University .276 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.

277 © Alcatel University .277 .02 Page 1.5.1 Theoretical presentation Session objectives ▼ SESSION OBJECTIVES Be able to propose an appropriate set of parameters to solve typical field problems ▼ JUSTIFICATION Some typical problems due to particular field configuration always occur in a GSM network ▼ DETAILED PROGRAM Eight typical case studies 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

278 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .2 Tunnel Case © Alcatel University .278 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.02 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5 CASE STUDIES 5.02 Page 1.

5.02 Page 1.2 Tunnel Case ▼ Radiating cable in a tunnel Question: Risks of such a configuration tune the right parameters for the tunnel cell catch quickly ‘car traffic’ avoid the pedestrian traffic ‘Indoor BTS’ Repeater Radiating cable Tunnel Outdoor BTS Pedestrian mobile 1.279 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.279 .

5 CASE STUDIES 5.3 Radar Case © Alcatel University .280 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.02 1.280 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.

An industrial zone in the valley is covered by small cells but also by the “radar” cell. The serving areas in the IZ are not clearly defined.3 Radar Case ▼ Radar situation A “radar” cell situated on top of a hill provides a wide coverage area.281 .281 © Alcatel University . ▼ Objective Give a parameter set to prevent the radar cell from catching any traffic in the industrial zone by HO assignment 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5.02 Page 1.

4 Tower Case © Alcatel University .02 1.02 Page 1.282 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.282 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .5 CASE STUDIES 5.

283 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5.4 Tower Case ▼ Tower situation The indoor mobile selects in idle mode the outdoor cell (same LA) ▼ Objective Define a set of parameters to avoid that effect Indoor Antenna BS1 1.283 .02 Page 1.

284 .5 CASE STUDIES 5.284 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .5 Resurgence Case © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.02 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

5 Resurgence Case ▼ Resurgence situation In rural network.5. especially in hilly landscape.285 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.285 .02 Page 1. ▼ Objective Define a set of parameters to avoid radio link establishment to those cells and TCH traffic on those cells Cell A Cell B Resurgence from cell A 25 km 1. many resurgences occur from very far cells.

02 Page 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.6 Forest Case © Alcatel University .286 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .286 .5 CASE STUDIES 5.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 1.

6 Forest Case ▼ Forest situation: A highway crosses a forest High call drop rate (radio cause) on the cell and drive tests: strong level attenuation at the entrance of the forest ▼ Objective Define a set of parameters to avoid radio link failure ATT=10dB every 100m -75dBm Forest -90dBm Highway BTS 1.5.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.287 .287 © Alcatel University .

8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.5 CASE STUDIES 5.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.7 Highway Case © Alcatel University .288 .02 Page 1.288 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .02 1.

02 Page 1.5.289 .289 © Alcatel University .7 Highway Case ▼ Highway situation: A highway is slightly covered (best coverage on 200m) by an ‘orthogonal’ cell (cell C on the map) ▼ Objective Define a set of parameters to avoid traffic in the ‘orthogonal cell’ Cell C Cell B Cell A 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

02 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.5 CASE STUDIES 5.02 Page 1.290 .290 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .8 TCH/SDCCH congestion case © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

291 © Alcatel University .8 TCH/SDCCH Congestion Case ▼ SDCCH congestion situation A railway station is located at the frontier of two LAs. ▼ Objective Define a set of parameters to avoid SDCCH congestion on cell B (LA 2) Cell B LA2 LA1 LA frontier Cell A 1.02 Page 1.291 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5. Every train stopping in this station comes from LA 1 and then return to LA 1 after the stop.

292 .02 1.9 Indoor cell congestion case © Alcatel University .5 CASE STUDIES 5.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.292 Theoretical presentation TUNNEL Case RADAR Case TOWER Case RESURGENCE Case FOREST Case HIGHWAY Case TCH/SDCCH CONGESTION Case INDOOR CELL CONGESTION Case © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.9 Indoor cell congestion ▼ An indoor microcell has been introduced within a multi-layer network (macro + micro) ▼ When the indoor microcell is congested.293 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1. FDR may not be working as some the MSs can be covered only by this cell Define parameter settings to find a good solution in case of indoor cell congestion 1.5.293 .

