(DRAFT) THE COMPLETE FITNESS

HANDBOOK
3 February 2003

Table of Contents
Introduction Physical Fitness Training Variables Fitness Assessment Fitness Assessment Questionnaire ROTC Fitness Challenge Flexibility Program Description The Road to Fitness – Workout A/B Increase Muscle Mass – Workout A/B Get Stronger - Workout A/B Prepare for Airborne School – Workout A/B Prepare for NALC & Air Assault School – Workout A/B Training LOG Worksheet Resistance Exercises Flexibility Exercises Agility Exercises Cardiorespiratory Training Road Marches Appendix A: References Appendix B: Qualification Criteria for the Combat Divers Qualification Course 3 4 4 5 6 7-17 18 18 19-20 21-22 23-24 25-26 27-28 29 30-49 50-55 55-56 56-67 67-70 71 72

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Appendix C: Example of a ROTC Fitness Training Calendar

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Introduction
Cadet Command would like to thank the Dr. Todd A. Crowder from the United States Military Academy (USMA) Department of Physical Education for his work in assisting us in this project. He graciously allowed us to edit his work on cardio-respiratory training in order to tailor it towards ROTC cadets who have varying fitness needs at over 270 schools. Cadet Command would not have been successful in writing this Fitness Handbook without his help and the help of fitness experts at the USMA and United States Army Physical Fitness School. Before You Begin It is imperative that cadets learn an easy way to reduce the likelihood of injury while using this Fitness Handbook. Cadets need to recognize that they have an increased risk of lower body injuries than upper body injuries during summer training events. The leading causes of these are improperly sized or poorly broken-in boots and inadequate running shoes. Boots that hurt or are uncomfortable to you at school will cause significantly more discomfort and increase the chance of injury during rigorous summer training events like the National Advanced Leadership Camp, Airborne School or Air Assault School. A broken in pair of boots should feel as comfortable as your most comfortable pair of shoes. To put it simply, you should be able to walk or run in them comfortably. Similarly, running shoes should fit comfortably and not show significant tread wear. Running places different wear on your shoes than walking does. Using shoes you walk in for running can place undue stress on your lower body. This stress can increase the risk of injury. Field Manual 21-20 divides running shoes into three categories. Select an impact control shoe if you have high arches or notice that your running shoes tend to wear unevenly on the outside edge. Select a motion control shoe if you have flat feet or notice that excessive wear on both the outside and inside of the sole of the running shoe. Select a balanced shoe if you have normal arches or only see wear on the outside sole beneath the ankle. Other factors that reduce the likelihood of injuries include adequate warm-ups prior to high intensity exercise, proper nutrition and hydration, maintaining recovery periods following exercise, and cool-down periods concluding the exercise. Editors Ms. Sheila Visconti Major Paul Baker

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Physical Fitness
TRAINING VARIABLES
Before explaining what a physical fitness program should look like, there are some basic terms that must be discussed. These principals apply to all programs in general and must be addressed in the development of any fitness program. INTENSITY. The amount of effort put into each workout, usually measured by heartbeats per minute. For the maximum benefit in each workout, plan on exercising at a minimum of 70 percent of the heart rate reserve. There are several scientific ways to your heart rate reserve. The simplest way is to begin with you maximum heart rate (220-Age). Next, measure your resting heart rate. The heart rate reserve is found by Max heart rate - resting heart rate. To train at 70% of the heart rate reserve you would multiply 70% by the heart rate reserve and then add your resting heart rate. For a 20 year old with a resting heart rate of 60, to determine your training heart rate in beats per minute would be 70% x Heart Rate Reserve =. 70 x (200-60) + 60 (Resting Heart Rate) = a training heart rate of 158 beats per min. DURATION. The length each exercise period should last. There has been a great deal of research on this topic. Most experts believe that when working on your cardiovascular endurance a minimum of 20 to 30 minutes is needed to obtain maximum benefit. This holds true for the majority of the population. The only notable exception occurs for long distance or endurance athletes (e.g. marathon runners or triathletes). FREQUENCY. The number of workouts one should have per week. Once again experts agree that the average person requires a minimum of three workouts per week to improve their current level of fitness. Working out less frequently will only maintain a level of fitness; it will not improve the level of fitness. When exercising only three times a week, each period should be medium to high intensity. Exercising with consistent frequency can also be referred to as REGULARITY. Exercise must be done regularly to produce a training effect. Sporadic exercise may cause more harm in the form of injury than benefit from exercise. The same is true for extremely intense workouts. They may create injuries. RECOVERY. Do not work the same muscle groups hard day after day. Muscles need recovery time. People frequently misunderstand this point. Providing inadequate recovery can explain the reason why most people see little or no gain from excessive exercise. You can work the same muscle groups each day; however, you should work hard one day and easy the next. This is a critical point because this fitness program is based on a six days a week exercise program. GENERAL ADAPTATION PRINCIPAL (GAP). Muscles as well as your cardiovascular system in the body will adapt to the increasing stress placed upon it through exercise. To see gains in a fitness program, one must stress the existing muscular and cardiovascular systems. This can also be called the OVERLOAD principal. For a muscle to increase in strength, the workload during exercise must be larger than what it normally experiences.

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SPECIFICITY. There are several different exercises and events that can develop your muscular strength as well as cardiovascular fitness. To increase the number of push-ups you can do, simply increase upper body strength through a number of strength exercises and weights. However, the best way to improve push-ups requires doing push-ups. Similarly one can improve cardiovascular fitness by biking, swimming, or walking. However, if the goal remains an improved ability to run, the best exercise will be running. MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS. There are several components of any fitness program. The four major components of most programs are flexibility, strength, muscular endurance, and cardiovascular endurance. These components are the essential elements of the Army Physical Fitness Program.

How to Use These Workout Programs
These programs are designed as four-week plans. Each program has a workout A & B. Alternate workouts daily for 6 days, then rest. For example, perform workout A on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday; perform workout B on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. Different muscles are trained in workouts A & B, which means you are training each muscle group 3 days per week. Rest Sunday. Work cardiovascular exercises into your workouts at least 3 times per week. You may attempt to eventually work up to doing cardio 6 days a week using the hard/easy technique mentioned under the recovery principle.

Fitness Assessment
Before starting any new fitness program it is important to assess one’s abilities. This includes knowing strengths as well as weaknesses. Ideally, a fitness program would improve weak areas and maintain or improve strength areas. However, before explaining the diagnostic test there are other important factors and preferences that should be identified. These factors and preferences may include the time of day to workout, how much time is available each day to workout, individual or team sports, and finally the goal of the fitness program. The questionnaire attached (FORM 1-1) is intended to give a fitness trainer the basics they need to personalize a fitness program that will work.

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Fitness Assessment Questionnaire
NAME__________________________________AGE___________DATE________________ ACADEMIC SCHEDULE: Monday_______________________________________________ (This Semester) Tuesday_______________________________________________ Wednesday_____________________________________________ Thursday_______________________________________________ Friday__________________________________________________ Saturday________________________________________________ EXERCISE HABITS/ PREFERENCES (Select One) I ____________________________ to exercise and ________________access to a gym. (like, sometimes like, never want) (have, do not have) I like to workout _________________________________. (alone, in a small group, in a large group) I have ___________________discipline to stick to a fitness program. (a little, some, a lot of) I need ___________________________to stick to my fitness program. (no help, some help, a lot of help) I ____________________________ to lift weights. (like, have tried, have never tried) I prefer to ________________________ for my cardiovascular endurance training. (run, walk, bike, swim, and skate) GOALS I want to: A. Improve my overall personal fitness. B. Just pass the APFT. C. Just improve a particular weakness. STATE YOUR PERSONAL GOALS _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____ SELF ASSESSMENT (Select: None, Beginner, Average, Above Average, Excellent) Flexibility________________ Strength__________________ Cardiovascular Endurance____________________ List your weakness _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __ List your strengths

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __ Work Form 1-1

ROTC FITNESS CHALLENGE (RFC) Purpose
TO PROVIDE CADETS WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO PARTICIPATE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL FITNESS CHALLENGES DESIGNED TO ASSESS ALL COMPONENTS OF FITNESS AND LEAD TO THE PURSUIT OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT EXCELLENCE.

Background
The elements of the ROTC Fitness Challenge include: 1. CHOICE: Several challenges allow choice in selected events. 2. STUDENT OR PROFESSOR OF MILITARY SCIENCE/LEADERSHIP ADMINISTERED: Honor policy is in effect, criterion fitness measures will utilize real fitness performances and minimize subjectivity. 3. MOTIVATIONAL IN NATURE: Multiple attempts at events will be allowed but must be completed within an assigned period of time and with appropriate local PMS guidance. 4. PMS-STUDENT OWNERSHIP: This is OUR fitness test. It was designed over several years with student and professional input. The goal is to assess a variety of fitness parameters that will allow a cadet to determine their overall fitness status/progress and really “showcase” their fitness levels. A one-page overview of the Challenge is found on the following page. Detailed information concerning each test with the scale points follows the overview. 1. In conjunction with your Professor of Military Science and Leadership, you will be required to complete the ROTC Fitness Challenge (RFC). The RFC is worth 500 points. Please remember that all tests need to be completed in accordance to the guidance provided by your PMS. 2. The ROTC Fitness Challenge allows you to take OWNERSHIP of your fitness. You may train and test as many times as you like. Your final score will be determined by the local PMS guidance. The standards are based on criterion levels. Professional input from students and professionals were used to set the standards. Our intent of the Challenge was to construct a variety of fitness tasks that will “showcase” your physical abilities. After all, we are dealing with YOUR FITNESS. 3. Select one fitness test from EACH of the sections below. For Muscular Fitness (200 points total); select a pair of exercises from the upper and lower body section. Upper Body Muscular Strength/Endurance allows a choice of events. For all events, gender differences were factored into the scales by consulting competitive performances. Further, body mass is a factor that influences some performances. The upper and lower body muscular strength/endurance “pairs” of exercise has been researched and when taken as a “total score” eliminates the influence of body mass. Thus, these two tests become an unbiased assessment of your muscular fitness. Plan ahead, consider the environment and criterion scales, determine the levels you wish to attain on the scales, train accordingly and excel.

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GOOD LUCK….Here’s to your PERSONAL FITNESS.

ROTC FITNESS CHALLENGE (RFC)
TO PROVIDE CADETS WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO PARTICIPATE IN A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL FITNESS CHALLENGES DESIGNED TO ASSESS ALL COMPONENTS OF FITNESS AND LEAD TO THE PURSUIT OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT EXCELLENCE CARDIOVASCULAR (AEROBIC) FITNESS (100 points) 3-Mile Run CARDIOVASCULAR (HIGH INTENSITY) FITNESS (100 points) Illinois Agility Test MUSCULAR FITNESS (200 POINTS TOTAL) (Choose one group from each section) UPPER BODY (100 points) Chest (Bench) Press (50 points) Cadence Pull-ups (50 points)
OR

1 REP Chest (Bench) Press (50 points) Cadence Pull-ups (50 points) LOWER BODY
(100 points)

LOWER BODY AND SHOULDER/MIDSECTION
1 REP Back Squat (50 points) Modified Ankles to the Bar (50 points)

FLEXIBILITY
(100 points)

Sit and Reach Flexibility Test

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CARDIOVASCULAR (AEROBIC) FITNESS
(100 points) A. 3-Mile Run: (Note accompanying charts to determine V02 max values) • Find or measure a flat 3-mile run area. Your PMS can assist you. A running track is certainly acceptable. • Warm-up. • Begin watch and run 3 miles as fast as possible. • Stop watch at end of 3-mile run. • Record time, verify and cool-down appropriately. • SAFETY NOTE: If utilizing streets, use a sidewalk wherever possible. • Criterion Measure: Time in minutes to complete the 3-mile run. 3-MILE RUN TOTAL AVE POINTS TIME Mile Pace 18:00 100 7:00 18:21 98 7:07 18:45 96 7:15 19:06 92 7:22 19:30 90 7:30 20:15 88 7:45 20:45 85 (85%) 7:55 22:30 82 8:30 22:51 80 8:37 23:00 76 23:12 74 8:44 23:33 70 8:51 24:00 64 9:00 >24:00 40 >9:00

MEN

AVE Mile Pace 6:00 6:07 6:15 6:22 6:30 6:45 6:55 7:30 7:37 7:44 7:51 8:00 >8:00

TOTAL WOMEN TIME 21:00 21:21 21:45 22:06 22:30 23:15 23:45 25:30 25:51 26:00 26:12 26:33 27:00 >27:00

*GOAL: Have cadets meet the 85% solution of a 6:55/7:55 running pace during a 3-mile run.

CARDIOVASCULAR (HIGH INTENSITY-AGILITY) FITNESS (100 points) A. Illinois Agility Test: • Set-up the Illinois Agility Test as outlined below. • Warm-up, you will be sprinting as fast as possible, thus conduct some high-intensity, appropriate warm-ups. • Start watch and begin test as prescribed. Run one complete iteration of this test as fast as possible. • Stop watch at completion of test, record and verify your time. Cool-down accordingly. • Criterion Measure: Time in seconds to run the Illinois Agility Test.

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MEN

ILLINOIS AGILITY TEST TOTAL POINTS TOTAL TIME TIME 15.0 100 17.0 15.2 98 17.1 15.4 96 17.2 15.6 92 17.4 15.8 90 17.5 15.9 88 17.6 16 85 *(85%) 17.8 16.5 82 18 17 80 18.5 17.5 76 19.0 18.0 74 20 18.1 70 21 18.2 64 21.8 >18.3 40 >23.0

WOMEN

*GOAL: Have cadets meet the 85% solution of 16 or 17.8 seconds during the Illinois Agility Test.

