Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Jul 30;10:127.

Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13800 patients and 23340 controls in 19 observational studies.
Psaltopoulou T, Kosti RI, Haidopoulos D, Dimopoulos M, Panagiotakos DB.

Source
Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, University of Athens, M, Asias 75, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece. tpsaltop@med.uoa.gr.

Abstract
ABSTRACT: Dietary fat, both in terms of quantity and quality, has been implicated to cancer development, either positively or negatively. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether olive oil or monounsaturated fat intake was associated with the development of cancer. A systematic search of relevant studies, published in English, between 1990 and March 1, 2011, was performed through a computer-assisted literature tool (i.e., Pubmed). In total 38 studies were initially allocated; of them 19 case-control studies were finally studied (13800 cancer patients and 23340 controls were included). Random effects meta-analysis was applied in order to evaluate the research hypothesis. It was found that compared with the lowest, the highest category of olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of having any type of cancer (log odds ratio = -0.41, 95%CI -0.53, -0.29, Cohran's Q = 47.52, p = 0.0002, I-sq = 62%); the latter was irrespective of the country of origin (Mediterranean or non-Mediterranean). Moreover, olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of developing breast cancer (logOR = -0,45 95%CI -0.78 to -0.12), and a cancer of the digestive system (logOR = -0,36 95%CI -0.50 to -0.21), compared with the lowest intake. The strength and consistency of the findings states a hypothesis about the protective role of olive oil intake on cancer risk. However, it is still unclear whether olive oil's monounsaturated fatty acid content or its antioxidant components are responsible for its beneficial effects.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2011 Sep 28. [Epub ahead of print]

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Improves Learning and Memory in SAMP8 Mice.
Farr SA, Price TO, Dominguez LJ, Motisi A, Saiano F, Niehoff ML, Morley JE, Banks WA, Ercal N, Barbagallo M.

Source
Geriatric Research Educational and Clinical Center (GRECC), VA Medical Center, St. Louis, MO, USA Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, St. Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Abstract
Polyphenols are potent antioxidants found in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO); antioxidants have been shown to reverse age- and disease-related learning and memory deficits. We examined the effects of EVOO on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice, an age-related learning/memory impairment model associated with increased amyloid-β protein and brain oxidative damage. We administered EVOO, coconut oil, or butter to 11 month old SAMP8 mice for 6 weeks. Mice were tested in T-maze foot shock avoidance and one-trial novel object recognition with a 24 h delay. Mice which received EVOO had improved acquisition in the T-maze and spent more time with the novel object in one-trial novel object recognition versus mice which received coconut oil or butter. Mice that received EVOO had improve T-maze retention compared to the mice that received butter. EVOO increased brain glutathione levels suggesting reduced oxidative stress as a possible mechanism. These effects plus increased glutathione reductase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased tissue levels of 4-hydroxynoneal and 3-nitrotyrosine were enhanced with enriched EVOO (3 × and 5 × polyphenols concentration). Our findings suggest that EVOO has beneficial effects on learning and memory deficits found in aging and diseases, such as those related to the overproduction of amyloid-β protein, by reversing oxidative damage in the brain, effects that are augmented with increasing concentrations of polyphenols in EVOO.

Eur J Nutr. 2011 Oct;50(7):553-62. Epub 2011 Jan 1.

Anti-platelet effects of olive oil extract: in vitro functional and proteomic studies.
de Roos B, Zhang X, Rodriguez Gutierrez G, Wood S, Rucklidge GJ, Reid MD, Duncan GJ, Cantlay LL, Duthie GG, O'Kennedy N.

Source
Rowett Institute of Nutrition & Health, University of Aberdeen, Greenburn Road, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, AB21 9SB, UK, b.deroos@abdn.ac.uk.

Abstract
PURPOSE:
Platelets play a key role in haemostasis and wound healing, contributing to formation of vascular plugs. They are also involved in formation of atherosclerosic plaques. Some traditional diets, like the Mediterranean diet, are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Components in these diets may have anti-platelet functions contributing to their health benefits.

METHODS:
We studied the effects of alperujo extract, an olive oil production waste product containing the majority of polyphenols found in olive fruits, through measurement of effects on platelet aggregation and activation in isolated human platelets, and through identification of changes in the platelet proteome.

RESULTS:
Alperujo extract (40 mg/L) significantly decreased in vitro ADP- (p = 0.002) and TRAP- (p = 0.02) induced platelet activation as measured by the flow cytometry using the antibody for p-selectin (CD62p), but it did not affect the conformation of the fibrinogen receptor as measured by flow cytometry using the antibodies for anti-fibrinogen, CD42a and CD42b. Alperujo extract (100 mg/L) inhibited both collagen- and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation by

5% (p < 0.05), and a combination of hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol were, at least partly, responsible for this effect. Proteomic analysis identified nine proteins that were differentially regulated by the alperujo extract upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation. These proteins represent important mechanisms that may underlie the antiplatelet effects of this extract: regulation of platelet structure and aggregation, coagulation and apoptosis, and signalling by integrin αIIb/β3.

CONCLUSIONS:
Alperujo extract may protect against platelet activation, platelet adhesion and possibly have anti-inflammatory properties.

Eur J Nutr. 2011 Aug 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Influence of extra virgin olive oil diet enriched with hydroxytyrosol in a chronic DSS colitis model.
Sánchez-Fidalgo S, Sánchez de Ibargüen L, Cárdeno A, Alarcón de la Lastra C.

Source
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Profesor Garcia González no 2 Street, Seville, Spain, fidalgo@us.es.

Abstract
PURPOSE:
Recent epidemiological studies have shown that habitual consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), the characteristic culinary fat of the Mediterranean area, is effective in the prevention of diverse types of digestive disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Many of these benefits are, in addition to its high proportion of oleic acid, due to the high content of phenolic compounds.

METHODS:
Six-week-old mice were randomized into three dietary groups: standard, EVOO and hydroxytyrosol-enriched EVOO. After 30 days, mice that were exposed to 3% DSS for 5 days developed acute colitis that progressed to severe chronic inflammation during a regime of 21 days of water.

RESULTS:
Diets enriched with EVOO significantly attenuated the clinical and histological signs of damage, improving results from disease activity index and reducing about 50% the mortality caused by DSS. Moreover, hydroxytyrosol supplement showed better results. Cytokines study showed that TNF-α was maintained near to sham control and IL10 levels were significantly improved in EVOO and EVOO plus hydroxytyrosol diet-DSS groups. In the same way,

COX-2 and iNOS were downregulated, and the activation of p38 MAPK was reduced. We also observed a higher significant reduction in iNOS in hydroxytyrosol-enriched EVOO compared with EVOO alone.

CONCLUSIONS:
EVOO diets exerted a noteworthy beneficial effect in chronic DSS-induced colitis by cytokine modulation and COX-2 and iNOS reduction via downregulation of p38 MAPK. In addition to the beneficial effect by EVOO, supplementation of the diet with hydroxytyrosol may improve chronic colitis through iNOS downregulation plus its antioxidant capacity.

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