02 Page 1.294 .END SESSION 1.294 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

ANNEXES © Alcatel University .02 1.02 Page 1.295 TYPICAL MODULE STRUCTURE objective(s) theoretical presentation training exercises and/or cases study + feedback © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.295 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

296 Erlang B law Frequency hopping influence on PCHO process Load & Traffic evaluation Training exercises solutions © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.296 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.1 Erlang B law © Alcatel University .ANNEXES Annex.02 1.

297 © Alcatel University .Annex.1 Erlang B law Erlang definition ▼ ERLANG: unit used to quantify traffic T = (resource usage duration)/(total observation duration) [ERLANG] Example: 1 TCH is observed during 1 hour one can observe 1 call of 80 sec and 1 call of 100 sec the observed traffic is T = (80+100)/3600 = 0.297 .02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.05 ERLANG 1.

75 ERLANG 1.5 sec ERLANG COMPUTATION TCH = (350 * 85)/3600 = 8.5 sec: SDCCH = [ (350 + 350*3) * 4.75 ERLANG © Alcatel University .5 ] / 3600 = 1.1 Erlang B law Call mix definition ▼ ERLANG <-> CALL MIX CALL MIX EXAMPLE 350 call/hour 3 LU/call TCH duration: 85 sec SDCCH duration: 4.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.26 ERLANG SDCCH = [ (350 + 350*3) * 4.Annex.26 ERLANGS w 350 calls means 350 SDCCH phases.298 . w 3 LU/call means 3 * 350 LUs so 1050 SDCCH phases more.02 Page 1. w 1 SDCCH phase is 4.5 ] / 3600 = 1.298 w 350 calls * 85 sec / 1 hour(3600 sec): TCH = (350 * 85)/3600 = 8.

w The graph gives the number of connection requests per second during 35 seconds.1 Erlang B law Erlang B (1/5) ▼ ERLANG B LAW relationship between offered traffic number of resources blocking rate ▼ In a telecom system. w 83/30s => 83 * 2 * 60 = about 10 000 / hour w Real example in Paris on 1 BSC (LA FOURCHE).8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.299 .Annex. © Alcatel University . call arrival frequency is ruled by the POISSON LAW ca ll/se cond ca ll/se cond 10 10 9 9 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 5 9 1 3 1 7 2 1 2 5 2 9 3 3 3 7 4 1 4 5 4 9 5 3 5 7 6 1 6 5 6 9 7 3 7 7 8 1 8 5 8 9 9 3 1 5 9 1 3 1 7 2 1 2 5 2 9 3 3 3 7 4 1 4 5 4 9 5 3 5 7 6 1 6 5 6 9 7 3 7 7 8 1 8 5 8 9 9 3 9 7 0 9 7 0 1.02 Page 1.299 w The offered traffic is the traffic asked by the customers.

Annex.02 Page 1.300 .300 © Alcatel University .1 Erlang B law Erlang B (2/5) ▼ call request arrival rate (and leaving) is not stable number of resources = average number of requests * mean duration is sometime not sufficient => probability of blocking ▼ => Erlang B law Pblock: blocking probability N: number of resources E: offered traffic [Erlang] P b lo c k = E ∑ N k =0 N N! E k k! good approximation when the blocking rate is low (< 5%) 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Nc) Offered = f (Nc.301 . Pblock) 1.Annex.02 Page 1.301 © Alcatel University . Pblock) Channels = f (T.1 Erlang B law Erlang B (3/5) ▼ There is two different ways to use this law Using Abacus Using SW (here Excel) Pblock = f (T.

02 Page 1.1 Erlang B law Erlang B (4/5) ▼ Example: We have a BTS of 8 TRXs (about 60 channels (Nc)) We do not want more than 2% of blocking (Pblock) => The traffic is not to be greater than 50 Erlangs (T) 83% of resources used to reach 2% of blocking 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.302 .Annex.302 © Alcatel University .

