Internship Report Claude Fin | Rabbit | Proteins

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our internship would not be well completed without help of many persons. We will recognize their valuable guidance, support and knowledgeable suggestions all of our life. First of all, we would sincerely like to express our deep appreciation to Dr Léonidas MBANZAMIHIGO, PhD representative Manager of PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA and Madame NIKUZE our supervisors for their willingness to work with us and their financial support during this work. We are also grateful to all staffs of PROXIVET-SUD- RWANDA of VSF-Belgium; URUGAGA IMBARAGA; SDA-IRIBA for their diligence in conducting data collection, helping and supporting us to carry out this energy and time consuming work. We cannot forget to express our deep appreciation to all respondents (Vulnerable groups of MBAZI and MARABA sectors) for their courage in providing to us needed information in filling the reproductive record keeping and other related information to complete our internship. Finally, we would give sincere thanks to all Lecturers at NUR, deeply those of Faculty of Agriculture; our families; our classmates and friends for their sustainable encouragement during the internship.

Jean Claude NYABYENDA and Alexis MUNYANEZA

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ABSTRACT
A cross-sectional internship was conducted to find out the impact of small stocks (Rabbits and Goats) diffused to vulnerable groups by PROXIVET-SUD- RWANDA in collaboration with IMBARAGA Federation in the purpose of poverty reduction so as to improve their life style level. The internship was started on the 23rd of August and ended on the 23rd of September, 2010 in the interval of time during which we visited house to house groups of vulnerable families of MBAZI and MARABA sectors which are grouped in associations. After getting these small stocks (rabbits and goats) from the project, there was a great change in their well-being level as mentioned by themselves because now they are able to pay school fees for their children and other related issues. So, the project (PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA) need more qualified engineers for helping those vulnerable people to follow up, to advise and encourage them to take care of their livestock in order to alleviate the poverty as it is one of the goals of the Project.

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Projet organisation: Proxivet- Sud- Rwanda.................................................9 Figure 2. White New Zealand .............................................................12

Figure 3. Dutch...................................................................................................12 Figure 4. Best way of handling rabbit.......................................................................13 Figure 5. Example of Rabbit Cage............................................................................19 Figure 6. Rabbits in their Cage eating different species of forages..........................22 Figure 7. A trainee explaining the beneficiary and filling the record keeping at Mbazi sector.......................................................................................................................29 Figure 8. A trainee showing and explain how Sexing is done...................................29

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Two kinds of minerals................................................................................26 Table 2. Common diseases, causes and their treatment means..............................27

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LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1. White New Zealand rabbits in their Cage (Photo taken the 20sept 2010) ....................................................................................................................................I Appendix 2. Different breeds of rabbits eating their feeds (including banana leaves) ....................................................................................................................................I Appendix 3. Trainee explaining a beneficiary of the project the convenient feeds and best way of feeding rabbits. (Photo taken on the 20th Sept, 2010).....................II Appendix 4. One of the advanced beneficiaries in rabbit rearing at MARABA Sector III

vi LIST OF ABREVIATIONS Mg: Fe: Co: I : Mn: Zn: Se: Na: ABR: ADENYA: APROJUMAP: CAPEL: EAVK: ISAR: IRST: K g: MIG: MINAGRI: MSA: OMS: NGO: NZ : GDP: FAO: RARDA: PLP: Magnesium Iron Cobalt Iodine Manganese Zinc Selenium Sodium Association Belgique au Rwanda Association pour le Développement de Nyabimata Association pour la Promotion des Jumelage et de l’Amitié entre les Peuples Centre d’Appui à l’élevage Ecole agri. de l’Elevage. Mutuelle de Santé Animale Organisation Mondiale de la santé Non governmental organization New Zealand Gross domestic product Food and agriculture organization Rwandan animal resource development authority Partenaires Locaux Principaux .Vétérinaire de Kabutare Institut des Sciences Agronomique du Rwanda Institut de Recherches Scientifique Technologiques Kilogram Multisectorial Investment Group Ministère de l’Agriculture.

Belgique Ministère de commerce et de la finance.vii PROXIVET SUD RWANDA: RSSP: SDA: Vspp: UNR: UNICOOPAGI: VSF-B: MINECOFINE: NUR: FACAGRO: Hrs: o Projet de promotion d’un service vétérinaire privé de proximité au Sud du Rwanda Rural Sector Support Project Services au Développement des Associations Veterinary service private proximity Université Nationale du Rwanda Union des Coopératives Agricoles de Gikongoro Vétérinaire sans frontière. National University of Rwanda Faculty of Agriculture Hours Degrees centigrade Kilocarolies August Vitamin C: Kcals: Aug: Vit: .

....... Methodological approach and materials ................................................................................. Methodological................................2...........1........................................ 3 PART I: DESCRIPTION OF PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA........ Project beneficiaries PROXIVET-SUD................3...........1 1...........................................1..........1..................vi TABLE OF CONTENTS..........3 1..1..............................................1 1..................................RWANDA fall into three categories: ...........................................1......................... Specific Objective ..............................................4 2...............................3................. Intervention area..........................................5 2.................iv LIST OF APPENDICES.......3...2.....................................................................................6 2........ Steps of the project.........1............ Origin of the project “PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA”.................................................................5 2.............................7 .........................................4..............................v LIST OF ABREVIATIONS...............................................7 2.......................................... Achievements ........... i ABSTRACT...................................................viii CHAP I.................................................... General introduction.............................................................................................................................................................ii LIST OF FIGURES ...3...............3.......................... Objectives of the internship...........................................................................1...............................................................iii LIST OF TABLES.......4........................................2 1................2.....................2 1.............................................................. Hypothesis...........................2...........................2...............................................2 1................. Materials.................. Specific objectives...........2...............................7 2..........3........... PROBLEM STATEMENT..........................................viii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..........4 2.............................. Overall objective of the project..................................................................3...........................2 1................