(a) Equipment. Flat surface (minimum 20m x 10m area), 8 cones, and a stopwatch. (b) Course. The length of the course is 10 meters and the width (distance between the start and finish points) is 5 meters. On the track you could use 5 lanes. 4 cones can be used to mark the start, finish and the two turning points. Each cone in the center is spaced 3.3 meters apart.

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MUSCULAR FITNESS
(Choose one group from this section {A1, A2}, {B1, B2}: 100 points total) UPPER BODY A1. Chest (Bench) Press (50 points): • Find any “free weight bench equipment,” and warm-up. (Don’t use a “Smith” machine). • Insure the bar weighs 45 pounds, most standard bars weigh 45 pounds. • Men place 175 pounds (Bar plus One 45 pound & Two 10 pound plates on each side). • Women place 90 pounds (Bar plus Two 10 pound plates and One 2.5 pound plate on each side). • Have a ROTC classmate serve as a spotter. • Lift this weight as many times as possible. • Conduct full range of motion repetitions to include just slightly less than “full, lock-out” position. • The spotter may help you on the last repetition for safety, but this rep won’t count, see important point below. • Once the spotter touches the bar, no more repetitions will be counted. • Criterion Measure: Number of correctly performed repetitions of the Chest (Bench) Press. Note: This test correlates highly with a 1-RM test (r = .96). UPPER BODY-CHEST (Bench) PRESS (175# for Men, 90# for Women) REPS POINTS REPS 24 50 18 22 48 17 20 47 16 18 46 15 16 45 14 14 44 13 12 42.5*(85%) 12 10 41 10 8 40 8 7 39 7 6 38 6 4 35 4 2 32 2 <2 20 <2

MEN

WOMEN

*GOAL: Have the cadets meet the 85% solution of 12 repetitions during a prescribed Chest (Bench) Press lift.

A2. Cadence Pull-ups (50 points): • Find a standard pull-up bar and warm-up. • Jump up and grab pull-up bar, palms facing away from the performer’s face. • At same time, ROTC classmate begins watch. • At five-second intervals, partner instructs participant to conduct a pull-up. • Participant can not execute a pull-up until the command “up”. • Pull-ups are conducted on running clock of 05, 10, 15, 20, etc. until participant can no longer execute another pull-up.

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• • • • • • • •

The first pull-up begins at the 05-second mark; thus a cadet must hang before the test can begin. Resting greater than 5 seconds is not allowed. Participant must keep pace with the cadence. If unable to maintain pace with the cadence, the test is terminated. No skipping or “circus pull-ups” are allowed. Participant needs to lift chin over the pull-up bar. Repetitions are not counted if not executed to standard. ROTC classmate records and verifies only the properly performed CADENCE pull-ups. Criterion Measure: Number of correctly performed cadence pull-ups. UPPER BODY-CADENCE PULL-UPS REPS POINTS REPS WOMEN 17 50 7 16 47 6 15 45 5 14 42.5*(85%) 4 13 41.5 12 41 11 40.5 10 40 3 9 39 8 38 2 7 36 6 35 1 5 34 4 33 3 32 <3 20 <1

• MEN

*GOAL: Have the cadets meet the 85% solution of 14 or 4 repetitions during a cadence pull-up.

B1. 1 Repetition Max Chest (Bench) Press (50 points): • Find any “free weight bench equipment,” and warm-up. (Don’t use a “Smith” machine) • Insure the bar weighs 45 pounds, most standard bars weigh 45 pounds. • You will conduct a repetition max chest (bench) press. • The cadet lies on his/her back with the head, shoulders, and buttocks in contact with the bench surface. • The cadet’s hands must grip the bar with a “thumbs-around” grip, locking the bar safely in the palms of the hands. • Shoes/feet must be flat on the floor during the lift. • The cadet removes the bar from the rack (a “lift” from the spotter(s) is permitted) and then holds the bar motionless for 1 second in the locked out position. • The cadet must then lower the bar to the chest, hold it motionless on the chest with a definite and visible pause, and then press upwards with an even extension of the arms to arms’ length (complete arm extension).

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• • • • •

The bar is again held motionless for 1 second, and then the cadet may rack the bar. The cadet is not allowed to stop, bounce, shift the feet, change position of the hands, or unevenly extend the bar during the lift. Ideally would like to attain lift within 3 attempts. A weight belt but no other “supportive gear” (meaning elbow wraps, suits, etc.) is allowed. The spotter may only assist for safety reasons. If the spotter touches the bar, the repetition will NOT be counted. Criterion Measure: Weight correctly lifted of the Repetition Max Chest (Bench) Press. UPPER BODY-Repetition Max CHEST (Bench) PRESS WEIGHT POINTS WEIGHT WOMEN 300 50 155 285 48 150 275 47 140 255 46 135 245 45 125 235 44 120 225 42.5 (85%) 115 215 41 110 205 40 105 200 39 100 195 38 185 35 95 180 32 <180 20 <95

MEN

*GOAL: Have the cadets meet the 85% solution of 225/115 pounds for 1RM during a prescribed Repetition Max Chest (Bench) Press lift.

B2.Cadence Pull-ups (50 points): SEE A2 ABOVE FOR THE STANDARDS AND SCALE.

MUSCULAR FITNESS
(100 points total)
LOWER BODY, SHOULDER-MIDSECTION (C1 and C2)

C1. 1 Repetition Max Back Squat (50 points): • Find a free weight bar with squat rack, warm-up. (Don’t use a “Smith” machine). • The cadet assumes an upright position under the bar, with the bar held horizontally across the shoulders with hands/fingers gripping the bar. • The cadet removes the bar from the rack and moves backward to the starting position. • The cadet must remain motionless in the starting position (erect with knees locked) for 1 second. • The cadet then bends the knees to lower the body until the top surface of the legs at the hip joint are lower than the top of the knees. • The cadet then recovers from the deepest point of the squat to an upright position with the knees locked, as in the starting position; the cadet must again remain motionless for 1 second.

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The cadet must then attempt to rack the bar; the spotter(s) may assist the cadet in reracking the weight. • The cadet is not allowed to stop, bounce, shift the feet, or change position of the bar on the back during the lift. • A weight belt and a pad on the bar are allowed. No other “supportive gear” (meaning knee wraps, suits, etc.) is allowed. • ROTC Classmate records and verifies the correctly executed 1 Rep maximum back squat. Criterion Measure: Weight correctly lifted of the Repetition Max Back Squat. Ideally would like to attain the 1RM within 3 lifts. LOWER BODY-Repetition Max Back Squat WEIGHT POINTS WEIGHT WOMEN 405 50 265 395 48 255 385 47 245 375 46 240 365 45 235 44 355 230 345 42.5 (85%) 225 335 41 215 325 40 210 315 39 200 305 38 195 295 35 190 285 32 185 <285 20 <185

MEN

*GOAL: Have the cadets meet the 85% solution of 345/225 pounds for 1RM during a prescribed Repetition Max Back Squat lift.

C2. Modified Ankles to the Bar (50 points): • Find a standard pull-up bar and warm-up. • Jump to a horizontal bar and come to a full dead hang. • The regular grip (palms facing away from face) is used with the arms being shoulder width apart. • The body is flexed and raised into a tuck until the shoelaces touch the horizontal bar. In this position, the upper heads of both femurs should be parallel or raised higher than the shoulders. • The cadet returns to the full dead hang and attempts another repetition. • The arms may be bent or remain straight during the flex to the tuck. • The knees are together and do not rest against the inside of the arms in the up position. • Repetitions are not counted if not executed to standard. • ROTC Classmate records and verifies the properly performed ankles to the bar. • Criterion Measure: Number of correctly performed ankles to the bar repetitions.

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MEN

SHOULDER/MIDSECTION ANKLES TO THE BAR REPS POINTS REPS WOMEN 17 50 7 16 47 6 15 45 5 14 42.5 *(85%) 4 13 41.5 12 41 11 40.5 10 40 3 9 39 8 38 2 7 36 6 35 1 5 34 4 33 3 32 <3 <1 20

*GOAL: Have the cadets meet the 85% solution of 14 or 4 repetitions during an Ankles to the Bar test.

FLEXIBILITY
A.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Sit and Reach Flexibility Test (100 points): Warm-up and stretch appropriately. Sit on the floor with legs out straight-ahead and shoes off. A tester or ROTC classmate holds both knees flat against the floor. The cadet should slowly reach forward with both hands as far as possible, holding the greatest stretch position for 2-seconds. Hands are parallel and cadet does not lead with one hand. No jerky movements and legs remain flat. Place a ruler or tape measure in centimeters between your feet at the position of your toes. 0 is reaching to your toes. Record the distance either before (negative) or beyond (positive) from your toes. Thus stretching 5 cm past your toes is recorded as 5 centimeters. The score is the most distant point (in centimeters) reached with the fingertips. The best of ALL trials is recorded. To assist with the attempts the cadet should exhale and drop the head between the arms when reaching. The legs should be extended throughout the test. Do not lift knees from floor. Stretch before activities to prevent injuries, stretch after a workout or activity to actual IMPROVE your flexibility. Work to increase this distance during your training program. Criterion Measure: Record the furthest distance stretched without bouncing and legs flat against the floor.

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MEN

DISTANCE

17 16 15 14.5 14 13.5 13 11 9 7 5 3 0 <0

FLEXIBILITY-Sit and Reach DISTANCE POINTS 100 21 96 20 94 19 92 18 90 17 88 16 85 (85%) 15 82 13 80 11 78 9 76 7 70 5 64 3 40 <3

WOMEN

*GOAL: Have the cadets meet the 85% solution of 13 or 15 centimeters for the Sit and Reach Flexibility.

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ROTC FITNESS CHALLENGE SCORE CARD
Last Name Gender M or F Height _____inches First Name Age Weight ______lbs. Body Fat ______% Score ___________/100 MI

CARDIOVASCULAR (AEROBIC) FITNESS
3-Mile Run:

Time ____________

CARDIOVASCULAR (HIGH INTENSITYAGILITY) FITNESS
Illinois Agility Test:

Time ____________

Score ___________/100

MUSCULAR FITNESS A
UPPER BODY . Chest (Bench) Press & Cadence Pull-ups (Choose only one pair of upper body exercises) Repetitions Lifted ________ Pull-ups Performed ________ Score ___________/50 Score ___________/50 Score ___________/50 Score ___________/50 Score ___________/50 Score ___________/50 Score ___________/100 TOTAL SCORE ___________/500

MUSCULAR FITNESS A
UPPER BODY .Repetition Max Chest (Bench) & Cadence Pull-ups
(Choose only one pair of upper body exercises)

1-RM Weight Lifted ________ Pull-ups Performed ________ 1-RM Weight Lifted ________ M. Ankles to the Bar Performed________
Distance from toes (+ or -) _____cm

MUSCULAR FITNESS B
LOWER BODY, SHOULDER-MIDSECTION

Repetition Max Back Squat & Modified Ankles to the Bar

FLEXIBILITY
Sit and Reach Test

ROTC FITNESS CHALLENGE

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Flexibility
Flexibility is an important component of your fitness program. Many activity- related injuries have their root in lack of flexibility. Think of your muscles as rubber bands. When they are cold they are rigid and brittle. When warm they stretch and retract more easily. Conducting a good warm-up prior to exercising and a good cool-down upon completion will help prevent injury and reduce muscle soreness. No matter what your current fitness level, you should always begin your exercise sessions with a warm-up period. A good warm-up sequence is as follows. Jog in place or a specified location for one to two minutes. This causes a gradual increase in the heart rate, blood pressure, circulation, and increases the temperature of the active muscles. Next, perform slow joint rotation exercises (for example, arm circles, knee/ankle rotations) to gradually increase the joint's range of motion. Work each major joint for 5 to 10 seconds. Finally, stretch the muscles to be used during the upcoming activity slowly. This will "loosen up" muscles and tendons so they can achieve greater ranges of motion with less risk of injury. Hold each stretch position for 10 to 15 seconds, and do not bounce or bob. Immediately following your exercise session stretch as part of your cool-down. After exercising, when your muscles are their warmest is the best time to improve your flexibility. Do not limit flexibility exercises to warm-up and cool-down only. Take the time to dedicate sessions to flexibility. Stretching throughout the day is also a great idea. Stretching is one form of exercise that takes very little time relative to the benefits gained. Some of the more common flexibility exercises are listed under the flexibility exercises. Assume all stretching positions slowly until you feel tension or slight discomfort. Hold each position for at least 10 to 15 seconds during the warm-up and cool-down. Developmental stretching to improve flexibility requires holding each stretch for 30 seconds or longer.

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION
These Fitness Workout sheets are designed to be implemented on a workout plan A followed the next day by a workout plan B. Workout A will focus on lower body strength and endurance while workout plan B will focus on upper body strength and endurance. Both days incorporate some abdominal work. Remember it is important to maintain a period of recovery for the abdominal muscles. Trying to overachieve early in a workout program can lead to injury. The reason there is a range within the abdominal exercises is to promote recovery. If you are providing yourself adequate time to recover, over time you should see your abilities increasing. The cardio respiratory workouts need to be included into the program. If the program selected is exclusively running (e.g. group run, fartlek, or interval) it should replace the A workout plan. However, if you choose a guerrilla or grass drill workout plan it could substitute for either the A or the B workout plan. The minimum frequency of cardio respiratory workouts is two to three per week. For borderline runners the number of workouts may be as high as three to five per week and may consist of a combination of intervals, grass, and guerrilla drills. The determining factor for the intensity and frequency of cardio respiratory training will depend on the ability and fitness level of the cadet and the intensity of the workout.

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For some reason if you miss a workout then the next workout would be the A workout. In a week you should expect to do a total of six workouts per week.