02 Page 1. if we decide to provide SMSCB (Cell Broadcast information) 1 subchannel SDCCH is therefore used. 4 SDCCHs. Pblock = 2% => T = 1.1 Erlang B law Erlang B (5/5) ▼ But be careful.6 E 50% of Traffic less !! 1.303 . the law is not linear: ▼ In B4.303 © Alcatel University . we use for example a combined BCCH with a micro BTS. 3 SDCCHs. Pblock = 2% 25% of resources less => => T = 0.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.Annex.1 E 25% of resources used to reach 2% of blocking ▼ In B5.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.5% (TTCH: 0.Annex.1 Erlang B law Cell dimensioning (1/5) ▼ CELL DIMENSIONING Given an Offered traffic.02 Page 1.304 .1%) 1.304 © Alcatel University . compute the number of TRXs (and SDCCHs) needed to carry it default blocking rate RTCH: 2% SDCCH: 0.

305 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.305 .02 Page 1.1 Erlang B law Cell dimensioning (2/5) ▼ CELL DIMENSIONING to handle an offered traffic of 12 Erlangs (TCH). compute the number of channels.2%) = 19 example: 3 TRXs .Annex. 1 BCCH. then the number of TRXs Channels (12. 2 SDCCH8 1. 21 TCHs.

with a blocking rate of 10% how to dimension the cell? Offered traffic = 15 / (1-10%) = 16.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.7 Erlangs !!!! Channels (16.306 © Alcatel University . based on field measurement one is measuring a traffic of 15 Erlangs.2%) -> 25 TCHs -> 4 TRXs needed 1.02 Page 1.7.1 Erlang B law Cell dimensioning (3/5) ▼ CELL DIMENSIONING.306 .Annex.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.307 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1. one must calculate regularly the date when the traffic of a cell will become critical critical traffic: when offered traffic will induce 2% of blocking 1.1 Erlang B law Cell dimensioning (4/5) ▼ FORECASTING TRAFFIC/CRITICAL TRAFFIC traffic forecasting must be calculated according to offered traffic @ not directly on measured traffic In order to plan necessary actions soon enough.307 .Annex.

308 .1 Erlang B law Cell dimensioning (5/5) ▼ WARNING: IN CASE OF TOO HIGH BLOCKING RATE FIRST CHECK THAT THERE IS NO OUTAGE ON THE BTS BEFORE STARTING A DIMENSIONING/TUNING ACTION 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.308 © Alcatel University .Annex.02 Page 1.

96 blocking rate 4% = 12.865 600 call/hour (600*96)/3600 m TCHcall duration 96 = ean 16/.08 Erlang TCH mean TCH call duration : 80 sec blocking rate TCH : 0.675 330 call/hour (330*129)/360 m TCHcall duration 129 0 ean sec = 11.6 Erlang TCH->31 TCH 17.3177*1.02 Page 1.309 cell call m info ix Erlang TCH traffic forecast proposed config 12.1 Erlang TCH.825/0.6 5 TRX © Alcatel University .1 Erlang B law Training exercise ▼ TRAINING EXERCISE Complete this form in order to get less than 2% of blocking in all cases.3 =22.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. cell 12. 743 call mix info Erlang TCH Offered traffic traffic forecast 30 % offered traffic increase proposed config 13.309 .3177 12.3= 13.992= 10.675 30 % offered traffic increase 12.1 Erlang TCH .> 20 TCH 3 TRX 450 call/hour 10.>20 TCH 10.8% = 10 10/.4 sec blocking rate 8 % 30 % TCHincrease 13.3 = 16 4 TRX 30 % TCHincrease 22.865 30 % offered traffic increase Back 1.8% 330 call/hour mean TCH call duration 129 sec blocking rate 4% 600 call/hour mean TCH call duration 96 sec blocking rate 8 % 12.081*1. 743 450 call/hour 10 Erlang TCH m TCHcall duration : 80 ean sec (450*80)/3600 blocking rate TCH: 0.08 1 12.4*1.1 3 TRX 30 % TCHincrease 16 Erlang TCH->24 TCH 12.92 =17.Annex.

310 Erlang B law Frequency hopping influence on PCHO process Load & Traffic evaluation Training exercises solutions © Alcatel University .310 .2 Frequency Hopping influence on PCHO process © Alcatel University .ANNEXES Annex.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 1.02 Page 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.

the number of frames that are not erased are sent as an input to the voice decoder DEMOD DECODER Deinterleave Error correct.2 Frequency Hopping influence on PCHO process (1/4) ▼ Signal decoding process In a GSM system.311 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.311 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.Annex. Frame Erasure Decision Voice Decoder RXQUAL Air ENCODER Frame Erasure Rate Inside the mobile station 1.