.............1....................................... Situation.... Feeding requirements.................................4.....18 4......3............... Kindling and mother care........................................24 ......16 4..................1..................................2...............................4... Pregnancy control.......................1...........10 3.....2.20 4..2................................ GEOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION..20 4..... Climate..21 4.......................................................................1 The male...............................................1................................3..................................2.......................................................9 PART........ Lipid requirements..............................................................1............ Topography...................2................3.....14 4.2...........4......................................3..................19 4................................3..........................20 4.............4....................RWANDA........SUD.................3...23 4............................2...........................2...2........................................................................................................... Disadvantages............................. PRESENTATION OF CASE STUDY.......................10 3...........................10 3......4...............3............... Housing................................................. Light.................................18 4............18 4.......15 4.....................................15 4...... ................ Location ..2................. Ventilation ........................................................................3...1.2.....1...................................... GENERAL LUTTERATURE REVIEW ON CUNICULTRE/OR RABBIT REARING....................1....... Advantages.......1...3.....1.. Projet organisation: PROXIVET..........23 4....................................1..........................................10 Chap III........................ Mating of buck and does....1...14 4.....................................................................................................................................14 4...............2....2.. II.....................................11 4..................5................... The female................ General introduction....................................................... Reproduction................3.......4........... General characteristics.............................. Protein requirements.........................IV........................................ Temperature:.................11 4....................... Water requirements................ix 2....................................... 10 CHAP.........3..............................13 4...............................................

................................... 35 APPENDICES.............32 6................................28 CHAP............................................................................. To the FACAGRO................................ So...........................3.....6.....................32 6................ they are almost all the time occupied by their agricultural activities.......................28 5...................32 6..............6.......................................................................................... Diseases control.............. Sexing....29 5. 37 ....................... 29 5....................................................................................................................................24 4..............4........................ Cellulose requirements...................................................................... Disinfection of cages.....5................ Energy requirements........................................................................33 6.........................................28 5.......................................... To the beneficiaries.......2...31 :CHAP.............VI.... III.... CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS..x 4.........................31 The time for internship was not enough to conduct all activities........................3..........30 5............................................................................................. To the project “Proxivet-Sud-Rwanda”........... during the internship the following obstacles were met:.........................1............................V...................4................................5............ ACTIVITIES REALIZED DURING THE INTERNSHIP............... FORMATION OF VUNERABLE GROUPS ABOUT RABIT MANAGEMENT AND FILLING RECORD KEEPING..............................................2........................... Health..........................34 REFERENCES..2....................................................................... ...............................................4.....1..................24 4... Minerals and Vitamins................ some of the beneficiaries were not visited................................4....................4...........................................31 Meeting respondents at their homes was not easy because...2... Pregnancy control..............2............. Distribution and filling the record keeping of reproduction for rabbits.........................2........................................25 4..... Recommendations..32 6.........................................5....30 Generally.....26 PART..................................................... Conclusion.....

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where we have two main systems of production: Larger stocks production system and small stocks production.1 CHAP I. General introduction Rwanda is a small and highly populated country in Africa with 26. Even if a large portion of Rwandan land is used for agricultural activities. When a small amount of money is needed. Some of the stated issues originate from low level of farmers’ understanding of animal rearing where by they consider larger stocks production as the only main source of animal products. Rabbit production is often used as savings accounts. Short gestation period (20-31days). source of incomes. play a considerable in different domains like easy management. Although. PROBLEM STATEMENT 1.1. 300habitats/ km2 as density and the majority (90%) of population lives on Agriculture practice. Rwandan government in collaboration with NGOs including PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA. National University of Rwanda through the FACULTY Of AGRICULTURE encourages people to practice these small stocks through formation of farmers for new technologies used in livestock production. In animal production. high cost and mismanagement of animal products. it is easier to sell a small animal than for example the hind leg of a goat. to practice the theoretical knowledge delivered from the academic lectures and to resolve some existing farmers’ problems. .336km2 as surface. small stocks rearing such as rabbits which is concerned for our study case. there is still a serious problem of insufficiency food. After observing all of these misconceptions and advantages of small livestock production. early breeding age (6-8 months). one people choose the system to which he/she may afford because not every can buy equal number of cows as of rabbits and manage it properly in such way that it provides him with desirable level of his/her wellbeing. scarcity.Health improvement through its nutritional value. It is in this way that the FACAGRO through NUR organized for us the internship as the future professional consultants in Animal production.

Methodological approach and materials 1. Methodological  House to house visit. 1.1. Second part: Presentation of case study including some literature review on cuniculture/ Rabbit rearing Third part: Realized activities including conclusion and recommendations.2.Rwanda in collaboration with Imbaraga Federation on poverty reduction 1. Specific objectives  Follow up of rabbits diffused by the project (PROXIVET)  To exploit the main farmers problems in rabbit raising and search for solutions  To find out the significance and the importance of small stocks to beneficiaries (Vulnerable people) from MBAZI and MARABA Sectors.3.2 This work is made up of three parts and six chapters: First part: Description of PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA. Objectives of the internship  Practice the theoretical part of academic lectures  to find out the impact of small stocks (Rabbits) diffused to vulnerable groups by Proxivet- sud. 1. .1.3.  Interviews.2.

3.2.  Vehicles for transport and  Wallets 1.3 1. Hypothesis Rabbit production may improve lifestyle and poverty reduction for Rwandese people. . Materials  Pens  Record keeping format papers.2.3.

2. 4th Constat (Law report): The introduction of improved animal breeds requires the correct health cover 5th Constat: The zero grazing system needs animal health and integration of agriculture and agriculture . II: OVERVIEW OF PROJECT: PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA 2.2. Introduction The project initiative to promote a local private veterinary service in southern Rwanda "PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA" came agribusiness farmers through the associations / NGOs who are in contact with the performance of VSF-B in Rwanda. Historical background 2.1. These associations / NGOs are: the farmers' union Agric IMBARAGA and NGO Services Development Associations "SDAIRIBA" that have been identified as key local partners (PLP) by VSF-B for this project.1.4 PART I: DESCRIPTION OF PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA CHAP. Origin of the project “PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA” 1st Constat  Vets/or Veterinarians technicians with no job  Inaccessibility of small farmers cares 2nd Constat: The state veterinaries services were reduced 3rd Constat: The governmental policy which encourages the development of private sector.1.1.

