2. Figure of eight 3. Recurrent with spiral turns SPECIFIC BODY INJURIES 1.
Blows to the Eye • Chemical Burns • Eye Knocked Out • Foreign Object 2. Nosebleeds 3. Knocked-Out Tooth 4. 5. 6. 7. Impaled objects Amputations Sucking chest wound Abdominal Injuries • Protruding Organs 31
Guidelines in using dressing and bandages 1. Use a dressing that is large enough to extend at least 1 inch beyond the edges of the wound. 2. If body tissue or organs are exposed, cover the wound with a dressing that will not stick, such as plastic wrap or moistened gauze. Then secure the dressing with a bandage or adhesive tapes. 3. If the bandage is over a joint, splint and make a bulky dressing so the joint remains immobilized. If there is no movement of a wound over the joint, there should be improved healing and reduced scarring. 4. A bandage should fit snugly but should not cut off circulation or cause the victim discomfort. If the area beyond the wound changes color, begins to tingle or feel cold, or if the wound starts to swell, the bandage is too tight and should be loosened. 5. Bandaging techniques depend upon: • Size and location of the wound. • Your first aid skills. • Materials at hand.
BANDAGING TECHNIQUE Use of Triangular Bandage Open Phase 1. Head (topside) 3. Chest; back 2. Face; back of the chest head 4. Hand; foot Cravat Phase 1. Forehead; eye 2. Ear; cheek; jaw 3. Shoulder; hip 4. Arm; leg. Use of Roller Bandage 1. Spiral • Open • Closed • Spiral reverse
5. Elbow; knee (straight; bent). 6. Palm pressure bandage. 7. Palm bandage of open hand.
32 Flush for 20 minutes or longer. Let the victim wash with a mild soap before a final rinse. Cover the burned area with a dry dressing or, for large areas, a clean pillowcase. If the chemical is in the eye, flood it for at least 20 minutes, using low pressure. Seek medical attention immediately for all chemical burns. injury severity depends on the the voltage, the the duration of
3. ______________________________ The from exposure to electrical current type of current (direct or altering), area of the body exposed, and contact. •
Care for Electrical burns - Unplug, disconnect, or turn off the power. If that is impossible, call the Power Company or ask for help. - Check the ABCs. (Airway, Breathing, Circulation) Provide Rescue Breathing (RB) or Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) if necessary.
If the victim fell, check for spine injury. Treat the victim for shock. Seek medical attention immediately. Electrical injuries are treated in burn center.
Cover the burn with a dry, non-sticking, sterile dressing or a clean cloth. Treat the victim for shock by elevating the legs and keeping the victim warm with a clean sheet or blanket.
2. ______________________________Chemicals will continue to cause tissue destruction until the chemical agent is removed. • Types of Burn Injuries 1. __________________________ Not all thermal burns are caused by flames. Contact with hot objects, flammable vapor that ignites and causes a flash or an explosion, and steams or hot liquid are other common causes of burns. Care for Thermal Burns • Care of First-Degree and Second-Degree Burns - Relieve pain by immersing the burned area in cold water or by applying a wet, cold cloth. If cold water is unavailable, use any cold liquid you drink to reduce the burned skin’s temperature. - Cover the burn with a dry, non-sticking, sterile dressing or a clean cloth. • Care for Third-Degree Burns Care for Chemical burns - Immediately remove the chemical by flushing with water. - Remove the victim’s contaminated clothing while flushing with water.
29 ____________________ is any substance: solid, liquid or gas, that tends to impair health or cause death when introduced into the body or onto the skin surface. A poisoning emergency can be life threatening. Causes: 1. Common in suicide attempts. 2. Occasional accidental poisoning. Ways in Which Poisoning May Occur 1. ____________________ - by mouth.
2. ____________________ 3. ____________________ syringes. 4. ____________________
- by breathing. - by animal bites, stings, - by skin contact.
time, or processed with an excessive amount of chemicals. 2. Several people who ate together become ill. Signs and Symptoms 1. Altered mental status. 2. History of ingesting poisons. 3. Burns around the mouth. 4. Odd breath odors. 5. Nausea, vomiting. 6. Abdominal pain. 7. Diarrhea. Instances when vomiting should not be induced. 1. If unresponsive. 2. Cannot maintain an airway. 3. Has ingested an acid, a corrosive such as lye, or a petroleum product such as gasoline or furniture polish. 4. Has a medical condition that could be complicated by vomiting, such as heart attack, seizures and pregnancy.