The Road to Fitness
EXERCISE SQUAT Set 1 12-15 reps Set 2 12-15 reps Set 3 12-15 reps LEG CURLS Set 1 12-15 reps Set 2 12-15 reps Set 3 12-15 reps Deadlift Set 1 12-15 reps Set 2 12-15 reps Set 3 12-15 reps LEG EXTENSION Set 1 12-15 reps Set 2 12-15 reps Set 3 12-15 reps CALF RAISES Set 1 12-15 reps Set 2 12-15 reps Set 3 12-15 reps SIT-UP 1 minute SWISS-BALL CRUNCH 1 minute REVERSE CRUNCH 1 minute Beginner Routine: Do one set of 12-15 reps of each exercise. Use a weight that you can lift at least 12 times. When you complete 15 reps, increase the weight at your next workout. Move quickly from exercise to exercise, resting at most 30 seconds between exercises unless you are exceeding your training heart rate. If you are, increase the rest period between exercises. As you progress, you should be able to decrease the rest between exercises while maintaining your training heart rate. SPEED: Perform each rep deliberately slower than what seems like your natural speed. This keeps your muscles under tension longer and helps build them faster. WORKOUT A WEEK 1 WEEK 2
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ABDOMINAL

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The Road to Fitness
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ABDOMINAL
15-25 15-25 15-25

Beginner Goals: Exercise consistently with short focused workouts. Build endurance through high-repetition strength training and moderate intensity cardiovascular exercise. See rapid increases in strength and modest gains in muscle mass. Advanced Goals: You’ll focus more energy on strength training. Help your body recover from nagging injuries with short, low volume routines. You should leave the gym feeling as if you could have done a lot more. Give your muscle building systems a boost responding from a higher-volume routine to a change in volume.

Increase Muscle Mass
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EXERCISE Leg Press Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Lunges Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Leg Curls Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Leg Extensions Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Seated Calves Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Crunch Circuit Oblique Crunches Superman

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ABDOMINAL

22

Increase Muscle Mass
EXERCISE CHEST Triset 1 Incline Dumbbell Bench Flat Dumbbell Bench Decline Dumbbell Bench BACK Triset 2 Lat Pull Down Upright Row Straight Arm Lat Pulldown SHOULDER Triset 3 Dumbbell Shoulder Press Cleans Seated Bent Over Row ARM/BICEPS Triset 4 Standing Biceps Curl Preacher Curl Hammer-Grip Biceps Curl ARM/TRICEPS Triset 5 Tricep Pushdown French Curls Tricep Kickbacks Crunch Circuit Oblique Crunches Superman WORKOUT B WEEK 1 WEEK 2
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/ / / 25-30 30-40 each side 20-25

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ABDOMINAL

Beginner Goals: Perform equal volumes of work for all upper-body parts to strengthen stabilizer muscles. Start to see significant increases in muscle size and definition. Combine cardiovascular training with resistance training to maximize benefit. Advanced Goals: Bolster upper-body muscle and strength with multiple upper-body workouts in the same week. Increase your body’s ability to tolerate max cardiovascular effort in order to improve endurance and increase metabolism.

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Get Stronger
EXERCISE Squats Warm-up Set 1&2 Set 3 5-8 reps Set 4 5-8 reps Set 5 5-8 reps Lunges Warm-up Set 1&2 Set 3 5-8 reps Set 4 5-8 reps Set 5 5-8 reps Leg Curls Warm-up Set 1&2 Set 3 5-8 reps Set 4 5-8 reps Set 5 5-8 reps Leg Extensions Warm-up Set 1&2 Set 3 5-8 reps Set 4 5-8 reps Set 5 5-8 reps Seated Calves Warm-up Set 1&2 Set 3 5-8 reps Set 4 5-8 reps Set 5 5-8 reps Sit-ups Weighted sit-ups Incline sit-ups 6 reps WORKOUT A WEEK 1 WEEK 2
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ABDOMINAL

Get Stronger in 4 WEEKS
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EXERCISE ROPE CLIMB Set 1 30 FT Set 2 (Drop) 20 FT CURL AND PRESS Set 1 15 reps Set 2 (Drop) 10 reps LATERAL RAISE Set 1 15 reps Set 2 (Drop) 10 reps 90-Degree Lateral Raise Set 1 15 reps Set 2 (Drop) 10 reps Dumbbell Shoulder Press Set 1 15 reps Set 2 (Drop) 10 reps Lateral Raise Set 1 15 reps Set 2 (Drop) 10 reps Dumbbell Row Set 1 15 reps Set 2 (Drop) 10 reps Triceps Kickback Set 1 15 reps Set 2 (Drop) 10 reps CRUNCH REVERSE CRUNCH FLUTTER KICKS

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ABDOMINAL

Goals: Perform low-repetition sets with heavier weights than you’ve been using (This will rapidly improve your strength). Do longer cardiovascular intervals. Improve shoulder-joint integrity to help keep yourself injury-free.

Prepare for Airborne School

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EXERCISE Jump Squat Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Leg Curls Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Dumbbell Step-ups Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Standing Calf Raises Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Sit-ups Crunches Flutter Kicks

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ABDOMINAL

* Practice jump squats with feet and knees together. Reduce the rest time between work sets to fatigue muscles and stimulate muscle growth.

Prepare for Airborne School

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EXERCISE Pull-ups Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Reverse Close-grip Lat Pull-downs Using Rope Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Deadlift Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Push-ups (Regular) Set 1 25-50 Set 2 25-50 Set 3 25-50 Push-ups (Close) Set 1 25-50 Set 2 25-50 Set 3 25-50 Front Raises Set 1 12-15 Set 2 12-15 Set 3 12-15 Crunches Reverse Crunches Flutter Kicks

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ABDOMINAL

For push-ups and pull-ups adjust repetitions to ability. Do negative repetitions with assistance to achieve muscle failure. Rest 2 minutes between sets.

Prepare for NALC/Air-Assault School

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WORKOUT A EXERCISE WEEK 1 OBSTACLE COURSE OR CIRCUIT The ideal Obstacle Course would replicate what is found at Air-Assault School. If this is not available, develop a Circuit that includes a rope climb and 6 foot wall at a minimum. Run a minimum of 30 seconds between obstacles. GUERILLA CIRCUIT Conduct each exercise for 20-40 seconds with no rest between. All Fours Run Broad Jump Crab Walk Jump Squat AGILITY EXERCISES Hour Glass Drill Tree Line Shuffle Drill Ski Hops Star Drill SIT-UPS SIDE RAISE (Left) SIDE RAISE (Right) 20-40 sec 20-40 sec 20-40 sec 12-15 Reps

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ABDOMINAL
50-100 15-25 15-25

*Run the Obstacle Course or Circuit at least twice. Work up to doing 3 sets (warm-up, moderate and full speed). Rest 2-5 minutes between sets.

Prepare for NALC & Air-Assault School

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EXERCISE BENCH PRESS Flat 5-8 Reps Incline 5-8 Reps Decline 5-8 Reps Dumbbell Shoulder Press Work Set 1 5-8 Reps Work Set 2 5-8 Reps Work Set 3 5-8 Reps BICEPS CURL Work Set 1 5-8 Reps Work Set 2 5-8 Reps Work Set 3 5-8 Reps TRICEPS PUSHDOWN Work Set 1 5-8 Reps Work Set 2 5-8 Reps Work Set 3 5-8 Reps MACHINE ROW Work Set 1 5-8 Reps Work Set 2 5-8 Reps Work Set 3 5-8 Reps PULL-UPS Wide 8-10 Reps Wrist-out 8-10 Reps Wrist-in 8-10 Reps PUSH-UPS Wide 25-50 Reps Regular 25-50 Reps Close 25-50 Reps ELEVATED SIT-UPS INCLINE KNEE-UP CYCLING TWIST

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ABDOMINAL

Training Log

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Exercise

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Resistance Exercises
LEGS Quadriceps Front Barbell Squat
Preparation From a rack with barbell upper chest height, position bar on front of the shoulders. Cross arms and place hands on top of barbell with upper arms parallel to floor. Dismount bar from rack. Can also be performed on the Smith machine. Execution Descend until thighs are just past parallel. Extend knees and hips until legs are straight. Return and repeat. Comments Keep head forward, back straight and feet flat on the floor; equal distribution of weight through fore foot and heel.

Barbell Squat
Preparation From a rack with barbell upper chest height, position bar on the back of the shoulders and grasp barbell to sides. Dismount bar from rack. Can also be performed on a squat machine, Smith machine, or with dumbbells. Execution Descend until thighs are just past parallel to floor. Extend knees and hips until legs are straight. Return and repeat. Comments Keep head forward, back straight and feet flat on the floor; equal distribution of weight throughout forefoot and heel.

Jump Squat
Preparation Assume the squat position on a flat surface. You need squat no further than parallel to the ground. Execution Jump vertically as high as you can and land in the start position. Repeat.

Hack Squat
Preparation Position barbell just behind legs. With feet flat on floor, squat down and grasp barbell from behind with an overhand grip. Can also be performed on a hack squat machine or Smith machine. Execution Lift bar by extending hips and knees to full extension. Descend until thighs are close to or parallel to floor. Repeat. Comments Throughout lift keep hips low, shoulders high, arms and back straight.

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Lunge
Preparation From a rack with barbell upper chest height, position bar on the back of the shoulders and grasp barbell to sides. Dismount bar from rack. Can also be performed with dumbbells. Execution Lunge forward with first leg. Land on heel then forefoot. Lower body by flexing knee and hip of front leg until knee of rear leg is almost in contact with floor. Return to original standing position by forcibly extending the hip and knee of the forward leg. Repeat by alternating lunge with opposite leg. Comments Keep torso upright during lunge.

Rear Lunge
Preparation From a rack with barbell upper chest height, position bar on the back of the shoulders and grasp barbell to sides. Dismount bar from rack. Can also be performed with dumbbells. Execution Extend one leg back on forefoot. Lower body on other leg by flexing knee and hip of front leg until knee of rear leg is almost in contact with floor. Return to original standing position by extending the hip and knee of the forward leg. Repeat by alternating lunge with opposite leg. Comments Keep torso upright during lunge; flexible hip flexors are important. A long lunge emphasizes the Gluteus Maximus; a short lunge emphasizes Quadriceps.

Step-Up
Preparation Stand facing the side of a bench. Position bar on the back of the shoulders or grasp barbell to sides. Execution Place foot of first leg on bench. Stand on bench by extending the hip and knee of the first leg and place the foot of second leg on bench. Step down with second leg by flexing the hip and knee of first leg. Return to original standing position by placing foot of first leg to floor. Repeat first step with opposite leg alternating first steps between legs. Comments Keep torso upright during exercise. Stepping a distance from the bench emphasizes the Gluteus Maximus; stepping close to the bench emphasizes Quadriceps.

45° Leg Press
Preparation Sit on machine with back on padded support. Place feet on platform. Extend hips and knees. Release dock lever and grasp handles to sides. Execution Lower platform by flexing hips and knees until hips are completely flexed. Return by extending knees and hips. Repeat. Comments

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Adjust safety brace and back support to accommodate near full range of motion without forcing hips to bend at waist.

Leg Extension
Preparation Sit on apparatus with back against padded back support. Place front of lower leg under padded lever. Position knee articulation at same axis as lever fulcrum. Grasp handles to sides for support. Execution Move lever forward by extending knees until leg is straight. Return lever to original position by bending knees. Repeat. Comments Stabilizers are used during heavy resistances to prevent body rising off of seat.

Seated Leg Press
Preparation Sit on machine with back on padded support. Place feet on platform. Grasp handles to sides. Execution Push platform away by extending knees and hips. Return until hips are completely flexed. Repeat. Comments Adjust seat and back support to accommodate near full range of motion without forcing hips to bend at waist.

Hamstrings
Preparation Position barbell on back of shoulders and grasp bar to sides. Execution Bend hips to lower torso forward until parallel to the floor. Raise torso until hips are extended. Repeat. Comments Throughout lift keep back and knees straight.

Straight-Leg Deadlift
Preparation Stand with a shoulder width or narrower stance. Grasp barbell with a shoulder width mixed grip or slightly wider; or hold dumbbells at side. Execution With knees straight, lower bar by bending hips until hamstrings are tight, or just before lower back bends. Lift the bar by extending hips until straight. Pull shoulders back at top of lift if rounded. Repeat. Comments Throughout lift keep arms, knees, and back straight.

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Lying Leg Curl Machine
Preparation Facing bench, stand between bench and lever pads. Lie prone on bench with knees just beyond edge of bench and lower legs under lever pads. Grasp handles. Execution Raise lever pads to back of thighs by flexing knees. Lower lever pads until knees are straight. Repeat. Comments Keep torso on bench to reduce hyperextension of the lower back. Most machines are angled at the user hip to position the hamstring in a more favorable mechanical position.

Seated Leg Curl Machine
Preparation Sit on apparatus with back against padded back support. Place back of lower leg on top of padded lever. Secure lap pad against thigh just above knees. Grasp handles on lap support. Execution Pull lever to back of thighs by flexing knees. Return lever until knees are straight. Repeat.

Standing Leg Curl Machine
Preparation Stand in machine with one or both legs against pads dependent upon design. Stand with foot of resting leg on elevated platform. Position exercising leg: lower leg against lever pad and knee just below thigh pad. Bend over by bending hips and grasp handles for support if available. Execution Pull lever up to back of thigh by flexing knee. Return lever until knee is straight. Repeat. Continue with opposite leg. Comments If hips are not significantly bent, hip flexors act as antagonist stabilizers.

