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Atoms and Molecules

Elements are Pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary laboratory processes The building blocks of matter Some elements are named for planets, mythological figures, minerals, colors, scientists, and places. A symbol Represents the name of an element Consists of one or two letters Starts with a capital letter Examples: 1-Letter Symbols C carbon N nitrogen F fluorine O oxygen 2-Letter Symbols Co cobalt Ca calcium Al aluminum Mg magnesium

Several symbols are derived from Latin names as shown below: Cu, copper (cuprum) Au, gold (aurum) Fe, iron (ferrum) Element Uranium Titanium Chlorine Iodine Magnesium Californium Curium Ag, silver (argentum) Source of Name Planet Uranus Titans (mythology) Chloros "greenish yellow" (greek) Ioeides "violet" (greek) Magnesia (mineral) california Marrie and Pierre Curie

Inside The Atom

Daltons Atomic Theory Matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms of each element are similar, and different from atoms of other elements. Atoms of two or more different elements combine to form compounds. A chemical reaction involves changes in the arrangement or combination of atoms.

Atoms contains subatomic particles

Protons have a positive (+) charge. Electrons have a negative (-) charge. Like charges repel and unlike charges attract. Neutrons are neutral.

Rutherfords gold-foil experiment:

Positively charged particles were aimed at atoms of gold Most went straight through the atoms Only a few were deflected Conclusion: There must be a small, dense, positively charged nucleus in the atom that deflects positive particles that come close.

An atom consists Of a nucleus that contains protons and neutrons Of electrons in a large empty space around the nucleus On the atomic mass scale for subatomic particles: 1 atomic mass unit (amu) has a mass equal to 1/12 of the mass of the carbon-12 atom Protons mass of about 1 (1.007) amu Neutrons mass about 1 (1.008) amu Electrons mass, 0.000549 amu

Isotopes and Atomic Mass The atomic number Is specific for each element Is the same for all atoms of an element Is equal to the number of protons in an atom Appears above the symbol of an element Examples of atomic number and number of protons: Hydrogen has atomic number 1, every H atom has 1 proton. Carbon has atomic number 6, every C atom has 6 protons. Copper has atomic number 29, every Cu atom has 29 protons. Gold has atomic number 79, every Au atom has 79 protons. An atom of any element is electrically neutral; the net charge of an atom is zero. In an atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. Number of protons = number of electrons For example, an atom of aluminum has 13 protons and 13 electrons. The net charge is zero. 13 protons (13 +) + 13 electrons (13 -) = 0

The mass number Represents the number of particles in the nucleus Is equal to the Number of protons + Number of neutrons Isotopes Are atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers Have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons A nuclear symbol Represents a particular atom of an element Gives the mass number in the upper-left corner and the atomic number in the lower-left corner Example: An atom of sodium with atomic number 11 and a mass number 23 has the following atomic symbol: 23 mass number 11 atomic number

From the nuclear symbol, we can determine the number of protons (p+), neutrons, (n), and electrons (e-) in a particular atom. 16 8 31 15 65 30

8 p+ 8n 8 e-

15 p+ 16 n 15 e-

30 p+ 35 n 30 e-

The atomic mass of an element, Is listed below the symbol of each element on the periodic table Gives the mass of an average atom of each element compared to 12C Is not the same as the mass number In naturally occurring magnesium, There are three isotopes.

Na 22.99

Most elements have two or more isotopes that contribute to the atomic mass of that element. Most elements have two or more isotopes that contribute to the atomic mass of that element.

The calculation for atomic mass requires the: Percent (%) abundance of each isotope Atomic mass of each isotope of that element Sum of the weighted averages

mass isotope1(%) + mass isotope2(%) + 100 100

The atomic mass of Mg, Is due to all the Mg isotopes Is a weighted average Is not a whole number

Isotopes Mass of Isotope Abundance Weighted portion 24Mg = 23.985 amu x 78.70/100 =18.88 amu 25Mg = 24.986 amu x 10.13/100 = 2.531 amu 26Mg = 25.983 amu x 11.17/100 = 2.902 amu Atomic mass (average mass) Mg = 24.31 amu

Avogadros Number : The Mole A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets A mole (mol) is a collection that contains: The same number of particles as there are carbon atoms in 12.01 g of carbon 6.022 x 1023 atoms of an element (Avogadros number).