Common Household Poison 1. Sleeping pills. 2. Pain relievers. 3. Insect and rodent poisons. 4. Kerosene. 5. Denatured alcohol. 6. Lye and acids including boric. 7. Poisonous plants. 8. Contaminated water. 9. Fume. 34
Ingested Poison is one that is introduced into the
digestive tract by way of the mouth. One form of ingestion poisoning is food poisoning, a general form that covers a variety of conditions. Suspect food poisoning if: 1. The victim ate food that “didn’t taste right” or that may have been old, improperly prepared, contaminated, left at room temperature for a long 35
_________________________ is an injury involving the skin, including muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels. This results from heat, chemicals, electricity or solar or other forms of radiation. Common Causes 1. Carelessness with match and cigarette smoking. 2. Scald from hot liquid. 3. Defective heating, cooking and electrical equipment. 4. Immersion in overheated bath water. 5. Use of such chemicals, as lye, strong acids and strong detergents. Factors to Determine the Seriousness of Thermal Burns: 1. The Depth. The deeper the burn, the more severe it is. Three depth classifications are used: • • • __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________
the victim is elderly (over 55) or very young (under 5). 28 First Aid Management Wound with severe bleeding • • • • C -_______________________________________ C - _______________________________________ C - _______________________________________ C - _______________________________________
Wound with bleeding not severe (home care) • Clean the wound with soap and water. • Apply mild antiseptics. • Cover wound with dressing and bandage. Reminders 1. All wounds must be thoroughly inspected and covered with a dry dressing to control bleeding and prevent further contamination. 2. Once bleeding is controlled by compression, the limb should be splinted to further control bleeding, stabilize the injured part, minimize the victim’s pain and facilitate the patient’s transport to the hospital.
2. The Extent to the affected body surface area. This means estimating how much body surface area the burn covers. 3. Location of the Burns. Burns on the face, hands, feet, and genitals are more severe than on other body parts. 4. Victim’s age and medical condition. Determine if other injuries or pre-existing medical problems exist or if
3. As with closed soft tissue injuries, the injured part should be elevated to just above the level of the victim’s heart to minimize severity. 4. Amputated body parts should be saved, wrapped in a dry gauze, placed in a plastic bag, kept cool, and transported with the patient. 5. Don’t induce further bleeding to clean the wound. 6. Don’t use absorbent cotton as a dressing.
First Aid 1. Remove the victim from the toxic environment and into fresh air immediately. 2. Monitor ABCs. 3. Seek medical attention.
Absorbed Poison is a poison that enters the body
through the skin. Signs and Symptoms 1. History of exposures. 2. Liquid or powder on the skin. 3. Burns. 36 4. Itching, irritation. 5. Redness, rash, blisters. First Aid 1. Remove the clothing. 2. Then with a dry cloth blot the poison from the skin. If the poison is a dry powder, brush it off. 3. Flood the area with copious amounts of water. 4. Continually monitor the patient’s vital signs.
27 First Aid 1. Try to identify the poison. 2. Place the victim on his or her left side. 3. Monitor ABCs. 4. Save any empty container, spoiled food for analysis. 5. Save any vomitus and keep it with the victim if he or she is taken to an emergency facility.
Inhaled Poison is a poison breathed into the lungs.
Signs and Symptoms 1. History of inhaling poisons. 2. Breathing difficulty. 3. Chest pain. 4. Cough, hoarseness, burning sensation in the throat. 5. Cyanosis (bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes). 6. Dizziness, headache. 7. Seizures, unresponsiveness (advanced stages).
Injected Poison is a poison that enters the body
through a bite, sting, or syringe. 1. ____________________ Signs and Symptoms • Stinger may be • present. •
• Pain First Aid 1. Remove stinger. 2. Wash wound. 3. Cover the wound.
reaction. 4. Apply a cold pack. 5. Watch for signals of allergic reaction.
2. ____________________ Signs and Symptoms • Bite mark. • • Swelling • • Pain
Nausea and vomiting. Difficulty breathing or swallowing.
such as sharpnel’s, rocks, broken glassess, etc. Explosion, animal bites, mishandling of tools, etc. Sharp bladed instruments such as blades, razors, etc.
serious or slight bleeding. Tissue forcefully seperated from the body. Clean cut, deep, severe bleeding, wound is clean.
First aid 1. Wash wound. 2. Apply a cold pack. 3. Get medical care to receive antivenin. 4. Call local emergency number, if necessary. 37 2. Open Wound Classification of Open Wound Causes
Penetrating pointed instruments such as nails, ice picks, daggers, etc. Scrapping or rubbing against rough surfaces. Blunt instrucments
Dangers • Hemorrhage • Infection • Shock Kinds of bleeding • Arterial bleeding • Venous bleeding • Capillary bleeding
Deep and narrow, serious or slight bleeding. Shallow, wide, oozing of blood, dirty. Torn with irregular edges,
26 ____________________________ is a break in the continuity of a tissue of the body either internal or external. Two Classification of Wound:
1. Closed Wound Causes: • Blunt object result in contusion or bruises. • Application of external forces. Signs and Symptoms • Pain and tenderness • Swelling • Discoloration • Hematoma • Uncontrolled restlessness • Thirst • Symptoms of shock First Aid Management • • • • I - _______________________________ C - ______________________________ E - ______________________________ S - ______________________________ 25 • • • Vomiting or cough-up blood Passage of blood in the urine or feces Sign of blood along mouth, nose and ear canal
First Aid 1. If jellyfish – soak area in vinegar. 2. If sting ray – soak in non-scalding hot water until pain goes away. 3. Clean and bandage the wound. 4. Call local emergency number, if necessary. 4. ____________________ Signs and Symptoms • Bite mark. • Pain Comparative Characteristics of a Snake
VENOMOUS Cortina, side locomotion winding Semi-triangular Rectangular Rough Vertical Nonconstrictor With fang marks NONVENOMOUS Semicortina curvature Oblongated Circular Smooth Round Constrictor Horseshoe shape
3. ____________________ Signs and Symptoms • Possible marks. •
First Aid 1. Wash wound. 2. Keep bitten part still, and lower than the heart. 3. Call local emergency number. 5. ____________________ Signs and Symptoms • Bite mark. • Bleeding First Aid 1. If bleeding is minor – wash wound. 2. Control bleeding. 3. Apply antibiotic ointment. 4. Cover the wound. 5. Get medical attention if wound bleeds severely or if you suspect animal has rabies. 6. Call local emergency number or contact animal control personnel. General Care for Poisoning 1. Survey the scene. 2. Remove the victim from the source of the poison. 3. Do a primary survey. 4. Care for any life threatening condition. 5. if the victim is conscious, do a secondary survey. 6. Do not give the victim anything by mouth unless advised by medical professionals.