1.312 .2 Frequency Hopping influence on PCHO process (2/4) ▼ Quality impact of frequency hopping on the reception chain In non-hopping networks. the RXQUAL and voice quality are correlated In hopping networks. the voice quality is sooner correlated to the FER.Annex. This is due to interferer averaging and due to the non-linear mapping of BER to RXQUAL values.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.312 © Alcatel University .

313 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.00% Random Ref 1.313 .50% 1.50% 0.2 0 Cycli RxQ Average FER Average 2.02 Page 1.00% 1.2 Frequency Hopping influence on PCHO process (3/4) ▼ Quality impact of frequency hopping on the reception chain FER is improved when frequency hopping is activated (cyclic or random) RxQual is not impacted whereas the speech quality is better Average (RxQ & FER) 1.4 1.6 0.2 1 0.8 0.Annex.50% 2.00% 0.4 0.

314 .02 Page 1.Annex.314 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.2 Frequency Hopping influence on PCHO process Conclusion (4/4) ▼Conclusion When frequency hopping is activated We can accept in Power Control and Handover processes. a threshold increase: OFFSET_HOPPING_PC and OFFSET_HOPPING_HO Back 1.

02 Page 1.315 Erlang B law Frequency hopping influence on PCHO process Load & Traffic evaluation Training exercises solutions © Alcatel University .ANNEXES Annex.02 1.8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.3 Load & Traffic evaluation © Alcatel University .315 .

02 Page 1.316 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.3 Load & Traffic evaluation Cell TCH radio resource evaluation usage Load evaluation short term medium term long term Period TCH_INFO_PERIOD LOAD_EV_PERIOD x TCH_INFO_PERIOD N_TRAFFIC_LOAD x A_TRAFFIC_LOAD x TCH_INFO_PERIOD Usage FREEfactors LOADfactors Speed discrimination for hierarchical network Full Rate / Half Rate channel allocation Power budget Handover Traffic Handover Multiband capture Handover General capture Handover Back Cause 12 Back Cause 26 1.Annex.316 .

02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.3 Load & Traffic evaluation Load evaluation (1/5) ▼ medium term measurement of the load of a cell corresponds to function AV_LOAD(cell) a new sample of the “Nb free TCH” in the cell is available every TCH_INFO_PERIOD seconds AV_LOAD() is a nonsliding window load average from Nb free TCH samples updated every LOAD_EV_PERIOD x TCH_INFO_PERIOD sec 1.317 © Alcatel University .Annex.317 .

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.Annex.318 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.3 Load & Traffic evaluation Load evaluation (2/5) ▼ AV_LOAD(cell n) calculated from N Nb free TCH samples available during LOAD_EV_PERIOD x TCH_INFO_PERIOD sec 1 AV_LOAD(n) = Nsamples Nsamples ∑ i =1 (1 − Nb free TCH (n) ) * 100 Nb Tot TCH (n) LOADfactors and FREEfactors also determined from Nb free TCH samples every TCH_INFO_PERIOD seconds (short term evaluation) LOADlevels are boundaries of load intervals associating a LOADfactor (db) to a Nb of free TCH samples FREElevels are boundaries of Nb of free TCH intervals associating a FREEfactor (db) to a Nb of free TCH samples 1.318 .

Annex.02 Page 1.319 © Alcatel University .Nb free TCH/Total Nb TCH) x 100 LOADfactor t <= LOADlevel_1 LOADfactor_1 LOADLevel_1< t <= LOADlevel_2 LOADfactor_2 LOADLevel_2< t <= LOADlevel_3 LOADfactor_3 LOADLevel_3< t <= LOADlevel_4 LOADfactor_4 LOADLevel_4< t LOADfactor_5 LOADlevel in % LOADfactor in dB 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.3 Load & Traffic evaluation Load evaluation (3/5) ▼ LOADfactor determination: t = (1 .319 .