2007: Meeting with MINAGRI/RARDA. atelier PIPO (152 females and males persons)  September. Also the beginning of action test in installation of EAVK  September. FACAGRO.  Poverty arable land due to erosion and lack of organic manure. inadequate training of agricultural producers with respect to agriculture and livestock.5 2.  Low productivity of livestock premises and . Steps of the project  May. 2007: Analysis of target groups.1. IRST. 2008: Starting of the project 2. 5districts of southern province. It covers an area of about 4. 2007: Acceptance of the project by DGSD  January. The main causes of poverty are:  The scarcity of land (0. Intervention area The intervention area of this new action is located in the Southern Province of Rwanda and covers five Districts (Huye. Indeed. atelier MARP.1. Nyamagabe and Nyaruguru). Southern province. and other on-governmental partners. Nyanza. over 70% of the population of the region is poor with over 50% in extreme poverty.  Low coverage of health zoo area responsible for high morbidity and mortality of animals. interviews.264.  November. The action area of the project is the poorest region of Rwanda. 2006: Preliminaries contract between Proxivet-Sud-Rwanda and the PLP.5 ha per household on average) due to population pressure.3.000 square kilometers with 1. 2007: Submission of concept paper of future project to the headquarter of VSF-Belgium  November.4. Gisagara.029 inhabitants.

at two districts (one in each area of intervention PLP).  The intermediate beneficiaries: Comprising mainly professionals in the livestock that will be incorporated in private veterinary services Proximity (SVPp).6  The absence of livestock in the most vulnerable households. .  The second phase: Is a phase of consolidation and disengagement. this phase will focus on strengthening SVP installed in the first phase and on network expansion Animal Health proximity to three other districts. and low commodity development.000 households. The project began in January 2008 and has two phases of three years each:  The first phase: Is a phase of installation and testing.2. financial and institutional SVP will be analyzed during this phase. their technical viability.  Indirect beneficiaries: Constituted by agro-pastoralists not affiliated with PLP who will benefit from SVPp through CAPEL. Indeed.000 households and families most vulnerable group are the direct beneficiaries will receive priority attention in the context of rechepterisation. Through the project. veterinary services decentralized districts can better play its regulatory role to control and thus part of the group of indirect beneficiaries. given that the activity of promoting a local private veterinary service is new not only in the country but also in the sub-region. Their number could be estimated at twice that of direct beneficiaries is 10.RWANDA fall into three categories:  The direct beneficiaries: They are agro pastoralists affiliated with major local partners estimated at approximately 5. acting on the ground through the support centers for breeding (CAPEL). 2. During this phase. the integrated development activities of farms being transferred to another project which will be developed by VSF-B. Project beneficiaries PROXIVET-SUD.

livestock and forestry. education. The overall objective of the intervention is "the contribution of livestock in the economy and social life of households is optimized.3. It brings together agricultural producers in South Rwanda with a stronger presence in the districts of Huye. Achievements Intermediate results have been updated: Network of private veterinarians nearby are implemented in a sustainable manner for the benefit of small farmers in the agricultural area.3. Specific Objective The specific objective of the project is formulated as follows: "Animal Health is improved through a local private veterinary service and the foundation for better integration of agriculture and livestock are established. women are more involved in livestock activities and derive greater benefits. living conditions are very vulnerable families through improved livestock activities.1. created in March 1992. . Overall objective of the project." 2." 2.7 2. the capacity of local organizations are active in breeding enhanced. Gisagara and Nyanza.  The SDA-IRIBA organization is a local NGO founded in Rwanda in December 2000 and consists of a team of professionals in agriculture.4. the foundation for better integration of agriculture and livestock are established in the prospect of permanent housing. To better accomplish his mission of the Project is committed to working with various partners: The main partners are:  The union IMBARAGA who is a professional association.

the Institute for Scientific and Technological Research (IRST). RSSP.8 law and health. the Association for the Development of NYABIMATA (ADENYA).  There are also non-governmental partners such as NGOs ABR (Belgium Association of Rwanda) and its local partner APROJUMAP. and other collaborations and NGOs working in the area of action: UNICOOPAGI. Local Authorities (Districts and Sectors). etc . the Faculty of Agriculture. we can cite the government partners: MINAGRI. VSF-B is an organization Véterinaires sans frontières. ECOLE AGRI-VETERINAIRE de KABUTARE (EAVK). the Multisectorial Investment Group (MIG).  Among other partners. she works in the districts and Nyamagabe Nyaruguru (Southern Province) with primary mission is to transform groups into actual self-managed institutions and professional community to meet the basic needs of their members. Caritas. National University of Rwanda (NUR). the Consultative Forum of stakeholders in the Districts.

5.9 2.Rwanda (Source : PROXIVET SUD RWANDA Office.Sud.SUD. Huye 2010) . Projet organisation: Proxivet. Projet organisation: PROXIVET.RWANDA IMBARAGA Representative Project Manager SDA-IRIBA Representative Veterinary in charge of the project Administratif and Financial Assistant Local Veterinaries Driver logisticien Drivers Person in charge of maintenance and day custodian Person in charge of maintenance and night custodian Figure 1.

those mountains and hills are separated by marshlands. 3.3. (MBONIGABA. Topography The topography is mixture of plateau and hills with round summit/hilltops. In these sectors.1. 2002) .200 to 1450mm/year  Annual average temperature is 19oC to 20oC with two extremes: 12oC to 27oC  Climate type: Humid Tropical temperate 3. network of mountain chains with slope of about 25%. a big number of the population practice agriculture and rearing small stocks for satisfying their daily needs. Situation Our internship was conducted in two sectors of Huye district: MARABA and MBAZI where Proxivet-Sud-Rwanda diffused rabbits and goats for fighting against vulnerabily for the selected groups of poor families. This are is situated at 1760m above sea level at 24o35’longitude East and at 2o36’longitude South. Huye district experience climate of type AW3. PRESENTATION OF CASE STUDY Chap III.2.  Annual average rainfall varying between 1. GEOGRAPHIC LOCALIZATION 3. Climate  According to Köppen classification. From north –west to South. II.East.10 PART.