A mole Of a covalent compound has Avogadros number of molecules 1 mol CO2 = 6.022 x 1023 CO2 molecules 1 mol H2O = 6.022 x 1023 H2O molecules Of an ionic compound contains Avogadros number of formula units 1 mol NaCl = 6.022x1023 NaCl formula units 1 mol K2SO4 = 6.022x1023 K2SO4 formula units Avogadros number 6.022 x 1023 can be written as an equality and two conversion factors. Equality: 1 mol = 6.022 x 1023 particles Conversion Factors: 6.022 x 1023 particles and 1 mol 1 mol 6.022 x 1023 particles

1 Mol element 1 mol C 1 mol Na 1 mol Au

Number of Atoms = 6.022 x 1023 C atoms = 6.022 x 1023 Na atoms = 6.022 x 1023 Au atoms

Avogadros number is used to convert Moles of a substance to Particles. Example : How many Cu atoms are in 0.50 mol Cu? 0.50 mol Cu x 6.022 x 1023 Cu atoms 1 mol Cu = 3.0 x 1023 Cu atoms Avogadros number is used to convert Particles of a substance to Moles. How many moles of CO2 are in 2.50 x 1024 CO2 molecules? 2.50 x 1024 CO2 x 1 mol CO2 6.022 x 1023 CO2 = 4.15 mol CO2 The subscripts in a formula state The relationship of atoms in the formula. The moles of each element in 1 mol of compound.

Glucose C6H12O6
In 1 molecule : 6 atoms C In 1 mol : 6 mol C 12 atoms H 12 mol H 6 atoms O 6 mol O

The subscripts are used to write conversion factors for moles of each element in 1 mol compound. For aspirin C9H8O4, the following factors can be written: 9 mol C 1 mol C9H8O4 and 1 mol C9H8O4 9 mol C 1 mol C9H8O4 8 mol H 1 mol C9H8O4 4 mol O 8 mol H 1 mol C9H8O4 4 mol O 1 mol C9H8O4

Molar Mass The molar mass Is the mass of one mole of an element or compound Is the atomic mass expressed in grams Molar mass Is the atomic mass expressed in grams The molar mass of a compound is the sum of the molar masses of the elements in the formula. Example: Calculate the molar mass of CaCl2.

Element Ca Cl CaCl

Number of Moles 1 2

Atomic Mass 40.08 g/mol 35.45 g/mol

Total Mass 40.08 g 70.90 g 110.98 g

Calculations Using Molar Mass Molar mass conversion factors: Are written from molar mass Relate grams and moles of an element or compound. Example: Write molar mass factors for methane CH4 used in gas cook tops and gas heaters. Molar mass: 1 mol CH4 = 16.04 g Conversion factors: 16.04 g CH4 and 1 mol CH4 1 mol CH4 16.04 g CH4

Molar mass factors are used to convert between the grams of a substance and the number of moles. Aluminum is often used to build lightweight bicycle frames. How many grams of Al are in 3.00 mol Al? Molar mass equality: 1 mol Al = 26.98 g Al Setup with molar mass as a factor: 3.00 mol Al x 26.98 g Al = 80.9 g Al 1 mol Al molar mass factor for Al A molar mass factor and Avogadros number convert: Grams to particles molar mass Avogadros number (g mol particles) Particles to grams Avogadros number molar mass (particles mol g)

Periodic law
Group Numbers Use the letter A for the representative elements (1A to 8A) and the letter B for the transition elements Also use numbers 1-18 to the columns from left to right Several groups of representative elements are known by common names.

Group 1A(1), the alkali metals, includes lithium, sodium, and potassium. Group 7A(17) the halogens, includes chlorine, bromine, and iodine. The heavy zigzag line separates metals and nonmetals. Metals are located to the left. Nonmetals are located to the right. Metalloids are located along the heavy zigzag line between the metals and nonmetals. The heavy zigzag line separates metals and nonmetals. Metals are located to the left. Nonmetals are located to the right. Metalloids are located along the heavy zigzag line between the metals and nonmetals.