Annex.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.320 © Alcatel University .02 Page 1.320 .3 Load & Traffic evaluation Load evaluation (4/5) ▼ FREEfactor determination: Nb free TCH t <= FREElevel_1 FREELevel_1< t <= FREElevel_2 FREELevel_2< t <= FREElevel_3 FREELevel_3< t <= FREElevel_4 FREELevel_4< t FREEfactor FREEfactor_1 FREEfactor_2 FREEfactor_3 FREEfactor_4 FREEfactor_5 FREElevel in absolute number of TCH FREEfactor in dB 1.

3 Load & Traffic evaluation Load evaluation (5/5) ▼ example: cells with 4 TRXs (28 TCHs) Nb free TCH t <= 3 3 < t <= 8 8 < t <= 15 15 < t <= 21 21 < t FREEfactor .02 Page 1.FREEfactor(0) = +7 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.16 dB .321 © Alcatel University .(-8) = +15 dB • in GRADE(n): + LOADfactor(n) = +0 = 0 dB 1.6% FREEfactor(0) = -8 dBm LOADfactor(0) = -15 dBm FREEfactor(n) = +7 dBm LOADfactor(n) = 0 dBm in cell evaluation of cell n for outgoing HO from cell 0: • in ORDER(n): + FREEfactor(n) .7% Cell 0 HO? Cell n Nb free TCHs = 20 Load = 28.Annex.321 .8 dB 0 dB +7 dB +10 dB Load = (1-Nb free TCH/Total TCH)x 100 LOADfactor t <= 10% +10 dB 10% < t <= 25% +5 dB 25% < t <= 50% 0 dB 50% < t <= 80% -10 dB 80% < t -15 dB Nb free TCHs = 4 Load = 85.

02 Page 1.322 .3 Load & Traffic evaluation Traffic evaluation (1/4) ▼ long term measurement of the load of a cell corresponds to function Traffic_load(cell) Traffic_load() value is determined from a number N_TRAFFIC_LOAD of consecutive non-sliding window load averages AV_TRAFFIC_LOAD calculated from Nb of free TCH samples updated every A_TRAFFIC_LOAD x TCH_INFO_PERIOD sec 1.322 © Alcatel University .Annex.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

323 © Alcatel University . indefinite initialization: Traffic_load() = indefinite Traffic_load() becomes: high if the last N_TRAFFIC_LOAD consecutive AV_TRAFFIC_LOAD load averages are all greater than HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD threshold low if the last N_TRAFFIC_LOAD consecutive AV_TRAFFIC_LOAD load averages are all lower than LOW_TRAFFIC_LOAD threshold 1. low.323 .02 Page 1.3 Load & Traffic evaluation Traffic evaluation (2/4) 3 possible values for Traffic_load(): high.Annex.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

02 Page 1.Annex.3 Load & Traffic evaluation Traffic evaluation (3/4) Traffic_load() becomes indefinite if: Traffic_load() was high and the last AV_TRAFFIC_LOAD load average is lower than LOW_TRAFFIC_LOAD (or IND_TRAFFIC_LOAD if not 0%) Traffic_load() was low and the last AV_TRAFFIC_LOAD load average is greater than HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD (or IND_TRAFFIC_LOAD if not 0%) Traffic_load(n) is always equal to indefinite if cell n is external to BSC HIGH_TRAFFIC_LOAD ≥ IND_TRAFFIC_LOAD ≥ LOW_TRAFFIC_LOAD 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.324 .324 © Alcatel University .

3 Load & Traffic evaluation Traffic evaluation (4/4) ▼ Example with N_TRAFFIC_LOAD = 3 Back Cause 12 Back Cause 26 1.325 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.Annex.325 © Alcatel University .

Annex.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.326 .326 © Alcatel University .3 Load & Traffic evaluation Cell TCH radio resource evaluation usage 1.

8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.327 Erlang B law Frequency hopping influence on PCHO process Load & Traffic evaluation Training exercises solutions © Alcatel University .4 Handover Management © Alcatel University .327 .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.ANNEXES Annex.02 1.

328 BTS BSC HO Preparation Radio Link Measurements Active Channel Pre-processing HO Detection HO Candidate Cell Evaluation HO management HO protocol MSC © Alcatel University .328 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.4 Handover Management Principles ▼ Handover Management made up of: Cell Filtering Process (according to call history) Handover Decision (according to the best cell in the list) ▼ Handover Management followed by: Handover Protocol 1.Annex.