With some scrap wood or bamboo a hutch can be constructed. subsistence. .type integrated farming and gardening food production system in developing countries. for a neighbor who will marry or for a servant who wants to go home to his village. and lower percentage of fat) is frequently recommended by doctors to individuals with digestive problems and those unable to consume red meat. When a small amount of money is needed. General introduction Small livestock such as rabbit has a number of characteristics that might be advantageous in the small holder.IV. fewer calories. GENERAL LUTTERATURE REVIEW ON CUNICULTRE/OR RABBIT REARING 4.  Wool production  A rabbit is a nice present for a child on a birthday.  Initial capital outlay is minimal.1.  Rabbit production is often used as savings accounts.11 CHAP.  Rabbit has:  Short gestation period (20-31days)  Early breeding age (6-8 months)  More litter number than other animals (5-7times/year)  Higher litter size (1-12 kittens/per doe) Rabbit is small enough to eat all the meat at once without need for refrigeration or other conservation. Worldwide people keep rabbits for many different reasons:  Rabbit meat is testy and has high nutrition value (High quality protein content)  Rabbit meat (Less cholesterol. children or men and unlike bigger animals need no force be restrained. it is easier to sell a small animal than for example the hind leg of a goat.  Rabbit can be tended by women.

. Figure 2.2. General animal husbandry and handling Like other animals. one should know beforehand that she will make a nest and she will kindle. Thus.3% N. White New Zealand Figure 3. rabbits require proper care for (re)producing well. one should check them. Californian. 1. it is not enough to see that a doe has made a nest and kindled. Himalaya rabbit. Home gardening has increased. When applying this manure using it around the plant or in seed bed. polish rabbit. Rex rabbit. (Sosthène HABUMUREMYI. etc. Fifteen does. 2009) Breeds found in the area largely composed of White New Zealand. Rabbit manure analysis varies but is approximately1.0%K. The following Photos show one of them. Dutch 4. use the same precaution as with other manure because it can burn plants. Lecture notes. one should keep a close eye on them. and their litters will produce approximately one ton of manure a year.12 The manure can be used for vegetable growing. people are working with ornamentals in their yards than ever before. It is not of important to see that he animal is sick but one should learn to see weather the animal will be sick. 9% P. so does the value of rabbit manure. two bucks. Dutch rabbit. Before going to sleep at night. rabbit production can be well integrated into small farming systems. As the cost of fertilizer products increases. and organic farming is on the increase. Local breeds and their crossbreds such as silver Marten. and during the day.

2. give your young rabbits the best quality food and drinking water. even on Christmas Eve they need feed. Do not kill the fast growers but use those for further upgrading your stock. you should give the young doe’s separate hutches and then the whole cycle start again. and they will kindle during Easter week or they may get sick during Id’ul fitr or Ramadan.1. As your own children. The hutches must be cleaned every day with water. Reproduction . Always handle the rabbits in the proper way Figure 4. before they become sexually active (4 months for females and 2 months for males later) to prevent inbreeding. Separate the males and females that you want to keep at early time. Those animals you want to use for further breeding should be given identification and keep a close watch on their performance. Best way of handling rabbit 4. It is better not to put several litters together in after mating the first time.13 Animals have no holidays.

2. but this depends on mating intensity. The minimum average weaning weight of kittens is about 600gr. General characteristics o Ovulation is induced by mating o Pregnancy duration: 30to 32 days o Age for the first mating: 5 months (female).1.2. stress. 4. One male can easily handle up to 10 or more does. For small breeds it is 4-5months.14 4. for large breeds: 9-12months. devoid of fur and weigh less than 100gr o Kittens are fed exclusively by mother milk during first 18 -20days o Litters number: 5 to 7/ year o After kindling.2. The female .6 months (male) o Litter size: 1 to 12kittens o Sex ration: 8to 9 females /male o New born: newborn kittens are blind.1. It is not a bad practice to have two males around because it easier to prevent inbreeding.2. heat. the female can mate again after 10 to 12 days or after prior weaning.1.1. age of the male. o Kittens can be weaned at about 4-5 weeks of age. 4.1.1 The male The proper ages for the first mating depend on the breed and individual development.1. o Buck and doe remain profitable for two years if fed and managed properly. o Lighting program provides better conception. nutrition and so on.

Breeds will vary in age of sexual maturity with most New Zealand whites and Californians ready to breed at 4.2. 7-9 months for the heavy breeds).5 to 5. Pregnancy control . early morning or late afternoon. fighting might injure either the doe or the buck and stress will be the result. 4. effective mating take place twice within the first 5-15 minutes. If you put the buck in the hutch of the doe she is liable to defend her territory and fighting can start. After a successful first mating a second is not necessary. by bringing her to him she will smell the male and will not defend the territory. whereas Flemish Giants aren’t ready until 6-7 months.2. Instead keep watching the mating without disturbing it.15 Like the males the proper age of first mating depends on the breed and individual development . If the female start to run or fight it is better to try it again after a few hours. Mating of buck and does Mating should be carried out during the cooler times of the day. To mate the rabbit you do not have to wait until these signs show. If she accepts the buck she will sit down in his hutch and raise her rear end. If the doe is willing ton be mated. as the egg will come free after mating. On the contrary.Mate males (does) when they reach 75-80% of mature body weight (4-5 months of age for the right breeds. Mating has taken place when the male fall aside or backwards after mounting the doe. You will not know then whether mating actually took place. she can be put with the buck at any time. the next morning or evening. Do not leave the doe with the buck overnight or for a few days.3.2.5 months. 4. She may do some initial running around but will eventually accept the buck. Always bring the doe to the buck and not the other way around.