Electron Arrangements in Atoms Energy levels Are assigned quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on Increase in energy as the value of n increases Have a maximum number of electrons equal to 2n2 Energy level Maximum number of electrons n=1 2(1)2 = 2(1) = 2 n=2 2(2)2 = 2(4) = 8 n=3 2(3)2 = 2(9) = 18 Sublevels Contain electrons with the same energy Are found within each energy level Are designated by the letters s, p, d, f The number of sublevels is equal to the value of the principal quantum number (n). In any energy level, The s sublevel has the lowest energy The s sublevel is followed by the p, d, and f sublevels in order of increasing energy Higher sublevels are possible, but only s, p, d, and f sublevels are needed to hold the electrons in the atoms known today An orbital Is a three-dimensional space around a nucleus where an electron is most likely to be found Has a shape that represents electron density (not a path the electron follows) Can hold up to two electrons. Contains two electrons that must spin in opposite directions. An s orbital Has a spherical shape around the nucleus Increases in size around the nucleus as the energy level n value increases Is a single orbital found in each s sublevel A p orbital Has a two-lobed shape Is one of three p orbitals that make up each p sublevel Increases in size as the value of n increases

Each sublevel consists of a specific number of orbitals. An s sublevel contains 1 s orbital. A p sublevel contains 3 p orbitals. A d sublevel contains 5 d orbitals. An f sublevel contains 7 f orbitals.

Electronic Configuration Energy levels are filled with electrons In order of increasing energy Beginning with quantum number n = 1 Beginning with s followed by p, d, and f An orbital diagram shows Orbitals as boxes in each sublevel Electrons in orbitals as vertical arrows Electrons in the same orbital with opposite spins (up and down vertical arrows)

Electrons in an atom Fill orbitals in sublevels of the same type with one electron until half full Then pair up in the orbitals using opposite spins

The orbital diagram for carbon consists of: Two electrons in the 1s orbital Two electrons in the 2s orbital One electron each in two of the 2p orbitals

An electron configuration Lists the sublevels filling with electrons in order of increasing energy Uses superscript to show the number of electrons in each sublevel The electron configuration for neon is as follows: sublevel number of electrons 1s2 2s2 2p6

In Period 1, the first two electrons go into the 1s orbital

An abbreviated configuration shows The symbol of the noble gas in brackets that represents completed sublevels The remaining electrons in order of their sublevels Example: Chlorine has a configuration of: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 The abbreviated configuration for chlorine is: [Ne] 3s2 3p5

Another Look at the Periodic Table The periodic table consists of sublevel blocks arranged in order of increasing energy. Groups 1A(1)-2A(2) = s level Groups 3A(13)-8A(18) = p level Groups 3B(3) to 2B(12) = d level Lanthanides/Actinides = f level

Using sublevel blocks to write a configuration, Locate the element on the periodic table Start with H in 1s, write each sublevel block in order going left to right across each period Write electrons for each block

Using the periodic table, write the electron configuration for silicon. Solution Period 1 1s block 1s2 Period 2 2s 2p blocks 2s2 2p6 Period 3 3s 3p blocks 3s2 3p2 (at Si) Writing all the sublevel blocks in order gives: 1s2 2s2 2p63s2 3p2 The 4s orbital has a lower energy than the 3d orbitals. In potassium K, the last electron enters the 4s orbital instead of the 3d 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s Ar 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 K 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 2 Ca 1s 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 Sc 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2 2 Ti 1s 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2

Using the periodic table, write the electron configuration for manganese. Solution Period 1 1s block 1s2 Period 2 2s 2p blocks 2s2 2p6 Period 3 3s 3p blocks 3s2 3p6 Period 4 4s 3d blocks 4s2 3d5 (at Mn) Writing all the sublevel blocks in order gives: 1s2 2s2 2p63s2 3p6 4s2 3d5 Property Trends within the Periodic Table The valence electrons Determine the chemical properties of the elements Are the electrons in the s and p sublevels in the highest energy level Are related to the Group number of the element Example: Phosphorus has five valence electrons 5 valence electrons P Group 5A(15) 1s22s22p6 3s23p3 All the elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons. Example: Elements in Group 2A(2) have two (2) valence electrons. Be 1s2 2s2 Mg 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 Ca 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 Sr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2

Atomic radius is the distance from the nucleus to the valence electrons.

Atomic radius increases going down each group of representative elements. Atomic radius decreases from left to right across a period because more protons increase nuclear attraction for valence electrons.

Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove a valence electron Metals have lower ionization energies Nonmetals have higher ionization energies. Na (g) + Energy of ionization Na+(g) + e-

Valence Electrons and Electron-Dot Symbols Valence electrons are the electrons in the electron configuration that are in the highest energy level related to the group number

Electron-Dot Symbols An electron-dot symbol shows the valence electrons around the symbol of the element. The electron-dot symbol for Mg shows two valence electrons as single dots on the sides of the symbol Mg.

Electron-dot symbols for: Groups 1A(1) to 4A(14) use single dots.

. . Mg or Mg or Mg or Mg
Mg Al C


Groups 5A(15) to 8A(18) use pairs and single dots.


In a group, all the electron-dot symbols have the same number of valence electrons (dots).

An octet Is 8 valence electrons Is associated with the stability of the noble gases He is stable with two valence electrons (duet). He Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6 Ar 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 Kr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 Noble Gas Configuration Atoms acquire octets By forming compounds To become more stable By losing, gaining, or sharing valence electrons Atoms acquire octets To become more stable By losing, gaining, or sharing valence electrons By forming ionic bonds or covalent bonds 1s2

valence electrons 2 8 8 8

Metals form Octets by losing all of their valence electrons Positive ions with the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas Positive ions with fewer electrons than protons Group 1A metals ion 1+ Group 2A metals ion 2+ Group 3A metals ion 3+ Formation of Negative Ions In ionic compounds, nonmetals Achieve an octet arrangement Gain electrons Form negatively charged ions with 3-, 2-, or 1- charges

Formation of a Chloride, Cl Chlorine achieves an octet by adding an electron to its valence electrons.

By gaining one electron, the chloride ion has a -1 charge. Chlorine atom Chloride ion + 17p 17p+ 17e 18e0 1-

Ionic Charge from Group Numbers The charge of a positive ion is equal to its Group number. Group 1A(1) = 1+ Group 2A(2) = 2+ Group 3A(3) = 3+ The charge of a negative ion is obtained by subtracting 8 or 18 from its Group number. Group 6A(16) = 6 - 8 = 2or 16 - 18 = 2-

Sizes of Metal Atoms and Ions A positive ion Lost its valence electrons Is smaller (about half the size) than its corresponding metal atom

Sizes of Nonmetal Atoms and Ions A negative ion Increased its number of valence electrons. Is larger (about twice the size) than its corresponding metal atom. Ionic Bonding & Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds Consist of positive and negative ions Have attractions called ionic bonds between positively and negatively charged ions Have high melting and boiling points Are solid at room Sodium chloride in table salt is an example of an ionic compound. An ionic formula Consists of positively and negatively charged ions Neutral Has charge balance total positive charge = total negative charge Uses subscript to indicate the number of ions needed to give charge balance In an ionic formula, The symbol of the metal is written first followed by the symbol of the nonmetal The charges of the ions in the compound are not shown

Charge Balance in NaF The formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions. atoms ions

Na +

F :



sodium fluoride = NaF = 0

sodium fluorine The overall charge of NaF is zero (0). Na+ F(1+ ) + (1-)

Writing Ionic Formulas from Charges Charge balance is used to write the formula for sodium nitride, a compound containing Na+ and N3. Na+ 3 Na+ N3 = Na3N + Na 3(+1) + 1(3-) = 0

Write the ionic formula of the compound with Ba2+ and Cl. Write the symbols of the ions.

Ba2+ Cl

Balance the charges.

Ba2+ Cl Cl BaCl2

two Cl- needed

Write the ionic formula using a subscript 2 for two chloride ions that give charge balance.

Naming and Writing Ionic Formulas In the name of an ionic compound, The positive ion (first ion) is named as the element The negative ion (second ion) is named by changing the end of the element name to ide

To name a compound that contains two elements: Identify the cation and anion Name the positive metal ion (cation) as the element Name the anion by changing the ending to ide Name the cation first followed by the name of the anion Formula NaCl K2S MgO CaI2 Al2O3 Ions Na+ ClK+ S2Mg2+ O2Ca2+ IAl3+ O2Name sodium chloride potassium sulfide magnesium oxide calcium iodide aluminum oxide

Charges of Representative Elements

Some ionic compounds

The transition metals Usually form two or more positive ions Lose s electrons from the highest occupied energy level May also lose one or more d electrons

Fe2+ and Fe3+ Fe atom: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6 Formation of Fe2+ ion: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s0 3d6 Loss of 4s2 electrons (valence). Formation of Fe3+ ion: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s0 3d5 Loss of 3d1 electron (to give half-filled 3d sublevel). A 3d5 (half-filled) sublevel is more stable.