Thigh Adduction – Cable
Preparation Stand in front of low pulley facing to one side. Attach cable cuff to near ankle. Step out away from the stack with a wide stance and grasp ballet bar. Stand on far foot and allow near leg to be pulled toward low pulley. Execution Move near leg just in front of far leg by abduction of the hip. Return and repeat. Turn around and continue with opposite leg.

Seated Thigh Adduction Machine
Preparation Sit in machine with heels on bars. Pull in on lever to position legs apart. Release lever into position and grasp bars to sides. Execution Move legs toward one another by adduction of the hip. Return and repeat.

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Seated Thigh Abduction Machine
Preparation Sit in machine with heels on bars. Pull in on lever to position legs together. Release lever into position and grasp bars to sides. Execution Move legs away from one another by abduction of the hip. Return and repeat.

Calves
Standing Calf Raise
Preparation Set barbell on power rack upper-chest height with calf block under barbell. Position back of shoulders under barbell with both hands to sides. Position toes and balls of feet on calf block with arches and heels extending off. Lean barbell against rack and rise from supports by extending knees and hips. Support barbell against verticals with both hands to sides. Can be done on the leg press machine, with dumbbells, standing one-legged, donkey machine, seated calf machine, and standing calf machine. Execution Raise heels by extending ankles as high as possible. Lower heels by bending ankles until calves are stretched. Repeat. Comments Keep knees straight throughout exercise or bend knees slightly only during stretch.

Back
Bent-Over Row
Preparation Bend knees slightly and bend over bar with back straight. Grasp bar with a wide overhand grip. Can also be performed on machine. Execution Pull bar to upper waist. Return until arms are extended and shoulders are stretched forward. Repeat.

Bent-Over Row w/Dumbbells
Preparation Kneel over side of bench with arm and leg to side. Grasp dumbbell. Execution Pull dumbbell to side until upper arm is just beyond horizontal or height of back. Return until arm is extended and shoulder is stretched forward. Repeat. Continue with opposite arm. Comments Allow scapula to articulate but do not rotate torso in an effort to throw-weight up.

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Bent Knee Good-Morning
Preparation Position barbell on back of shoulders and grasp bar to sides. Execution Bend hips to lower torso forward until parallel to the floor. Bend the knees slightly during the decent. Raise torso until hips are extended. Repeat. Comments Target muscle is exercised isometrically. Throughout lift keep back straight. Quadriceps can be kept bent throughout movement.

Deadlift
Preparation With feet flat beneath bar squat down and grasp bar with a shoulder width or slightly wider over hand or mixed grip. May use dumbbells also. Execution Lift bar by extending hips and knees to full extension. Pull shoulders back at top of lift if rounded. Return and repeat. Comments Target muscle is exercised isometrically. Throughout lift keep hips low, shoulders high, arms and back straight. Keep bar close to body to improve mechanical leverage.

Stiff-Leg Deadlift
Preparation Stand with a shoulder width or narrower stance on an 8" platform with feet flat beneath bar. Bend over and grasp barbell with a shoulder width or slightly wider overhand or mixed grip. May use dumbbells also. Execution With knees bent, lift the bar by extending at hips until standing upright. Pull shoulders back at top of lift if rounded. Extend knees at top if desired. Lower bar to the top of the feet by bending hips. Bend the knees slightly during the decent and keep waist straight, flexing only slightly at the bottom. Repeat. Comments Lower back may bend slightly during full hip flexion. Target muscle is exercised isometrically if lower back does not bend. Throughout lift keep arms and back straight. Quadriceps can be kept bent throughout movement.

Shrug
Preparation Stand holding barbell with an overhand or mixed grip; shoulder width or slightly wider. May use dumbbells, cable or machine also. Execution Elevate shoulders as high as possible. Lower and repeat. Comments Since this movement becomes more difficult as full shoulder elevation is achieved, a height criterion for shoulder elevation may be needed. For example, raising the shoulders until the slope of the shoulders become horizontal may be considered adequate depending upon individual body structure.

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Lying Row
Preparation Lie chest down on elevated bench. Grasp dumbbells below. Execution Pull dumbbells to sides until upper arm is just beyond horizontal or height of back. Return until arms are extended and shoulders are stretched forward. Repeat. Comments Bench should be high enough to allow shoulders to stretch forward without dumbbells hitting floor.

Back Extension Machine
Preparation Sit in machine with back against padded lever. Push hips back against back of seat by pushing feet against platform. Arch back in "C" shape. Execution Extend spine until fully hyperextended. Return and repeat. Comments To avoid hip movement, push hips back into seat by pushing feet into platform throughout exercise. Position foot platform so a small space remains between edge of seat and back of lower thigh. Use seat belt if it becomes difficult to stabilize hips.

Hyper-Extension Bench
Preparation Position thighs prone on padding. Hook heels on platform lip or under padded brace. Hold weight to chest or behind neck. Execution Lower body by bending waist until fully flexed. Raise, or extend waist until torso is parallel to legs. Repeat. Comments Although articulation of the waist is emphasized, some hip extension may accommodate movement. If weight is positioned behind head, neck extensors act as stabilizers.

Pullover Machine
Preparation Adjust seat height so lever is near shoulder axis. Sit on machine and Push foot lever. Place elbows in pads and grasp bar from behind. Release foot lever and place feet on platform or to sides. Execution Pull over until elbows are to sides. Return until shoulder is fully flexed, or upper arm is parallel to torso. Repeat. Comments When finished Push foot lever before releasing arm from lever. Release foot lever after releasing arm from lever.

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One Arm High Row
Preparation Sit on platform or bench with knees bent. Grasp cable stirrup with one hand. Straighten lower back and position knees with a slight bend. Allow shoulder with stirrup to be pulled forward with a slight twist through waist. Also done on machine. Execution Pull cable attachment to side, slightly twisting through waist. Pull shoulders back and push chest forward during contraction. Return until arm is extended and shoulder is stretched forward. Repeat. Comments It is optional to bend the lower back forward during the stretch and pull it upright during contraction. In which case, the Erector Spinae becomes a synergist muscle.

One Arm Row
Preparation Sit on platform or bench with knees bent. Grasp cable stirrup with one hand. Straighten lower back and position knees with a slight bend. Allow shoulder with stirrup to be pulled forward with a slight twist through waist. Also done on machine. Execution Pull cable attachment to side, slightly twisting through waist. Pull shoulders back and push chest forward during contraction. Return until arm is extended and shoulder is stretched forward. Repeat. Comments It is optional to bend the lower back forward during the stretch and pull it upright during contraction. In which case, the Erector Spinae becomes a synergist muscle.

Seated High Row
Preparation Sit on platform with knees bent and grasp cable attachment. Straighten lower back and position knees with a slight bend. Also done on machine. Execution Pull cable attachment to waist. Pull shoulders back and push chest forward during contraction. Return until arms are extended and shoulders are stretched forward. Repeat. Comments It is optional to bend the lower back forward during the stretch and pull it upright during contraction. In which case, the Erector Spinae becomes a Synergists muscle.

Seated Row
Preparation Sit on platform with knees bent and grasp cable attachment. Straighten lower back and position knees with a slight bend. Also done on machine. Execution Pull cable attachment to waist. Pull shoulders back and push chest forward during contraction. Return until arms are extended and shoulders are stretched forward. Repeat. Comments It is optional to bend the lower back forward during the stretch and pull it upright during contraction.

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Close Grip Pull-Down
Preparation Grasp parallel cable attachment. Sit with thighs under supports. Also done on machine. Execution Pull down cable attachment to upper chest. Return until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat.

Front Pull-Down
Preparation Grasp cable bar with a wide grip. Sit with thighs under supports. Also done on machine. Execution Pull down cable bar to upper chest. Return until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat.

Rear Pull-Down
Preparation Grasp cable bar with a wide grip. Sit with thighs under supports. Execution Pull down cable bar behind neck. Return until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat.

Underhand Pull-Down
Preparation Grasp cable bar with an underhand grip. Sit with thighs under supports. Also done on machine. Execution Pull down cable bar to upper chest until elbows are to the sides. Return until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat.

Chin-Up
Preparation Step up and grasp bar with wide overhand grip. Step down onto assistance lever or platform. Also done on machine. Execution Pull body up until the chin is just above the bar. Lower body until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat. Comments If no assisted machine is used, assist as needed by allowing training partner to pull feet up behind legs or push self up with legs on elevation.

Close Grip Chin-Up
Preparation Step up and grasp parallel grips. Step down onto assistance lever or platform. Also done on machine. Execution

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Pull body up until elbows are to the sides. Lower body until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat. Comments If no assisted machine is used, assist as needed by allowing training partner to pull feet up behind legs or push self up with legs on elevation.

Pull-Up
Preparation Step up and grasp bar with a wide overhand grip. Step down onto assistance lever or platform. Also done on machine. Execution Pull body up until neck reaches the height of the hands. Lower body until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat. Comments If no assisted machine is used, assist as needed by allowing training partner to pull feet up behind legs or push self up with legs on elevation.

Rear Pull-Up
Preparation Step up and grasp bar with an overhand wide grip. Step down onto assistance lever or platform. Execution Pull body up until the bar touches the back of the neck. Lower body until arms and shoulders are fully extended. Repeat. Comments If no assisted machine is used, assist as needed by allowing training partner to pull feet up behind legs or push self up with legs on elevation.

Chest
Bench Press
Preparation Lie supine on bench. Dismount barbell from rack over the upper chest using a wide oblique overhand grip. Can be performed with dumbbells, on smith machine or press machine. Execution Lower weight to upper chest. Press bars until arms are extended. Repeat.

Decline Bench Press
Preparation Lie supine on decline bench with feet under leg brace. Dismount barbell from rack over the chest using a wide oblique overhand grip. Can be performed with dumbbells, on smith machine or decline bench machine. Execution Lower weight to upper chest. Press bar until arms are extended. Repeat.

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Incline Bench Press
Preparation Lie supine on incline bench. Dismount barbell from rack over the upper chest using a wide oblique overhand grip. Can be performed with dumbbells, on smith machine or incline bench machine. Execution Lower weight to upper chest. Press bar until arms is extended. Repeat.

Incline Shoulder Raise
Preparation Lie supine on incline bench. Dismount barbell from rack with a shoulder width overhand grip. Position barbell over the upper chest with elbows extended. Can be performed with dumbbells, on smith machine or incline press machine. Execution Raise shoulders toward bar as high as possible. Lower shoulders to bench and repeat.

Chest Dip Machine
Preparation Mount a wide dip bar with an oblique grip. Step down onto assistance lever. Can also be performed on parallel bars, with or without weight. Execution Push body up with elbows away from body and hips slightly bent. Lower body until chest is slightly stretched. Repeat.

Lying Fly
Preparation Grasp two opposing high pulley dumbbell attachments. Lie supine on bench, in the middle and perpendicular to both pulleys. Slightly bend elbows and internally rotate shoulders so elbows are back. Can also be performed on lying fly machine. Execution Bring cable attachments together in a hugging motion with elbows in a fixed position and shoulders internally rotated so elbows are to the sides. Return to starting position until chest muscles are stretched. Repeat.

Cable Crossover
Preparation Grasp two opposing high pulley dumbbell attachments. Stand in the middle and perpendicular to both pulleys. Bend hips, knees and elbows slightly. Internally rotate shoulders so elbows are back initially. Execution Bring cable attachments together in a hugging motion with elbows in a fixed position and shoulders internally rotated so elbows are to the sides. Return to starting position until chest muscles are stretched. Repeat.

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Pullover
Preparation Lie upper back perpendicular on bench. Flex hips slightly. Grasp one dumbbell from behind or from side with both hands under inner plate of dumbbell. Position over chest and fix elbows 15° to 30° throughout exercise. Execution Lower dumbbell over and beyond head until upper arm is parallel to torso. Return and repeat.

Pec Deck Fly
Preparation Sit in machine with back on pad. If available, push foot lever until padded lever moves forward. Place forearms on padded lever. Position upper arms approximately parallel. Release foot lever. Execution Push levers together. Return until chest muscles are stretched. Repeat.

Shoulders
Behind Neck Press
Preparation Grasp barbell with overhand grip from rack or clean from floor. Position bar behind neck. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Press bar until arms is extended overhead. Return behind neck and repeat.

Front Raise
Preparation Grasp barbell with overhand grip. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Raise barbell with elbows fixed in a 10° to 30° angle throughout until upper arm is parallel to the floor. Lower and repeat.

Military Press
Preparation Grasp barbell from rack or clean barbell from floor with overhand grip, slightly wider than shoulder width. Position bar in front of neck. Can also be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Press bar until arms is extended overhead. Lower to front of neck and repeat.

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Upright Row
Preparation Grasp bar with shoulder width or slightly narrower overhand grip. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Pull bar to neck with elbows leading. Allow wrists to flex as bar rises. Lower and repeat.

Lateral Raise
Preparation Grasp stirrup cable attachment. Stand facing with side of resting arm toward low pulley. Grasp ballet bar if available. Can be done using dumbbells, seated, or standing. Execution With elbow slightly bent, raise arm to side away from low Pulley until elbow is shoulder height. Lower and repeat.

Lying Rear Lateral Raise
Preparation Lie chest down on elevated bench. Grasp dumbbells or cable attachment below to each side. Execution Raise upper arms to sides until shoulder height. Maintain upper arms perpendicular to torso and a fixed elbow position (10° to 30° angle) throughout exercise. Maintain height of elbows above wrists by raising "pinkie" side up. Lower and repeat. Comments Bench should be high enough to prevent dumbbells from hitting floor.

Arms
Triceps Triceps Dip
Preparation Mount a shoulder width dip bar. Step down onto assistance lever if needed. Execution Push body up with elbows close to body and hips straight. Lower body until shoulders is slightly stretched. Repeat.