 The best method of checking pregnancy is palpation but it requires practice. and the udder will then begin to swell. If she is pregnant after two weeks you will feel hard thing like marbles in the upper side of the abdomen.  First.4.  Lack of water. 4. All does needs now are rest and feed. Kindling and mother care When the doe is almost ready for kindling (about 4 weeks after mating) you can put a nest box in the maternity cage.  Her hair can easily be pulled out if she is pregnant (later on she will make a nest with her own hair which she pulls with her mouth from the body)  During the last days of pregnancy the teats become harder and somewhat red. . These are some of the causes.  Unbalanced diet. Kindling can then take place in this nest box.2. Kindling can take place at any time of day but morning seems to be the most popular time.litter does are usually extremely nervous. The causes are many and most undependable. A scared doe may eat her young. Give them more chance and then cull if cannibalism recurs. Cannibalism and (even abortion) are common problems. Here we explained it properly and practically the main signs:  Pregnancy control requires some practices but they are some fairly clear signs.16 To check sooner if the mating is successful you will have to check pregnancy. Palpation is possible from 10 days and onwards after mating.

In fact the doe only allows her kindles to suckle one or two times a day. Do not handle the kindles more than absolutely. So many beneficiaries did not use drinking equipment. there are many things that can cause stress to rabbits. hygiene required inside the nests or the mother’s cages. during internship we remarked that many of the beneficiaries of Proxivet -Sud Rwanda have little knowledge about rabbit reproduction. At this time they will also suckle more often in a day. If it is too small she might accidentally hurt the kindles by sitting on them. but check the newborn trying not to disturb them too much. The smell of the nest will soon tell you if it is dirty. The doe does not take care of her kindles. they put above the cage and let their rabbit waterless.  Strange dogs. cats or rodents) may upset the mother. and even then only for a short period. Another big problem that we noticed is that their rabbits experience . so there is no use for the young with the mother any longer. as the smell predator (dogs. Wash your hands first.  Moving nest box after young are kindled. This is a common complaint from beginners.17  Unusual noises can cause the injury the young and can result in cannibalism. In addition children like to disturb them looking inside the nests how the kittens are alike or how they suckle. Some of them live with them in rabbitries. After two weeks they will start to come out of the box. Do not worry about this! The cage should be large enough for the nest box and leaving space for the does.  Shallow nest box makes the does feel insecure and she is easily disturbed. then after 3 weeks the nest box can easily be removed. As we have mentioned above lack of water to sickle’s doe can cause cannibalism habit. predators. Weaning usually take place after 4 weeks but should not be later than 6 weeks. Milk production seems to stop at time. Check the kindles for full bellies and for dead ones. In our study case. or people can cause the doe to stamp her feet and mash the young. others don’t remember to place the nest boxes at time. So the doe will rarely be seen with the kindles. Generally around the cages.

Disadvantages  When housed singly in solid walled cages. 4.2. floor covering. These cages are built in rectangular form where they used one piece of wire bent into inverted channel shape to form the top. front and back.  It is difficult to enrich the environment because it is so small. which is detrimental to their psychological wellbeing as they show a greater incidence of abnormal behavior. rabbits live in wooden cages offered by the project.  Feces and urine excretion can be monitored and quantified. nesting material.1. the animals are socially isolated.  Animals can be identified and without the need to mark them. but not eliminated and only if staff takes strict precautions. For our study case. It is best to buy the essential items of equipment such as cage or hutch.18 dominant winds which may be the one of causes of insufficient (re)production or lead to death of their rabbits.3. so that the rabbit's new home can be prepared and ready before the rabbit's arrival. 4. Advantages  The food and water intake can be controlled and monitored.  The spread of infection between animals may be controlled more readily. . water bottle. food dish and food before getting a rabbit.  Easier to maintain a cleaner environment.3.3. Housing There are various items of equipment that will be needed for a rabbit. 4.  There is a limited area and stimulus input.

that water . To keep the unit cool. Location The location of your rabbitry building is very important.1.3. Figure 5. Water occurence in the rabbitry leads to ammonia production. it is important that the site of the rabbitry be well drained. Much of the consideration in the sitting and construction of the rabbitry is aimed at keeping the unit as cool as possible in the summer. Example of Rabbit Cage 4. Rabbitry buildings 4. Another important factor is drainage. Rabbit have fur coat that keep them warm in the winter but they cannot take them off in the summer. So. Rabbit generate a lot of liquid through their urine and there is also wastage from the drinking system. So.19  Animals suffer from osteoporosis and other skeletal abnormalities that make it to lose the capacity for normal locomotion. it ids advisable to locate it in the shadow of large trees and in relation to the prevailing winds to provide maximum natural ventilation.3.

In normal circumstances. If the building is located in areas with good breezes most of the time and the building is narrow enough that the breezes can ventilate across the entire unit (which generally means 20 feet wide or lees) you may be able to rely on natural ventilation.4. Temperature: Rabbit is homoeothermic animal.3. when external temperatures range between comfort zone from 16-19oC. Light Unless you have a few rabbits.3. for better living.2. 4. dilute and kills airborne. 4.3. if the building is more than about 20 feet wide or you live in area where breezes are not consistent. The light should also be controlled in the morning because changes in time of sunrise and switching from standard to daylight savings time and back will also affect productivity. When ambient temperature persists and if the body temperature goes beyond 40oC. you should spend some time visiting a number of rabbitries to find out what other rabbits’ keepers have done to house rabbits in your area. and help control temperature. If the site is too low to provide a good drainage.3. Ventilation Before you construct or modify a housing rabbits. disease – causing organisms. Ventilation is extremely important in rabbit production because it provides fresh air. Irregular light be more harmful than no control at all. the body temperature have to be maintained between 37oC to 39oC. A level of light sufficient to see to walk through the rabbitry seems to be sufficient. you probably will want to install lights in your rabbitry. you probably will have to plan to . it suffers heat stress. use fill to raise the level before starting construction 4. reduces humidity. It is much better to have an automatic system because trying to remember to turn the lights on and off will result in too many mistakes. It has been shown that providing 16hrs of year around will help in increasing reproductive rate.20 produced in the unit can be drained away and water does not flow in from outside.