Metals that Form More than One Cation Most transition elements have two or more positive ions (cations).

Common Ions with Variable Valences

Naming with Variable Charge Metals

Naming Variable Charge Metals Transition metals With two different ions use a Roman numeral after the name of the metal to indicate ionic charge. Zinc, silver, and cadmium form only one ion (Zn2+, Ag+, and Cd2+) Naming FeCl2 To name FeCl2: 1. Determine the charge of the cation using the charge of the anion (Cl-). Fe ion + 2 Cl- = ? + 2- = 0 Fe ion = 2+ 2. Name the cation by the element name and add a Roman numeral in parenthesis to show its charge. Fe2+ = iron(II) 3. Write the anion with an ide ending. iron(II) chloride = FeCl2

Write a formula for potassium sulfide. 1. Identify the cation and anion. potassium = K+ sulfide = S2 2. Balance the charges. K+ S2 K+ 2(1+) + 2(1-) = 0 3. 2 K+ and 1 S2 = K2S A polyatomic ion Is a group of atoms Has an overall ionic charge Some examples of polyatomic ions are: NH4+ ammonium OH hydroxide nitrate NO3 NO2 nitrite CO32 carbonate PO43 phosphate hydrogen carbonate(bicarbonate) HCO3 Some Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

The names of common polyatomic anions: End in ate NO3 nitrate PO43 phosphate With one oxygen less end in ite NO2 nitrite PO33 phosphite

With hydrogen attached use prefix hydrogen (or bi). HCO3 hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) HSO3 hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)

Polyatomic ions of the halogens require prefixes.

ClO4 ClO3 ClO2 ClO perchlorate chlorate chlorite hypochlorite one oxygen more most common form one oxygen less two oxygens less

Names and formulas of common polyatomic ions.

Hydrogen Nitrogen OH NH4+ NO3NO2ClO4Cl03Cl02Cl0CO32HCO3CNC2H3O2- (CH3COO-) SCNSO42HSO4SO32HSO3PO43HPO42H2PO4PO33CrO42Cr2O72MnO4-

Hydroxide Ammonium Nitrate Nitrite Perchlorate Chlorate Chlorite Hypochlorite Carbonate Hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) Cyanide Acetate Thiocyanate Sulfate Hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) Sulfite Hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite) Phosphate Hydrogen phosphate Dihydrogen phosphate Phospite Chromate Dichromate Permanganate





Chromium Manganese

Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions The positive ion is named first followed by the name of the polyatomic ion. NaNO3 sodium nitrate K2SO4 potassium sulfate Fe(HCO3)3 iron(III) bicarbonate or iron(III) hydrogen carbonate (NH4)3PO3 ammonium phosphite

The formula of an ionic compound Containing a polyatomic ion must have a charge balance that equals zero(0) Na+ and NO3 NaNO3 With two or more polyatomic ions encloses the polyatomic ions in parentheses Mg2+ and 2NO3 Mg(NO3)2 subscript 2 for charge balance Periodic Table and Some Ions

Covalent Bonds Covalent bonds form: When atoms share electrons to complete octets Between two nonmetal atoms Between nonmetal atoms from Groups 4A(14), 5A(15), 6A(16), and 7A(17) To name covalent compounds: STEP 1: Name the first nonmetal as the element. STEP 2: Name the second nonmetal with an ide ending. STEP 3: Indicate the number of atoms (subscript) of each element with prefixes. Number of atoms Prefix 1 Mono 2 Di 3 Tri 4 Tetra 5 penta 6 hexa 7 hepta 8 octa 9 nona 10 deca Name P4S3 1. The first nonmetal P is phosphorus. 2. The second nonmetal S is sulfide. 3. The subscript 4 of P is shown as tetra. 4. The subscript 3 of O is shown as tri P4S3 tetraphosphorus trisulfide The prefixes in the name are used to write the formula. STEP 1 Write the symbols in the order of the elements in the name. STEP 2 Write any prefixes as subscripts. Example: Write the formula for carbon disulfide. STEP 1 Elements are C and S STEP 2 No prefix for carbon means 1 C. Prefix di = 2 Formula: CS2

Covalent Bonds and Electron-Dot Formulas Forming a H2 Molecule

H2, A Covalent Molecule In a hydrogen H2 molecule: Two hydrogen atoms share electrons to form a covalent single bond. Each H atom acquires two (2) electrons. Each H becomes stable like helium (He).