Close Grip Bench Press
Preparation Lie on bench and grasp barbell from rack with a close grip. Execution Lower weight to chest with elbows close to body. Return and repeat. Variation Can be done with cables or using dumbbells.

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Lying Triceps Extension
Preparation Lie on bench with a narrow overhand grip on the barbell. Position barbell over the forehead with arms extended. Execution Lower the bar by bending the elbow. As the bar nears the head move the elbows slightly back just enough to allow the bar to clear around the curvature of the head. Extend the arm. As the bar clears the head reposition the elbows to its former position until the arm is fully extended. Repeat. Comments With the arms fully extended, the bar can be brought back over the upper chest and the shoulders can be internally rotated between repetitions as needed to allow for a relative release of tension in the muscles. Variation Can be done with cable or using dumbbell.

Triceps Extension
Preparation Position barbell overhead with a narrow overhand grip. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Lower forearm behind upper arm with elbows remaining overhead. Extend forearm overhead. Lower and repeat. Comments Let the barbell pull the arm back to maintain full shoulder flexion.

Pushdown
Preparation Grasp cable attachment with overhand grip. Position elbow to side. Execution Extend arm down. Return until forearm is close to upper arm. Repeat. Comments The elbow can travel up a few inches at the top of the motion. Step close to cable to provide resistance at the top of the motion.

Kickback
Preparation Kneel over bench with arm supporting body. Grasp dumbbell. Position upper arm parallel to floor. Can also be done using cables. Execution Extend arm until it is straight. Return and repeat. Continue with opposite arm. Comments For greater range of motion, upper arm can be positioned with elbow slightly higher than shoulder.

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Bench Dip
Preparation Place weight on lap. Place hands on the edge of a bench, feet on adjacent bench. Execution Lower body until full stretch or rear end touches floor. Raise body and repeat.

Biceps
Curl
Preparation Grasp bar with a shoulder width under handgrip. Can be done on machine, with cables, or using dumbbells. Execution With the elbows to the side, raise the bar until forearms are vertical. Lower until the arms are fully extended. Repeat. Comments When the elbow is fully flexed, the elbow should only travel forward a few inches allowing the forearm to be no more than perpendicular to the floor to allow for a relative release of tension in the muscles between repetitions.

Incline Curl
Preparation Sit back on a 45-60 degree incline bench. With arms hanging down straight, position two dumbbells with palms facing in. Execution With elbows back to the sides, raise one dumbbell and rotate forearm until forearm is vertical to the floor and the palm faces the shoulder. Lower to original position and repeat with alternative arm. Comments The biceps may be exercised alternating (as described), simultaneous, or in a simultaneous-alternating fashion. When the elbow is fully flexed, the elbow should only travel forward a few inches allowing the forearm to be no more than perpendicular to the floor to allow for a relative release of tension in the muscles between repetitions.

Preacher Curl
Preparation Sit on preacher bench placing back of arms on pad. The seat should be adjusted to allow the armpit to rest near the top of the pad. Grasp curl bar with shoulder width underhand grip. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Raise the bar until forearms are perpendicular to floor with the back of the upper arm remaining on the pad. Lower the barbell until arm is fully extended. Repeat.

Concentration Curl
Preparation Sit on bench. Grasp dumbbell between feet. Place back of upper arm to inner thigh. Lean into leg to raise elbow slightly.

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Execution Raise dumbbell to front of shoulder. Lower dumbbell until arm is fully extended. Repeat.

Forearms
Reverse Curl
Preparation Grasp bar with a shoulder width over handgrip. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution With the elbows to the side, raise the bar until forearms are vertical. Lower until the arms are fully extended. Repeat. Comments When the elbow is fully flexed, the elbow should only travel forward a few inches allowing the forearm to be no more than perpendicular to the floor to allow for a relative release of tension in the muscles between repetitions.

Reverse Preacher Curl
Preparation Sit on preacher bench placing back of arms on pad. The seat should be adjusted to allow the armpit to rest near the top of the pad. Grasp curl bar with shoulder width overhand grip. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Raise the bar until forearms are perpendicular to floor with the back of the upper arm remaining on the pad. Lower the barbell until arm is fully extended. Repeat.

Hammer Curl
Preparation Position two dumbbells to sides, palm facing in, and arms straight. Execution With elbows to the sides, raise one dumbbell until forearm is vertical to the floor and the thumb faces the shoulder. Lower to original position and repeat with alternative arm. Comments The biceps may be exercised alternating (as described), simultaneous, or in a simultaneous-alternating fashion. When the elbow is fully flexed, the elbow should only travel forward a few inches allowing the forearm to be no more than perpendicular to the floor to allow for a relative release of tension in the muscles between repetitions.

Wrist Curl
Preparation Sit and grasp bar with narrow to shoulder width underhand grip. Rest forearms on thighs with wrists just beyond knees. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Allow the barbell to roll out of the palms down to the fingers. Grip barbell back up and flex wrists. Lower and repeat.

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Reverse Wrist Curl
Preparation Sit and grasp bar with narrow to shoulder width overhand grip. Rest forearms on thighs with wrists just beyond knees. Can be done on machine or using dumbbells. Execution Hyperextend wrist and return until wrist are fully flexed. Repeat.

Abdominal
Inline Sit-Up
Preparation Sit on apparatus with lower leg secured under padded bar. Hold weight to front of chest or behind neck or use no weight. Execution Lower body back until hips is almost extended. Raise body by flexing hips until torso is upright. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Raise incline to increase resistance.

Hanging Leg Raise
Preparation Place weight between ankles or use no weight. Grasp and hang from high bar. Execution Raise legs by flexing hips and knees until thighs are just pass parallel to floor. Return until hips and knees are extended. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Knees may be kept extended throughout leg raise to increase intensity.

Incline Leg Raise
Preparation Sit on incline board. Place weight between ankles or use no weight. Lie supine on incline board with torso elevated. Grasp feet hooks or sides of board for support. Execution Raise legs by flexing hips and knees until thighs are just past perpendicular to torso. Return until hips and knees are extended. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Elevate incline to increase resistance. Knees may be kept extended throughout leg raise to increase intensity.

Leg Raise
Preparation Sit on end of bench. Place weight between ankles, hook feet to cable attachment, or use no weight. Lie supine on bench with torso elevated. Grasp bench for support. Execution

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Raise legs by flexing hips and knees until thighs are just past perpendicular to torso. Return until hips and knees are extended. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Knees may be kept extended throughout leg raise to increase intensity.

Roman Chair Sit-Up
Preparation Sit on apparatus with lower leg secured under padded bar. Hold weight to front of chest or behind neck or use no weight. Execution Lower body back until hips is almost extended. Raise body by flexing hips until torso is upright. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Rectus Abdominis and Obliques only contract dynamically if actual waist flexion occurs. With no waist flexion, Rectus Abdominis and External Oblique will only act to stabilize the pelvis and waist during hip flexion.

Vertical Leg Raise
Preparation Place weight between ankles or use no weight. Position body on padded parallel bars with hands on handles, back on vertical pad, and body weight supported on forearms. Execution Raise legs by flexing hips and knees until thighs are just pass parallel to floor. Return until hips and knees are extended. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Knees may be kept extended throughout leg raise to increase intensity.

Kneeling Crunch
Preparation Kneel below a high pulley. Grasp cable rope attachment and place wrists against the head. Flex hips slightly and allow the weight to hyperextend the lower back. Execution With the hips stationary, flex the waist so the elbows travel toward the middle of the thighs. Return and repeat. Variation Can be done on machine.

Seated Crunch
Preparation Seat with back support away from a medium high Pulley. Grasp cable rope attachment with both hands and place securely over the both shoulders. Allow the weight to hyperextend the lower back slightly. Execution

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With the hips stationary, flex the waist so the elbows travel toward the hips. Return and repeat. Variation Can be done on machine.

Incline Crunch
Preparation Hook feet under padding and lie supine on incline bench with hips bent. Hold plate behind neck or on chest with both hands or use no weight. Execution Flex waist to raise upper torso from bench. Return until the back of the shoulders contacts the padded incline board. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Elevate incline to increase resistance. Hip and knee flexors may be involved as stabilizers if incline is steep and no calf support is used.

Incline Hip Raise
Preparation Sit on incline board. Place weight between ankles or use no weight. Lie supine on incline board with torso elevated. Grasp feet hooks or sides of board by head for support. Execution Raise legs by flexing hips while flexing knees until hips are fully flexed. Continue to raise knees toward shoulders by flexing waist, raising hips from board. Return until waist, hips and knees are extended. Repeat. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Elevate incline to increase resistance. When raising hips, keep knees fully flexed as not to throw weight of lower legs over head.

Incline Twisting Crunch
Preparation Hook feet under padding and lie supine on incline bench with hips bent. Hold plate behind neck or on chest with both hands or use no weight. Execution Flex and twist waist to raise upper torso from bench to one side. Return until the back of the shoulders contacts the padded incline board. Repeat to the opposite side alternating twists. Comments Exercise can be performed without added weight until more resistance is needed. Elevate incline to increase resistance. Hip and knee flexors may be involved as stabilizers if incline is steep and no calf support is used.

Incline Twisting Sit-Up
Preparation Hook feet under padding and lie supine on incline bench with hips bent. Hold plate behind neck or on chest with both hands.

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Execution Flex and twist the waist to one direction while raising the torso from bench by bending hips. Return until the back of the shoulders contacts the padded incline board. Repeat to the opposite side alternating twists. Comments Pectineus, Adductor Longus, and Brevis do not assist in hip flexion since hips are already initially bent. Knee flexors may be involved as stabilizers if incline is steep and no calf support is used. Twisting Crunch Preparation Lie supine on bench with head hanging off and knees and hips bent. Hold plate behind neck or on chest with both hands. Execution Flex and twist waist to raise upper torso from bench to one side. Return until the back of the shoulders contacts the padded board. Repeat to the opposite side alternating twists.

Side Bend
Preparation With side to low Pulley, grasp dumbbell cable with near arm. Stand with arm straight. Execution Bend waist to opposite side of cable. Lower and repeat. Turn around and continue with opposite side. Can also be done with dumbbell.

Crunch Circuit
Preparation Lie flat on your back with your legs straight and raised so that the bottom of your feet are pointed towards the sky. Execution Crunch for set number of repetitions then without resting. Bend knees so that legs are at 90°, continue to crunch for set number of repetitions, then without resting lower bent legs to the left 45° from the floor, continue to crunch for set number of repetitions, then without resting lower legs to the right 45° from the floor, continue to crunch for set number of repetitions, then without resting repeat first two steps.

Cycling Twist
Preparation Lie flat on the ground with your legs fully extended to the front 6 inches off the ground and your upper body raised at a 30-degree angle off the ground. Your hands are joined together at the waist. Execution On alternating movements you will turn your body to one side while bringing the opposite side knee toward your chest. Without allowing your feet to touch the ground, twist your body alternating to the other side. Your legs will alternate with your body twist in a similar movement to cycling. Your hands remain joined the entire time.

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Flutter Kicks
Preparation Lie on your back and place your hands under your buttocks for support. Lift your head, just enough to see your feet and then lift both legs 6 inches off the ground. Execution Lift one leg at least 25 degrees then alternate your legs at a quick tempo.

Flexibility Exercises
Neck Rotation. Stand with the back straight and feet shoulder width apart. Place the hands
on hips. Roll the head slowly to the left, making a complete circle with the path of the head. Reverse direction. See figure

Arm and Shoulder Rotation. Stand with the back straight and feet shoulder width apart.
Extend the arms outward to shoulder height. Rotate the shoulders forward, making a large circular motion with the arms. Reverse direction.

Hip Rotation. Stand with the back straight and feet shoulder width apart. Place the hands on
hips. Rotate the hips clockwise while keeping the back straight. Reverse direction.

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Knee and Ankle Rotation. Stand with the feet together, and bend at the waist with the
knees slightly bent. Place the hands above the knees, and rotate the legs in a clockwise direction. Reverse direction.

Neck and Shoulder Stretch. Stand with the feet shoulder width apart and the arms behind
the body. Grasp the left wrist with the right hand. Pull the left arm down and to the right. Tilt the head to the right. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Repeat the action with the right wrist, pulling the right arm down and to the left. Tilt the head to the left.

Abdominal Stretch. Stand and extend the arms upward and over the head. Interlace the
fingers with palms turned upward. Stretch the arms up and slightly back. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds.

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Chest Stretch. Stand and interlace the fingers behind the back. Lift the arms behind so that
they move outward and away from the body. Lean forward from the waist. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Bend the knees before moving to the upright position. Return to the starting position.

Upper-Back Stretch. Stand with the arms extended to the front at shoulder height with the
fingers interlaced and palms facing outward. Extend the arms and shoulders forward. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Return to the starting position.

Overhead Arm Pull. Stand with the feet shoulder width apart. Raise the right arm, bending
the right elbow and touching the right elbow and touching the right hand to the back of the neck. Grab the right elbow with the left hand, and pull to the left. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Return to the starting position. Do the same stretch, and pull the left elbow with the right hand for 10 to 15 seconds.

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Thigh Stretch. Stand or lie on the stomach. Bend the left leg up toward the buttocks. Grasp
the toes of the left foot with the right hand, and the heel to the left buttock. Extend the left arm to the side for balance. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Return to the starting position. Switch sides.

Hamstring Stretch (Standing). Stand with the knees slightly bent. Bend forward keeping
the head up, and reach toward the toes. Straighten the legs, and hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds.

Hamstring Stretch (Seated). Sit on the ground with both legs straight and extended
forward with the feet upright about six inches apart. Put the hands on the ankles or toes. Bend from the hips, keeping the back and head in a comfortable, straight line. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds.