First Aid 1. Establish and maintain an open airway. 2. Monitor the patient’s mental status and vital signs frequently. 3. Maintain the patient’s body temperature. 4. Take measures to prevent shock. 5. Care for any behavioral problem. 6. Support the patient. _________________________ is a powerful Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant. It is both a sedative, a substance that decreases activity and excitement, and a hypnotic, meaning that it induces sleep. In general, alcohol dulls the sense of awareness, slows reflexes, and reduces reaction time. It may also cause aggressive and inappropriate behavior and lack of coordination. Signs of Intoxication 1. Odor of alcohol on the breath. 2. Swaying and unsteadiness. 3. Slurred speech. 4. Nausea and vomiting. 5. Flushed face. 6. Drowsiness. 7. Violent, destructive, or erratic behavior. 8. Self-injury, usually without realizing it.
41 _________________________ is a depressed condition of many body functions due to failure of enough blood to circulate throughout the body following serious injury. Dangers of Shock 1. Lead to death 2. Predisposes body to infection 3. Lead to loss of body part Causes 1. Severe bleeding. 2. Crushing injury. 3. Infection 4. Heart Attack. 5. Perforation 6. Shell bomb and bullet wound. 7. Rupture of tubal pregnancies. 8. Anaphylaxis 9. Starvation and disease may also cause shock.
Factors which contribute to shock 1. P - _________________________ 2. R - _________________________ 3. I - __________________________ 4. C - _________________________
First Aid 1. Give the same attention as you would to any patient with an illness or injury. 2. Monitor the patient’s vital signs constantly. Provide life support when necessary. 3. Position the patient to avoid aspiration of vomitus. 4. Protect the patient from hurting him or herself.
5. E - _________________________ 6. F - _________________________ 22 Signs and Symptoms Early stage: 1. Face – pale or cyanotic in color. 2. Skin – cold and clammy. 3. Breathing – irregular. of Shock 4. Pulse – rapid and weak 5. Nausea and vomiting. 6. Weakness 7. Thirsty
1. _____________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________
DRUG AND ALCOHOL EMERGENCIES
____________________ is the self-administration of one or more drugs in a way that is not in accord with approved medical or social practice. Signs and Symptoms 1. _________________________ • Unresponsiveness. • Breathing difficulties or inability to maintain an open airway. • Abnormal or irregular pulse. • Fever. • Vomiting with an altered mental status or without gag reflex. • Seizures 2. _________________________
Late stage: 1. Apathetic or relatively unresponsive. 2. Eyes will be sunken with vacant expression. 3. Pupils are dilated. 4. Blood vessels may be congested producing mottled appearances. 5. Blood pressure has very low level. 6. Unconsciousness may occur, body temperature falls. Objectives of First Aid 1. To improve circulation of the blood. 2. To ensure an adequate supply of oxygen. 3. To maintain normal body temperature. First Aid and Preventive Management of Shock
• • • • • • • •
Altered mental status. Extremely low or high blood pressure. Sweating tremors, and hallucinations (with alcohol withdrawal). Digestive problems, including abdominal pain and bleeding. Visual disturbance, slurred speech, uncoordinated muscle movement. Disinterested behavior, loss of memory. Combativeness. Paranoia.
appearance and 7. Numbness furthers obvious deformity. down the arm or leg. Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries Include the Following: 1. _______________________________ is the sudden, painful tightening of a muscle. First Aid • Have the victim stretch out the affected muscle to counteract the cramp. • Massage the cramped muscle firmly but gently. • Apply heat. Moist heat is more effective than dry heat. • Get medical help if cramps persist. 2. ______________________________ is the sudden, painful tearing of muscle fiber during exertion. Signs and symptoms: • Pain • Bruising • Swelling • Loss of efficient movement. 43 4. Four/six/eight-man carry 5. Blanket (demonstrate the insertion, testing and lifting of blanket) 6. Improvised stretcher using two poles with:
Common Causes 1. Vehicular accidents. 2. Motorbike accidents. 3. Mishandling tools equipment.