These elements share electrons to form diatomic, covalent molecules.

Electron-dot formulas show: The order of bonded atoms in a covalent compound The bonding pairs of electrons between atoms The unshared (lone) valence electrons A central atom with an octet In NH3, a N atom is bonded to three H atoms.

N and 3 H

The electron dot structure is written as:


BLU DOT : lone pair of electrons


The number of covalent bonds can be determined from the number of electrons needed to complete an octet.

Guide to Writing Electron-Dot Formulas STEP 1 Determine the arrangement of atoms. STEP 2 Add the valence electrons from all the atoms. STEP 3 Attach the central atom to each bonded atom using one pair of electrons. STEP 4 Add remaining electrons as lone pairs to complete octets (2 for H atoms). STPE 5 If octets are not complete, form one or more multiple bonds. Electron-Dot Formula of SF2 Write the electron-dot formula for SF2. STEP 1 Determine the atom arrangement. S is the central atom.


STEP 2 Add all the valence electrons for 1S and 2F.

1S(6e-) + 2F(7e-) = 20eF:S:F

STEP 3 Attach each F atom to S with one electron pair. Calculate the remaining electrons.

20e- - 4 e- = 16e- left

STEP 4 Complete the octets of all atoms by placing lone pairs to complete octets.

remaining 16 e- as 8



: FSF :

Write the electron-dot formula for ClO3. STEP 1 Determine atom arrangement. Cl is the central atom.

O Cl O STEP 2 Add all the valence electrons for 1Cl and 3O plus 1e- for negative charge on the ion. 1Cl(7e-) + 3 O(6e-) + 1e = 26eSTEP 3 Attach each O atom to Cl with one electron pair. O

O : Cl : O Calculate remaining electrons. 26e- - 6 e- = 20e- left STEP 4 Complete the octets of all atoms by placing the remaining 20 e- as 10 lone pairs to complete octets.



: O : Cl : O :


: OClO :

Multiple Covalent Bonds and Resonance In a single bond, One pair of electrons is shared. In a double bond, Two pairs of electrons are shared. In a triple bond, Three pairs of electrons are shared. Write the electron-dot formula for CS2. STEP 1 Determine the atom arrangement. The C atom is the central atom. S C S STEP 2 Add the valence electrons for 1C and 2S. 1C(4e-) + 2S(6e-) = 16eSTEP 3 Attach each S atom to C with one electron pair. S:C:S Calculate the remaining electrons. STEP 4 Attach 12 remaining electrons as 6 lone pairs to complete octets. .. .. :S:C:S: .. .. STEP 5 To complete octets, move two lone pairs between C and S atoms to give two double bonds.

In nitrogen N2, Octets are achieved by sharing three pairs of electrons, which is a triple bond.

Resonance structures are:

Two or more electron-dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms Related by a double-headed arrow Written by changing location of a double bond from the central atom to a different attached atom Sometimes written as a hybrid resonance structure

Resonance structures for NO3 are:

Writing Resonance Structures Cyanate ion NCO has three resonance structures. STEP 1 Write the arrangement of atoms. [N C O] STEP 2 Count the valence electrons. 1N(5e) + 1C(4e) + 1 O(6e) + charge (1e) = 16e STEP 3 Connect bonded atoms by single electron pairs. [ N: C :O] 4e used Determine the remaining electrons. 16e - 4e = 12e STEP 4 Add 12 remaining electrons as 6 lone pairs. .. .. : NCO : .. .. STEP 5 Form double or triple bonds to make octets. .. .. .. .. :N=C=O: :NCO: :NCO:

Forces Between Particles Shapes of Molecules and Polyatomic Ions In the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR), the electron groups around a central atom: Are arranged as far apart from each other as possible Have the least amount of repulsion of the negatively charged electrons Have a geometry around the central atom that determines molecular shape The three-dimensional shape of a molecule: Is the result of bonded groups and lone pairs of electrons around the central atom Is predicted using the VSEPR theory (valence-shell electron-pair repulsion) Guide to Predicting Molecular Shape (VSEPR Theory) 1. Draw the electron-dot structure. 2. Count the total number of electron groups around the central atom. 3. Arrange all electrons groups to minimize repulsion. 4. Use all electron groups to determine the electron arrangement. 5. From the bonded atoms, predict the shape of the molecule. In a molecule of BeCl2: There are two electron groups bonded to the central atom Be (exception to the octet rule).