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Groin Stretch (Standing). Lunge over to the left while keeping the right leg straight, the
right foot facing straight ahead and entirely on the floor. Lean over the left leg while stretching the right groin muscles. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Repeat with the opposite leg.

Groin Stretch (Seated). Sit on the ground with the soles together. Place the hands on or
near he feet. Bend forward from the hips, keeping the head up. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds.

Calf Stretch. Stand straight with the feet together, arms extended downward, elbows locked,
palms facing backward, fingers extended and joined, and head and eyes facing front. Move the right foot to the rear about two feet, and place the ball of the foot on the ground. Slowly press the right heel to the ground. Slowly bend the left knee while pushing the hips forward and arching the back slightly. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Return to the starting position. Repeat with the left foot.

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Hip and BackStretch (Seated). Sit on the ground with the right leg forward and straight.
Cross the left leg over the right while sitting erect. Keep the heels of both feet in contact with the ground. Slowly rotate the upper body to the left and look over the left shoulder. Reach across the left leg with the right arm, and push the left leg to your right. Use the left hand for support by placing it on the ground. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Repeat this stretch for the other side by crossing and turning in the opposite direction.

Hip and BackStretch (Lying Down). Lie on the back with the arms straight beside the
body. Keep the legs straight and the knees and feet together. Bring the left leg straight back toward the head, leaving the right leg in the starting position. Bring the head and arms up. Grab the bent left leg below the knee, and pull it gradually to the chest. Hold this position for 10 to 15 seconds. Gradually return to the starting position. Repeat these motions with the opposite leg. Variation - Pull both knees to the chest. Pull the head up to the knees. Hold for 10 to 15 seconds. Return to the starting position.

Agility Exercises
All Fours Run
Place your hands in front of you and run using your hands and feet.

Broad Jump
Jump forward on both feet in a series of broad jumps. Swing the arms vigorously to help with the jumps.

Crab Walk
Place your hands and feet on the ground, hands behind you and stomach facing the sky. Walk on hands and feet from this position.

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Hour Glass Drill
Mark out a box 10 meters x 10 meters. Start at the front left corner of the box. Run across the front (shoulders square to the front) to the front right corner. Back pedal to the center spot, then out to the back right corner. Run across the back to the back left corner. Run forward to the center spot, then out to the left corner.

Three Line Shuffle Drill
Mark three parallel lines on the floor, 4 feet apart. Straddle the centerline. Begin by shuffling to the far left line, then to the far right, then left, etc. for the allotted time, crossing each line with the foot.

Bench Jumps
From a standing position, bend your knees slightly and jump to the side (laterally), pushing off with both feet and landing up on a low bench/step. (Beginners may start out without the bench and simply land on the floor.) Come to a full stop, then jump off the other side of the bench and repeat.

Ski Hops
Mark out lines approximately 3 feet apart and 10 meters in length. Start on one side of the paired lines and jump across to the outside of the other line, progressing down the 10 meters. At the end of the 10 meter, immediately jump across the two lines working backward to the original starting point. Forward; Back.

Star Drill
Mark out eight points 3 to 5 steps from a center mark, creating a star pattern. Begin drill standing at the center point. Now run out to the first point of the star then back to the center point. Continue to run to each point in the star coming back to the center each time.

CARDIORESPIRATORY TRAINING
Cardiorespiratory Training includes activities ranging from bicycling to cross country skiing to running. This handbook will focus on running because it is the most common type of cardiorespiratory training one will experience in the U.S. Army. There are numerous techniques to running. Varieties of running you will encounter in the U.S. Army include ability group runs, interval training, fartlek training, cross-country running, last-man-up running as well running that takes place as part of a circuit event (e.g. obstacle course, guerrilla drills or grass drills). This program will focus on heart rate training because your heart rate during exercise provides a good metric to ensure the proper intensity level during the period of exercise. The type of running you choose is not as important as the time and energy you put into a structured cardiorespiratory plan. Interval training techniques provide a critical foundational to assist in all the varieties of cardiorespiratory training. Interval training programs challenge beginner and advanced runners and provide variety to both. By understanding the principals of interval training, a runner can modify these techniques into many different training sessions. Building from basic interval training will prepare you for success in the 2-mile portion of the U.S. Army

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Fitness Test. Furthermore this program will enhance your abilities as a future leader by increasing your knowledge or arsenal of cardiorespiratory training techniques. The key in this program is to target training at specified heart rates per minute. There are a couple of formulas that can be used to determine your training heart rate. The most common and easiest to remember is Maximum Heart Rate per minute = 220 - (Your Age). However, a better formula based on scientific research is actually 208-(.7 x Your Age). For example a 20year-old student using these two formulas would find his maximum heart rate by: 1. Maximum Heart Rate = 220 - Your Age e.g. 220-20 =200 OR 2. Maximum Heart Rate = 208-(.7 x Your Age), e.g. 208-(.7 x 20) = 194 The next measurement needed is your Resting Heart Rate. This is your heart rate during a period of minimal physical activity such as watching television, reading a book, or eating during a meal. Now armed with your maximum heart rate and resting heart rate you can determine your heart rate reserve. Maximum HR - Resting HR = HR Reserve (HRR) Having determined your heart rate reserve you can now plan on targeting a training heart rate. For a person beginning a workout program after a lengthy period of inactivity target training at 50% of your heart rate reserve. Physically active people can target heart rates of between 70-85% of the heart rate reserve. As a cadet the necessary physical fitness level to succeed at summer training events (e.g., NALC, Airborne or Air Assault School) will not require you to train at target heart rates in excess of 85% of your heart rate reserve. In review, % Desired Intensity x Heart Rate Reserve + Resting HR = Training Heart Rate (THR) 1. 50% HRR ~ starting point for a physically inactive person 2. 70-85% HRR ~ starting point for physically active people For example a physically active 18-year-old freshman with a Resting Heart Rate of 80 who wants to target at 70% of HRR would target his training at 165 beats per minute. Max HR = 220-18 = 202; HR Reserve = 202-80 = 122 HRR = 70% x 122 + 80 = 165.4

IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS
Many “techniques” are available to assist you with your training. Numerous books have been written and successful athletes often author a book, training guides or article on how they achieved their success. You can utilize these philosophy techniques to assist with training of any modality. Further, most successful training programs center on some form of interval training and a structured plan that provides balance between intensity and motivational drive. Variety in training will do much to improve your performance. This is the benefit of having a complete arsenal of CR Training Techniques. It is very important to stay fresh both physically and mentally so that the often-elusive optimal performance component can be attained.

ABILITY GROUPS (FM 21-20): Ability group running places runners of approximately equal ability into running groups. Generally this type of running targets a period of time as opposed to distance. This enables faster runners to travel farther distances. The twomile run time provides an excellent tool to break down a group of cadets into ability groups.

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CROSS COUNTRY (FM 21-20): Consists of running a certain distance or time through a course laid out across fields, hills, woods or other irregular terrain. The initial distances for a cross-country run should be short (1-2 miles). Land Navigation can also be incorporated into an orienteering event. GRASS DRILLS (FM 21-20): Grass drills are exercise movements that feature rapid changes in body position. These are vigorous drills which when done properly exercise all the major muscle groups. Cadets should respond to commands as fast as possible and do all movements at top speed. The key is to repeat each exercise until the next one is given. Each exercise period lasts 30 to 45 seconds. It is important to warm-up before conducting this type of exercise and to properly cool-down afterwards. The instructor should do each exercise to gauge intensity of the session. Examples of exercises which can be used in grass drills include ski jumper, sit-ups, push-ups, mule kick, flutter kick, the supine bicycle, the high jumper, the sidestraddle hop, stationary run, roll left or right, roll forward or backward, and the swimmer. GUERILLA EXERCISES (FM 21-20): These exercise improve agility, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance and to some degree muscular strength. Following stretching/warm up the exercise begins by jogging in a large circle. For large groups (in excess of 30 people), concentric circles may be used. The instructor from the center of the circle calls out exercises which last between 20-40 seconds depending upon the fitness level of cadets. Examples of exercises include the all four run, bottoms-up walk, crab walk, the engine, double time, broad jump, straddle run, hobble hopping, two-man carry, fireman's carry, single shoulder carry, cross carry and saddle back carry. FM 21-20 provides descriptions and pictures of these exercises. FARTLEK: In a fartlek event the cadet will vary the intensity of running (speed) during the workout. This type of run begins with a slow jog and after a warm up period transitions into a hard run for either a period of time or distance. Following this high intensity period there is a slow jog again (recovery). The run lasts for a specified time 20~30 minutes. The advantage of this type of running is that it provides all the strengths of the interval-training program but does not require a track. INTERVALS: “The last bond to discipline.” Intervals are not easy, but they are probably the
single most important activity to improve CR performance. Almost all successful athletes use some form of interval training. Intervals in the most basic sense are structured repeated work bouts linked with structured, repeated rest. The rest interval can be active (slow aerobic activity) or passive (standing). The work/rest ratio can vary widely (>5:1 to <1:2) depending on training condition and interval distance. For shorter distances (200 meters or less) some rest intervals are 1:3 or 1:4. This means a 400m interval run in 65 seconds would be followed by a 130-second rest interval if the work to rest ratio were 1:2. Some would argue better technique of determining the critical rest interval involves monitoring your heart rate. Some coaches recommend recovery to 120 bpm before a person is ready for the next work bout. Successful “CR” athletes need to have a high Lactate Threshold (LT) and be able to perform at or above the LT. Interval training is the specificity needed to train around LT. Further, interval training makes our bodies adapt so that we can perform harder and longer before reaching LT and minimizes the physiological effects of lactic acid. For aerobic performance improvement, 400, 800 and mile repeats pay top dividends. These also are excellent choices for 2-mile run improvement.

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How fast should intervals be? The answer varies with each runner, but generally it should be as fast as you can maintain a consistent pace. Generally, men should try and run 400 meters around 70–90 seconds depending on your abilities and current fitness level. Women should strive for 80–100 seconds for each 400 meters. A nice starting point to implement intervals into your training regimen would be to go out and run four, 400-meter intervals. The goal should be to keep the range of each interval no greater than 2 seconds (i.e. 80, 81, 82, 81). This may seem like a tight range, but this is the best way to improve your running pace and provide an accurate reflection of your current fitness level. Some people advocate taking your best 2 MR run time and finding your pace for 400 meters. Thus a 12:00 or 14:00 minute 2MR time breaks down to 6:00 or 7:00 for one mile, thus 3:00 and 3:30 for ½ mile and then 90 seconds and 105 seconds for each ¼ mile. Subtract 5–10 seconds and this should be your goal pace for each 400-meter. For some, this method provides them with a pace that is too slow. In addition one needs to remember the rest interval. In the above example, a work interval of 90 seconds would have a rest interval of 90–180 seconds. Obviously one can see this is a large range. Therefore, the heart rate monitoring of under 120 may be a better guide. Regardless, run intervals and monitor your parameters to find the correct pace. The illustration below represents some real data from a faculty member at the United States Military Academy. The faculty member was going by “feel” for recovery and did not pay attention to the time or heart rate. When ready to run the next interval, the heart rate was recorded and the work bout begun. Pay attention to the consistency of the work out. The faculty members reported they probably could not have kept the pace for a 5th interval on that day.

Real Data
800 Work 800 Heart Rest End of Rest Interval Rate (HR) Interval Interval HR Response 2:43 159 1:47 102 2:44 164 2:07 97 2:45 164 2:04 106 2:44 165 1:00 136 1:30 116 2:00 104 2:30 104 3:30 104 4:15 96 *Note: The faculty member’s time on a recent 2MR was 12:00. Thus utilizing the formula, 12:00 minutes for the 2MR, 6:00 minutes per mile, then 3:00 minutes per ½ mile. Subtract 5 – 10 seconds = 2:50 – 2:55 per ½ mile interval. THE CRITICAL PIECE IS TO CHECK YOUR PACE AND TRAIN AT THE PACE YOU CAN MAINTAIN.

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Below is a structured interval program to guide your training. Repeat the workout once a week for 4 weeks. As your fitness improves, your 400-meter times will decrease, but more importantly, your recovery times will decrease. DATE__________ Warm-up: Jog 5-10 minutes. Perform some stretching and ballistic work (~100m strides), as you will be running at near top speed. Record your heart rate and the interval time at the end of each 400. Recover (jog or walk) until heart rate is below 120 (~1-3 minutes), record time of recovery. 400________Recovery_______ 400________Recovery________ 400________Recovery________ 400________Recovery________ Cool-down: Jog 800-1600 meters and conduct some light stretching. A nice progression of interval training that includes an increase in distance and overall volume is found on the following page. Make sure that you at least follow the concepts and don’t try to do “too much, too soon”. Depending on your fitness level, you can stay at each stage for as long as you like. True progression would have you eventually making it to stage 4. If you elect to stay at Stage 1, you need to decrease both your run time and your rest interval as you progress.

