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Alo, Jeebee Dela Pena, Paulo Louise Guevarra, Russel Pilones, Frances Louise

Natural Fiber Properties

Natural fibers are created from plants or animals. It is an environmentally friendly choice for sewing projects because the fabric is created from renewable resources. Cotton, linen, wool, and silk are fabrics made with natural fibers The most common types of animals used in created natural fiber fabrics are sheep, alpacas, and silkworm, but other animals like goats and rabbits are also used. There is a variety of different plants used in creating natural fabrics. Cotton is, by far, the most commonly used plant in making natural fabric. Bamboo is becoming increasingly popular because of its fast rate of renewal. Other plants used in creating natural fabrics are flax, hemp, and pineapple leaves.

Synthetic Fiber Properties

Synthetic fibers are a man-made product created through a chemical process. Chemicals are forced into spinnerets, which have tiny holes where the synthetic fibers are created. Polyester is the most common synthetic fabric created, but there is a huge list of other man-made fabrics. Acetate, nylon, and spandex are commonly used synthetic fabrics. Synthetic fabrics have a huge advantage over natural fabrics because they are more durable. Natural fabrics, however, are better for beginners because they are easier to sew on. In general, the type of project should be taken into consideration before deciding whether a natural or synthetic fabric should be used.

Natural fiber
Natural fibers are made from plant, animal and mineral sources. Natural fibers can be classified according to their origin.

Vegetable fibers
A strand of cellulose (conformation I), showing the hydrogen bonds (dashes) within and between cellulose molecules. Vegetable fibers are generally composed mainly of cellulose: examples include cotton, jute, flax, ramie, sisal, and hemp. Cellulose fibers serve in the manufacture of paper and cloth. This fiber can be further categorized into the following: Catego ry


Seed fiber Leaf fiber Bast fiber skin fiber Fruit fiber Stalk fiber

Fibers collected from seeds or seed cases. e.g. cotton and kapok Fibers collected from leaves. e.g. fique, sisal, banana and agave. Fibers are collected from the skin or bast surrounding the stem of their respective plant. These fibers have higher tensile strength than other fibers. Therefore, these fibers are used for durable yarn, fabric, packaging, and paper. Some examples are flax, jute, kenaf, industrial hemp, ramie, rattan, and vine fibers. Fibers are collected from the fruit of the plant, e.g. coconut (coir) fiber. Fibers are actually the stalks of the plant. E.g. straws of wheat, rice, barley, and other crops including bamboo and grass. Tree wood is also such a fiber.

The most used vegetable fibers are cotton, flax and hemp, although sisal, jute, kenaf, bamboo and coconut are also widely used. Hemp fibers are mainly used for ropes and aerofoils because of their high suppleness and resistance within an aggressive environment. Hemp fibers are, for example, currently used as a seal within the heating and sanitary industries.

Animal fibers
Animal fibers generally comprise proteins such as collagen and keratin; examples include silk, sinew, wool, catgut, angora, mohair and alpaca. Animal hair (wool or hairs): Fiber or wool taken from animals or hairy mammals. e.g. sheep's wool, goat hair (cashmere, mohair), alpaca hair, horse hair, etc. Silk fiber: Fiber collected from dried saliva of bugs or insects during the preparation of cocoons. Avian fiber: Fibers from birds, e.g. feathers and feather fiber.

Industrial usage
After World War II, the build-up of synthetic fibers significantly decreased the use of natural fibers. Now, with the increase of oil prices and environmental considerations, there has been a revival of natural fiber use within the textile, building, plastic and automotive industries[citation needed]. This interest is reinforced by the developmental perspectives on the agro-industrial market and local productions, allowing economic development and independence versus imported materials. France remains the greatest European hemp fiber producer with 50,000 tons yearly (EU 100,000 tons). France also produces the largest range of industrial seeds worldwide. China and Russia are also important producers, but the statistics in that field are not available.[citation needed] In the industrial domain, the consortium DAIFA group SAS have reached a leading position in Europe in the automotive plastics market. [1] They specialize in injection

and thermopress plastics reinforced with natural fibers. The use of natural fibers at the industrial level improves the environmental sustainability of the parts being constructed, especially within the automotive market. Within the building industry, the interest in natural fibers is mostly economical and technical; natural fibers allow insulation properties higher than current materials.

FIBERS Continuous Staple

Fibers Natural Synthetic

SYNTHETIC FIBERS Carbon fibers Kevlar Spandex Polyester Nylon Acrylics Rayon Nomex

FIBER MANUFACTURING Melt Spinning Dry Spinning Wet Spinning

A schematic diagram of melt spinning The molten polymer (in the case of dry or wet spinning, the spin dope) is first pumped through a filter and is then forced through a tiny spinneret holes to form continuous strands of polymer filaments, or synthetic fiber. Cooling gases reduce the temperature of the filaments so that they can solidify and a initial drive roll controls the initial take-up speed. The fiber may undergo subsequent heating and stretching to impart additional molecular orientation. Finally, the fiber is taken up onto bobbins at a constant speed, with a special tension control device to control the rate of rotation in order to maintain constant yarn speed. The difference between the melting spinning with the dry and wet spinnning is that the melting spinning involves cooling of the subsequent strand to form the solid filament while the dry and wet spinning involves removal of a solvent to form the solid filament although all 3 steps involves the formation of continuous filament strands by forcing the material through a circular dies.