Rabbits must have a constant supply of hay as the fiber contained is vital to their digestion and forms the bulk of their diet in addition to rabbit mix or pellets. This phenomena is called “coprophagy” Although the rabbit mix or pellets and hay will provide the rabbit with a good basic diet it is necessary also to feed fruit. it is important to know what can and cannot be fed to rabbits to avoid harming the rabbit and to help keep the rabbit healthy. However. This is normal and should not be cause for alarm. Some of the fruits. vegetables or plants and flowers. vegetables and herbs commonly found in Rwanda that are safe to feed a rabbit are listed below:             Apple (seedless) Banana Basil Cabbage Carrots and Carrot Tops Cauliflower leaves and stalks Celery Chicory Greens Cucumber Green Pepper Orange (peeled) Parsley .a good tonic . In addition rabbits should be fed fresh fruit and vegetables or plants and flowers daily. If too much fruit or vegetables is fed and left in the cage this should be removed and replaced the next day to avoid it being left and becoming mouldy. Feeding requirements Each rabbit will have different tastes and not all rabbits like the same things to eat. Rabbits will eat their feces to obtain maximum nutrition from their food. 4. a ventilation slot or vent in the ridge of the roof will allow the warm air that rises from the animals to escape.4.21 supply fresh air using artificial ventilation.

vegetables and herbs that should not be fed are:        Figure 6. etc (Source: PND/FAO. Umutambasha. Akaziranyo Inkarambwe. Umwishywa.22     Red Cabbage Savoy Cabbage Spinach Tomato Apple seeds Potato and Potato Tops Tomato Leaves Umuyenzi Umukoni. 1985) Fruit. The overfeeding of treats with high sugar content can lead to rabbits becoming obese. . However it should remembered that these are treats to be fed occasionally only and should not form a large part of the rabbit's diet. Rabbits in their Cage eating different species of forages But on another hand there are a large variety of rabbit treats sold in pet shops and most rabbits relish these. Ikibonobono.

They offer it around 9h before noon and at 4h in the afternoon. young rabbits drink 1.3 litres of water for growing rabbit (in growing age) 0. It is an extensive system of feeding.2 to 0.7 litres of water for rabbit with its kittens after kindling Before weaning.23 In the area of our internship the diet is mainly composed of forages which offered twice a day. In fact. Water is less offered as observed but we explained them the importance of water to rabbits as one of the components of daily rabbit diet and particularly its role for kindled rabbit in order to produce milk for its kittens. tripsakumu. you have to take are that the diet fulfill the following requirements 4. nyasogereza. rabbit drink water. 1984) 4. Water is the main important factor but it may be the source of problems when offered in inadequate amount. conditions in which rabbits cannot express their performances such as in terms of growth or in meat production. urubingo.1.6 to 0. Water requirements Contrary to what some farmers especially beneficiaries think. It is of important to remember all of farmers that rabbits drink many times during the day time and more during the night (25 to 30 respectively) in time of 24h (LEBAS et al. Some of those forages usually offered to rabbits are listed here in vernacular names: Setaria. inyabarasanya. When rabbit is fed with dry feeds like powder. seeds. water should be provided as follow per a day: 0. kimari. 1 litre or more for rabbit with its kittens.2. In formulating rabbit diet. etc. imivumu. amasununu. Protein requirements Proteins are very important molecules for body constitution of living organisms (animals and plants). Proteins are necessary for all . based on age of rabbit .4. So. Ibishikashike.5 to 2 more times than dry feeds offered while rabbit that kindled drink 2 to 2. hay. rabbits need proteins for their proper body constitution. ibicumucumu.5time than it eats for production of milk to its kittens.4.

Here are some examples feeds that are rich in lipids lie rice bran (3-16% of lipids). Cellulose requirements Celluloses is the vegetal component which contains lignin. lactation) can cover/ consume a diet that contain from 2200 to 2700kcals of digestible energy per kg (J. fats and proteins Rabbit consume well the quantity of diet offered when temperature ranges between 25-26oC. 17-18% for lactating rabbit. So. AKAYEZU. it was determined that there exist relationship between feeding efficacy and protein quality. his/her appetite. there are 10 essential amino-acids (that cannot be produced by the rabbit body). 4.3. When ambient temperature becomes hot for example at 30oC. In the diet.5 to 3% of it(lipids). and milk production or for reproduction.4.4. Coprah or palmists expelled straws (8-9% of lipids) 4. 2009). This is a major element that conveys the rigidity to .5. When dietary proteins provide these essential amino acids. it is better to increase 1point for the rate of dietary protein and then have 16-17% for fattening rabbits and 18-10% for lactating rabbits 4.It is not necessary to add more fat component on rabbit diet because this diet contains it its self sufficiently.4. meat production. In recent researches conducted in Europe.24 of animals like rabbits for growth. growth and milk production are reduced. the diet have to contain 15-16% of crude proteins for fattening rabbit.4. When ambient temperature ranges over 25-27oC.. Lipid requirements The lipid requirements for rabbit is covered in a diet which contains 2. Energy requirements The energy requirement for rabbits depends mainly on the type of production and ambient temperature. The rabbit that is in growing age or in reproduction (gestation. among 21 amino acids that make constitution of proteins. hemicelluloses and pectin constituents to form (all) vegetal cell wall.B. energy comes from sugars. internship report.