.. .. : ClBeCl : .. ..

To minimize repulsion, the arrangement of two electron groups is 180 or opposite each other. The shape of the molecule is linear. In a molecule of CO2: There are two electron groups bonded to C because the electrons in each double bond are counted as one group. Repulsion is minimized with the double bonds opposite each other at 180. The shape of the molecule is linear.

In a molecule of BF3: Three electron groups are around the central atom B. (B is an exception to the octet rule.)

Repulsion is minimized with 3 electron groups at angles of 120. Has a trigonal planar molecular shape.

In a molecule of SO2, S has 3 electron groups, 2 electron groups bonded to O atoms, and one lone pair. .. .. .. :O:: S:O: .. Repulsion is minimized with the electron groups in a plane at angles of 120, a trigonal planar arrangement. With two O atoms bonded to S, the shape is bent (120). Four Electron Groups In a molecule of CH4, There are four electron groups around C. Repulsion is minimized by placing four electron groups at angles of 109 , which is a tetrahedral arrangement. The shape with four bonded atoms is tetrahedral.

Three Bonding Atoms and One Lone Pair In a molecule of NH3, Three electron groups bond to H atoms and the fourth one is a lone (nonbonding) pair. Repulsion is minimized with four electron groups at angles of 109, which is a tetrahedral arrangement. With three bonded atoms, the shape is trigonal pyramidal.

Two Bonding Atoms and Two Lone Pairs In a molecule of H2O, Two electrons groups are bonded to H atoms and two are lone pairs (four electron groups). Four electron groups minimize repulsion in a tetrahedral arrangement. The shape with two bonded atoms is bent (109).

Guide to Using VSEPR to Predict Shape Write the electron-dot formula for the molecule. Arrange all the electron groups around the central atom to minimize repulsion. Use the atoms bonded to the central atom to determine the molecular shape.

Electronegativity and Bond Polarity Electronegativity values: Indicate the attraction of an atom for shared electrons Increase from left to right going across a period on the periodic table Is high for the nonmetals with fluorine as the highest Is low for the metals

A nonpolar covalent bond, Occurs between nonmetals Is an equal or almost equal sharing of electrons Has almost no electronegativity difference (0.0 to 0.4) Examples: Atoms Electronegativity Type of Bond Difference N-N 3.0 - 3.0 = 0.0 Nonpolar covalent Cl-Br 3.0 - 2.8 = 0.2 Nonpolar covalent H-Si 2.1 - 1.8 = 0.3 Nonpolar covalent

A polar covalent bond, Occurs between nonmetals atoms Is an unequal sharing of electrons Has a moderate electronegativity difference (0.5 to 1.7) Electronegativity Difference 3.5 - 3.0 = 0.5 3.0 - 2.5 = 0.5 3.5 - 2.5 = 1.0 Type of Bond Polar covalent Polar covalent Polar covalent

Examples: Atoms O-Cl Cl-C O-S

Comparing Nonpolar and Polar Covalent Bonds An ionic bond, Occurs between metal and nonmetals ions Is a results of electron transfer

Has a large electronegativity difference (1.8 or more) Examples: Atoms Electronegativity Type of Bond Difference Cl-K 3.0 0.8 = 2.2 Ionic N-Na 3.0 0.9 = 2.1 Ionic S-Cs 2.5 0.7 = 1.8 Ionic

A polar molecule, Contains polar bonds Has a separation of positive and negative charge called a dipole indicated with + and Has dipoles that do not cancel HCl dipole

+ -

ClNCl | Cl

dipoles do not cancel A nonpolar molecule, Contains nonpolar bonds ClCl HH Or has a symmetrical arrangement of polar bonds O=C=O Cl | ClCCl | Cl Determining Molecular Polarity STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 dipoles cancel

Write the electron-dot formula. Determine the polarity of the bonds. Determine if any dipoles cancel or not.

Example: H2O .. HO: H dipoles do not cancel

H2O is polar