4. Falls 5. Sports of &
Signs and Symptoms 1. Pain 5. Exposed bone. 2. Bruising 6. Pale, bluish skin; 3. Swelling loss of pulse in an 4. Misshapen injured limb.
• • • •
Blanket Empty sacks Shirts or coats Triangular bandages
7. Commercial stretchers 8. Ambulance or rescue van 9. Other vehicles INITIAL TRIAGE AND TAGGING ___________________________ is sorting patients into categories of priority for care and transport based on the severity of injuries and medical emergencies. Tagging of Patients 1. Priority one (red tag) 2. Priority two (yellow tag) 3. Priority three (green tag) 4. Priority four (black tag)
THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Workbook 20 SAFETY SERVICES Handling
5. Supporting bandages and dressing remain effectively applied. 6. The method of transfer is safe, comfortable and as speedy as circumstances permit. 7. The patient’s body is moved as one unit. 8. The taller first aiders stay at the head side of the victim. 9. First Aiders/bearers must observed ergonomics in lifting and moving of patient. Methods of Transfer 1. One-man assist/carries/drags • Assist to • Fireman’s walk carry • Carry in • Fireman’s arms drag (cradle) • Blanket • Pack strap drag carry • Armpit/sho • Piggy back ulder drag carry
• • •
Cloth drag Feet drag Inclined drag (head first -passing a stairway )
Patient / Casualty
Pointers to be observed during transfer. 1. Victim’s airway must be maintained open. 2. Hemorrhage is controlled. 3. Victim is safely maintained in the correct position. 4. Regular check of the victim’s condition is made.
2. Two-man assist/carries • Assist to walk • Four-hand seat • Hands as a litter
Carry by extremities Fireman’s carry with assistance
3. Three-man carries • Bearers alongside (for narrow alleys) THE•PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS Hammock carry First Aid Workbook 19
SAFETY SERVICES Muscle Injuries
_________________________ is a in bone tissue. Signs and symptoms: • Pain • Misshapen appearance. • •
break or disruption
Bones, Joints, &
First Aid • Apply cold compresses at once. • Elevate the limb to reduce swelling and bleeding within the muscle. Rest the pulled muscle for 24 hours. • Get medical help. is caused by torn
Swelling Loss function.
3. ______________________________ fibers in a ligament. Signs and symptoms: • Swelling • Bruising
THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Workbook 44 SAFETY SERVICES Muscle Injuries
Bones, Joints, &
First Aid • Remove any clothing or jewelry from around the joint. • Apply cold compresses at once. • Elevate the affected joint with pillow or clothing. • The victim’s physician may recommend an over the counter anti-inflammatory medication (aspirin, ibuprofen) appropriate for the victim’s general health. 4. ______________________________ is the displacement of a bone from its normal position at a joint. While
First Aid • Check the victim’s ABC. • Keep the victim still. • Prevent infection by covering with a sterile dressing before immobilizing. • Splint or sling the injury in the position, which you found it. • Take steps to prevent shock. • Get medical help. Immobilization/Splinting Use of Bandages 1. Collarbone 2. Rib 3. Ankle 4. Arm support Use of Wood or other Improvised Splints 1. Elbow
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Forearm/Hand/Wrist Finger Hip/Thigh Knee/Leg Ankle Traction Splint
_________________________ is moving a patient from one place to another after giving first aid. Factors to be considered in the selection or choosing the transfer method: 1. Nature and severity of the injury. 2. Size of the victim. 3. Physical capabilities of the first aider. 4. Number of personnel and equipment available. 5. Nature of evacuation route. 6. Distance to be covered. 7. Sex of the victims. (last consideration).
Patient / Casualty THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Workbook 18 SAFETY SERVICES Extrication
THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Workbook 45 SAFETY SERVICES Handling
_____________________is a rapid movement of patient from unsafe place to a place of safety. Indications for Emergency Rescue 1. Danger of fire or explosion. 2. Danger of toxic gases or asphyxia due to lack of oxygen. 3. Serious traffic hazards. 4. Risk of drowning. 5. Danger of electrocution. 6. Danger of collapsing walls. Methods of Rescue 1. For immediate rescue without any assistance, drag or pull the victim. 2. Most of the one-man drags/carries and other transfer methods can be used as methods of rescue.
__________________________ is a removal of the victim from difficult situation or position; or removal of a patient from a wrecked car or other place of entrapment. When to Perform Extrication 1. Automobile & motorcycle accident 2. Train derailment 3. Collapsed building 4. Unconscious injured victim 5. Emergency situation: • Cave-in • Fire • Water accident • Farm machine injuries • Gunshot wounds
Fall from height
Classification of Rescue Operation 1. _________________________involves equipment during rescue operation. -
2. _________________________- involves specialized equipment normally found in rescue vehicle and extrication tools for disentanglement of the patient. 3. _________________________includes complicated rigging, patient handling under extremely difficult or adverse conditions, breaching of walls disimpactation of vehicles and all types of rescue involving buildings with major structural damage.
THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RED CROSS First Aid Workbook 47 SAFETY SERVICES Guidelines in Giving Emergency Care
Check one arm at a time. Check the spinal column by placing the victim into side lying down position and press gently from the cervical region down to the lumbar for possible injury. Record all the assessments including the time. Keep the patient lying down, his/her head level with his/her feet. Keep the patient warm and guard against chilling.
Check for fluid or blood in ears, nose and mouth. Gently feel the sides of the neck for signs of injury. Check and compare both collar bones and shoulders. Check the chest and rib cage. Check the patient’s abdomen for tenderness by pressing lightly with flat part of your fingers. Check the hipbone by pressing slowly downward and inward for possible fracture. Check one leg at a time.
4. _______________________________ • Interview the victim - Ask the victim’s name. - Ask what happened. - Assess the SAMPLE history. Check the vital signs
Determine radial or carotid pulse (pulse rate) Adult 60 – 90/min. Child 80 – 100/min. Infant 100 – 120/min. Determine breathing (respiration rate) Adult 12 – 20/min. Child 18 – 25/min. Infant 25 – 35/min. Determine skin appearance Look at the victim’s face and lips. Record skin appearance temperature, moisture, and color.
1. L - __________________________________ 2. A - __________________________________ 3. S - __________________________________ 4. T - __________________________________ Problems in Rescue Situation 1. Several medical and rescue units. 2. Lack of identifiable leadership. 3. Disorganized provision of care. Principles of Extrication Although no two-accident situations will be identical, the following basic principles of extrication apply to all rescue situations: 1. Evaluate (size up) the situation. 2. Locate all victims. 3. Provide for the safety of rescue personnel and the patient. 4. Secure the scene. 5. Gain access of the patient. 6. Provide emergency medical care (stabilize the patient) 7. Disentangle the patient. 8. Prepare the patient for transfer. 9. Transfer the patient. 48
Do head-to-toe examination looking for DCAPBTLS (Deformity, Contusion, Abrasion, Puncture, Burn, Tenderness, Laceration, Swelling) - Check and compare pupils of both eyes, dilated pupils - involve bleeding and state of shock, constricted pupils - may mean heat stroke or drug over dose; unequal pupil may suspect head injury or stroke. 15
Elements of Rescue In Work Phase follows:
SPINAL INJURY MANAGEMENT Situations when Spinal Injuries occurred 1. Violent impact to the head, neck, torso or pelvis. 2. Sudden acceleration or deceleration accidents. 3. Falls from a significant height with the patient/victim landing on the head or feet. 4. Gunshot wounds to the neck or trunk. 5. All shallow water diving accidents. 6. All unrestrained victim of a vehicle crash. Signs and Symptoms of Spinal Injuries 1. Pain in the head, neck or back. 2. Numbness, tingling or weakness. 3. Pain when in motion. 4. Deformity. 5. Tenderness. 6. Laceration or contusion. 7. Paralysis.
- A bystander will be requested to call for a physician. - Somebody will be asked to arrange for transfer facility. • Information to be remembered in activating medical assistance: - What happened. - Location - Number of persons injured. - Extent of injury and first aid given. - Telephone number from where you are calling. - Person who activated medical assistance must identify him/herself and drop the phone last. __________________________________________________ • • • • • Check responsiveness (if unresponsive, consent is implied). Protect spine if necessary Check A - _______________________________ Check B - _______________________________ Check C - _______________________________
- Phone First or Phone Fast. - A bystander should make the telephone call for help (if available). 14 GETTING STARTED 1. Planning of Action 2. Gathering of needed materials 3. Remember the initial response as follows: A I D ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ 13
4. Instruction to helper/s EMERGENCY ACTION PRINCIPLES 1. ______________________________ • Is the scene safe? • What happened? • How many people are injured? • Are there bystanders who can help? • Identify yourself as a trained first aider. • Get consent to give care. 2. ______________________________ • Depending on the situation:
responsiveness. Cover the • patient with a warm blanket. •
compress. Check vital signs. Refer to a physician.
ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES ______________________________ Exposure to extreme cold for a short time or moderate cold for a long time can cause hypothermia. 1. ______________________________The patient will present with cold skin and shivering and will still be alert and oriented. Signs and Symptoms • Increased breathing rate. • Increased pulse rate and blood pressure. • Slow, thick speech. First Aid • Check • • • • Staggering walk. Apathy, drowsiness, incoherence. Sluggish pupils. Uncontrollable shivering. Apply hot
2. _______________________________ Patients may become unresponsive. This is a true medical emergency that can lead to death.