Annex.329 .329 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.4 Handover Management Global Handover Process Handover Preparation Handover Management Handover protocol Handover Detection Candidate Cell Evaluation Cell Filtering Process Handover Decision External or Internal Channel change Raw cell list Ordered target cell list Filtered target Cell list Execution target Cell list 1.

330 w Since B6 release.4 Handover Management Cell Lists usage ▼ Three cell lists: Ordered target Cell list target cells provided by Candidate Cell Evaluation REJ_CELL_LIST cells internally rejected by the MSC or BSC MS_CELL_REJ_LIST cells to which the MS failed to hand over 1. use of the T7 parameter and of the REJ_CELL_LIST list also for internal HO in B7. immediate attempt after rejection or failure without waiting for a new alarm in case of internal and external HO in B7. w These changes are : use of the T_FILTER parameter in a different way than for B5. © Alcatel University .Annex. the parameter NBR_HO_ATTEMPTS which was used for internal HO in B5 is removed. when the need of handover is detected by the HO preparation process. some changes have been provided to the HO management process which is in charge of the HO execution triggering. implicit rejection of cells in B7 with the help of the target cell identity in the HO command received from the MSC.02 Page 1. same behavior in case of internal and external HO in B7.330 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

4 Handover Management Timers usage T_FILTER: controls the global handover procedure started: when a cell list is to be sent by Candidate Cell Evaluation expiry ⇒ empty target cell list sent to the Handover Management T7: controls the clean-up of REJ_CELL_LIST started: when a target cell list is to be sent to Handover Protocol expiry ⇒ empty REJ_CELL_LIST T_MS_CELL_REJ: clean-up of MS_CELL_REJ_LIST started: when an MS reports a failure to seize the target channel expiry ⇒ empty MS_CELL_REJ_LIST T_HO_REQ_LOST: to supervise answer of MSC (no HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT message sent) Started: HO REQUIRED sent Stopped: HO COMMAND received Expiry ⇒ external channel change procedure is terminated.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. an O&M error report is raised only when no message has been received from the MSC since the last HANDOVER REQUIRED message. It is started when sending the first HANDOVER REQUIRED to the MSC and it is stopped in the following cases: • w when HANDOVER COMMAND is received from the MSC or when HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT is received from the MSC only if the same number of HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT messages have been received from the MSC than the number of HANDOVER REQUIRED messages sent to the MSC for this channel change procedure) (i. w T_HO_REQD_LOST Expiry This timer is used to supervise response from the MSC. if T_FILTER expires. In B7.331 . On expiry. an alarm is sent to the HOM process. as there is no way for the BSC to know if the received HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT is a response to the last HANDOVER REQUIRED message or a response to a previous one (message crossing over A interface). w For both internal and external HOs in case of HO failure from the MS. and the external channel change procedure is terminated.e. the rejected cell may be a candidate.331 w If the candidate cell list provided by the candidate cell evaluation process is different from the previous one (the number of cells is different or same number of cells but new cells in the list). no message crossing over A interface). © Alcatel University . it means that the HO is no more necessary. T7 timer is used to manage the REJ_CELL_LIST list and a subsequent HO REQUIRED can be sent to the MSC before T7 expiry if the target cell list has changed (new cell or removed cell). w In B7 release. When the T_MS_CELL_REJ timer expires.Annex. w The REJ_CELL_LIST list is used for both internal and external Hos. the cell is filtered until the expiry of the T_MS_CELL_REJ timer. In case where more HANDOVER REQUIRED messages have been sent to the MSC.02 Page 1. 1. the timer T_HO_REQD_LOST is not stopped upon HANDOVER REQUIRED REJECT receipt.