Interval Workouts
Week 1–3 (Stage 1) Total = 3 1/2 Miles Interval = 1 1/2 Miles Warm up and Recovery = 2 Miles Procedure: Warm up 1/2 Mile Run ¼ Recover 1/4 Run ¼ Recover 1/4 Run ½ Recover 1/4 Run ¼ Recover 1/4 Run ¼ Recover 1/4 Week 2–6 (Stage 2) Total = 4 Miles Interval = 1 3/4 Miles Warm up and Recovery = 2 1/4 Miles Week 3–9 (Stage 3) Total = 4 1/2 Miles Interval = 2 Miles Warm up and Recovery = 2 1/2 Miles Week 4–12 (Stage 4) Total = 4 3/4 Miles Interval = 2 1/4 Miles Warm up and Recovery = 2 1/2 Miles

Warm up 1/2 Mile Run ¼ Recover ¼ Run ¼ Recover ¼ Run ½ Recover ¼ Run ¼ Recover ¼ Run ¼ Recover ¼ Run ¼ Recover ½

Total

Total

Warm up 1/2 Mile Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/2 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/2 Total

Warm up 1/2 Mile Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/2 Recover 1/4 Run 1/2 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/4 Run 1/4 Recover 1/2 Total

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4 – 1/4  s 1–½

5 – ¼’s 1–½

6 – 1/4’s 1–½

5 – 1/4’s 2 – 1/2

The intensity of your intervals can be increased or decreased by increasing or decreasing the interval time or increasing or decreasing the rest interval. WANT TO NEGATIVE SPLIT?: A good test of your overall fitness is to go perform some intense CR, aerobic event; take splits at the ½ point and the end point and see if you have produced a “negative split.” What is negative splitting? It is a condition in which you perform the 2nd half of the event in less time than you did the first part of the event. Perform your best and see if you can run the 2nd half faster.

Real Data
1. When Cadet Dan Browne, recent USMA graduate set the school record in the mile run he produced a negative split. He ran each of his 1/4  in: s
1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 60.6 59.9 58.2 60.6

Check this out again – it is not a misprint. That is amazing; he ran a “slow” 2:00.5 the first ½ mile and then came back with a smoking 1:58.8 2nd half mile. Dan had the record at 3:59.3 because he ran faster the second half mile than he did the first.

Real Data
“Ode to the High School 4:00 Minute Mile” 2. In 2001, Alan Webb as a senior in high school became only the fourth high school athlete to run under 4:00 minutes. The five fastest high school miles are: Webb broke Jim Ryun’s 36-year-old High School record by nearly 2 seconds. When one considers the evolution of nutrition, track surfaces, shoe weight and design, training techniques, etc., the fact that Ryun’s record (and the 3 others) was done over 33–35 years ago is truly remarkable. Couple that with the knowledge each year of how many high school athletes runs the mile, the “Sub 4:00” for a high school athlete is certainly an elite accomplishment. What are the reasons behind this long-standing record? As we examine the 4:00 minute mile, let’s see if any real data can help us understand physiology, or can physiology help us to design a successful training program to accomplish the 4:00 minute mile.
Time 3:53.9 3:55.3 3:59.4 3:59.8 4:01.5 4:02.01 Year 2001 1963 1966 1967 1964 1997 Runner State Alan Webb Virginia Jim Ryun Kansas Tim Danielson California Marty Liquori New Jersey Gerry Lindgren Washington Sharif Karie Virginia

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Compare both Alan’s 2001 record and one of Alan’s earlier attempts at the 4:00 minute mile with Dan Browne’s split times when he was successful at an “Indoor sub-4:00 minute mile (indoors…. a superb accomplishment).
Alan’s 2001 Record Alan’s 2000 Splits Dan’s Splits

1/4: 1/4: 800 1/4: 1/4: 800 Time

58.1 59.7 1:57. 8 60.33 55.3 1:55.63 3:53.43

60.5 61.3 2:01.8 62.6 58.9 2:01.5 4:03.3

60.6 59.9 2:00.5 58.2 60.6 1:58.8 3:59.3

Both athletes were able to negative split. Notice the improvement of splits from Alan’s earlier attempt to his record performance. Well done gentlemen. Alan’s impressive bio (courtesy USA Track and Field) is found below, as we speak, track history is in the making. ALAN WEBB Events: 800,1500,mile Height: 5-9 Weight: 140 Personal Records: mile-3:53.43(2001); 1500m-3:38.26(2001); 800m-1:47.74(2001) Born: January13, 1983 Current Residence: Reston, Va. High School: South Lakes HS, Reston, Va. '01 College: Michigan '05 Coach: Scott Raczko Career Highlights: National high school record holder for indoor mile (3:59.86) and outdoor mile (3:53.43); holds national HS mile record for sophomores (4:06.94). At the Prefontaine Classic May 27 in Eugene Ore., a well-paced race and a final lap of 55.3 seconds enabled Webb to run a 3:53.43 in the Bowerman Mile, breaking the national HS record of 3:55.3 that was set by Jim Ryun 36 years ago. Webb's splits at 400m and 800m were 58.1 and 1:57.8 respectively…"It was the most exhilarating experience of my life," said Webb… Webb's performance was the fastest mile time by an American on U.S. soil since 1998. 2001: Set prep national record for indoor mile (3:59.86), outdoor mile (3:53.43), and outdoor 1,500m (3:38.26 en route to his 3:43.43) ... won VA state 800m title in record time of 1:47.74, making him the fourth-fastest prep in history … added a 47.4 leg on South Lakes' 4x400m relay team at the state meet … ran the fastest 800m split by a high schooler in the history of the Penn Relays (1:49.1)… bests of 3:53.43 and 1:47.74. 2000: Posted split time of 3:59.9 for 1600m at Penn Relays…Best of 4:03.33 in mile…Second at FootLocker XC Championships. 1999: Set prep national record for mile as a sophomore (4:06.94) … 8th at FootLocker XC Championships. For your training, see if you can train and work to perform your own negative split. Date___________ Performance Event______________(ie.2 MR)

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First half of the performance ______________; HR____________ 2nd half of the performance _______________; HR____________ Date___________ Performance Event______________(ie.2 MR) First half of the performance ______________; HR____________ 2nd half of the performance _______________; HR____________ Date___________ Performance Event______________(ie.2 MR) First half of the performance ______________; HR____________ 2nd half of the performance _______________; HR____________ 3. BENITEZ MILE: CPT Tony Benitez, USMA class of 1991 ran the mile in 4:02. During CPT Benitez’s USMA career he did something that was unique and really a true eyeopener of your cardiovascular ability. Here’s the deal. Go out and warm-up. Light jog of ½ mile or so and then stretching with some ballistic work. Think consistency and think, I can do this! Line up on the track and run one 400 meter at a good pace, (have full knowledge of what is coming), finish the 400, jog around the start line for 15 seconds, line up and at 15 seconds from your 400 finish, start off running an 800 (make sure you get the 400 split as you whiz by), at the end of the 800, you got it, jog around the start line for 15 seconds and then after 15 seconds, toe on the line and go and finish the last 400 meters. Your goal should be for consistency. Record your times and heart rate responses. See if you can improve on the Benitez Mile as your training progresses. This is an excellent challenge on your psychological mind set also. Realize this component of training will be classified as a “hard training bout.” Conduct the Benitez Mile every so often. This technique is a great guide to see if your CR training program is really working. Faster times and lower heart rate responses should be your goal. Date_____________Benitez Mile: 400______HR______400/800______HR______400______HR______ Date_____________Benitez Mile: 400______HR______400/800______HR______400______HR______ Date_____________Benitez Mile: 400______HR______400/800______HR______400______HR______ Date_____________Benitez Mile: 400______HR______400/800______HR______400______HR______ Date_____________Benitez Mile: 400______HR______400/800______HR______400______HR______

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Real Data
400 HR 15 SEC REST HR 800 HR 15 SEC REST HR 400 HR

1:25 147 147

2:47 160 155

1:22 158

This equates to a 5:34 mile pace. Generally, this person can run ½ mile intervals at a 2:45 pace which would also equate to around a 5:30 mile pace. 2MR run time for this person has a range from 11:00–12:30 depending on training state. Thus the Benitez Mile augments 2MR run training nicely. 4. CPT Benitez’s 30/20: After you have perfected the Benitez Mile and need a break, attempt the 30/20. Find some place you want to run (golf course, trail, road, etc.). Begin and run “out” 30 minutes focusing on nice warm-up, good form and getting the “kinks” out. Then after 30 minutes, turn around and attempt to “run back” the distance covered in 30 minutes but do this in 20 minutes. This segment you are focusing on a speed workout. 5. 5K Prediction Time: Ever want to know what your 5K time would be without running a 5K? This technique was recently published in the International Journal of Sports Medicine. While to some, this may be just as painful as running an all-out 5K, it does provide some rest time similar to the Benitez Mile. Go out and run three 1600-meter runs with one minute rest in between each 1600. Run the intervals at the highest possible speed you can attain for the duration of the workout. In other words, run at a speed you can maintain throughout the workout. After the workout, calculate the average pace per 1600 meters and multiply by 3.125. The result should be within 15 seconds of your next 5K Race Time. For example, the average pace for 1600 meters was 340 seconds or 5:40.

Predicted 5K Race Time
340 × 3.125 = 1062.5 seconds = 17:42 + 15 seconds 6. HILL INTERVALS: Running hill intervals is more intense than running flat intervals. Running hill intervals activates more fast twitch fibers thereby producing more lactate. Lactate in the system will train you to process lactate. Training with lactate during your training days will enable you to deal with lactate on performance day. Warm-up: Jog 400 meters or so and loosen up, perform some stretching and ballistic work, as you will be running at near top speed. “Sprint” up the hill, record your time and heart rate, and recover by jogging back down. Repeat once you reach the start point and your heart rate is below 120. DATE__________ Hill Sprint #1: Time________ HR ________Recovery_______ Hill Sprint #2: Time________ HR ________Recovery_______ Hill Sprint #3: Time________ HR ________Recovery_______ Cool-down: Jog 800-1600 meters and conduct some light stretching.

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7 Long Walk or Long Run: Something that you should try. Go out and experience a 60–90 minute workout. Running or walking for an extended period of time will certainly tap into your glycogen stores. Tapping into your glycogen stores is a good thing to do every now and then. It makes one appreciate the storage of glycogen and appreciate the balance between energy output and substrate availability. DATE________6 Mile Run_______Time______HR DATE________7 Mile Run_______Time______HR DATE________8 Mile Run_______Time______HR DATE________9 Mile Run_______Time______HR DATE_______10 Mile Run_______Time______HR DATE_______10 Mile Run_______Time______HR

What About Your Pace?
It may appear that we are beating a dead horse, but pace is so critical to performance. The highest speed (ultimately your pace in m/sec) that one can maintain and still function physiologically is the goal. You are now armed with an understanding of how to improve your pace and have been shown a variety of ways to make your training program fun by utilizing speed play, longer distance runs, intervals, etc. The following chart, while not scientific, provides one with a nice snapshot of how pace (specifically mile pace) equates to final run time at various distances.

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Time / mile 4:45 5:00 5:15 5:30 5:45 6:00 6:15 6:30 6:45 7:00 7:15 7:30 7:45 8:00 8:15 8:30 8:45 9:00 9:15 9:30 9:45 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00

2 Miles 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 12:30 13:00 13:30 14:00 14:30 15:00 15:30 16:00 16:30 17:00 17:30 18:00 18:30 19:00 19:30 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 24:00

3 Miles 14:15 15:00 15:45 16:30 17:15 18:00 18:45 19:30 20:15 21:00 21:45 22:30 23:15 24:00 24:45 25:30 26:15 27:00 27:45 28:30 29:15 30:00 31:30 33:00 34:30 36:00

(3.10 Miles) 5K 14:45 15:32 16:19 17:05 17:52 18:38 19:25 20:12 20:58 21:45 22:31 23:18 24:05 24:51 25:38 26:24 27:11 27:58 28:44 29:31 30:18 31:04 32:37 34:11 35:44 37:17

3.5 Miles 16:38 17:30 18:22 19:15 20:08 21:00 21:53 22:45 23:37 24:30 25:22 26:15 27:08 28:00 28:53 29:45 30:37 31:30 32:23 33:15 34:07 35:00 36:45 38:30 40:15 42:00

5 Miles

6 Miles

(6.21 Miles) 10K 29:31 31:04 32:37 34:11 35:44 37:17 38:50 40:23 41:57 43:30 45:03 46:36 48:09 49:43 51:16 52:49 54:22 55:55 57:29 59:02 1:00:35 1:02:08 1:05:15 1:08:21 1:11:27 1:14:34

(9.32 Miles) 15K 44:16 46:36 48:56 51:16 53:36 55:55 58:15 1:00:35 1:02:55 1:05:15 1:07:34 1:09:54 1:12:14 1:14:34 1:16:54 1:19:13 1:21:33 1:23:53 1:26:13 1:28:33 1:30:53 1:33:12 1:37:52 1:42:32 1:47:11 1:51:51

Note Longer Distances Below

23:45 25:00 26:15 27:30 28:45 30:00 31:15 32:30 33:45 35:00 36:15 37:30 38:45 40:00 41:15 42:30 43:45 45:00 46:15 47:30 48:45 50:00 52:30 55:00 57:30 1:00:00

28:30 30:00 31:30 33:00 34:30 36:00 37:30 39:00 40:30 42:00 43:30 45:00 46:30 48:00 49:30 51:00 52:30 54:00 55:30 57:00 58:30 1:00:00 1:03:00 1:06:00 1:09:00 1:12:00

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Time/ Mile

10 Miles

(12.4Miles) 20K

(13.10 Miles) 1/2 Mara. 1:02:16 1:05:33 1:08:49 1:12:06 1:15:23 1:18:39 1:21:56 1:25:13 1:28:29 1:31:46 1:35:03 1:38:19 1:41:36 1:44:53 1:48:09 1:51:26 1:54:42 1:57:59 2:01:16 2:04:32 2:07:49 2:11:06 2:17:39 2:24:12 2:30:45 2:37:19

15 Miles

(15.53 Miles) 25K 1:13:47 1:17:40 1:21:33 1:25:26 1:29:19 1:33:12 1:37:05 1:40:58 1:44:51 1:48:44 1:52:37 1:56:30 2:00:23 204:16 2:08:09 2:12:02 2:15:55 2:19:49 2:23:42 2:27:35 2:31:28 2:35:21 2:43:07 2:50:53 2:58:39 3:06:25