3. Thoracic Cavity
________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___ ________________________ ___
4. Abdominal Cavity
• • • • • •
7. ___________________________________________ is system that controls body temperature appreciate sensation. • Parts - Superficial epidermis - Deeper dermis Body Regions 1. Cranial Cavity 2. Spinal Cavity • •
5. Pelvic Cavity
• • •
________________________ ____ ________________________ ___
Signs and Symptoms • Extremely slow • breathing rate. • Extremely slow • pulse rate. • • Unresponsiven ess
52 Fixed and dilated pupils. Rigid extremities. Absence of shivering. 4. _________________________ – Body heat is lost to nearby objects through direct physical touch. 5. _________________________ – Body heat causes perspiration, which is lost from the body surface when changed from liquid to vapor. Three general types of heat emergencies 1. _________________________ A muscular pain and spasm due largely to loss of salt from the body in sweating or too inadequate intake of salt. Signs and Symptoms • Muscle cramps, often in the abdomen or legs. • Heavy perspiration. • Lightheadedness; weakness. First Aid • Have the victim rest with his/her feet. • Cool the victim. Do not use an alcohol rub. • Give the victim electrolyte beverages to sip or make salted drink. • To relive muscle cramps massage the affected muscles gently but firmly until they relax. 2. _________________________ A response to heat characterized by fatigue, weakness, and collapse
First Aid • Check responsiveness. • Check ABC, perform CPR if needed. • Care for shock. • Refer to a physician. Mechanism of Heat Loss 1. _________________________ – Body heat is lost to surrounding air, which becomes warmer, rises, and is replaced with cooler air. 2. _________________________ – This occurs when a person breathes in cold air and breathes out air that was warmed inside the body. 3. _________________________ – Body heat is lost to nearby objects without physically touching them.
due to inadequate intake of water to compensate for loss of fluids through sweating.
53 5. ___________________________________________ system that removes waste products. • Parts - Kidney - Ureters - Urinary Bladder - Urethra 6. ___________________________________________ system that propagates species. • Parts Male Female - Testicles - Ovary - Vas deferentia - Fallopian tubes - Seminal vessel - Uterus - Prostate gland - Vagina - Urethra - Penis is the
Skull Vertebrae Ribs Pelvis Bones of the upper and lower limbs. 10
BODY SYSTEMS 1. ___________________________________________ is the system that transmits impulses throughout the body. • Parts - Brain - Spinal Cord - Nerves 2. ___________________________________________ is the system that supplies oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. • Parts - Air Passages - Chest Cage - Diaphragm 3. ___________________________________________ is the system that transports oxygen, food and water and remove waste products. • Parts - Heart - Blood - Blood Vessels
7. ________________________________________ is the system that gives form to the body, allow bodily movement, provide protection to the vital internal organs produce red blood cells and serves as a reservoir of calcium, phosphorus and other important body chemicals. • Parts
4. ___________________________________________ is the system that absorbs food and eliminate some waste products. • Parts - Mouth - Liver - Salivary glands - Gall bladder - Pharynx - Pancreas - Esophagus Rectum 9 Signs and Symptoms • Cool, pale or red, moist skin. • Dilated pupils. • Headache • Extreme thirst.
If the victim loses consciousness, give first aid for unconsciousness.
3. _________________________ A response to heat characterized by extremely high body temperature and disturbance of sweating mechanism. Signs and Symptoms • Raised body temperature. • Dry, hot, red skin. • Dark urine. • Small pupils. • • • • • Rapid, shallow breathing. Extreme confusion. Weakness Seizures Unconsciousnes s 54 First Aid • Cool the victim. • Give First Aid for shock. • If the victim starts having seizures, give first aid for seizures. • Keep the victim cool as you await medical help. MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
• • • •
Nausea; vomiting. Irrational behavior. Weakness; dizziness. Unconsciousn ess
First Aid • Have the victim rest with his or her feet elevated. • Cool the victim. • Give the victim electrolyte beverages to sip or make a salted drink. • Monitor the victim for signs of shock. • If the victim starts having seizures, protect him/her from injury and give first aid for convulsions.
1. __________________________ is a condition that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is interrupted long enough to cause damage. People over age 50 are the most common victims, but younger people can have them, too. Causes: 1. Thrombus or embolism. 2. Ruptured artery in the brain. 3. Compression Signs and Symptoms • Weakness and numbness of the face, arm or leg, often on one side only. • Dizziness • Confusion • Headache • • • • Ringing in the ears. Change of mood. Difficulty in breathing and swallowing. Loss of bowel and bladder control.
_____3. Means toward, or closer to the feet. _____4. Means close, or near the point of reference. _____5. Means inside the body. _____6. Means distant, or far away from the point of reference. _____7. Means toward the back. _____8. The patient is lying on her left or right side. _____9. Means toward, or closer to the head. _____10. Refers to the left or right of the midline. _____11. Means outside of the body. _____12. Means toward the front. _____13. The patient is lying face up on his or her back. _____14. Means near the surface. _____15. A patient’s body stands erect with arms down at the sides, palm facing you. _____16. Means remote, or far from the surface. Column B A. Anatomical position B. Supine position C. Prone position D. Lateral recumbent position E. Superior F. Inferior G. Anterior H. Posterior I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Medial Lateral Proximal Distal Superficial Deep Internal External
55 DIRECTIONAL TERMS Match Column A with Column B Column A _____1. Means toward the midline, or center of the body. _____2. The patient is lying face down on his or her stomach.