Mg2+.3% Ca2+ and 0. rabbit is able to digest a part of these fibers and these permit transit of food in digestive tract. The table below shows 2kinds of minerals: Major minerals Calcium Phosphorous Magnesium Sodium Potassium Chlorine Minor minerals Iron Copper Surfer Cobalt Zinc Manganese .6 to 0.7% PO43-). (LEBAS and al. etc.4.25 plant. Minerals and Vitamins Minerals are essential in function and constitution of the rabbit body. rabbit need supplementation of minerals (1. and K have to be offered from diet. if rabbit is healthy (without diarrhea). Na+. the crud celluloses rate in a well balanced diet has to range between 14-16% (Weede titration method).1 to 1. 1984). In lactating phase. Fat soluble vitamins like Vit A. For fattening rabbit. 4. Rabbit has a particular and interesting aspect of its digestive system called “Coecotrophy” where rabbit re-ingests its feces and after extracting needed minerals and other useful nutrients like inside excrete them (feces/or crottes molles in french). Even if this component is rigid. Reproducing rabbit has to be satisfied with diet containing 12-13% of celluloses. D. basing on its caecum microorganisms. These include Ca2+. But contrary. PO43-. They particularly play a great role in bone milk constitution but also regulate the intra and extracellular equilibrium. E. water soluble vitamins like VitC and ones of VitB group are provided by digestive flora and particularly by coprophagy system.6. These mineral salts supplements are often covered by commercial feeds.

Health Iodine The animal has to be healthy. Prevent fecal contamination of feed and water. Put them on the ground and let them jump to watch for irregular legs. quiet breathing and no manger (scabies) forming crusts around the nose and eyes. no symptoms. at the edges of ears or inside the ears as a dirty mass. Repeat in two weeks if necessary. scratching of ears. The main signs are a smooth skin. Organism involed may be Water soluble sulphaquinoxaline . Reduce temperature with Degree vary with location and water spray. It should feel soft but smooth. moderate cases. prostration. intense itching and scratching. put 1%-5% limesulphur solution Mites: Cheyletierlla parasitivorax and sarcoptes scabiel Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract caused by coccidian Dip entire animal in 1. Two kinds of minerals 4.5. Check the stomach (abdomen) of animal. wet the humidity animal to help reduced body temperature. Several cases have pot belly. clear eyes. The table below shows common diseases. Dirty front legs and/ or dirty nose may indicate a coughing disease (pasteurellosis). because the animals wash their nose with their front legs. brown scaly crusts at base of inner ear Skin mange: reddened scaly skin. some loss of fur Coccidiosis. intestinal: Mild cases. bloodtinged fluid from nose and mouth. inspect the anus to see weather it is dirty from diarrhea (should not be) which is often the case in younger rabbits. diarrhea and no weight gain. Heat prostration: Rapid respiration.75% limesulphur base. a spongy feeling may indicate some intestinal troubles. foggers.26 Selenium Table 1. remove droppings frequently. their causes and their treatment means Diseases and Symptoms Ear mange or Canker: Shaking of head. bluish Cause Ear mites: Psoroptes cunuculli Treatment and Control Into each ear . Does that are due to candle are most suspectible Pneumonia: Labored breathing with nose held high. Diarrhea with mucus and pneumonia is often secondary. Add feed grade sulphaquinoxaline Extreme outside temperature. Keep floor clean and dry. Standing hairs. Bacteria infection of lungs. Watch for sneezing rabbits.

watery eyes. red. Bacteria infection: Pasteurella Combination of penicillin and mitocida streptomycin. Table 2. Nasal discharge. inflammation of bronchi and nasal sinuses pasteurella miltocida.Lungs shows congestion. may be filled with pus Pasteurellosis: may be chronic infection.27 color to eyes and ears. weight loss or mortality without symptoms. Use good sanitary measures to reduce transmission to new animals. causes and their treatment means . Inflammation of lungs. Common diseases. moist. streptococcus and staphylococcus.

we performed many activities concerning rabbit keeping in MARABA and MBAZI sectors. number of cage. we visited house to house a hundred and eighty families from MBAZI and MARABA sectors. This include feeding. breeding age . litter size (number of kittens/per doe). Distribution and filling the record keeping of reproduction for rabbits .1. housing and how to fill the record keeping of reproduction where they ought to know date of birth. breed. hygienic conditions. we explained and advised them the best way of managing rabbits properly. performance of parents. 2010. sex. FORMATION OF VUNERABLE GROUPS ABOUT RABIT MANAGEMENT AND FILLING RECORD KEEPING During the internship in the interval of 23rd August to 23rd September.28 PART.V. Formation about rabbit management In thirty days (30days). litter number (giving birth times/year). we took enough time to hear from them how they raise/ manage their rabbits and then after. Theses activities are summarized as follow:  Formation about rabbit management (House to house visit)  Distribution and filling the record keeping of rabbits reproduction  Sexing  Pregnancy control  Disinfection of cages  Diseases control 5.2. III. breeding age. 5. For each family that we have visited. ACTIVITIES REALIZED DURING THE INTERNSHIP CHAP.

a long slit will appear. A trainee explaining the beneficiary and filling the record keeping at Mbazi sector 5.3. Sexing The sexing of very young animal is not easy. if it is a doe. Pregnancy control . a small curved penis will show.4. -Pressing down gently and stretch the organ. This information and other not mentioned here are necessary for those people and we explained them properly as shown is photo below. Figure 8. The older male has two big testes. if it is a buck. 2010) 5.29 The following photo shows how the trainee was filling reproduction record keeping at MBAZI sector: Figure 7. A trainee showing and explain how Sexing is done (Photo taken on the 20th Sept.

5.  The best method of checking pregnancy is palpation but it requires practice. Diseases control The rabbit like other animals cannot (re)produce with feeling healthy. Disinfection of cages When raising animals (especially rabbits for our case). Palpation is possible from 10 days and onwards after mating. is why we encouraged them (beneficiaries) to be careful of diseases prevalence in their animals. we explained and advised the respondents different means of disinfection of cages such as spraying Ivermectine solution/buffer on cages’ walls or fire uses. on small scale. Here are some guidelines given to them:  Disease prevention is much better than treatment  Not to overcrowd their animals (rabbits)  Practice good nutrition . If she is pregnant after two weeks you will feel hard thing like marbles in the upper side of the abdomen. 5. So.30 To check sooner if the mating is successful you will have to check pregnancy. where by they can make fire and heat on cages’ walls to kill some of microbes that occur there. Here we explained it properly and practically the main signs:  Pregnancy control requires some practices but they are some fairly clear signs.  Her hair can easily be pulled out if she is pregnant (later on she will make a nest with her own hair which she pulls with her mouth from the body)  During the last days of pregnancy the teats become harder and somewhat red. and the udder will then begin to swell. the environment tend to be contaminated by the microbes.5. While rabbit is a very sensible animal to diseases and die in matter of days. to prevent this.6.