(18.64 Miles) 30K 1:28:33 1:33:12 1:37:52 1:42:32 1:47:11 1:51:51 1:56:30 2:01:10 2:05:50 2:10:29 2:15:09 2:19:49 2:24:28 2:29:08 2:33:47 2:38:27 2:43:07 2:47:46 2:52:26 2:57:05 3:01:45 3:06:25 3:15:44 3:25:03 3:34:22 3:43:42

20 Miles

(26.21 Miles) Marathon

Note Shorter Distances Above

4:45 5:00 5:15 5:30 5:45 6:00 6:15 6:30 6:45 7:00 7:15 7:30 7:45 8:00 8:15 8:30 8:45 9:00 9:15 9:30 9:45 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00

47:30 50:00 52:30 55:00 57:30 1:00:00 1:02:30 1:05:00 1:07:30 1:10:00 1:12:30 1:15:00 1:17:30 1:20:00 1:22:30 1:25:00 1:27:30 1:30:00 1:32:30 1:35:00 1:37:30 1:40:00 1:45:00 1:50:00 1:55:00 2:00:00

59:02 1:02:08 1:05:15 1:08:21 1:11:27 1:14:34 1:17:40 1:20:47 1:23:53 1:27:00 1:30:06 1:33:12 1:36:19 1:39:25 1:42:32 1:45:38 1:48:44 1:51:51 1:54:57 1:58:04 2:01:10 2:04:16 2:10:29 2:16:42 2:22:55 2:29:08

1:11:15 1:15:00 1:18:45 1:22:30 1:26:15 1:30:00 1:33:45 1:37:30 1:41:15 1:45:00 1:48:45 1:52:30 1:56:15 2:00:00 2:03:45 2:07:30 2:11:15 2:15:00 2:18:45 2:22:30 2:26:15 2:30:00 2:37:30 2:45:00 2:52:30 3:00:00

1:35:00 1:40:00 1:45:00 1:50:00 1:55:00 2:00:00 2:05:00 2:10:00 2:15:00 2:20:00 2:25:00 2:30:00 2:35:00 2:40:00 2:45:00 2:50:00 2:55:00 3:00:00 3:05:00 3:10:00 3:15:00 3:20:00 3:30:00 3:40:00 3:50:00 4:00:00

2:04:32 2:11:06 2:17:39 2:24:12 2:30:45 2:37:19 2:43:52 2:50:25 2:56:59 3:03:32 3:10:05 3:16:38 3:23:12 3:29:45 3:36:18 3:42:52 3:49:25 3:55:58 4:02:31 4:09:05 4:15:38 4:22:11 4:35:18 4:48:24 5:01:31 5:14:37

ROAD MARCHES
Road Marches
The road or foot march is one of the best ways to improve and maintain fitness. Road marches are classified as either administrative or tactical, and they can be conducted in garrison or in the field. Cadets must be able to move quickly, carry a load (rucksack) of equipment, and be physically able to perform their missions after extended marching.

BENEFITS OF ROAD MARCHES
Road marches are an excellent aerobic activity. They also help develop endurance in the muscles of the lower body when individuals carry a heavy load. Road marches offer several benefits Road marches help when used as part of a fitness program. They are easy to organize, and large troops acclimatize to numbers of individuals can participate. In new environments, addition, when done in an intelligent, systematic, and progressive manner, they produce

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relatively few injuries. Many cadet-related skills can be integrated into road marches. They can also help troops acclimatize to new environments. They help train leaders to develop skills in planning, preparation, and supervision and let leaders make first-hand observations of the cadets’ physical stamina. Because road marches are excellent fitness training activities, commanders should make them a regular part of their unit’s PT program.

TYPES OF MARCHES
The four types of road marches - day, limited visibility, forced, and shuttle - are described below. For more information on marches, see FM 21-18.

Day Marches
Day marches, which fit easily into the daily training plan, are most conducive to developing physical fitness. They are characterized by dispersed formations and ease of control and reconnaissance. Any plan to conduct a road march to improve physical fitness should consider the following: •Load to be carried. •Discipline and supervision. •Distance to be marched. •Route reconnaissance. •Time allotted for movement. •Water stops. •Present level of fitness. •Rest stops. •Intensity of the march. •Provisions for injuries. •Terrain an weather conditions. •Safety precautions.

Limited Visibility Marches
Limited visibility marches require more detailed planning and supervision and are harder to control than day marches. Because they move more slowly and are in tighter formations, cadets may not exercise hard enough to obtain a conditioning effect. Limited visibility marches do have some advantages, however. They protect cadets from the heat of the day, challenge the ability of NCOS and officers to control their cadets, and provide secrecy and surprise in tactical situations.

Forced Marches
Cadets should receive advance notice before going on a march, to help morale and give them time to prepare. Forced marches require more than the normal effort in speed and exertion. Although they are excellent conditioners, they may leave cadets too fatigued to do other required training tasks.

Shuttle Marches
Shuttle marches alternate riding and marching, usually because there are not enough vehicles to carry the entire unit. These marches may be modified and used as fitness activities. A shuttle march can be planned to move cadets of various fitness levels from one point to

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another, with all cadets arriving at about the same time. Cadets who have high fitness levels can generally march for longer stretches than those who are less fit can.

PLANNING A ROAD MARCH
Cadets should usually receive advance notice before going on a march. This helps morale and gives them time to prepare. The leader should choose an experienced soldier as a pacesetter to lead the march. The pacesetter should carry the same load as the other individuals and should be of medium height to ensure normal strides. The normal stride for a foot march, according to FM 21-18, is 30 inches. This stride, and a cadence of 106 steps per minute, results in a speed of 4.8 kilometers per hour (kph). When a 10-minute rest is taken each hour, a net speed of 4 kph results. The pacesetter should keep in mind that ground slope and footing affect stride length. For example, the length decreases when individuals march up hills or down steep slopes. Normal stride and cadence are maintained easily on moderate, gently rolling terrain unless the footing is muddy, slippery, or rough. Personal hygiene is important in preventing unnecessary injuries. Before the march, cadets should cut their toenails short and square them off, wash and dry their feet, and lightly apply foot powder. They should wear clean, dry socks that fit well and have no holes. Each cadet should take one or more extra pair of socks depending on the length of the march. Individuals who have had problems with blisters should apply a thin coating of petroleum jelly over susceptible areas. Leaders should check cadets boots before the march to make sure that they fit well, are broken in and in good repair, with heels that are even and not worn down. During halts cadets should lie down and elevate their feet. If time permits, they should massage their feet, apply powder, and change socks. Stretching for a few minutes before resuming the march may relieve cramps and soreness and help prepare the muscles to continue exercising. To help prevent lower back strain, cadets should help each other reposition the rucksacks and other loads following rest stops. Cadets can relieve swollen feet by slightly loosening the laces across their arches. After marches, cadets should again care for their feet, wash and dry socks, and dry their boots.

PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE LOAD-CARRYING ABILITY
The four generalized programs described below can be used to improve the cadets loadcarrying ability. Each program is based on a different number of days per week available for a PT program. If only two days are available for PT, both should include exercises for improving CR fitness and muscular endurance and strength. Roughly equal emphasis should be given to each of these fitness components. If there are only three days available for PT, they should be evenly dispersed throughout the week. Two of the days should stress the development of muscular endurance and strength for the whole body. Although all of the major muscle groups of the body should be trained, emphasis should be placed on the leg (hamstrings and quadriceps), hip (gluteal and hip flexors), low back (spinal erector), and abdominal (rectus abdominis) muscles. These two days should also include brief (2-mile) CR workouts of light to moderate intensity (65 to 75 percent HRR). On the one CR fitness day left, cadets should take a long distance run (4 to 6 miles) at a moderate pace (70 percent HRR), an interval workout, or an aerobic circuit. They should also do some strength work of light volume and intensity. If four days are available, a road march should be added to the three-day program at least twice monthly. The speed, load, distance, and type of terrain should be varied. If there are five days, leaders should devote two of them to muscular strength and endurance and two of them to CR fitness. One CR fitness day will use long distance runs; the other can stress more intense

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workouts including interval work, Fartlek running, or last man-up running. At least two times per month, the remaining day should include a road march. Cadets can usually begin road march training by carrying a total load equal to 20 percent of their body weight. This includes all clothing and equipment. However, the gender makeup and/or physical condition of a unit may require using a different starting load. Beginning distances should be between five and six miles, and the pace should be at 20 minutes per mile over flat terrain with a hard surface. Gradual increases should be made in speed, load, and distance until cadets can do the anticipated, worstcase, mission-related scenarios without excessive difficulty or exhaustion. Units should take maintenance marches at least twice a month. Distances should vary from six to eight miles, with loads of 30 to 40 percent of body weight. The pace should be 15 to 20 minutes per mile. A recent Army study showed that road-march training two times a month and four times a month produced similar improvements in road-marching performance. Thus, twice-monthly road marches appear to produce a favorable improvement in cadets abilities to road march if a sound PT program supports them (five days per week). Commanders must establish realistic goals for road marching based on assigned missions. They should also allow newly assigned cadets and those coming off extended profiles to gradually build up to the unit’s fitness level before making them carry maximum loads. This can be done with ability groups. Road marching should be integrated into all other training. Perhaps the best single way to improve load-bearing capacity is to have a regular training program, which systematically increases the load and distance. It must also let the cadet regularly practice carrying heavy loads over long distances. As much as possible, leaders at all levels must train and march with their units. This participation enhances leaders’ fitness levels and improves team spirit and confidence, both vital elements in accomplishing difficult and demanding road marches.

Distance 3 KM 5 KM

First Month 2-4 times - no backpack

Second Month

Third Month

Fourth Month

Sustainment Training

2-4 times with backpack 2-4 times with packpack 2-4 times with packpack 20% of body 25% of body 30% of body no backpack/load weight weight weight *10-minute rest per hour *pace = 20 minutes per mile for flat terrain with hard surface 2 road marches per month is considered minimum for sustainment training 2 times with backpack

8 KM 10 KM

30% of body weight

Example of a road march training schedule with varying distances and backpack weights.

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Appendix A References AR 611-75 Management of Army Divers FM 21-18 Foot Marches FM 21-20 Physical Fitness Training

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Appendix B Qualification Criteria for the Combat Divers Qualification Course B-1. Selection Criteria. a. In order for an individual to attend the CDQC, he must successfully complete the qualification criteria in AR 611-75, paragraph 2-18 and must be one of the following: 1. A male commissioned officer who holds a SC in one of the following series: 11, 18, 60, 61, or 65. 2. A warrant officer with MOS 180A (Special Forces warrant officer). 3. An enlisted member in CMF 11 or 18. 4. A male military service academy or Reserve Officer Training Corp cadet. b. All applicants should refer to AR 611-75, paragraph 2-17 for documentation and application procedures. B-2. Qualification Criteria. An individual applying for combat diver training must hold an MOS or SC listed in AR 611-75 paragraph 2-16 and successfully complete the following: a. Swim 500 meters using a side or beaststroke. b. Swim 25 meters underwater without breaking the surface. c. Tread water for 2 minutes with hands and ears above the water. d. Dive to a three-meter depth and bring a 20 pound weight to the surface. e. Meet medical fitness standards according to AR 40-501 within 12 months prior to the start date of the scheduled CDQC and ensure that DD Forms 2808 and 2807-1 are sent to the CDR, USASOC, Command Surgeon, ATTN: AOMD-MT, Ft Bragg, NC 28310-5200. f. Pass a pre-CDQC as outlined by USAJFKSWCS. Successful completion of preCDQC will be certified in writing by the first lieutenant colonel or higher in the chain of command. This memorandum must be dated within six months of start date of the scheduled CDQC. (This course is three-weeks long and is coordinated for ROTC cadets through USACC, DOLD (ATCC-TT) Fort Monroe, VA 23651-5000. g. Pass an APFT according to FM 21-20 (Physical Fitness Training), consisting of 52 pushups and 62 situps within a 2-minute period, and complete a 2-mile run in 14:54 or less (all age groups). h. Execute seven pullups and a 20-foot rope climb. i. Pass the pressure equalization test in accordance with FM 20-11. B-3. Qualification Requirements. This course is 4-weeks, 4-days long and takes place at Naval Air Station, Trumbo Point Annex, Fleming Key, Key West, Fl. Refer to AR 611-75, paragraph 2-19 for the complete listing of requirements for the various combat diving ratings.

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Appendix C Example of a ROTC Fitness Training Calendar

June 01 - July 12, 2003
ROTC Fitness Training Calendar
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

June 1

June 2
Interval Workout Stage 1 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 3

June 4
Interval Workout Stage 1 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 5

June 6
3 KM Road March
Ref: Fitness Manual, page 65

June 7

June 8

June 9
Interval Workout Stage 1 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 10

June 11
Interval Workout Stage 1 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 12

June 13
Aerobics Workout

June 14

June 15

June 16
Interval Workout Stage 2 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 17

June 18
Interval Workout Stage 2 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 19

June 20
3 KM Road March
Ref: Fitness Manual, page 65

June 21

June 22

June 23
Interval Workout Stage 2 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 24

June 25
Interval Workout Stage 2 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

June 26

June 27
Aerobics Workout

June 28

June 29

June 30
Interval Workout Stage 3 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

July 1

July 2
Interval Workout Stage 3 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

July 3

July 4
5 KM Road March
Ref: Fitness Manual, page 65

July 5

July 6

July 7
Interval Workout Stage 3 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

July 8

July 9
Interval Workout Stage 3 & weights
Ref: Fitness Handbook, page 56

July 10

July 11
Aerobics Workout

July 12

Printed by Calendar Creator Plus on 14-01-2003

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