First Aid • Check the victim’s ABC. • Have the victim rest in a comfortable position. • Seek immediately medical help. • Do not give the victim anything by mouth. • • • If the victim loses consciousness, place him or her in the recovery position and administer first aid for unconsciousness. Continue to monitor ABC’s. Stay with the victim until you have medical help.
2. __________________________ is a condition that affects the way the body uses food. It causes the sugar level in the blood to be too high. Types of Emergency Diabetes • _________________________ Occurs when too much insulin is in the body. • • • • • • Vision difficulties. Sweating Headache Numb hands or feet. Hunger Anxiety
Signs and Symptoms • Fast breathing. • Fast pulse. • Dizziness • Weakness • Change in the level of consciousness.
56 • _________________________ Happens when there is too much sugar and too little insulin in the blood, and body cells do not get enough nourishment. • • • • Dehydration Fever A fruity-smelling. Change of consciousness.
• • •
Brief blackout or period of confused behavior. Sudden falling, loss of consciousness. Drooling, frothing of the mouth.
57 FIRST AID EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES 1. Basic Equipment • • Spine board • Short board / • Kendrick’s Extrication • Device. Sets splints Poles Blankets of
Signs and Symptoms • Drowsiness and confusion. • Deep and fast breathing. • Thirst
First Aid • Give any fully conscious person in a diabetic emergency sugar-candy, fruit, juice, or a soft drink containing sugar. • If the person is unconscious, check ABCs and call for a physician. • Immediate transport to the hospital. 3. __________________________ is a sudden involuntary muscle contraction, usually due to uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. Signs and Symptoms • Local tingling or twitching in part of the body.
2. Suggested First Aid Kit Contents (Basic) • • • • • • • Rubbing alcohol Povidone Iodine Cotton Gauge pads Tongue depressor Penlight Band aid • • • • • • Gloves Scissors Forceps Bandage (Triangular) Elastic roller bandage Occlusive dressing
3. Clothe materials commonly used in First Aid • _______________________ any sterile cloth material used to cover the wound. 1. _______________________ any clean cloth material sterile or not use to hold the dressing in place.
fatigue, shortness of breath, swollen lymph nodes, lesions
Body Substance Isolation (BSI) are precautions taken to isolate or prevent risk of exposure from any other type of bodily substance. Basic Precautions and Practices 1. Personal hygiene 2. Protective equipment 3. Equipment cleaning and disinfecting
6 5 Signs and Symptoms
Respiratory illness, sore throat, nausea, vomiting Weight loss, night sweats, occasional fever, general ill feeling Flu-like, jaundice
Food and water, mucus Saliva, airborne droplets Blood, saliva, semen, feces, food, water, other products Blood, semen, vaginal fluid
• • • • •
Fever, night sweats, weight loss, chronic diarrhea, severe
Vigorous muscle spasm; twitching, jerking limbs, stiffening Grunting; snorting. Loss of bladder and bowel control. Temporary cessation of breathing. Seizure are often associated with epilepsy; high blood pressure; heart disease; brain tumor, stroke or other brain illness or injury; shaking young children violently; fever in children; head injury; electric shock; heat illness; poisoning; venomous bites and stings; choking; and drug or alcohol overdose or withdrawal.
First Aid If you know the person has epilepsy, it is usually not necessary to call physician unless• • • The seizure lasts longer than a few minutes. Another seizure begins soon after the first. He or she does not regain consciousness after the jerking movement has stopped.
However, you should call physician when someone having a seizure also• Is pregnant. • Carries identification as a diabetic. • Is in the water and has swallowed large amounts of water.
Fever is over 39.4 °C (103 °F) Fever is accompanied by: - Difficulty in breathing. - Unusual skin colors (blue, gray, purple). - A rash of tiny red or purple dots under the skin. - Shock - Stiff neck. - Bulging fontanel (soft spots of the baby’s skull). - Sign of dehydration - If the victim appears to be very ill, take steps to reduce the fever while you seek medical assistance.
EMERGENCY CHILDBIRTH Causes of Emergency Childbirth 1. Rupture tubal pregnancy with concealed hemorrhage into the abdominal cavity. 2. Unusual bleeding from the vagina at any stage. 3. Convulsions associated with pregnancy. 4. Miscalculations in the anticipated delivery. 5. Premature onset of labor after an accident. 6. Delay in transportation. 7. Other factors which may abbreviate delivery. 59 TRANSMISSION OF DISEASES AND THE FIRST AIDERS How Diseases are Transmitted.