332 .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.02 Page 1.Annex.332 © Alcatel University .4 Handover Management Handover Execution Process Handover Management Cell Filtering Process Ordered target cell list cell 4 cell 2 cell 8 remove cells previously rejected from MSC or BSC remove cells previously rejected for MS failure reason remove cells not suitable due to O&M reason Handover protocol Handover decision Internal Handover Filtered Target cell list cell 2 relevant handover protocol is chosen according to the type of GSM procedure ongoing and the first target cell of the list T7 is started External Handover List of cells previously rejected from MSC or BSC cell 4 List of cells previously rejected for MS failure cell 8 REJ_CELL_LIST list cleared at T7 expiry MS_CELL_REJ_LIST list cleared at T_MS_CELL_REJ expiry 1.

Cell1 2. Cell3 MS empty HO prot filtered 1.4 Handover Management HO execution example ordered 1.333 © Alcatel University . Cell2 3. Cell3 update Rej. Cell3 MS cell2 HO prot filtered Cell1 Cell2 1. lists BSC/MSC empty HO fails on cell1 ROC Cell1 -> MS rej list HO mgt ordered 1. lists BSC/MSC empty Expires MS rej list empty HO fails on cell2 ROC update Cell2 -> MS rej list Cell1 -> BSC rej list HO mgt ordered 1. Cell1 2.333 .02 Page 1. Cell3 MS cell1 update filtered Cell1 1. Cell2 3.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. Cell3 Rej. Cell2 3. Cell2 3. Cell2 2. Cell1 2. Cell3 HO mgt ordered 1.Annex. Cell2 3. lists BSC/MSC cell1 HO to cell3 1. Cell3 T_MS_CELL _REJ HO prot Rej. Cell1 2. Cell1 2.

Annex.334 © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.334 .4 Handover Management T_FILTER controls HO procedure (1/2) ▼ End of Handover procedure = T_FILTER timer expiry T_FILTER restarted each time a target cell list is to be sent by Candidate Cell Evaluation to the Handover Management (same list than the one previously sent or not) The target cell list is sent to the Handover Management if different from the last target cell list previously sent T_FILTER expiry means no handover is needed anymore 1.02 Page 1.

Annex.335 © Alcatel University .335 .4 Handover Management T_FILTER controls HO procedure (2/2) New candidate list fromthe cell candidate evaluation function cell No handover is on-going A handover is on-going Yes Is T_FILTER running ? No A handover is NOW ongoing Yes Isthe candidate cell list different from thepreviousone ? No Start T_FILTER An HO alarm containing candidate the cell list isent to the HO management s entity Restart T_FILTER Restart T_FILTER An HOalarm containing candidatecell the list isent to the HO management s entity T_FILTER is restarted each time the alarm is still on Back 1.02 Page 1.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.

336 .02 Page 1.5 ellipsoid arc determination © Alcatel University .8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed.336 Erlang B law Frequency hopping influence on PCHO process Load & Traffic evaluation Training exercises solutions © Alcatel University .8AS 90200 1485VH ZZA Ed.ANNEXES Annex.02 1.

02 Page 1.5)*554 in θ [m] β R2=(B+C)*554 in [m] r1 r2 – – – A: ARC_SIZE_FACTOR B: MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR C: MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR Back 1. 0° to 360° w For CI+TA method which is default one .5 ellipsoid arc determination Positioning methods : CI+TA positioning 2/2 Point (o) ▼ ellipsoid arc definition: Point (O)= serving BTS site coordinate North θ= serving cell antenna azimuth . the answer is given by description of "ellipsoid arc". both radii being geodesic distances over the surface of the ellipsoid. inner radius r1. This is to be able to describe a full circle. the offset angle (θ) between the first defining radius of the ellipsoid arc and North.337 w An ellipsoid arc is a shape characterised by the co-ordinates of an ellipsoid point o (the origin).000…1° to 360°.999…° while the included angle is within the range from 0. MIN_RADIUS_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the minimum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method MAX_RADIUS_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the maximum radius of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method © Alcatel University .337 .B8 Annex.8AS902001485 VH ZZA Ed. w Optimization parameters: ARC_SIZE_FACTOR Factor used in the computation of the width in degree of the ellipsoid arc returned by the MFS when computing location estimate based on TA positioning method. calculated from bisector angles of co-sited antenna azimuths r1= inner radius of TA ring-(B-0. uncertainty radius r2.β /2 β =A*width of serving cell sector in [°]. The offset angle is within the range of 0° to 359. and the included angle (β) being the angle between the first and second defining radii.

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