Meeting respondents at their homes was not easy because. her/his fur/hair is bright and smooth. normal temperature. it eats and drinks properly whereas many of them didn’t know that rabbit drink water and they were surprised when we told them to watering their rabbits. So. they are almost all the time occupied by their agricultural activities. When rabbit is healthy. bright eyed with no flow tears.  SOME CONSTRAINTS Generally.31  Provide plenty of draft-free ventilation  To let their rabbits have plenty of sun light as long as it is not very hot prowlers and predators. some of the beneficiaries were not visited. during the internship the following obstacles were met: The time for internship was not enough to conduct all activities. Also. it does dejection normally. . white.

During our internship. we have seen that beneficiaries rear different breeds of rabbits which perform differently depending on the way they are managed. by visiting house to house. we were surprised by understanding that all of beneficiaries have insurance for their animals where they pay 40% and the rest part is paid by the project (PROXIVET-SUD-RWANDA). In addition. Conclusion In general the internship was done and completed as it was planed and different concepts were practically learnt so as to fulfill on the knowledge acquired in different academic domains especially in our Agricultural courses. but also other animals should be improved in the working area and expanded in whole of the country. Recommendations 6. Regarding to the observations we made during 30days of our internship.2. Briefly. we are now familiarized with rabbit behaviors and their rearing system. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 6.2. according our hypothesis.1. .VI.1. we observed that when rabbit are kept in proper conditions could contribute to poverty reduction. To the project “Proxivet-Sud-Rwanda”  The work curried out at this project should be the result to economy of the country by not basing only to rabbits and goats.32 :CHAP. no doubt to say that PROXIVET SUD RWANDA have made a great change on improvement of lifestyle for groups of families that live with poverty. 6. As future professionals in agriculture especially in animal production.

 Veterinary services should be available to all beneficiaries.  They should consolidate their teams to form cooperatives in order to get more profit. .2.33  The establishment of the research on rabbit nutrition and management should be resumed.2.  Sanitary conditions are recommended to all beneficiaries to fight against infectious disease  They should live separately from their animals especially rabbits to avoid zoonotic diseases and stress for rabbits which reduce their performance and lead to death. 6.  Rabbit and rabbit products should get a good market. rabbitries and their animals.  All beneficiaries have to take care of the support given by the project such as Cages.  The project beneficiaries need permanent assistance in terms of sensitization especially in the domain of animal production. trainees and their vets.  They must burry dead animal and not to eat it without ante and post-mortem inspection. To the beneficiaries  Beneficiaries should change their mindset and develop hard working spirit in order to alleviate poverty and hunger. They should respect different advices given by CVV.  The level of current veterinary personnel should be increased through formations  If possible. the project should firstly help the beneficiaries to get the comfortable habitation houses because many of them live together with their animals.

 The FACAGRO should practical courses to help student to conceptualize theoretical courses. Tonga and Gihindamuyaga to facilitate students to find easily the field for internship.2. To the FACAGRO  The FACAGRO should respect the time reserved for internship.  The FACAGRO should improve its sites like Rwasave.  The FACAGRO should visit regularly the students during internship period.3. .34 6.

1981  MINECOFIN.)  Cinnamon Rabbit Breeders Association Benbrook J. 2007  MINECOFIN.org/docrep/t1690e/t1690e00.org (Consulted the 26th Aug. 2010) . Kigali. internship report.html.  VIGUIE J. 2009  SWITTEN S. http://www. 2009  MBONIGABA. 2010)  http:www. B.com (Consulted the 26th Aug. Rwanda United Nations Development Assistance Framework. 1991-2002.. Programme et stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté. Rabbit production. (Retrieved 2010-08-21. 2002.com/abwrc. faculty of agriculture NUR. Mémoire inédit. 3e édition. 1980  PROSPER S. 2002. Suivi des lapins diffuse dans le district HUYE : Secteurs MBAZI et MARABA PAR VSF/Belgique.com.T. lecture notes.28. Essaie de compostage de déchets verts et évaluation des effets des compostes obtenus sur des sols du Rwanda.wikipedia. 2001. Etude de l’influence de la race.  PND/FAO. 2002. FACAGRO NUR. de l’alimentation et du system d’élevage sue l’engraissement des lapereaux.htm (Consulted the 25th Aug. survey. Les maladies du lapin et du lièvre. a profile of poverty in Rwanda: Analysis based on the results of the households living conditions. 1985  AKAYEZU J. T. "Green Patch — Dutch Rabbits"  http:www.35 REFERENCES  HABUMUREMYI S. ELECTRONIC REFERENCES http://www. p.rabbitgeek. L’élevage du lapin dans les petites exploitations..fao..  UNDP.goolge. Project de développent du petit élevage/ ubworozi bw’inkwavu. 2010)   Rabbitgeek. mémoire inédit.

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37 APPENDICES .

I Some of the breeds of rabbits found in the area Appendix 1. Different breeds of rabbits eating their feeds (including banana leaves) . White New Zealand rabbits in their Cage (Photo taken the 20sept 2010) Appendix 2.

2010) .II Appendix 3. (Photo taken on the 20th Sept. Trainee explaining a beneficiary of the project the convenient feeds and best way of feeding rabbits. 2010) Appendix4. A cage with record keeping of reproduction (Photo taken on the 20th Sept.

2010) “Rabbit rearing can lead to poverty alleviation when done conveniently” . One of the advanced beneficiaries in rabbit rearing at MARABA Sector (Photo taken on the 20th Sept.III Appendix 4.

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