58 __________________________ A high temperature does not necessarily mean the victim is seriously ill. Some children, however, have febrile seizure when a high fever is rising or falling. When to get help for Fever Fever is not always cause for alarm, but sometimes it is a sign of a serious problem. Seek immediately medical attention if:
1. _____________________________________________ 1 Occurs when a person touches an infected person’s body fluids. 2 2. _____________________________________________ Occurs when a person touches objects that have been contaminated by the blood or another body fluid of an infected person. 3. __________________________ __________________ Occurs when a person inhales infected droplets that have become airborne as an infected person coughs or sneezes. 4. _____________________________________________ Occurs when an animal such as a dog or an insect, such as tick, transmits a pathogen into the body through a bite. Diseases that cause concern. Disease Signs and Symptoms
Lesions, general ill feeling, sore throat
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD FIRST AIDER 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 4. _________________________ should not cause pain. should make the best use of things at hand. should notice all signs. should not alarm the victim. should be
5. ___________________________ comforting. 6. _________________________
Broken skin, mucous membranes
should maintain a professional & caring attitude.
HINDRANCES IN GIVING FIRST AID 1. Unfavorable Surroundings 2. The Presence of Crowds 3. Pressure from Victim or Relatives
3 Signs and Symptoms 1. If labor contractions are approximately 2 minutes apart. 2. If the woman is straining or pushing down with contractions. 3. If the woman is crying out constantly. 4. Warning from the woman that the baby is coming. Delivery Procedures 1. ___________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________ 5. ___________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________ OTHER COMMON EMERGENCIES 1. _________________________ is a sustained temperature above the normal level of (98.6°F) is known as fever. Sign and Symptoms body 37°C
In the early stages: - Pallor - A “chilled” feeling – goose pimples, shivering, and chattering teeth. 60
the fever advances: Hot, flushed skin, and sweating. Headache Generalized “aches and pains”. Higher temperature.
First Aid • Make the patient comfortable in cool surroundings, preferably in bed with a light cover. Allow her to rest. • Give the casualty plenty of cool, bland drinks to replace lost fluids. • An adult may take two paracetamol tablets. Give a child the recommended dose of paracetamol syrup (not aspirin). • If you are worried about the casualty’s condition, call a doctor. 2. __________________________ may accompany any illness, particularly a feverish ailment such as flu, but it may be the most prominent symptom of a serious condition, such as meningitis or stroke.
First Aid • Help the patient to sit or lie down comfortably in a quite place. • An adult may take two paracetamol tablets or her own painkillers. Give a child recommended dose of paracetamol syrup (not aspirin). • If in doubt or if the pain does not ease within two hours, call a doctor.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Gain access to the victim. Determine any threats to patient’s life. Summon advanced medical care as needed. Provide needed care for the patient. Assist advanced personnel. Record all finding and care given to the patient.
OBJECTIVES OF FIRST AID 1. To alleviate suffering. 2. To prevent added/further injury or danger. 3. To prolong life.
2 ____________________is an immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill. It includes self-help and home care if medical assistance is not available or delayed. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE FIRST AIDER 1. Bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician. • It is not intended to compete with, nor take the place of the services of the physician. • It ends when the services of a physician begin. 2. Ensure safety of him/herself and that of bystanders.
If the pain is severe, or does not ease within 30 minutes, call a doctor.
4. ______________________________ are most likely to be caused by food poisoning, contaminated water, allergy, or unusual or exotic foods. First Aid • Reassure the patient while he or she is being sick. Afterwards, give the patient a warm damp cloth with which to wash him- or herself. • Give the patient lots of bland fluids to sip slowly and often. If the appetite returns, give him only bland, starchy or sugary food for the first 24 hours. • If you are worried about the patient’s condition, particularly if it is persistent, call a doctor. 3. __________________________ is a pain in the abdomen often has a relatively trivial cause, but can indicate serious disease, such as perforation or obstruction of the intestine. First Aid • Make the patient comfortable, and prop her up if breathing is difficult. Giving her a container to use if vomiting. • Do not give the patient any medicines or anything to eat or drink. • Give patient a covered hot-water bottle place against the abdomen.
NATIONAL BLOOD SERVICES
Saves the lives of patients in need of blood or blood components on a systems of free and voluntary donation of blood through a
national network of blood service facilities. Education programs are conducted to encourage people to donate blood.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT SERVICES
Is in charge of conducting disaster preparedness programs, relief operations for disaster victims and rehabilitation projects to help victims recover faster from their experience.
Is tasked to implement a nationwide educational campaign to ensure the safety of the Filipino people. To effectively carry out this task, the service conducts training in First Aid, Basic Life SupportCPR, Water Safety and Accident Prevention. It also renders first aid, lifeguarding, rescue and ambulance services.
Focuses on helping vulnerable groups by promoting health and preventing illness in the community. It targets the most vulnerable not only as clients but as partners and major players in community health development. Thus, it provides training on community based health management, home nursing and disaster nursing.
COMMUNITY HEALTH & NURSING SERVICES
Provides welfare service to individuals, families and communities through counseling, inquiry, tracing, health and welfare reporting, intercountry case work and emergency leave assistance for Filipino in the US military service. Service is also given to vulnerable group like disadvantaged women streetchildren, disabled persons and the elderly. It also conducts training on stress debriefing and provides psychological support to victims of disaster and other traumatic incidents.
RED CROSS YOUTH
Program educates children and youth from 7 to 25 years old, in the spirit of Red Cross and provides opportunities for directing and harnessing their energy and idealism into worthwhile activities within the framework of the organization.